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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318443/cardiac-ct-imaging-for-ischemic-stroke-current-and-evolving-clinical-applications
#1
Jin Hur, Byoung Wook Choi
While the etiology of ischemic stroke is heterogeneous, approximately 20%-40% of all stroke cases result from cardiac or aortic origin. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has become the reference standard modality for the detection of potential sources of cerebral embolism. Because of the advances in computed tomographic (CT) technology, cardiac CT can be used in the evaluation of potential cardioembolic sources. During the past decade, cardiac CT has been tested and compared with TEE for the diagnosis of cardioembolic sources...
April 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317214/characterization-of-blood-flow-through-intrapulmonary-arteriovenous-anastomoses-and-patent-foramen-ovale-at-rest-and-during-exercise-in-stroke-and-transient-ischemic-attack-patients
#2
Rinaldo Romac, Otto Barak, Duska Glavas, Zora Susilovic Grabovac, Petar Lozo, Igor Roje, Kresimir Caljkusic, Irena Drmic-Hofman, James T Davis, Zeljko Dujic, Andrew T Lovering
OBJECTIVES: We determined whether stroke and/or TIA subjects have exercise-induced blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (QIPAVA ) and/or patent foramen ovale (QPFO ) and a genetic predisposition for ischemic stroke. METHODS: Twenty-eight stroke and/or TIA subjects (33-63 years old) underwent transthoracic saline contrast echocardiography concomitant with transcranial Doppler to detect QIPAVA and QPFO at rest and during supine exercise with and without breathing 100% O2 ...
March 19, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302288/valvular-heart-disease-patients-on-edoxaban-or-warfarin-in-the-engage%C3%A2-af-timi-48-trial
#3
Raffaele De Caterina, Giulia Renda, Anthony P Carnicelli, Francesco Nordio, Marco Trevisan, Michele F Mercuri, Christian T Ruff, Elliott M Antman, Eugene Braunwald, Robert P Giugliano
BACKGROUND: The use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) instead of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and coexisting valvular heart disease (VHD) is of substantial interest. OBJECTIVES: This study explored outcomes in patients with AF with and without VHD in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 (Effective Anticoagulation with factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 48) trial, comparing edoxaban with warfarin...
March 21, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295882/identifying-atrial-fibrillation-in-outpatients-initiating-oral-anticoagulants-based-on-medico-administrative-data-results-from-the-french-national-healthcare-databases
#4
Cécile Billionnet, François Alla, Éric Bérigaud, Antoine Pariente, Géric Maura
PURPOSE: Identifying atrial fibrillation (AF) in outpatients treated with oral anticoagulants (OACs) from claims databases is challenging when the outpatient indication is not available, as OACs are also prescribed for deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE) that may be treated in the ambulatory setting. An algorithm was developed to identify AF in outpatients initiating OAC from medico-administrative data. METHODS: Among patients initiating OAC in 2013 in the French healthcare databases, those treated for orthopaedic indications were excluded...
March 14, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295858/non-obstructive-carotid-atherosclerosis-and-patent-foramen-ovale-in-young-adults-with-cryptogenic-stroke
#5
A Jaffre, B Guidolin, J-B Ruidavets, N Nasr, V Larrue
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Up to 50% of ischaemic strokes in young adults are classified as cryptogenic despite extensive work-up. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of non-obstructive carotid atherosclerosis (NOCA) and its association with patent foramen ovale (PFO) in young adults with cryptogenic stroke (CS). METHODS: Patients aged 18-54 years, consecutively treated for first-ever CS in an academic stroke service, were included. NOCA was assessed using carotid ultrasound examination and was defined as carotid plaque with <50% stenosis...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292302/impact-of-left-ventricular-outflow-tract-ellipticity-on-the-grading-of-aortic-stenosis-in-patients-with-normal-ejection-fraction
#6
Frédéric Maes, Sophie Pierard, Christophe de Meester, Jamila Boulif, Mihaela Amzulescu, David Vancraeynest, Anne-Catherine Pouleur, Agnès Pasquet, Bernhard Gerber, Jean-Louis Vanoverschelde
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of paradoxical low-gradient (LG) severe aortic stenosis (SAS) remains controversial. As low transvalvular flow has been implicated, we sought to investigate the impact of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) ellipticity on the estimation of the LV stroke volume, the calculation of the aortic valve area (AVA) by use of the continuity equation and on AS severity grading. METHODS: We studied 190 consecutive patients (mean age: 72 ± 13 years; male: 57%) with SAS (indexed AVA < 0...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291607/indexed-left-atrial-size-predicts-all-cause-and-cardiovascular-mortality-in-patients-undergoing-aortic-valve-surgery
#7
Victor X Mosquera, Alberto Bouzas-Mosquera, Miguel González-Barbeito, Victor Bautista-Hernandez, Javier Muñiz, Nemesio Alvarez-García, José J Cuenca-Castillo
OBJECTIVES: The enlargement of the left atrium has been identified as a marker of chronically increased left ventricular filling pressure and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. This study aims to evaluate the association of indexed left atrial diameter with stroke, cardiovascular mortality, the combined event, and all-cause mortality in patients who underwent aortic valve surgery. METHODS: Indexed left atrial diameter was measured in 2011 adult patients (mean age, 70...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290713/the-influence-of-growth-and-e-coli-endotoxaemia-on-amoxicillin-pharmacokinetics-in-turkeys
#8
B Poźniak, U Pasławska, K Motykiewicz-Pers, M Świtała
1. This experiment was designed to determine if the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin (AMO) was affected by rapid growth or the acute phase reaction induced by intravenous (i.v.) injection of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). 2. Turkeys of 2.0, 5.5 and 12.0 kg were administered i.v. or orally with AMO sodium at the dose of 15 mg/kg. One group of turkeys (5.7 kg) was treated with LPS 1 h prior to i.v. AMO administration. Plasma drug concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a non-compartmental model...
March 14, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289746/advances-in-anticoagulation-management-of-patients-undergoing-cardioversion-of-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation
#9
Georgios Benetos, Maria Bonou, Konstantinos Toutouzas, Panagiotis Diamantopoulos, Nora Viniou, John Barbetseas
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major cause of stroke. The restoration of sinus rhythm through cardioversion, either chemical or electrical is a common practice. Interestingly, there is an incremental increase from the baseline risk for embolisation in the immediate post-cardioversion period, with most events occurring within 10 days from cardioversion. Especially patients with recent onset AF show the lowest rates of antithrombotic therapy, while having a high stroke risk. Despite the increased risk for embolisation, anticoagulation in patients undergoing cardioversion of atrial fibrillation is often inadequate...
March 14, 2017: Hämostaseologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287031/comparison-of-diverse-platelet-activation-markers-as-indicators-for-left-atrial-thrombus-in-atrial-fibrillation
#10
Daniel Tarnowski, David M Poitz, Lina Plichta, Felix M Heidrich, Stephan Wiedemann, Tobias Ruf, Johannes Mierke, Tobias Löhn, Stefanie Jellinghaus, Ruth H Strasser, Karim Ibrahim, Christian Pfluecke
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is well known for being a major risk factor of thromboembolic stroke. We could recently demonstrate an association of monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs) with the degree of thrombogenicity in patients with AF. This study investigated platelet activation markers, as potential biomarkers for the presence of left atrial (LA) thrombus in patients with AF. One hundred and eight patients with symptomatic AF underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) before scheduled cardioversion or pulmonary vein isolation...
March 13, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285332/the-role-of-l-arginine-l-homoarginine-nitric-oxide-pathway-for-aortic-distensibility-and-intima-media-thickness-in-stroke-patients
#11
Arash Haghikia, Georgi Radoslavov Yanchev, Arslan Arinc Kayacelebi, Erik Hanff, Nils Bledau, Christian Widera, Kristina Sonnenschein, Aiden Haghikia, Karin Weissenborn, Johann Bauersachs, Udo Bavendiek, Dimitrios Tsikas
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and L-homoarginine (hArg) are L-arginine (Arg) metabolites derived from different pathways. Protein arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT) and subsequent proteolysis of proteins containing methylarginine residues release ADMA. Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) converts Arg to hArg and guanidinoacetate (GAA). While high concentrations of ADMA and low concentrations of hArg in the blood have been established as cardiovascular risk markers, the cardiovascular relevance of GAA is still unexplored...
March 11, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275422/concomitant-left-atrial-myxoma-and-patent-foramen-ovale-is-it-an-evolutional-synergy-for-a-cerebrovascular-event
#12
Glenmore Lasam, Roberto Ramirez
We report a case of a 48-year-old female who presented initially with an abrupt onset of left facial and hand numbness after her routine yoga with no associated syncope, palpitation, chest pain or dyspnea. She consulted her primary care physician and recommended hospital care for possible stroke. On the day of admission, she complained of left facial and hand hemiparesthesia. Cranial imaging and angiography were unremarkable but echocardiography and cardiac computed tomography revealed left atrial mass. She underwent resection of the left atrial mass with an incidental finding of patent foramen ovale intraoperatively...
February 2017: Cardiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270219/quantification-of-aortic-stenosis-diagnostic-parameters-comparison-of-fast-3-direction-and-1-direction-phase-contrast-cmr-and-transthoracic-echocardiography
#13
Juliana Serafim da Silveira, Matthew Smyke, Adam V Rich, Yingmin Liu, Ning Jin, Debbie Scandling, Jennifer A Dickerson, Carlos E Rochitte, Subha V Raman, Lee C Potter, Rizwan Ahmad, Orlando P Simonetti
BACKGROUND: Aortic stenosis (AS) is a common valvular disorder, and disease severity is currently assessed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). However, TTE results can be inconsistent in some patients, thus other diagnostic modalities such as cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) are demanded. While traditional unidirectional phase-contrast CMR (1Dir PC-CMR) underestimates velocity if the imaging plane is misaligned to the flow direction, multi-directional acquisitions are expected to improve velocity measurement accuracy...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267479/left-ventricular-mass-geometry-and-silent-cerebrovascular-disease-the-cardiovascular-abnormalities-and-brain-lesions-cabl-study
#14
Koki Nakanishi, Zhezhen Jin, Shunichi Homma, Mitchell S V Elkind, Tatjana Rundek, Aylin Tugcu, Mitsuhiro Yoshita, Charles DeCarli, Clinton B Wright, Ralph L Sacco, Marco R Di Tullio
BACKGROUND: Although abnormal left ventricular geometric patterns have prognostic value for morbidity and mortality, their possible association with silent cerebrovascular disease has not been extensively evaluated. METHODS: We examined 665 participants in the CABL study who underwent transthoracic echocardiography and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were divided into 4 geometric patterns: normal geometry (n=397), concentric remodeling (n=89), eccentric hypertrophy (n=126), and concentric hypertrophy (n=53)...
March 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247588/atrioventricular-dyssynchrony-from-empiric-device-settings-is-common-in-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-and-adversely-impacts-left-ventricular-morphology-and-function
#15
Gregory J Sinner, Vedant A Gupta, Arash Seratnahaei, Richard J Charnigo, Yousef H Darrat, Samy C Elayi, Steve W Leung, Vincent L Sorrell
BACKGROUND: Echocardiographic atrioventricular (AV) optimization after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is uncommon due to time constraints and the use of vendor-specific device algorithms. It remains unclear whether optimization of mitral inflow velocities can still be useful. We aimed to investigate post implantation left ventricular (LV) inflow patterns to determine the incidence of AV dyssynchrony from empirically set devices. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients undergoing CRT using empiric device settings...
March 1, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242774/association-between-absolute-eosinophil-count-and-complex-aortic-arch-plaque-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#16
Takaya Kitano, Tomohisa Nezu, Takashi Shiromoto, Satoshi Kubo, Jyunichi Uemura, Yuko Wada, Yoshiki Yagita
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Eosinophil counts are thought to be associated with atherosclerosis and aortic arch plaques. However, whether these associations exist among patients with acute ischemic stroke remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the association between absolute eosinophil count (AEC) and aortic arch plaques among these patients. METHODS: Consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography were retrospectively analyzed...
February 27, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241751/time-resolved-tracking-of-the-atrioventricular-plane-displacement-in-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-cmr-images
#17
Felicia Seemann, Ulrika Pahlm, Katarina Steding-Ehrenborg, Ellen Ostenfeld, David Erlinge, Jean-Luc Dubois-Rande, Svend Eggert Jensen, Dan Atar, Håkan Arheden, Marcus Carlsson, Einar Heiberg
BACKGROUND: Atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD) is an indicator for systolic and diastolic function and accounts for 60% of the left ventricular, and 80% of the right ventricular stroke volume. AVPD is commonly measured clinically in echocardiography as mitral and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE and TAPSE), but has not been applied widely in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). To date, there is no robust automatic algorithm available that allows the AVPD to be measured clinically in CMR with input in a single timeframe...
February 28, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237983/effects-of-cardiac-function-with-postoperative-arteriovenous-fistula-blood-flow-in-patients-with-hemodialysis
#18
Keiichi Wakabayashi, Hiroaki Io, Junichiro Nakata, Hirotaka Nakamoto, Michiko Sato, Yu Sasaki, Yoshio Shimizu, Satoshi Horikoshi, Yasuhiko Tomino, Yusuke Suzuki
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of cardiac function with postoperative arteriovenous fistula (AVF) blood flow in hemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS: A total of 45 HD patients were examined at the Juntendo University Hospital. The AVF blood flow was measured using ultrasonography, and the cardiac function was measured using echocardiography. Correlation between these parameters and the rate of change in body weight (BW) was analyzed...
February 25, 2017: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237125/biomarkers-of-atrial-cardiopathy-and-atrial-fibrillation-detection-on-mobile-outpatient-continuous-telemetry-after-embolic-stroke-of-undetermined-source
#19
Denise Sebasigari, Alexander Merkler, Yang Guo, Gino Gialdini, Benjamin Kummer, Morgan Hemendinger, Christopher Song, Antony Chu, Shawna Cutting, Brian Silver, Mitchell S V Elkind, Hooman Kamel, Karen L Furie, Shadi Yaghi
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of atrial dysfunction or "cardiopathy" are associated with embolic stroke risk. However, it is unclear if this risk is mediated by undiagnosed paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF). We aim to determine whether atrial cardiopathy biomarkers predict AF on continuous heart-rhythm monitoring after embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective study including all patients with ESUS undergoing 30 days of ambulatory heart-rhythm monitoring to look for AF between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219755/a-congenital-diverticulum-of-the-left-ventricular-apex-manifested-by-stroke-and-recurrent-ventricular-tachycardia
#20
Gabriela Dostálová, Tomáš Paleček, Petr Kuchynka, Štěpán Havránek, Martin Mašek, Zuzana Hlubocká, Debora Karetová, Dan Wichterle, Jaroslava Dušková, Jaroslav Lindner, Aleš Linhart
Ventricular outpouchings include acquired abnormalities (aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms) and congenital ventricular diverticula (CVD). CVD represent rare cardiac pathologies. Although CVD is often associated with other cardiac and extracardiac congenital anomalies, it can also be incidentally observed in otherwise healthy subjects. CVD may lead to significant morbidity and even have lethal consequences. We describe a case of arrhythmogenic left ventricle (LV) apical CVD revealed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) after being initially overlooked by echocardiography...
February 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
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