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Patricia Vieyra-Reyes, Diana Millán-Aldaco, Marcela Palomero-Rivero, Clementina Jiménez-Garcés, Margarita Hernández-González, Javier Caballero-Villarraso
Iron is a trace element and a structural part of antioxidant enzymes, and its requirements vary according to age and gender. We hypothesized that iron deficiency (ID) leads to an increase in free radicals which mainly affect the brain, and the severity of damage would therefore be dependent on age and gender. Two groups of Wistar rats were evaluated evolutionarily: 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with ID diet and 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with standard diet. Both groups were offspring from mothers who were previously under the same dietary intervention...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Tamanna Jahan Mony, Jae Won Lee, Cheryl Dreyfus, Emanuel DiCicco-Bloom, Hee Jae Lee
Objective: We reported that postnatal exposure of rats to valproic acid (VPA) stimulated proliferation of glial precursors during cortical gliogenesis. However, there are no reports whether enhanced postnatal gliogenesis affects behaviors related to neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods: After VPA treatment during the postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 4, four behavioral test, such as open field locomotor test, elevated plus maze test, three-chamber social interaction test, and passive avoidance test, were performed at PND 21 or 22...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
A K Taylor, E Netsi, H O'Mahen, A Stein, J Evans, R M Pearson
BACKGROUND: Sleep problems are associated with increased risk of physical and mental illness. Identifying risk factors is an important method of reducing public health impact. We examined the association between maternal postnatal depression (PND) and offspring adolescent sleep problems. METHOD: The sample was derived from Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) participants. A sample with complete data across all variables was used, with four outcome variables...
October 20, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Julie Reygner, Lydia Lichtenberger, Ghada Elmhiri, Samir Dou, Narges Bahi-Jaber, Larbi Rhazi, Flore Depeint, Veronique Bach, Hafida Khorsi-Cauet, Latifa Abdennebi-Najar
Increasing evidence indicates that chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, is involved in metabolic disorders. We assess the hypothesis whether supplementation with prebiotics from gestation to adulthood, through a modulation of microbiota composition and fermentative activity, alleviates CPF induced metabolic disorders of 60 days old offspring. 5 groups of Wistar rats, from gestation until weaning, received two doses of CPF pesticide: 1 mg/kg/day (CPF1) or 3.5 mg/kg/day (CPF3.5) with free access to inulin (10g/L in drinking water)...
2016: PloS One
Hang Xu, Yu Zhang, Fan Zhang, San-Na Yuan, Feng Shao, Weiwen Wang
Early stress is a significant risk factor for the onset of mood disorders such as depression during adulthood. Impairments in cognitive flexibility mediated by prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction are increasingly recognized as important etiological and pathological factors in the development of depression. Our previous study demonstrated that social defeat stress during early adolescence produced delayed deficits in cognitive flexibility in adult mice. The potential molecular mechanisms underlying these long-term consequences remain unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Emily May Lent, Lee C B Crouse, Allison M Jackovitz, Erica E Carroll, Mark S Johnson
Nitrotriazolone (1,2,4-triazol-5-one; NTO), an insensitive, energetic material used in explosive formulations, induced testicular toxicity and oligospermia in repeated-dose oral toxicity tests in rats. To evaluate whether NTO produces additional reproductive and developmental effects, a modified extended one-generation reproductive toxicity test was conducted. Rats were provided ad libitum access to NTO in drinking water at 0-, 144-, 720-, or 3600-mg/L NTO. Treatment of the parental generation began 2 (females) and 4 (males) wk premating and continued until weaning of litters...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Virginia Mela, Sara Jimenez, Alejandra Freire-Regatillo, Vicente Barrios, Eva-María Marco, Ana-Belén Lopez-Rodriguez, Jesús Argente, María-Paz Viveros, Julie A Chowen
The neonatal leptin surge, occurring from postnatal day (PND) 5 to 13 and peaking at PND9 in rodents, is important for the development of neuroendocrine circuits involved in metabolic control and reproductive function. We previously demonstrated that treatment with a leptin antagonist from PND 5 to 9, coincident with peak leptin levels in the neonatal surge, modified trophic factors and markers of cell turnover and neuronal maturation in the hypothalamus of peri-pubertal rats. The kisspeptin system and metabolic neuropeptide and hormone levels were also modified...
October 14, 2016: Peptides
Naomi A Hartley, Ellen Breen, Susan L Thibeault
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document typical vocal health characteristics (including voice-related activities, behaviors, and symptomatology) of young adults attending college and to determine lifetime and point prevalence rates of voice disorders. Method: Undergraduates at University of Wisconsin-Madison completed an anonymous online survey detailing vocal use, symptomatology, impact, sociodemographics, and voice-related quality of life. Univariate analyses and multivariate regression models isolated risk factors for lifetime and point prevalence rates of a voice disorder...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron, Karima Bouzerzour, Stéphanie Ferret-Bernard, Olivia Ménard, Laurence Le Normand, Cécile Perrier, Cindy Le Bourgot, Julien Jardin, Claire Bourlieu, Thomas Carton, Pascale Le Ruyet, Isabelle Cuinet, Cécile Bonhomme, Didier Dupont
PURPOSE: Although composition of infant formula has been significantly improved during the last decade, major differences with the composition and structure of breast milk still remain and might affect nutrient digestion and gut biology. We hypothesized that the incorporation of dairy fat in infant formulas could modify their physiological impacts by making their composition closer to that of human milk. The effect of milk fat and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fragments in infant formulas on gut digestion, mucosal immunity and microbiota composition was evaluated...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Lisbeth Valla, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Lars Smith, Marianne Skogbrott Birkeland, Kari Slinning
Postnatal depression (PND) is associated with adverse effects on a broad range of child outcomes, including language problems. The current study aimed to investigate if the time of exposure to maternal PND symptoms measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 6 weeks, 4 months and 6 months postpartum were related to the infants' communication skills measured with the Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) at 12 and 24 months. Secondly, to study to what extent the number of exposures to high level of PND symptoms (i...
October 12, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Sebastian T Soukup, Dennis R Müller, Anne Kurrat, Patrick Diel, Sabine E Kulling
Genistein and daidzein are the main isoflavones in soy. Their potential beneficial or adverse effects in males like the prevention of prostate cancer or the impact on reproductive functions are controversially discussed. Major determinants of their bioactivity are the absorption and biotransformation of isoflavones. In this study, we focused on the influence of testosterone on plasma availability and phase II metabolism of isoflavones. Male Wistar rats, receiving an isoflavones rich diet, were randomized into three groups: Two groups were orchiectomized (ORX) at postnatal day (PND) 80 and treated for 11 days with testosterone propionate (TP) (ORX TP group) or a vehicle (ORX group) after a 7 days lasting hormonal decline...
October 14, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Siyang Yan, Amanda C Kentner
Exposure to painful procedures and/or stressors during the early neonatal period can reprogram the underlying neurocircuitry involved in nociception and neuropathic pain perception. The reprogramming of these systems can result in an enduring elevation in sensitivity towards mechanical and thermal stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to mild inflammatory mediators during the neonatal period can induce similar pain responses in both adolescent and adult rats. Therefore, we sought to profile changes in the expression of several genes across brain areas involved in the active modulation of nociception and neuropathic pain using a well-recognized model of neonatal inflammation...
October 11, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Guoyuan Sui, Bochen Pan, Guangcong Liu, Guangying Liu, Lie Wang
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiologists have explored the relationship between maternal postnatal depression (PND) and the intelligence quotient (IQ) of the resulting offspring, but the results remain inconclusive. This study aims to analyze the literature regarding the association between maternal PND and a child's IQ. DATA SOURCES: A search of articles in PubMed, Web of Science, and MEDLINE databases from inception to September 2015 was conducted and supplemented by a manual search of relevant reference lists...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Jin-Ran Chen, Oxana P Lazarenko, Michael L Blackburn, Kartik Shankar
Nutritional status during intrauterine and early postnatal life impacts the risk of chronic diseases; however, evidence for an association between early life dietary factors and bone health in adults is limited. Soy protein isolate (SPI) may be one such dietary factor that promotes bone accretion during early life with persistent effects into adulthood. In the present study, we fed postnatal day (PND) 24 weanling female rats an SPI diet for 30 d [short-term SPI (ST-SPI)], and on PND 55, we switched SPI diet to control casein diet until age 6 mo...
October 12, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Nidhal Soualeh, Imen Dridi, Gauthier Eppe, Christophe Némos, Rachid Soulimani, Jaouad Bouayed
Several lines of evidence indicate that early-life inflammation may predispose to mental illness, including depression, in later-life. We investigated the impact of perinatal exposure to polluted eels on neonatal, postnatal, and adult brain inflammation, and on the resignation behavior of male and female adult offspring mice. The effects of maternal standard diet (laboratory food) were compared to the same diet enriched with low, intermediate, or highly polluted eels. Brain inflammatory markers including cytokines were assessed in offspring mice on the day of birth (i...
October 1, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Shimeng Luo, Yun Li, Yingpei Li, Qixing Zhu, Jianhua Jiang, Changhao Wu, Tong Shen
Increasing evidence demonstrates that perinatal exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) can cause immune disorders throughout the life span. However, the biological basis for these immune disorders is poorly understood and the effects of exposure to BPA on Th17 development are unknown. The present study sought to characterize alterations of Th17 cells in childhood and adulthood following gestational and lactational exposure to environmentally relevant low-dose of BPA and the underlying mechanisms. Pregnant dams were exposed to BPA (10, 100 or 1000nM) via drinking water from gestational day (GD) 0 to postnatal day (PND) 21...
September 26, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yoav Litvin, Cortney A Turner, Mariel B Rios, Pamela M Maras, Sraboni Chaudhury, Miriam R Baker, Peter Blandino, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil, Bruce McEwen
We aimed to determine the short-term effects of early-life stress in the form of maternal separation (MS) on anxiety-like behavior in male rat pups. In order to assess anxiety, we measured 40kHz separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) on postnatal day (PND) 11. We further aimed to evaluate the potential involvement of two neurochemical systems known to regulate social and anxiety-like behaviors throughout life: oxytocin (OT) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). For these purposes, we tested the effects of neonatal administration (on PND1) of an acute dose of FGF2 on USV and its potential interaction with MS...
September 28, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Joanna Helena Sliwowska, Wendy L Comeau, Tamara S Bodnar, Linda Ellis, Joanne Weinberg
BACKGROUND: Reproductive maturation is initiated with the onset of puberty, which activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and coincidences with increased expression of the hormone kisspeptin within the hypothalamus. Maturational events are sensitive to environmental factors, including alcohol, which is known to delay reproductive development. We hypothesized that, similar to alcohol's adverse effects during reproductive maturation, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) would alter pubertal markers, sex hormone profiles, and kisspeptin expression in the hypothalamus...
September 30, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Camryn D Allen, Jan-Sebastian Grigoleit, Joonho Hong, Sejin Bae, Joan Vaughan, Soon Lee
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis undergoes critical developments during adolescence. Therefore, stressors experienced during this period potentially have long-term effects on adult HPA axis function. We hypothesized that adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure would affect adult HPA axis function, resulting in altered responses to an alcohol challenge in young adults or adults. To test these hypotheses, male rats were exposed to alcohol vapor for 6h per day from post-natal day (PND) 28-42, then acutely challenged with alcohol intragastrically (3...
September 28, 2016: Neuroscience
Zahra Moudi, Ebrahim Miri-Moghaddam
In the present study, an embedded design was applied in order to conduct a one-year cross-sectional audit of chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and foetal outcomes affected by β-thalassemia major (β-TM) in a prenatal diagnosis (PND) setting. In addition, we explored the decisions regarding pregnancy termination among women whose pregnancy (or child) was affected by β-TM. In the quantitative phase, the available data in the clients' medical records were analysed, while the qualitative phase was performed using a grounded theory method...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
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