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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804608/remyelination-improvement-after-neurotrophic-factors-secreting-cells-transplantation-in-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Shahnaz Razavi, Nazem Ghasemi, Mohammad Mardani, Hossein Salehi
OBJECTIVES: Neurotrophic factors secreting cells (NTS-SCs) may be a superior cell source for cell-based therapy in neurodegenerative diseases. NTS-SCs are able to secrete some neurotrophic Such as nerve growth factor and glia-derived neurotrophic factor. Our primary aim was to assess transplantation of neurotrophic factor secreting cells derived from human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) into the damaged spinal cord rats and determine the potential of these cells in remyelination...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798841/microfluidic-engineering-of-neural-stem-cell-niches-for-fate-determination
#2
Yachen Wang, Jingyun Ma, Na Li, Liang Wang, Liming Shen, Yu Sun, Yajun Wang, Jingyuan Zhao, Wenjuan Wei, Yan Ren, Jing Liu
Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation has great therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases and central nervous system injuries. Successful NSC replacement therapy requires precise control over the cellular behaviors. However, the regulation of NSC fate is largely unclear, which severely restricts the potential clinical applications. To develop an effective model, we designed an assembled microfluidic system to engineer NSC niches and assessed the effects of various culture conditions on NSC fate determination...
January 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791401/implications-of-white-matter-damage-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-review
#3
Ting Zhou, Tina Khorshid Ahmad, Kiana Gozda, Jessica Truong, Jiming Kong, Michael Namaka
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, which involves the progressive degeneration of motor neurons. ALS has long been considered a disease of the grey matter; however, pathological alterations of the white matter (WM), including axonal loss, axonal demyelination and oligodendrocyte death, have been reported in patients with ALS. The present review examined motor neuron death as the primary cause of ALS and evaluated the associated WM damage that is guided by neuronal‑glial interactions...
August 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751200/gene-regulation-in-adult-neural-stem-cells-current-challenges-and-possible-applications
#4
Juan Manuel Encinas, Carlos P Fitzsimons
Adult neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) offer a unique opportunity for neural regeneration and niche modification in physiopathological conditions, harnessing the capability to modify from neuronal circuits to glial scar. Findings exposing the vast plasticity and potential of NSPCs have accumulated over the past years and we currently know that adult NSPCs can naturally give rise not only to neurons but also to astrocytes and reactive astrocytes, and eventually to oligodendrocytes through genetic manipulation...
July 25, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738875/effects-of-fty720-on-brain-neurogenic-niches-in-vitro-and-after-kainic-acid-induced-injury
#5
Raffaela Cipriani, Juan Carlos Chara, Alfredo Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Carlos Matute
BACKGROUND: FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya™) is an oral, blood-brain barrier (BBB)-passing drug approved as immunomodulatory treatment for relapsing-remitting form of the multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, FTY720 exerts several effects in the central nervous system (CNS), ranging from neuroprotection to reduction of neuroinflammation. However, the neurogenic and oligodendrogenic potential of FTY720 has been poorly investigated. In this study, we assessed the effect of FTY720 on the production of new neurons and oligodendrocytes from neural stem/precursor cells both in vitro and in vivo...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732510/protective-and-therapeutic-role-of-2-carba-cyclic-phosphatidic-acid-in-demyelinating-disease
#6
Shinji Yamamoto, Kota Yamashina, Masaki Ishikawa, Mari Gotoh, Sosuke Yagishita, Kensuke Iwasa, Kei Maruyama, Kimiko Murakami-Murofushi, Keisuke Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is a neuroinflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by recurrent and progressive demyelination/remyelination cycles, neuroinflammation, oligodendrocyte loss, demyelination, and axonal degeneration. Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a natural phospholipid mediator with a unique cyclic phosphate ring structure at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of the glycerol backbone. We reported earlier that cPA elicits a neurotrophin-like action and protects hippocampal neurons from ischemia-induced delayed neuronal death...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720882/cell-type-specific-differences-in-promoter-activity-of-the-als-linked-c9orf72-mouse-ortholog
#7
Abraham J Langseth, Juhyun Kim, Janet E Ugolino, Yajas Shah, Ho-Yon Hwang, Jiou Wang, Dwight E Bergles, Solange P Brown
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common cause of inherited forms of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mechanisms have been proposed to underlie this disease, but the pathogenic pathways are not fully understood. To better understand the involvement of different cell types in the pathogenesis of ALS, we systematically analyzed the distribution of promoter activity of the mouse ortholog of C9orf72 in the central nervous system...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715462/cell-specificity-dictates-similarities-in-gene-expression-in-multiple-sclerosis-parkinson-s-disease-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Yuichiro Itoh, Rhonda R Voskuhl
Drug repurposing is an efficient approach in new treatment development since it leverages previous work from one disease to another. While multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are all neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and differ in many clinical and pathological aspects, it is possible that they may share some mechanistic features. We hypothesized that focusing on gene expression in a CNS cell type specific manner might uncover similarities between diseases that could be missed using whole tissue gene expression analyses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687495/extracellular-vesicles-novel-promising-delivery-systems-for-therapy-of-brain-diseases
#9
REVIEW
David Rufino-Ramos, Patrícia R Albuquerque, Vitor Carmona, Rita Perfeito, Rui Jorge Nobre, Luis Pereira de Almeida
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membrane vesicles virtually secreted by all cells, including brain cells. EVs are a major term that includes apoptotic bodies, microvesicles and exosomes. The release of EVs has been recognized as an important modulator in cross-talking between neurons, astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes, not only in central nervous system (CNS) physiology but also in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disease states as well as in brain tumors, such as glioma. EVs are able to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB), spread to body fluids and reach distant tissues...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674983/multiple-sclerosis-basic-and-clinical
#10
Katherine Buzzard, Wing Hei Chan, Trevor Kilpatrick, Simon Murray
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common neurodegenerative disease affecting young adults in our community. It is a complex disease influenced by gender, genetic and environmental factors. MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system caused by aberrant immune activation resulting in damage to myelin sheaths within the brain and spinal cord and axonal loss. The demyelinating insult initially impairs the speed and efficiency of nerve cell function. In the majority of cases, this is followed by an innate endogenous repair response that can restore the myelin sheath and nerve cell function to relatively normal levels...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620838/modelling-fus-mislocalisation-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-innervated-human-muscle
#11
Sonja Prpar Mihevc, Mojca Pavlin, Simona Darovic, Marko Živin, Matej Podbregar, Boris Rogelj, Tomaz Mars
Degeneration of distal axons and neuromuscular junctions is an early feature in the pathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which culminates in motor neuron loss due to axon retraction and muscle atrophy. The complex interactions in the pathogenesis of ALS between motor neurons, muscle cells and accompanying glia require an appropriate experimental model. Here, we have defined a co-culture model based on human myotubes innervated by neurons from embryonic rat spinal cord explants to investigate the pathology and treatment of ALS...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619074/novel-oligodendroglial-alpha-synuclein-viral-vector-models-of-multiple-system-atrophy-studies-in-rodents-and-nonhuman-primates
#12
Ronald J Mandel, David J Marmion, Deniz Kirik, Yaping Chu, Clifford Heindel, Thomas McCown, Steven J Gray, Jeffrey H Kordower
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a horrible and unrelenting neurodegenerative disorder with an uncertain etiology and pathophysiology. MSA is a unique proteinopathy in which alpha-synuclein (α-syn) accumulates preferentially in oligodendroglia rather than neurons. Glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) of α-syn are thought to elicit changes in oligodendrocyte function, such as reduced neurotrophic support and demyelination, leading to neurodegeneration. To date, only a murine model using one of three promoters exist to study this disease...
June 16, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600955/parp-activity-and-inhibition-in-fetal-and-adult-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-effect-on-cell-survival-and-differentiation
#13
Vito A Baldassarro, Alessandra Marchesini, Luciana Giardino, Laura Calzà
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family members are ubiquitously expressed and play a key role in cellular processes, including DNA repair and cell death/survival balance. Accordingly, PARP inhibition is an emerging pharmacological strategy for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Consistent evidences support the critical involvement of PARP family members in cell differentiation and phenotype maturation. In this study we used an oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) enriched system derived from fetal and adult brain to investigate the role of PARP in OPCs proliferation, survival, and differentiation...
May 30, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586011/microglia-activation-triggers-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-apoptosis-via-hsp60
#14
Yunhong Li, Rui Zhang, Xiaolin Hou, Yumei Zhang, Feijia Ding, Fan Li, Yao Yao, Yin Wang
Reactive microglia are present in lesions of myelin‑associated white matter disorders resulting in injuries to oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Therefore, protection of OPCs from injury due to excessive activation of microglia is important in treating these diseases. Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) has been demonstrated to be released extracellularly in the failing heart upon stress or injury. However, the role of HSP60 in the central nervous system and whether it participates in the toxic effects of microglia on OPCs remains unclear...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557659/geminin-participates-in-differentiation-decisions-of-adult-neural-stem-cells-transplanted-in-the-hemiparkinsonian-mouse-brain
#15
Ioanna Taouki, Eve Tasiudi, Maria-Eleni Lalioti, Christina Kyrousi, Eleni Skavatsou, Konstantina Kaplani, Zoi Lygerou, Elias D Kouvelas, Adamantia Mitsacos, Panagiotis Giompres, Stavros Taraviras
Neural stem cells have been considered as a source of stem cells that can be used for cell replacement therapies in neurodegenerative diseases, as they can be isolated and expanded in vitro and can be used for autologous grafting. However, due to low percentages of survival and varying patterns of differentiation, strategies that will enhance the efficacy of transplantation are under scrutiny. In this article, we have examined whether alterations in Geminin's expression, a protein that coordinates the balance between self-renewal and differentiation, can improve the properties of stem cells transplanted in 6-OHDA hemiparkinsonian mouse model...
August 15, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556404/viral-mediated-oligodendroglial-alpha-synuclein-expression-models-multiple-system-atrophy
#16
Fares Bassil, Paul A Guerin, Nathalie Dutheil, Qin Li, Matthias Klugmann, Wassilios G Meissner, Erwan Bezard, Pierre-Olivier Fernagut
BACKGROUND: MSA is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a combination of autonomic dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, and l-dopa unresponsive parkinsonism. The hallmark of MSA is the accumulation of α-synuclein, forming cytoplasmic inclusions in oligodendrocytes. Adeno-associated viruses allow efficient targeting of disease-associated genes in selected cellular ensembles and have proven efficient for the neuronal overexpression of α-synuclein in the substantia nigra in the context of PD...
May 29, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554396/progenitor-cell-based-treatment-of-glial-disease
#17
Steven A Goldman
Diseases of glia, including astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, are among the most prevalent and disabling, yet least appreciated, conditions in neurology. In recent years, it has become clear that besides the overtly glial disorders of oligodendrocyte loss and myelin failure, such as the leukodystrophies and inflammatory demyelinations, a number of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders may also be causally linked to glial dysfunction and derive from astrocytic as well as oligodendrocytic pathology. The relative contribution of glial dysfunction to many of these disorders may be so great as to allow their treatment by the delivery of allogeneic glial progenitor cells, the precursors to both astroglia and myelin-producing oligodendrocytes...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548216/pathology-of-oligodendroglia-an-overview
#18
Takashi Komori
Oligodendroglia are cells responsible for creating myelin sheaths for axons in the CNS. However, pathologies of oligodendroglia other than demyelination are not well understood due to the lack of adequate methods of characterizing pathological conditions affecting oligodendroglia in human tissue. This review discusses three major topics with the aim of clarifying some of the controversies in the study of oligodendroglia. The oligodendroglioma, a relatively indolent form of diffuse gliomas thought to originate in oligodendrocytes, has never demonstrated myelin formation on electron microscopy nor shown a constant expression of myelin-related proteins...
May 26, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534246/microglia-housekeeper-of-the-central-nervous-system
#19
REVIEW
John Alimamy Kabba, Yazhou Xu, Handson Christian, Wenchen Ruan, Kitchen Chenai, Yun Xiang, Luyong Zhang, Juan M Saavedra, Tao Pang
Microglia, of myeloid origin, play fundamental roles in the control of immune responses and the maintenance of central nervous system homeostasis. These cells, just like peripheral macrophages, may be activated into M1 pro-inflammatory or M2 anti-inflammatory phenotypes by appropriate stimuli. Microglia do not respond in isolation, but form part of complex networks of cells influencing each other. This review addresses the complex interaction of microglia with each cell type in the brain: neurons, astrocytes, cerebrovascular endothelial cells, and oligodendrocytes...
May 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511117/conditioned-medium-from-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients-reduces-the-expression-and-release-of-inflammatory-cytokines-induced-by-lps-gingivalis-in-thp-1-and-mo3-13-cell-lines
#20
Patrizia Ballerini, Francesca Diomede, Nicola Petragnani, Simona Cicchitti, Ilaria Merciaro, Marcos F X B Cavalcanti, Oriana Trubiani
The present research was aimed at evaluating the effect of the conditioned medium (CM) from human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) obtained from healthy donors (hPDLSCs-CM) and from Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients (RR-MS-CM) on inflammatory response induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS-G) in a monocytoid human cell line (THP-1) and human oligodendrocyte cell line (MO3.13). Human periodontal ligament biopsies were carried out from control donor patients and selected RR-MS donors...
May 13, 2017: Cytokine
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