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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930664/reliable-analysis-of-single-unit-recordings-from-the-human-brain-under-noisy-conditions-tracking-neurons-over-hours
#1
Johannes Niediek, Jan Boström, Christian E Elger, Florian Mormann
Recording extracellulary from neurons in the brains of animals in vivo is among the most established experimental techniques in neuroscience, and has recently become feasible in humans. Many interesting scientific questions can be addressed only when extracellular recordings last several hours, and when individual neurons are tracked throughout the entire recording. Such questions regard, for example, neuronal mechanisms of learning and memory consolidation, and the generation of epileptic seizures. Several difficulties have so far limited the use of extracellular multi-hour recordings in neuroscience: Datasets become huge, and data are necessarily noisy in clinical recording environments...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930323/long-range-projections-coordinate-distributed-brain-wide-neural-activity-with-a-specific-spatiotemporal-profile
#2
Alex T L Leong, Russell W Chan, Patrick P Gao, Ying-Shing Chan, Kevin K Tsia, Wing-Ho Yung, Ed X Wu
One challenge in contemporary neuroscience is to achieve an integrated understanding of the large-scale brain-wide interactions, particularly the spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity that give rise to functions and behavior. At present, little is known about the spatiotemporal properties of long-range neuronal networks. We examined brain-wide neural activity patterns elicited by stimulating ventral posteromedial (VPM) thalamo-cortical excitatory neurons through combined optogenetic stimulation and functional MRI (fMRI)...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929470/high-density-electroencephalographic-acquisition-in-a-rodent-model-using-low-cost-and-open-source-resources
#3
Andrzej Z Wasilczuk, Alexander Proekt, Max B Kelz, Andrew R McKinstry-Wu
Advanced electroencephalographic analysis techniques requiring high spatial resolution, including electrical source imaging and measures of network connectivity, are applicable to an expanding variety of questions in neuroscience. Performing these kinds of analyses in a rodent model requires higher electrode density than traditional screw electrodes can accomplish. While higher-density electroencephalographic montages for rodents exist, they are of limited availability to most researchers, are not robust enough for repeated experiments over an extended period of time, or are limited to use in anesthetized rodents...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928767/resident-workflow-and-psychiatric-emergency-consultation-identifying-factors-for-quality-improvement-in-a-training-environment
#4
Thomas Blair, Zev Wiener, Ariel Seroussi, Lingqi Tang, Jennifer O'Hora, Erick Cheung
OBJECTIVE: Quality improvement to optimize workflow has the potential to mitigate resident burnout and enhance patient care. This study applied mixed methods to identify factors that enhance or impede workflow for residents performing emergency psychiatric consultations. METHODS: The study population consisted of all psychiatry program residents (55 eligible, 42 participating) at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles...
December 7, 2016: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928656/sparsetracer-the-reconstruction-of-discontinuous-neuronal-morphology-in-noisy-images
#5
Shiwei Li, Hang Zhou, Tingwei Quan, Jing Li, Yuxin Li, Anan Li, Qingming Luo, Hui Gong, Shaoqun Zeng
Digital reconstruction of a single neuron occupies an important position in computational neuroscience. Although many novel methods have been proposed, recent advances in molecular labeling and imaging systems allow for the production of large and complicated neuronal datasets, which pose many challenges for neuron reconstruction, especially when discontinuous neuronal morphology appears in a strong noise environment. Here, we develop a new pipeline to address this challenge. Our pipeline is based on two methods, one is the region-to-region connection (RRC) method for detecting the initial part of a neurite, which can effectively gather local cues, i...
December 7, 2016: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927956/orientation-selectivity-from-very-sparse-lgn-inputs-in-a-comprehensive-model-of-macaque-v1-cortex
#6
Logan Chariker, Robert Shapley, Lai-Sang Young
: A new computational model of the primary visual cortex (V1) of the macaque monkey was constructed to reconcile the visual functions of V1 with anatomical data on its LGN input, the extreme sparseness of which presented serious challenges to theoretically sound explanations of cortical function. We demonstrate that, even with such sparse input, it is possible to produce robust orientation selectivity, as well as continuity in the orientation map. We went beyond that to find plausible dynamic regimes of our new model that emulate simultaneously experimental data for a wide range of V1 phenomena, beginning with orientation selectivity but also including diversity in neuronal responses, bimodal distributions of the modulation ratio (the simple/complex classification), and dynamic signatures, such as gamma-band oscillations...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927954/predictive-ensemble-decoding-of-acoustical-features-explains-context-dependent-receptive-fields
#7
Izzet B Yildiz, Nima Mesgarani, Sophie Deneve
: A primary goal of auditory neuroscience is to identify the sound features extracted and represented by auditory neurons. Linear encoding models, which describe neural responses as a function of the stimulus, have been primarily used for this purpose. Here, we provide theoretical arguments and experimental evidence in support of an alternative approach, based on decoding the stimulus from the neural response. We used a Bayesian normative approach to predict the responses of neurons detecting relevant auditory features, despite ambiguities and noise...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926699/neuroscience-new-nerves-for-old
#8
Katherine Bourzac
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926442/intrinsic-motivation-curiosity-and-learning-theory-and-applications-in-educational-technologies
#9
P-Y Oudeyer, J Gottlieb, M Lopes
This chapter studies the bidirectional causal interactions between curiosity and learning and discusses how understanding these interactions can be leveraged in educational technology applications. First, we review recent results showing how state curiosity, and more generally the experience of novelty and surprise, can enhance learning and memory retention. Then, we discuss how psychology and neuroscience have conceptualized curiosity and intrinsic motivation, studying how the brain can be intrinsically rewarded by novelty, complexity, or other measures of information...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926434/in-memoriam-of-a-great-man-of-neuroscience-walter-j-freeman
#10
Erol Başar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925504/laser-photobiomodulation-in-neuroscience-from-bench-to-bedside
#11
Shimon Rochkind
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923731/social-modulation-of-cognition-lessons-from-rhesus-macaques-relevant-to-education
#12
REVIEW
Elisabetta Monfardini, Amélie J Reynaud, Jérôme Prado, Martine Meunier
Any animal, human or non-human, lives in a world where there are others like itself. Individuals' behaviors are thus inevitably influenced by others, and cognition is no exception. Long acknowledged in psychology, social modulations of cognition have been neglected in cognitive neuroscience. Yet, infusing this classic topic in psychology with brain science methodologies could yield valuable educational insights. In recent studies, we used a non-human primate model, the rhesus macaque, to identify social influences representing ancient biases rooted in evolution, and neuroimaging to shed light on underlying mechanisms...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921311/the-neurobiology-of-parenting-a-neural-circuit-perspective
#13
Johannes Kohl, Anita E Autry, Catherine Dulac
Social interactions are essential for animals to reproduce, defend their territory, and raise their young. The conserved nature of social behaviors across animal species suggests that the neural pathways underlying the motivation for, and the execution of, specific social responses are also maintained. Modern tools of neuroscience have offered new opportunities for dissecting the molecular and neural mechanisms controlling specific social responses. We will review here recent insights into the neural circuits underlying a particularly fascinating and important form of social interaction, that of parental care...
December 6, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920673/editorial-dialogues-in-music-therapy-and-music-neuroscience-collaborative-understanding-driving-clinical-advances
#14
EDITORIAL
Julian O'Kelly, Jörg C Fachner, Mari Tervaniemi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919782/understanding-zebrafish-cognition
#15
REVIEW
Darya A Meshalkina, Marina N Kizlyk, Elana V Kysil, Adam D Collier, David J Echevarria, Murilo S Abreu, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Cai Song, Allan V Kalueff
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly becoming a popular model organism in translational and cognitive neuroscience research. Both larval and adult zebrafish continue to increase our understanding of cognitive mechanisms and their genetic and pharmacological modulation. Here, we discuss the developing utility of zebrafish in understanding cognitive phenotypes and their deficits, relevant to a wide range human brain disorders. We also discuss the potential of zebrafish models for high-throughput genetic mutant and small molecule screening (e...
December 2, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919314/advances-in-the-neuroscience-of-intelligence-from-brain-connectivity-to-brain-perturbation
#16
Emiliano Santarnecchi, Simone Rossi
Our view is that intelligence, as expression of the complexity of the human brain and of its evolutionary path, represents an intriguing example of "system level brain plasticity": tangible proofs of this assertion lie in the strong links intelligence has with vital brain capacities as information processing (i.e., pure, rough capacity to transfer information in an efficient way), resilience (i.e., the ability to cope with loss of efficiency and/or loss of physical elements in a network) and adaptability (i...
December 6, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919295/advances-in-intelligence-research-what-should-be-expected-in-the-xxi-century-questions-answers
#17
Roberto Colom
Here I briefly delineate my view about the main question of this International Seminar, namely, what should we expecting from the XXI Century regarding the advancements in intelligence research. This view can be summarized as 'The Brain Connection' (TBC), meaning that neuroscience will be of paramount relevance for increasing our current knowledge related to the key question: why are some people smarter than others? We need answers to the issue of what happens in our brains when the genotype and the environment are integrated...
December 6, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918065/a-statistical-proposal-for-selecting-a-data-depending-threshold-in-neurobiology
#18
P Finotelli, F Panzica, P Dulio, F Rotondi, G Varotto
In this paper we propose a new methodology for introducing thresholds in the analysis of neuro- biological databases. Often, in Neuroscience, absolute thresholds are adopted. This is done by cutting the data below (or above) predetermined values of the involved parameters, without an analysis of the distribution of the collected data concerning the phenomenon under investigation. Despite an absolute threshold could be rigorously defined in terms of physic parameters, it can be influenced by many different subjective aspects, including cognitive processes, and individual adaptation to the external stimuli...
June 1, 2016: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917136/decentering-the-self-reduced-bias-in-self-vs-other-related-processing-in-long-term-practitioners-of-loving-kindness-meditation
#19
Fynn-Mathis Trautwein, José R Naranjo, Stefan Schmidt
Research in social neuroscience provides increasing evidence that self and other are interconnected, both on a conceptual and on an affective representational level. Moreover, the ability to recognize the other as "like the self" is thought to be essential for social phenomena like empathy and compassion. Meditation practices such as loving-kindness meditation (LKM) have been found to enhance these capacities. Therefore, we investigated whether LKM is associated to an increased integration of self-other-representations...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917111/scale-invariant-disordered-nanotopography-promotes-hippocampal-neuron-development-and-maturation-with-involvement-of-mechanotransductive-pathways
#20
Carsten Schulte, Maddalena Ripamonti, Elisa Maffioli, Martino A Cappelluti, Simona Nonnis, Luca Puricelli, Jacopo Lamanna, Claudio Piazzoni, Alessandro Podestà, Cristina Lenardi, Gabriella Tedeschi, Antonio Malgaroli, Paolo Milani
The identification of biomaterials which promote neuronal maturation up to the generation of integrated neural circuits is fundamental for modern neuroscience. The development of neural circuits arises from complex maturative processes regulated by poorly understood signaling events, often guided by the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we report that nanostructured zirconia surfaces, produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition of zirconia nanoparticles and characterized by ECM-like nanotopographical features, can direct the maturation of neural networks...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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