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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325992/quantitative-analysis-of-lipid-debris-accumulation-caused-by-cuprizone-induced-myelin-degradation-in-different-cns-areas
#1
Attila Ozsvár, Róbert Szipőcs, Zoltán Ozsvár, Judith Baka, Pál Barzó, Gábor Tamás, Gábor Molnár
Degradation of myelin sheath is thought to be the cause of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), but definitive agreement on mechanism of how myelin is lost is currently lacking. Autoimmune initiation of MS has been recently questioned by proposing that the immune response is a consequence of oligodendrocyte degeneration. To study the process of myelin breakdown, we induced demyelination with cuprizone and applied coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, a non-destructive label-free method to image lipid structures in living tissue...
January 8, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286415/improved-3d-hydrogel-cultures-of-primary-glial-cells-for-in-vitro-modelling-of-neuroinflammation
#2
Kyle M Koss, Matthew A Churchward, Andrea F Jeffery, Vivian K Mushahwar, Anastasia L Elias, Kathryn G Todd
In the central nervous system, numerous acute injuries and neurodegenerative disorders, as well as implanted devices or biomaterials engineered to enhance function result in the same outcome: excess inflammation leads to gliosis, cytotoxicity, and/or formation of a glial scar that collectively exacerbate injury or prevent healthy recovery. With the intent of creating a system to model glial scar formation and study inflammatory processes, we have generated a 3D cell scaffold capable of housing primary cultured glial cells: microglia that regulate the foreign body response and initiate the inflammatory event, astrocytes that respond to form a fibrous scar, and oligodendrocytes that are typically vulnerable to inflammatory injury...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280192/igfbp-7-inhibits-the-differentiation-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-via-regulation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#3
Nan Li, Jinfeng Han, Jing Tang, Yanqin Ying
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are glial cells that form myelin sheaths in the central nervous system. Myelin sheath plays important role in nervous system and loss of it in neurodegenerative diseases can lead to impairment of movement. Understanding the signals and factors that regulate OL differentiation can help to address novel strategies for improving myelin repair in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 7 (IGFBP-7) in differentiating OL precursor cells (OPCs)...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228214/oestrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-ligand-acts-on-cd11c-cells-to-mediate-protection-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#4
Roy Y Kim, Darian Mangu, Alexandria S Hoffman, Rojan Kovash, Eunice Jung, Noriko Itoh, Rhonda Voskuhl
Oestrogen treatments are neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative disease models. Selective oestrogen receptor modifiers are needed to optimize beneficial effects while minimizing adverse effects to achieve neuroprotection in chronic diseases. Oestrogen receptor beta (ERβ) ligands are potential candidates. In the multiple sclerosis model chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, ERβ-ligand treatment is neuroprotective, but mechanisms underlying this neuroprotection remain unclear. Specifically, whether there are direct effects of ERβ-ligand on CD11c+ microglia, myeloid dendritic cells or macrophages in vivo during disease is unknown...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216327/protamine-neutralizes-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycan-mediated-inhibition-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#5
Kazuya Kuboyama, Naomi Tanga, Ryoko Suzuki, Akihiro Fujikawa, Masaharu Noda
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), which are enriched in demyelinating plaques in neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), impair remyelination by inhibiting the migration and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in the central nervous system (CNS). We herein show that protamine (PRM, also known as a heparin antagonist) effectively neutralizes the inhibitory activities of CSPGs, thereby enhancing OPC differentiation and (re)myelination in mice. Cell-based assays using mouse OPC-like OL1 cells revealed that the PRM treatment exerted masking effects on extracellular CSPGs and improved oligodendrocyte differentiation on inhibitory CSPG-coated substrates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210074/white-matter-degeneration-in-vascular-and-other-ageing-related-dementias
#6
REVIEW
Yoshika Hase, Karen Horsburgh, Masafumi Ihara, Raj N Kalaria
Advances in neuroimaging have enabled greater understanding of the progression of cerebral degenerative processes associated with ageing-related dementias. Leukoaraiosis or rarefied white matter (WM) originally described on computed tomography is one of the most prominent changes which occurs in older age. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) evident on magnetic resonance imaging have become commonplace to describe WM changes in relation to cognitive dysfunction, types of stroke injury, cerebral small vessel disease and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169744/the-neuropathology-of-multiple-system-atrophy-and-its-therapeutic-implications
#7
REVIEW
Elvira Valera, Eliezer Masliah
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the abnormal accumulation of toxic forms of the synaptic protein alpha-synuclein (α-syn) within oligodendrocytes and neurons. The presence of α-syn within oligodendrocytes in the form of glial cytoplasmic inclusions is the diagnostic hallmark of MSA. However, it has been postulated that α-syn is produced in neurons and propagates to oligodendrocytes, where unknown mechanisms lead to its accumulation. The presence of α-syn within neurons in MSA has not been so extensively studied, but it may shed light into neuropathological mechanisms leading to oligodendroglial accumulation...
November 10, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167725/transdifferentiation-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-into-oligoprogenitor-cells
#8
Ardeshir Moayeri, Maryam Nazm Bojnordi, Sara Haratizadeh, Amir Esmaeilnejad-Moghadam, Rafieh Alizadeh, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi
Introduction: The nerve fibers in central nervous system are surrounded by myelin sheet which is formed by oligodendrocytes. Cell therapy based on oligodendrocytes and their precursors transplantation can hold a promising alternative treatment for myelin sheet repair in demyelinating diseases. Methods: Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hDPSCs) are noninvasive, autologous and easy available source with multipotency characteristics, so they are in focus of interest in regenerative medicine...
September 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156730/generation-of-patient-specific-human-neural-stem-cells-from-niemann-pick-disease-type-c-patient-derived-fibroblasts
#9
Eun-Ah Sung, Kyung-Rok Yu, Ji-Hee Shin, Yoojin Seo, Hyung-Sik Kim, Myung Guen Koog, Insung Kang, Jae-Jun Kim, Byung-Chul Lee, Tae-Hoon Shin, Jin Young Lee, Seunghee Lee, Tae-Wook Kang, Soon Won Choi, Kyung-Sun Kang
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a neurodegenerative and lysosomal lipid storage disorder, characterized by the abnormal accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and glycolipids, which is caused by mutations in the NPC1 genes. Here, we report the generation of human induced neural stem cells from NPC patient-derived fibroblasts (NPC-iNSCs) using only two reprogramming factors SOX2 and HMGA2 without going through the pluripotent state. NPC-iNSCs were stably expandable and differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149058/neurotrophic-and-neuroregenerative-effects-of-gh-igf1
#10
Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi, Vittorio Locatelli, Laura Rizzi
INTRODUCTION: Human neurodegenerative diseases increase progressively with age and present a high social and economic burden. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are both growth factors exerting trophic effects on neuronal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). GH and IGF-1 stimulate protein synthesis in neurons, glia, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells, and favor neuronal survival, inhibiting apoptosis. This study aims to evaluate the effect of GH and IGF-1 on neurons, and their possible therapeutic clinical applications on neuron regeneration in human subjects...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140922/fingolimod-reduces-neuropathic-pain-behaviors-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis-by-a-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-dependent-inhibition-of-central-sensitization-in-the-dorsal-horn
#11
Suzanne Doolen, Tommaso Iannitti, Benjamin C Shaw, Carolyn M Grachen, Renee R Donahue, Bradley K Taylor
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune-inflammatory neurodegenerative disease that is often accompanied by a debilitating neuropathic pain. Disease-modifying agents slow the progression of MS and prevent relapses, yet it remains unclear if they yield analgesia. We explored the analgesic potential of fingolimod (FTY720), an agonist/functional antagonist at the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1), because it reduces hyperalgesia in models of peripheral inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We used a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 (MOG35-55) mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), modified to avoid frank paralysis and thus allow for assessment of withdrawal behaviors to somatosensory stimuli...
November 13, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137922/extracellular-vesicles-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Tommaso Croese, Roberto Furlan
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by all neural cells, including neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. The lack of adequate technology has not halted neuroscientists from investigating EVs as a mean to decipher neurodegenerative disorders, still in search of comprehensible pathogenic mechanisms and efficient treatment. EVs are thought to be one of ways neurodegenerative pathologies spread in the brain, but also one of the ways the brain tries to displace toxic proteins, making their meaning in pathogenesis uncertain...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133394/role-of-estrogen-receptor-beta-in-neural-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#13
Mukesh K Varshney, José Inzunza, Diana Lupu, Vaidheeswaran Ganapathy, Per Antonson, Joëlle Rüegg, Ivan Nalvarte, Jan-Åke Gustafsson
The ability to propagate mature cells and tissue from pluripotent stem cells offers enormous promise for treating many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. Before such cells can be used successfully in neurodegenerative diseases without causing unwanted cell growth and migration, genes regulating growth and migration of neural stem cells need to be well characterized. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is essential for migration of neurons and glial cells in the developing mouse brain. To examine whether ERβ influences differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) into neural lineages, we compared control and ERβ knockout (BERKO) mESCs at defined stages of neural development and examined the effects of an ERβ-selective ligand (LY3201) with a combination of global and targeted gene-expression profiling and the expression of key pluripotency markers...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123152/neural-specific-deletion-of-mitochondrial-p32-c1qbp-leads-to-leukoencephalopathy-due-to-undifferentiated-oligodendrocyte-and-axon-degeneration
#14
Mikako Yagi, Takeshi Uchiumi, Noriaki Sagata, Daiki Setoyama, Rie Amamoto, Yuichi Matsushima, Dongchon Kang
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a critical step in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. The p32/ C1qbp gene functions as an essential RNA and protein chaperone in mitochondrial translation, and is indispensable for embryonic development. However, little is known about the consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction of p32 deletion in the brain development. Here, we found that mice lacking p32 in the central nervous system (p32cKO mice) showed white matter degeneration accompanied by progressive oligodendrocyte loss, axon degeneration and vacuolation in the mid brain and brain stem regions...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120167/understanding-the-inflammatory-tissue-reaction-to-brain-implants-to-improve-neurochemical-sensing-performance
#15
Steven M Wellman, Takashi D Y Kozai
Neurochemical sensing probes are a valuable diagnostic and therapeutic tool that can be used to study neurodegenerative diseases involving deficiencies in neurotransmitter signaling. However, implantation of these biosensors can elicit a harmful tissue response that alters the neurochemical environment within the brain. Transmission of chemical messengers via neurons is impeded by a barrier-forming glial scar that occurs within weeks after insertion followed by progressive neurodegeneration, attenuating signal sensitivity...
November 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115515/serum-microrna-expression-profiling-in-patients-with-multiple-system-atrophy
#16
Kodai Kume, Hisakazu Iwama, Kazushi Deguchi, Kazuyo Ikeda, Tadayuki Takata, Yohei Kokudo, Masaki Kamada, Keiko Fujikawa, Kayo Hirose, Hisashi Masugata, Tetsuo Touge, Tsutomu Masaki
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disease that is pathologically characterized by α‑synuclein positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions in oligodendrocytes. The clinical diagnosis of MSA is often challenging as there are no established biomarkers and diagnoses are now based on clinical findings alone. At present, the etiology and pathogenesis of MSA are unclear. It has been reported that dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA/miR) serves an important role in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114585/the-influence-of-retinoic-acid-on-the-human-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-by-rna-sequencing
#17
Sun Young Kim, Eve E Kelland, Ji Hong Kim, Brett T Lund, Xiao Chang, Kai Wang, Leslie P Weiner
Retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of vitamin A, has been found to influence regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS). There may be an effect of RA in the recovery/repair in multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease of the CNS. We hypothesized that RA is a regulator of the further differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) - cells key to the remyelination process in MS. We conducted studies utilizing RNA-sequencing in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) and OPCs so as to understand the role of transcriptional regulators during transition from both ESCs to NSCs and NSCs to OPCs...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110207/ameliorating-effect-of-osteopontin-on-h2o2-induced-apoptosis-of-human-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells
#18
Neda Mazaheri, Maryam Peymani, Hamid Galehdari, Kamran Ghaedi, Ali Ghoochani, Abbas Kiani-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
Recently our group used oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) as appropriate model cells to pinpoint the mechanism of the progress of neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we focused on the therapeutic role of osteopontin (OPN), a secreted glycosylated phosphoprotein, involved in a number of physiological events including bone formation and remodeling, immune responses, and tumor progression. Protective role of OPN, as a negative regulator of tumorigenesis, has already been clarified. Human embryonic stem cell-derived OPCs were pretreated with OPN before induction of apoptosis by H2O2...
November 6, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081002/minocycline-directly-enhances-the-self-renewal-of-adult-neural-precursor-cells
#19
Anri Kuroda, Takahiro Fuchigami, Satoshi Fuke, Natsu Koyama, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Seiji Hitoshi
Minocycline not only has antibacterial action but also produces a variety of pharmacological effects. It has drawn considerable attention as a therapeutic agent for symptoms caused by inflammation in many neurological disorders, leading to several clinical trials. Although some of these effects are mediated through its function of suppressing microglial activation, it is not clear whether minocycline acts on other cell types in the adult brain. In this study, we utilized a colony-forming neurosphere assay, in which neural stem cells (NSCs) clonally proliferate to form floating colonies, called neurospheres...
October 28, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078813/the-trojan-horse-neuroinflammatory-impact-of-t-cells-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Annika Sommer, Beate Winner, Iryna Prots
Neuronal degeneration is a common mechanism of many neurological diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). While AD and PD are classical neurodegenerative diseases, the primary pathology in MS is driven by autoimmune inflammation, attacking oligodendrocytes and thereby inducing neurodegeneration. In AD and PD, immune cells are also considered to play an important role in the disease progression. While the role of local central nervous system (CNS) innate immune cells is well described, a potential influence of adaptive immune cells in PD and AD is not yet fully understood...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
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