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Rebekah C Kennedy, Russell R Fling, Michael S Robeson, Arnold M Saxton, Liesel G Schneider, John L Darcy, David A Bemis, Ling Zhao, Jiangang Chen
Widely used as an antimicrobial in antibacterial bar soaps, triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC) is effective against Gram-positive bacteria but shows little efficacy against Gram-negative strains, potentially altering the composition of indigenous microflora within and on the human body. To date, the consequence of continuous or previous nonprescription antimicrobial exposure from compounds in personal care products on commensal microflora is still elusive. Previous research has shown that TCC exposure during gestation and lactation induced dysbiosis of gut microbial communities among exposed dams and neonates...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yan Liu, Ling Zhang, Li-Na Niu, Tao Yu, Hockin H K Xu, Michael D Weir, Thomas W Oates, Franklin R Tay, Ji-Hua Chen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the bonding performance, antibacterial activity, and remineralization effect on enamel of the orthodontic adhesive containing MAE-DB and NACP. METHODS: Eighty non-carious human premolars were divided into 3 groups: Transbond XT (TB), PEHB + 5% MAE-DB (PD), and PEHB + 40% NACP + 5% MAE-DB (PND). Premolars were bonded with orthodontic brackets, the first subgroup (n = 10) and the second subgroup (n = 10) were subjected to shear bond strength testing after immersed in water for 1 day and in demineralization solution for 28 days respectively and then tested surface roughness, while the third subgroup (n = 6) was used for microhardness evaluation after aged in demineralization solution for 28 days...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Sahar Z Elazab, Waheed F Hessam
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is mediated by many proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines as interleuhin-17 (IL-17) and interleukin-35 (IL-35) respectively. We assessed the effect of allergen specific immunotherapy (IT) on the serum levels of IL-17 and IL-35 in patients with AR sensitive to house dust mites (HDMs). Twenty patients with AR sensitive to HDMs and ten healthy control subjects were included in the study. Sensitivity to HDMs was diagnosed by positive skin prick test. Patients were treated by cluster IT...
June 2017: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
Aubrey M Kelly, Lisa C Hiura, Alexander G Ophir
Vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) are involved in modulating basic physiology and numerous social behaviors. Although the anatomical distributions of nonapeptide neurons throughout development have been described, the functional roles of VP and OT neurons during development are surprisingly understudied, and it is unknown whether they exhibit functional changes throughout early development. We utilized an acute social isolation paradigm to determine if VP and OT neural responses in eight nonapeptide cell groups differ at three different stages of early development in prairie voles...
March 9, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
George Z Li, Stephanie M Wong, Susan Lester, Faina Nakhlis
Most pathologic nipple discharge (PND) is benign, but duct excision has been advised to exclude malignancy. To identify factors associated with malignancy, we reviewed 280 patients with PND at our institution from 2004 to 2014. In 49 cases, malignancy was found. These patients more often had palpable masses (39% vs 11%, P < .001) and abnormal imaging (94% vs 75%, P = .004). On multivariable analysis, age, palpable mass, and abnormal imaging were independently associated with malignancy. Among 48 patients with PND but no other clinical/imaging abnormalities, only 1 malignancy, a small ductal carcinoma in situ, was identified...
March 8, 2018: Breast Journal
Ruth Carter, Fiona Cust, Elizabeth Boath
OBJECTIVE: To explore the lived experiences of peer support workers (PSWs) during their intervention with mothers suffering from postnatal depression (PND). BACKGROUND: Postnatal depression is a major public health concern affecting approximately 13% of women worldwide. There is evidence within recent literature that peer support may have a positive effect upon women suffering with PND. METHODS: Written data from the PSW's logbooks, interviews and supervisory sessions was collected and thematically analysed...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Erika A Scholl, Stephanie M Miller-Smith, Steven L Bealer, Mark J Lehmkuhle, Jeffrey J Ekstrand, F Edward Dudek, John H McDonough
Exposure to nerve agents (NAs) and other organophosphates (OPs) can initiate seizures that rapidly progress to status epilepticus (SE). While the electrographic and neuropathological sequelae of SE evoked by NAs and OPs have been characterized in adult rodents, they have not been adequately investigated in immature animals. In this study postnatal day (PND) 14, 21 and 28 rat pups, along with PND70 animals as adult controls, were exposed to NAs (sarin, VX) or another OP (diisopropylfluorophosphate, DFP). We then evaluated behavioral and electrographic (EEG) correlates of seizure activity, and performed neuropathology using Fluoro-Jade B...
March 3, 2018: Neurotoxicology
José Rocha, C Nunes, A Leonardo, M J Correia, M Fernandes, M C Paúl, V Almeida
We have defined a psychological intervention based on cognitive narrative therapy and the Ottawa decision framework to reduce adjustment problems following a termination of pregnancy (TOP) after a positive prenatal diagnosis (PND). The intervention is composed of four sessions: decision, subjectivation, metaphorization, and projecting. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a cognitive narrative intervention to prevent depression and anxiety symptoms after TOP. The intervention was accepted by 24 participants...
March 3, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Rubén García-Cabrerizo, Cristian Bis-Humbert, M Julia García-Fuster
A recent study from our laboratory demonstrated that binge methamphetamine induced hippocampal cell damage (i.e., impaired cell genesis) in rats when administered specifically during late adolescence (postnatal day, PND 54-57) and evaluated 24 h later (PND 58). The results also suggested a possible role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulating cell genesis and survival. This subsequent study evaluated whether these effects persisted in time as measured following prolonged withdrawal. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated (i...
February 28, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Abdur Rahman, Ameena A Al-Awadi, Khalid M Khan
A negative association between blood lead and vitamin D concentrations has been reported, however, experimental data on the effect of lead (Pb) on vitamin D metabolism is scarce. We investigated the effects of Pb on serum vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D activating enzymes and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in rats. Newborn Wistar rat pups were exposed to 0.2% Pb-acetate via their dams' drinking water from post-natal day (PND) 1 to 21 and directly in drinking water until PND30. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was analyzed with LC-MS/MS and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D with an immunoassay...
February 26, 2018: Nutrients
Lutiana Roque Simões, Gustavo Sangiogo, Michael Hikaru Tashiro, Jaqueline S Generoso, Cristiano Julio Faller, Diogo Dominguini, Gustavo Antunes Mastella, Giselli Scaini, Vijayasree Vayalanellore Giridharan, Monique Michels, Drielly Florentino, Fabricia Petronilho, Gislaine Zilli Réus, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, Alexandra I Zugno, Tatiana Barichello
Evidence suggest that prenatal immune system disturbance contributes largely to the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. We investigated if maternal immune activation (MIA) could induce inflammatory alterations in fetal brain and pregnant rats. Adult rats subjected to MIA also were investigated to evaluate if ketamine potentiates the effects of infection. On gestational day 15, Wistar pregnant rats received lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce MIA. After 6, 12 and 24 h, fetus brain, placenta, and amniotic fluid were collected to evaluate early effects of LPS...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Michimasa Toyoshima, Kazuo Yamada, Manami Sugita, Yukio Ichitani
The social environment is thought to have a strong impact on cognitive functions. In the present study, we investigated whether social enrichment could affect rats' memory ability using the "Different Objects Task (DOT)," in which the levels of memory load could be modulated by changing the number of objects to be remembered. In addition, we applied the DOT to a social discrimination task using unfamiliar conspecific juveniles instead of objects. Animals were housed in one of the three different housing conditions after weaning [postnatal day (PND) 21]: social-separated (1 per cage), standard (3 per cage), or social-enriched (10 per cage) conditions...
February 27, 2018: Animal Cognition
Erica R Glasper, Molly M Hyer, Terrence J Hunter
Early-life experiences with caregivers can significantly affect offspring development in human and non-human animals. While much of our knowledge of parent-offspring relationships stem from mother-offspring interactions, increasing evidence suggests interactions with the father are equally as important and can prevent social, behavioral, and neurological impairments that may appear early in life and have enduring consequences in adulthood. In the present study, we utilized the monogamous and biparental California mouse ( Peromyscus californicus )...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Parvin Bayandor, Fereshteh Farajdokht, Gisou Mohaddes, Roghayeh Diba, Maryam Hosseindoost, Keyvan Mehri, Zohreh Zavvari Oskuye, Shirin Babri
This study aimed at investigating the metabolic and behavioural effects of troxerutin treatment in the offspring of high fat diet (HFD) fed dams. Female Wistar rats (n = 40) received normal diet (ND) or HFD for 8 weeks prior to breeding. After mating, pregnant animals were assigned to four subgroups: ND, ND + Tro (troxerutin 150 mg/kg/day), HFD, and HFD + Tro. On the 21st day, male offspring were weaned and fed ND until 12 weeks old. Behavioural tests were performed on postnatal day (PND) 80 and 90...
February 26, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Luana Carvalho Cezar, Thiago Berti Kirsten, Caio Cesar Navarrete da Fonseca, Ana Paula Nascimento de Lima, Maria Martha Bernardi, Luciano Freitas Felicio
Autism is characterized by numerous behavioral impairments, such as in communication, socialization and cognition. Recent studies have suggested that valproic acid (VPA), an anti-epileptic drug with teratogenic activity, is related to autism. In rodents, VPA exposure during pregnancy induces autistic-like effects. Exposure to VPA may alter zinc metabolism resulting in a transient deficiency of zinc. Therefore, we selected zinc as a prenatal treatment to prevent VPA-induced impairments in a rat model of autism...
February 23, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
S Tabibian, M Shams, M Naderi, A Dorgalaleh
Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is the most dreadful complication, and the main cause of death among patients with rare bleeding disorders (RBD) and prenatal diagnosis (PND) is a preventative lifesaving program. A total of 39 PNDs were reported in the literature through a search on PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases, most often for congenital factor (F) XIII and FVII deficiencies and rarely in FX, FV deficiencies and afibrinogenemia. The main cause to request a PND is ICH and related morbidity and mortality...
February 24, 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Sarah Myers, Sarah E Johns
Postnatal depression (PND) is known to be associated with a range of detrimental child and adolescent outcomes, resulting from its disruptive impact on mother-child relationship quality. However, until now little has been known about the impact of PND on the longer-term relationships between mothers and their children, and any intergenerational effects this may have. Mother-child relationship quality is of interest from an evolutionary perspective as it plays a role in the accrual of offspring embodied capital, thus affecting offspring quality and offspring's capacity to subsequently invest in their own children...
2018: PeerJ
Rose Chesworth, Leonora E Long, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Tim Karl
The use of cannabis is a well-established component risk factor for schizophrenia, particularly in adolescent individuals with genetic predisposition for the disorder. Alterations to the endocannabinoid system have been found in the prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia. Thus, we assessed whether molecular alterations exist in the endocannabinoid signalling pathway during brain development in a mouse model for the schizophrenia risk gene neuregulin 1 ( Nrg1 ). We analysed transcripts encoding key molecules of the endocannabinoid system in heterozygous transmembrane domain Nrg1 mutant mice ( Nrg1 TM HET), which is known to have increased sensitivity to cannabis exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Wendy A March, Melissa J Whitrow, Michael J Davies, Renae C Fernandez, Vivienne M Moore
INTRODUCTION: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome are susceptible to depression and anxiety and so may also be at risk for postnatal depression. This study investigates whether women with polycystic ovary syndrome have an elevated risk of postnatal depression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data for parous women (n = 566) were available from a birth cohort. Polycystic ovary syndrome was diagnosed using the Rotterdam criteria. Details of reproductive history, pregnancy, birth, and postnatal depression were obtained through structured interview...
February 20, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Courtney A McDonald, Tayla R Penny, Madison C B Paton, Amy E Sutherland, Lakshmi Nekkanti, Tamara Yawno, Margie Castillo-Melendez, Michael C Fahey, Nicole M Jones, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
BACKGROUND: It is well understood that hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury during the highly vulnerable perinatal period can lead to cerebral palsy, the most prevalent cause of chronic disability in children. Recently, human clinical trials have reported safety and some efficacy following treatment of cerebral palsy using umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells. UCB is made up of many different cell types, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), T regulatory cells (Tregs), and monocyte-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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