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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792820/hydrogel-tissue-chemistry-principles-and-applications
#1
Viviana Gradinaru, Jennifer Treweek, Kristin Overton, Karl Deisseroth
Over the past five years, a rapidly developing experimental approach has enabled high-resolution and high-content information retrieval from intact multicellular animal (metazoan) systems. New chemical and physical forms are created in the hydrogel-tissue chemistry process, and the retention and retrieval of crucial phenotypic information regarding constituent cells and molecules (and their joint interrelationships) are thereby enabled. For example, rich data sets defining both single-cell-resolution gene expression and single-cell-resolution activity during behavior can now be collected while still preserving information on three-dimensional positioning and/or brain-wide wiring of those very same neurons-even within vertebrate brains...
May 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791299/spatial-attention-enhances-the-neural-representation-of-invisible-signals-embedded-in-noise
#2
Cooper A Smout, Jason B Mattingley
Recent evidence suggests that voluntary spatial attention can affect neural processing of visual stimuli that do not enter conscious awareness (i.e., invisible stimuli), supporting the notion that attention and awareness are dissociable processes [Wyart, V., Dehaene, S., & Tallon-Baudry, C. Early dissociation between neural signatures of endogenous spatial attention and perceptual awareness during visual masking. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 1-14, 2012; Watanabe, M., Cheng, K., Murayama, Y., Ueno, K...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790857/attenuation-correction-for-brain-pet-imaging-using-deep-neural-network-based-on-dixon-and-zte-mr-images
#3
Kuang Gong, Jaewon Yang, Kyungsang Kim, Georges El Fakhri, Youngho Seo, Quanzheng Li
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a functional imaging modality widely used in neuroscience studies. To obtain meaningful quantitative results from PET images, attenuation correction is necessary during image reconstruction. For PET/MR hybrid systems, PET attenuation is challenging as Magnetic Resonance (MR) images do not reflect attenuation coefficients directly. To address this issue, we present deep neural network methods to derive the continuous attenuation coefficients for brain PET imaging from MR images...
May 23, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790839/how-to-monitor-the-breathing-of-laboratory-rodents-a-review-of-the-current-methods
#4
Julien Grimaud, Venkatesh N Murthy
Accurately measuring respiration in laboratory rodents is essential for many fields of research, including olfactory neuroscience, social behavior, learning and memory, and respiratory physiology. However, choosing the right technique to monitor respiration can be tricky, given the many criteria to take into account: reliability, precision, and invasiveness, to name a few. This review aims to assist experimenters in choosing the technique that will best fit their needs, by surveying the available tools, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and offering suggestions for future improvements...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789548/deep-2-photon-imaging-and-artifact-free-optogenetics-through-transparent-graphene-microelectrode-arrays
#5
Martin Thunemann, Yichen Lu, Xin Liu, Kıvılcım Kılıç, Michèle Desjardins, Matthieu Vandenberghe, Sanaz Sadegh, Payam A Saisan, Qun Cheng, Kimberly L Weldy, Hongming Lyu, Srdjan Djurovic, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale, Anna Devor, Duygu Kuzum
Recent advances in optical technologies such as multi-photon microscopy and optogenetics have revolutionized our ability to record and manipulate neuronal activity. Combining optical techniques with electrical recordings is of critical importance to connect the large body of neuroscience knowledge obtained from animal models to human studies mainly relying on electrophysiological recordings of brain-scale activity. However, integration of optical modalities with electrical recordings is challenging due to generation of light-induced artifacts...
May 23, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789523/focal-brain-lesions-induced-with-ultraviolet-irradiation
#6
Mariko Nakata, Kazuaki Nagasaka, Masayuki Shimoda, Ichiro Takashima, Shinya Yamamoto
Lesion and inactivation methods have played important roles in neuroscience studies. However, traditional techniques for creating a brain lesion are highly invasive, and control of lesion size and shape using these techniques is not easy. Here, we developed a novel method for creating a lesion on the cortical surface via 365 nm ultraviolet (UV) irradiation without breaking the dura mater. We demonstrated that 2.0 mWh UV irradiation, but not the same amount of non-UV light irradiation, induced an inverted bell-shaped lesion with neuronal loss and accumulation of glial cells...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785732/the-mental-representation-of-human-action
#7
Sydney Levine, Alan M Leslie, John Mikhail
Various theories of moral cognition posit that moral intuitions can be understood as the output of a computational process performed over structured mental representations of human action. We propose that action plan diagrams-"act trees"-can be a useful tool for theorists to succinctly and clearly present their hypotheses about the information contained in these representations. We then develop a methodology for using a series of linguistic probes to test the theories embodied in the act trees. In Study 1, we validate the method by testing a specific hypothesis (diagrammed by act trees) about how subjects are representing two classic moral dilemmas and finding that the data support the hypothesis...
May 21, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784537/artificial-intelligence-a-joint-narrative-on-potential-use-in-pediatric-stem-and-immune-cell-therapies-and-regenerative-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Artificial Intelligence (AI) reflects the intelligence exhibited by machines and software. It is a highly desirable academic field of many current fields of studies. Leading AI researchers describe the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents". McCarthy invented this term in 1955 and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central goals of AI research are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784077/effects-of-ketamine-compared-with-urethane-anesthesia-on-vestibular-sensory-evoked-potentials-and-systemic-physiology-in-mice
#9
Choongheon Lee, Timothy A Jones
The injectable anesthetic mixture ketamine-xylazine is commonly used for electrophysiologic experiments in laboratory animals, especially rodents. General anesthesia can induce significant changes in systemic physiology, including those that compromise neural function, thus introducing research confounds. The extent of such concerns varies by agent. Here in mice, we compared the effects of ketamine-xylazine and urethane-xylazine anesthesia on systemic physiologic parameters and the vestibular sensory evoked potential (VsEP), a tool used commonly to assess peripheral vestibular function...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783119/in-vivo-imaging-of-neuronal-calcium-during-electrode-implantation-spatial-and-temporal-mapping-of-damage-and-recovery
#10
James R Eles, Alberto L Vazquez, Takashi D Y Kozai, X Tracy Cui
Implantable electrode devices enable long-term electrophysiological recordings for brain-machine interfaces and basic neuroscience research. Implantation of these devices, however, leads to neuronal damage and progressive neural degeneration that can lead to device failure. The present study uses in vivo two-photon microscopy to study the calcium activity and morphology of neurons before, during, and one month after electrode implantation to determine how implantation trauma injures neurons. We show that implantation leads to prolonged, elevated calcium levels in neurons within 150 μm of the electrode interface...
May 7, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782993/generalized-recurrent-neural-network-accommodating-dynamic-causal-modeling-for-functional-mri-analysis
#11
Yuan Wang, Yao Wang, Yvonne W Lui
Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) is an advanced biophysical model which explicitly describes the entire process from experimental stimuli to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals via neural activity and cerebral hemodynamics. To conduct a DCM study, one needs to represent the experimental stimuli as a compact vector-valued function of time, which is hard in complex tasks such as book reading and natural movie watching. Deep learning provides the state-of-the-art signal representation solution, encoding complex signals into compact dense vectors while preserving the essence of the original signals...
May 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782942/effects-of-light-and-dark-phase-testing-on-the-investigation-of-behavioural-paradigms-in-mice-relevance-for-behavioural-neuroscience
#12
Juliet Richetto, Marcello Polesel, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer
Different timing and light phases are critical factors in behavioural neuroscience, which can greatly affect the experimental outcomes of the performed tests. Despite the fact that time of testing is one of the most common factors that varies across behavioural laboratories, knowledge about the consequences of testing time on behavioural readouts is limited. Thus, in this study we systematically assessed the effect of this factor on the readout of a variety of elementary and recurrent behavioural paradigms in C57Bl/6 mice...
May 18, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782491/community-based-benchmarking-improves-spike-rate-inference-from-two-photon-calcium-imaging-data
#13
Philipp Berens, Jeremy Freeman, Thomas Deneux, Nicolay Chenkov, Thomas McColgan, Artur Speiser, Jakob H Macke, Srinivas C Turaga, Patrick Mineault, Peter Rupprecht, Stephan Gerhard, Rainer W Friedrich, Johannes Friedrich, Liam Paninski, Marius Pachitariu, Kenneth D Harris, Ben Bolte, Timothy A Machado, Dario Ringach, Jasmine Stone, Luke E Rogerson, Nicolas J Sofroniew, Jacob Reimer, Emmanouil Froudarakis, Thomas Euler, Miroslav Román Rosón, Lucas Theis, Andreas S Tolias, Matthias Bethge
In recent years, two-photon calcium imaging has become a standard tool to probe the function of neural circuits and to study computations in neuronal populations. However, the acquired signal is only an indirect measurement of neural activity due to the comparatively slow dynamics of fluorescent calcium indicators. Different algorithms for estimating spike rates from noisy calcium measurements have been proposed in the past, but it is an open question how far performance can be improved. Here, we report the results of the spikefinder challenge, launched to catalyze the development of new spike rate inference algorithms through crowd-sourcing...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782006/neurovascular-network-explorer-2-0-a-simple-tool-for-exploring-and-sharing-a-database-of-optogenetically-evoked-vasomotion-in-mouse-cortex-in-vivo
#14
Hana Uhlirova, Peifang Tian, Kıvılcım Kılıç, Martin Thunemann, Vishnu B Sridhar, Radim Chmelik, Hauke Bartsch, Anders M Dale, Anna Devor, Payam A Saisan
The importance of sharing experimental data in neuroscience grows with the amount and complexity of data acquired and various techniques used to obtain and process these data. However, the majority of experimental data, especially from individual studies of regular-sized laboratories never reach wider research community. A graphical user interface (GUI) engine called Neurovascular Network Explorer 2.0 (NNE 2.0) has been created as a tool for simple and low-cost sharing and exploring of vascular imaging data...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781806/the-need-for-understanding-and-engaging-the-patient-as-consumer-of-products-developed-by-neural-engineering
#15
Jennifer French, J Luis Lujan, Dawn Bardot, Emily Lauren Graczyk, Allison Hess-Dunning, Ronald J Triolo, Megan Moynahan, Winny Tan, Adeline Zbrzeski
Neural Engineering is a discipline at the intersection of neuroscience, engineering, and clinical care. Recent major efforts by government and industry aimed at bringing forth personalized therapies, increasing the potential of the neural engineering industry for future growth, eg. the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative and Stimulating Peripheral Activity to Relieve Conditions (SPARC) Common Fund Program, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Electrical Prescriptions (ElectRx) and Systems-Based Neurotechnology for Emerging Therapies (SUBNETS) Programs, and the GlaxoSmithKline Bioelectric Medicines Initiative...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781776/empathy-present-and-future
#16
Judith Hall, Rachel Schwartz
The empathy concept has central significance for social and personality psychology, and in many other domains including neuroscience, clinical/abnormal psychology, and the health professions. However, the current diversity in conceptual and operational definitions, and the promiscuous use of the term "empathy," threaten the ability of researchers to advance the field. The present article provides a quantitative review and conceptual analysis of empathy definitions and usages by examining 393 studies published between 2001 and 2013, and 96 studies published in 2017...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781389/tracking-neuronal-connectivity-from-electric-brain-signals-to-predict-performance
#17
Fabrizio Vecchio, Francesca Miraglia, Paolo Maria Rossini
The human brain is a complex container of interconnected networks. Network neuroscience is a recent venture aiming to explore the connection matrix built from the human brain or human "Connectome." Network-based algorithms provide parameters that define global organization of the brain; when they are applied to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals network, configuration and excitability can be monitored in millisecond time frames, providing remarkable information on their instantaneous efficacy also for a given task's performance via online evaluation of the underlying instantaneous networks before, during, and after the task...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779748/seeking-salience-in-engaging-art-a-short-story-about-attention-artistic-value-and-neuroscience
#18
William P Seeley
It has recently been suggested that research in neuroscience of art has failed to bring art into focus in the laboratory. Two general arguments are brought to bear in the regard. The common perceptual mechanisms argument observes that neuroscientists working within this field develop models to explain art relative to the ways that artworks are fine-tuned to the operations of perceptual systems. However, these perceptual explanations apply equally to how viewers come to recognize and understand art and nonart objects and events...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779747/art-energy-and-the-brain
#19
Robert Pepperell
Recent years have seen a growing interest among neuroscientists and vision scientists in art and aesthetics, exemplifying a more general trend toward interdisciplinary integration in the arts, humanities, and sciences. However, true art-science integration remains a distant prospect due to fundamental differences in outlook and approach between disciplines. I consider two great challenges for any project designed to explain the role of the brain in art appreciation. First, scientists and artists need to identify common ground, common questions, and a shared motivation for inquiry...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779740/the-influence-of-sensorimotor-experience-on-the-aesthetic-evaluation-of-dance-across-the-life-span
#20
Louise P Kirsch, Emily S Cross
Understanding how action perception, embodiment, and emotion interact is essential for advancing knowledge about how we perceive and interact with each other in a social world. One tool that has proved particularly useful in the past decade for exploring the relationship between perception, action, and affect is dance. Dance is, in its essence, a rich and multisensory art form that can be used to help answer not only basic questions about social cognition but also questions concerning how aging shapes the relationship between action perception, and the role played by affect, emotion, and aesthetics in social perception...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
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