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Frostbite management

Corine A Lansdorp, Gert R Roukema, Onno Boonstra, Jan Dokter
Frostbite is an injury caused by the freezing of tissue, causing varied levels of tissue damage and necrosis. Case reports have shown a positive effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) in such injuries, in acute cases as well as delayed (up to 21 days) presentation with complications. In this case report we present the course of hyperbaric treatment of two patients (a brother and sister, age 58 and 62) who sustained frostbite injuries to both feet 28 days earlier while hiking in the Himalayas. They were initially treated in Nepal following local protocol; afterward their primary care in the Netherlands was managed by the Burn Centre at Maasstad Hospital in Rotterdam...
July 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
Nishant Patel, Dhivya R Srinivasa, Ravi N Srinivasa, Joseph J Gemmete, Venkat Krishnamurthy, Narasimham Dasika, Shilpa N Reddy, Matthew L Osher, Erika D Sears, Jeffrey Forris Beecham Chick
PURPOSE: To report outcomes of intra-arterial thrombolysis versus non-thrombolytic management of severe frostbite with respect to digital amputation rates and hospital length of stay (LOS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with severe frostbite were identified from 2000 to 2017. Eight (47%) patients with mean age of 40 years underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis and served as the treatment group. Nine (53%) patients with mean age of 53 years received non-thrombolytic management and served as the control group...
December 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Brad L Bennett, John B Holcomb
For centuries, cold and wet weather has affected military combat operations leading to tremendous loss of manpower caused by cold-weather-related injuries including trench foot, frostbite, and hypothermia. The initial battlefield management of hypothermia in military personnel had not advanced significantly following many wars and conflicts until 2006. The aim of this review is to: 1) provide an overview of trauma-induced hypothermia (TIH); 2) highlight the Department of Defense strategy for the implementation of a hypothermia clinical management program for battlefield (prehospital) casualties; 3) highlight the research and development of the Hypothermia Prevention and Management Kit (HPMK) as the preferred field rewarming system for battlefield TIH; and 4) emphasize how the HPMK can be easily transitioned to the civilian sector for active rewarming of both accidental and TIH patients...
June 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Charles Handford, Owen Thomas, Christopher H E Imray
Deep frostbite is a thermal injury associated with significant morbidity. Historically, this has been associated with military personnel; however, increasingly it is becoming an injury that afflicts the civilian population. The use of intravenous iloprost or intra-arterial thrombolytics has led to promising tissue salvage. This article provides an up-to-date understanding of frostbite pathophysiology, classification, prevention, and management. It also highlights the role of telemedicine in optimizing patient outcomes...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
W L Choong, H S Wohlgemut, M J Hallam
This case study describes frostbite, a previously unreported complication following cryolipolysis, which resulted in substantial necrosis of the flank. Medical attention was not sought until one week after treatment. On examination, two distinct areas of significant frostbite in the left flank with surrounding erythema were revealed. Surgical intervention was avoided, as is recommended in cases of frostbite, and conservative treatment resulted in recovery of the affected area. Here, the authors highlight the adverse effects related to cryolipolysis, analysing the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and management of this injury...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
Larry M Jones, Rebecca A Coffey, Mona P Natwa, J Kevin Bailey
OBJECTIVE: tPA and anticoagulation for treatment of severe frostbite have been reported suggesting differences in imaging techniques, route of tPA administration and management of patients after tPA infusion. This is a report of our results following a protocol of Tc-99m scanning, intravenous tPA administration, followed by either systemic anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy. METHODS: Patients admitted to our burn center between February 13, 2015 and February 13, 2016 for frostbite who met inclusion criteria were treated with Tc-99m scan and intravenous tPA followed by systemic anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy...
August 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
H Tang, Y Shi, N Z Qu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
John D Millet, Richard K J Brown, Benjamin Levi, Casey T Kraft, Jon A Jacobson, Milton D Gross, Ka Kit Wong
Frostbite is a localized cold thermal injury that results from tissue freezing. Frostbite injuries can have a substantial effect on long-term limb function and mobility if not promptly evaluated and treated. Imaging plays a critical role in initial evaluation of frostbite injuries and in monitoring response to treatment. A multimodality approach involving radiography, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and/or multiphase bone scintigraphy with hybrid single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) is often necessary for optimal guidance of frostbite care...
November 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Sidhartha Tavri, Suvranu Ganguli, Roy G Bryan, Jeremy Goverman, Raymond Liu, Zubin Irani, T Gregory Walker
PURPOSE: To evaluate intraarterial catheter-directed thrombolysis for prediction and prevention of delayed surgical amputation as part of multidisciplinary management of frostbite injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 13 patients (11 men, 2 women; median age, 33.4 y; range, 8-62 y) at risk of tissue loss secondary to frostbite injury and treated with catheter-directed tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) thrombolysis. Amputation data were assessed on follow-up (mean, 23 mo; range, 9-83 mo)...
August 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
Casey Kraft, John D Millet, Shailesh Agarwal, Stewart C Wang, Kevin C Chung, Richard K J Brown, Benjamin Levi
Frostbite remains a challenging clinical scenario with multiple treatment algorithms and variable results. Currently, frostbite management often follows a conservative approach with rewarming followed by wound care and delayed amputation. We review seven patients where single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) fused with conventional computed tomography was used to evaluate tissue viability for earlier directed debridement and limb salvage. The goal of this report is to evaluate SPECT/CT as an appropriate modality for the screening of necrotic bone for earlier amputation in patients with frostbite...
January 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Anna Martel-Arquette, Christoph Mans, Kurt Sladky
An approximately 5-year-old female grey-headed parrot (Poicephalus fuscicollis suahelicus) was evaluated after exposure to outdoor temperatures below -20°C (-4°F) for approximately 22 hours. Severe frostbite affecting multiple digits, as well as dehydration and a depressed attitude, were diagnosed. Treatment included oral antibiotics, antifungals, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs), pentoxifylline, and topical aloe vera. Surgical amputation of the affected toes was not performed. Mild to moderate pododermatitis over the intertarsal joints developed because of a shift in weight bearing after the loss of most digits...
March 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Emmanuel Cauchy, Christopher B Davis, Mathieu Pasquier, Eric F Meyer, Peter H Hackett
Despite advances in outdoor clothing and medical management of frostbite, individuals still experience catastrophic amputations. This is a particular risk for those in austere environments, due to resource limitations and delayed definitive treatment. The emerging best therapies for severe frostbite are thrombolytics and iloprost. However, they must be started within 24 hours after rewarming for recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and within 48 hours for iloprost. Evacuation of individuals experiencing frostbite from remote environments within 24 to 48 hours is often impossible...
March 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Kieran Heil, Rachel Thomas, Greg Robertson, Anna Porter, Robert Milner, Alexander Wood
INTRODUCTION: The debilitating impact of cold weather on the human body is one of the world's oldest recorded injuries. The severe and life-changing damage which can be caused is now more commonly seen recreationally in extreme outdoor sports rather than in occupational settings such as the military. The diagnosis and treatment of these injuries need to be completed carefully but quickly to reduce the risk of loss of limb and possibly life. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic review of the literature surrounding cold weather injuries (CWIs) to ascertain the epidemiology and current management strategies...
March 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Jessie Fudge
CONTEXT: Hypothermia and frostbite injuries occur in cold weather activities and sporting events. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A PubMed search was used to identify original research and review articles related to cold, frostbite, and hypothermia. Inclusion was based on their relevance to prevention and treatment of cold-related injuries in sports and outdoor activities. Dates of review articles were limited to those published after 2010. No date limit was set for the most recent consensus statements or original research...
March 2016: Sports Health
Y Wang, T Jackson, L Cai
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have found appraisals of pain as a source of potential threat or tissue damage influence pain perception and coping. Conversely, causal effects of challenge appraisals reflecting potential future benefits of bearing pain have received little attention. This experiment was designed to elucidate effects of appraising laboratory pain as a source of potential threat and challenge on pain perception and coping. METHODS: Before engaging in a cold pressor test (CPT), young adult women (N = 112) and men (N = 49) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a higher threat group in which participants read an orienting passage describing symptoms and consequences of frostbite (pain as a signal for nociception), a lower threat group in which participants read about CPT safety (pain independent of nociception) or a challenge appraisal group in which participants read a passage describing how persistence in the face of discomfort predicts future life success and satisfaction...
August 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Rachel M Nygaard, Angela B Whitley, Ryan M Fey, Anne Lambert Wagner
For those at risk for cold-related injury, frostbite contributes significant morbidity through loss of limbs and digits. Frostbite injury generally affects distal extremities first and spreads proximally as the time of exposure increases. The Hennepin score is a tool to quantify injury and tissue loss of frostbite injury, similar to TBSA calculators in burn patients. Application of the Hennepin score allows for a clear picture of the effect of treatment through calculation of a salvage rate. The authors found high reliability between raters using the Hennepin score worksheet, suggesting consistency with applying the score to frostbite injury and outcomes (intraclass correlation, 0...
July 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Stathis J Poulakidas, Areta Kowal-Vern, Corinne Atty
Frostbite injury in children can lead to abnormal growth and premature fusion of the epiphyseal cartilage with long-term sequela including, but not limited to, arthroses, deformity, and amputation of the phalanges. This was a retrospective chart review of pediatric frostbite identified in an in-house burn center registry from March 1999 to March 2014. Therapeutic management included negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Three patients (age 16-31 months) had frostbitten hands because they were outside in cold weather without gloves...
September 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Brian Higdon, Laura Youngman, Michelle Regehr, Andy Chiou
The authors present a case of deep frostbite treated with both hyperbaric oxygen and thrombolytic therapies. Both of these therapies are experimental and have not yet achieved widespread clinical use. The patient described in this paper sustained frostbite after becoming intoxicated and falling unconscious in a snowy field. He was treated acutely for hypothermia and came into the authors' care for wound management. Of his 6 digits with extensive, deep frostbite, 1 digit eventually required partial amputation, and another had protracted osteomyelitis treated with intravenous antibiotics...
August 2015: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
V Assi-Dje Bi Dje, C M Abhe, J B Sie-Essoh, K Kouamé, B Vilasco
Cold burns are still exceptional in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the promotion of a wider use of domestic gas (commercial butane) has led to the growth of petrochemical industries. As a consequence, there is an increased risk of the occurrence of such burns (referred to as frostbite). We report a case of a cold burn injury caused by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in the workplace. The diagnosis of severity and management later complicated the local evolution. Compliance with safety measures in factories remains the main means of preventing this rarely seen type of burn...
September 30, 2014: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
J S Glennie, R Milner
Non-freezing cold injury can be a diagnostic challenge for clinicians in the United Kingdom Armed Forces. It is associated with operations in adverse climatic conditions, and may result in significant long-term morbidity. In this article we discuss the operational importance of this condition and the current best practice in its management and prevention.
2014: Journal of the Royal Naval Medical Service
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