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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423196/melatonin-enhances-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-and-engraftment-by-increasing-mitochondrial-function
#1
Miguel Mendivil-Perez, Viviana Soto-Mercado, Ana Guerra-Librero, Beatriz I Fernandez-Gil, Javier Florido, Ying-Qiang Shen, Miguel A Tejada, Vivian Capilla-Gonzalez, Iryna Rusanova, José M Garcia-Verdugo, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo, Luis Carlos López, Carlos Velez-Pardo, Marlene Jimenez-Del-Rio, José M Ferrer, Germaine Escames
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are regarded as a promising therapeutic approach to protecting and restoring damaged neurons in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (PD and AD, respectively). However, new research suggests that NSC differentiation is required to make this strategy effective. Several studies have demonstrated that melatonin increases mature neuronal markers, which reflects NSC differentiation into neurons. Nevertheless, the possible involvement of mitochondria in the effects of melatonin during NSC differentiation has not yet been fully established...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394027/changes-in-the-cell-population-in-brain-white-matter-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#2
Charlotte Havelund Nykjaer, Tomasz Brudek, Lisette Salvesen, Bente Pakkenberg
BACKGROUND: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic progressive neurodegenerative disorder with adult onset and unknown etiology. Clinically it is characterized by autonomic failure, cerebellar ataxia, parkinsonism, and corticospinal dysfunction in any combination and with varying severity. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To establish the extent of involvement of the white matter in the disease, we have used stereology to quantify the total number of neurons and glial cells (oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia) in the brains from 10 MSA patients and 11 controls...
April 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392448/effect-of-nitric-oxide-to-axonal-degeneration-in-multiple-sclerosis-via-downregulating-monocarboxylate-transporter-1-in-oligodendrocytes
#3
REVIEW
Xiaoyi Tang, Minghong Lan, Mao Zhang, Zhongxiang Yao
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Axonal degeneration, one of the main pathological characteristics of MS, is affected by nitric oxide (NO). In turn, NO induces mitochondrial dysfunction of neurons and glial cells. Inadequate glucose causes monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) to transfer lactate from oligodendrocytes (OLs) to neurons, which decreases MCT1 and results in energy substrate deficit (mainly lactate) in axons. The condition gradually leads to axonal degeneration...
April 6, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378233/multiple-system-atrophy-state-of-the-art
#4
REVIEW
Brice Laurens, Sylvain Vergnet, Miguel Cuina Lopez, Alexandra Foubert-Samier, François Tison, Pierre-Olivier Fernagut, Wassilios G Meissner
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by a variable combination of parkinsonism, cerebellar impairment, and autonomic dysfunction. Some symptomatic treatments are available while neuroprotection or disease-modification remain unmet treatment needs. The pathologic hallmark is the accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein (α-syn) in oligodendrocytes forming glial cytoplasmic inclusions, which qualifies MSA as synucleinopathy together with Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies...
May 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350803/pharmacogenomic-identification-of-small-molecules-for-lineage-specific-manipulation-of-subventricular-zone-germinal-activity
#5
Kasum Azim, Diane Angonin, Guillaume Marcy, Francesca Pieropan, Andrea Rivera, Vanessa Donega, Claudio Cantù, Gareth Williams, Benedikt Berninger, Arthur M Butt, Olivier Raineteau
Strategies for promoting neural regeneration are hindered by the difficulty of manipulating desired neural fates in the brain without complex genetic methods. The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the largest germinal zone of the forebrain and is responsible for the lifelong generation of interneuron subtypes and oligodendrocytes. Here, we have performed a bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome of dorsal and lateral SVZ in early postnatal mice, including neural stem cells (NSCs) and their immediate progenies, which generate distinct neural lineages...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346104/bioengineered-3d-glial-cell-culture-systems-and-applications-for-neurodegeneration-and-neuroinflammation
#6
P Marc D Watson, Edel Kavanagh, Gary Allenby, Matthew Vassey
Neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation are key features in a range of chronic central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, as well as acute conditions like stroke and traumatic brain injury, for which there remains significant unmet clinical need. It is now well recognized that current cell culture methodologies are limited in their ability to recapitulate the cellular environment that is present in vivo, and there is a growing body of evidence to show that three-dimensional (3D) culture systems represent a more physiologically accurate model than traditional two-dimensional (2D) cultures...
February 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334990/insulin-resistance-and-exendin-4-treatment-for-multiple-system-atrophy
#7
Fares Bassil, Marie-Hélène Canron, Anne Vital, Erwan Bezard, Yazhou Li, Nigel H Greig, Seema Gulyani, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Pierre-Olivier Fernagut, Wassilios G Meissner
Multiple system atrophy is a fatal sporadic adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder with no symptomatic or disease-modifying treatment available. The cytopathological hallmark of multiple system atrophy is the accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates in oligodendrocytes, forming glial cytoplasmic inclusions. Impaired insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signalling (IGF-1) and insulin resistance (i.e. decreased insulin/IGF-1) have been reported in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Increasing evidence also suggests impaired insulin/IGF-1 signalling in multiple system atrophy, as corroborated by increased insulin and IGF-1 plasma concentrations in multiple system atrophy patients and reduced IGF-1 brain levels in a transgenic mouse model of multiple system atrophy...
March 14, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322741/evidence-of-k-homeostasis-disruption-in-cellular-dysfunction-triggered-by-7-ketocholesterol-24s-hydroxycholesterol-and-tetracosanoic-acid-c24-0-in-158n-murine-oligodendrocytes
#8
Maryem Bezine, Meryam Debbabi, Thomas Nury, Rym Ben-Khalifa, Mohammad Samadi, Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki, Anne Vejux, Jérôme de Sèze, Thibault Moreau, Mohamed El-Ayeb, Gérard Lizard
Imbalance in the homeostasis of K(+) ions has been reported to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC), and tetracosanoic acid (C24:0), often found at increased levels in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Multiple Sclerosis and X-ALD, are able to trigger numerous nerve cell dysfunctions. We therefore studied the impact of 7KC, 24S-OHC, and C24:0 on 158N murine oligodendrocytes, and determined their impact on K(+) homeostasis. The effects of 7KC, 24S-OHC and C24:0 on lipid membrane organization and membrane potential were examined with merocyanine 540 (MC540) and bis-(1,3-diethylthiobarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol (DiSBAC2(3)), respectively...
March 17, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322157/diabetes-related-neurological-implications-and-pharmacogenomics
#9
Rojas Carranza Camilo Andrés, Bustos Cruz Rosa Helena, Pino Pinzón Carmen Juliana, Ariza Marquez Yeimy Viviana, Gómez Bello Rosa Margarita, Cañadas Garre Marisa
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most commonly occurring cause of neuropathy around the world and is beginning to grow in countries where there is a risk of obesity. DM Type II, (T2DM) is a common age-related disease and is a major health concern, particularly in developed countries in Europe where the population is aging. T2DM is a chronic disease which is characterised by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, together with the body's inability to use glucose as energy. Such metabolic disorder produces a chronic inflammatory state, as well as changes in lipid metabolism leading to hypertriglyceridemia, thereby producing chronic deterioration of the organs and premature morbidity and mortality...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276944/imaging-and-spectroscopic-approaches-to-probe-brain-energy-metabolism-dysregulation-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#10
Gilles Bonvento, Julien Valette, Julien Flament, Fanny Mochel, Emmanuel Brouillet
Changes in energy metabolism are generally considered to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Whether these changes are causal or simply a part of self-defense mechanisms is a matter of debate. Furthermore, energy defects have often been discussed solely in the context of their probable neuronal origin without considering the cellular heterogeneity of the brain. Recent data point towards the existence of a tri-cellular compartmentation of brain energy metabolism between neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, each cell type having a distinctive metabolic profile...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269202/colony-size-effect-on-neural-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells-microprinted-on-stromal-cells
#11
Ramila Joshi, James Buchanan, Hossein Tavana
Controlling cellular microenvironment to induce neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains a major challenge. We address this need by introducing a micro-engineered co-culture system that resembles embryonic development in terms of direct intercellular interactions and induces neural differentiation of ESCs. A polymeric aqueous two-phase system (ATPS)-mediated robotic microprinting technology allows precise localization of mouse ESCs (mESCs) over a layer of supporting stromal cells. mESCs proliferate over a 2-week culture period into a single colony of defined size...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256546/promoting-in-vivo-remyelination-with-small-molecules-a-neuroreparative-pharmacological-treatment-for-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Eva María Medina-Rodríguez, Ana Bribián, Amanda Boyd, Valle Palomo, Jesús Pastor, Alfonso Lagares, Carmen Gil, Ana Martínez, Anna Williams, Fernando de Castro
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease where immune-driven demyelination occurs with inefficient remyelination, but therapies are limited, especially those to enhance repair. Here, we show that the dual phosphodiesterase (PDE)7- glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3 inhibitor, VP3.15, a heterocyclic small molecule with good pharmacokinetic properties and safety profile, improves in vivo remyelination in mouse and increases both adult mouse and adult human oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) differentiation, in addition to its immune regulatory action...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252608/-clinical-guidelines-for-the-use-of-dimethyl-fumarate-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#13
V M Alifirova, A N Boiko, Ya V Vlasov, M V Davydovskaya, M N Zakharova, N A Malkova, E V Popova, S A Sivertseva, N N Spirin, N V Khachanova, Т Е Shmidt
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system, in which autoimmune inflammation and oxidative stress play essential pathogenetic roles. Activation and infiltration of immune cells in brain tissues, lipid peroxidation products, mitochondrial dysfunction, defective antioxidant protection, and many other pathological factors result in demyelination, axonal injury and death, and apoptosis of oligodendrocytes and neurons, all of which causes constant progression of the disease...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227432/colony-size-effect-on-neural-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells-microprinted-on-stromal-cells
#14
Ramila Joshi, James Buchanan, Hossein Tavana, Ramila Joshi, James Buchanan, Hossein Tavana, Ramila Joshi, James Buchanan, Hossein Tavana
Controlling cellular microenvironment to induce neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains a major challenge. We address this need by introducing a micro-engineered co-culture system that resembles embryonic development in terms of direct intercellular interactions and induces neural differentiation of ESCs. A polymeric aqueous two-phase system (ATPS)-mediated robotic microprinting technology allows precise localization of mouse ESCs (mESCs) over a layer of supporting stromal cells. mESCs proliferate over a 2-week culture period into a single colony of defined size...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213969/highly-efficient-neural-conversion-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-adherent-and-animal-free-conditions
#15
Dunja Lukovic, Andrea Diez Lloret, Petra Stojkovic, Daniel Rodríguez-Martínez, Maria Amparo Perez Arago, Francisco Javier Rodriguez-Jimenez, Patricia González-Rodríguez, José López-Barneo, Eva Sykova, Pavla Jendelova, Jelena Kostic, Victoria Moreno-Manzano, Miodrag Stojkovic, Shomi S Bhattacharya, Slaven Erceg
Neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can produce a valuable and robust source of human neural cell subtypes, holding great promise for the study of neurogenesis and development, and for treating neurological diseases. However, current hESCs and hiPSCs neural differentiation protocols require either animal factors or embryoid body formation, which decreases efficiency and yield, and strongly limits medical applications. Here we develop a simple, animal-free protocol for neural conversion of both hESCs and hiPSCs in adherent culture conditions...
April 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213437/%C3%AE-synuclein-multiple-system-atrophy-prions
#16
Amanda L Woerman, Joel C Watts, Atsushi Aoyagi, Kurt Giles, Lefkos T Middleton, Stanley B Prusiner
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease arising from the misfolding and accumulation of the protein α-synuclein in oligodendrocytes, where it forms glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs). Several years of studying synthetic α-synuclein fibrils has provided critical insight into the ability of α-synuclein to template endogenous protein misfolding, giving rise to fibrillar structures capable of propagating from cell to cell. However, more recent studies with MSA-derived α-synuclein aggregates have shown that they have a similar ability to undergo template-directed propagation, like PrP prions...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170189/mesenchymal-stem-cells-yield-transient-improvements-in-motor-function-in-an-infant-rhesus-macaque-with-severe-early-onset-krabbe-disease
#17
Irina A Isakova, Kate C Baker, Jason Dufour, Donald G Phinney
Krabbe disease, or globoid cell leukodystrophy, is a rare disorder caused by deficient galactosylceramidase activity and loss of myelin-forming oligodendrocytes, resulting in progressive demyelination and severely impaired motor function. Disease symptoms in humans appear within 3-6 months of age (early infantile) and manifest as marked irritability, spasticity, and seizures. The disease is often fatal by the second year of life, with few effective treatment options. Herein we evaluated the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) administered intracranially to a 1-month-old rhesus macaque diagnosed with severe early-onset Krabbe disease that displayed neurologic and behavioral symptoms similar to those of human patients...
January 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158198/cerebral-microbleeds-in-a-neonatal-rat-model
#18
Brianna Carusillo Theriault, Seung Kyoon Woo, Jason K Karimy, Kaspar Keledjian, Jesse A Stokum, Amrita Sarkar, Turhan Coksaygan, Svetlana Ivanova, Volodymyr Gerzanich, J Marc Simard
BACKGROUND: In adult humans, cerebral microbleeds play important roles in neurodegenerative diseases but in neonates, the consequences of cerebral microbleeds are unknown. In rats, a single pro-angiogenic stimulus in utero predisposes to cerebral microbleeds after birth at term, a time when late oligodendrocyte progenitors (pre-oligodendrocytes) dominate in the rat brain. We hypothesized that two independent pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero would be associated with a high likelihood of perinatal microbleeds that would be severely damaging to white matter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153739/the-challenge-of-regenerative-therapies-for-the-optic-nerve-in-glaucoma
#19
David J Calkins, Milos Pekny, Melissa L Cooper, Larry Benowitz
This review arose from a discussion of regenerative therapies to treat optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma at the 2015 Lasker/IRRF Initiative on Astrocytes and Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration. In addition to the authors, participants included Jonathan Crowston, Andrew Huberman, Elaine Johnson, Richard Lu, Hemai Phatnami, Rebecca Sappington, and Don Zack. Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease of the optic nerve, and is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The disease progresses as sensitivity to intraocular pressure (IOP) is conveyed through the optic nerve head to distal retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projections...
January 30, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153532/fty720-fingolimod-reverses-%C3%AE-synuclein-induced-downregulation-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-mrna-in-oln-93-oligodendroglial-cells
#20
Ismael Segura-Ulate, Barbara Yang, Javier Vargas-Medrano, Ruth G Perez
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a demyelinating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein (aSyn) inside oligodendrocyte precursors, mature oligodendroglia, and neurons. MSA dysfunction is associated with loss of trophic factor production by glial and neuronal cells. Here, we report that recombinant wild type human aSyn uptake by OLN-93, an oligodendroglia cell-line, reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Furthermore, OLN-93 cells stably transfected with human wild type or an MSA-associated mutant aSyn, A53E that produces neuronal and glial inclusions, reduced BDNF mRNA to nearly unmeasurable qPCR levels...
January 31, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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