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Chase B Hellmer, Tomomi Ichinose
Retinal first-order neurons, photoreceptors, receive visual inputs and convert them to neural signals. The second-order neurons, bipolar cells then sort out the visual signals and encode them through multiple neural streams. Approximately 15 morphological types of bipolar cells have been identified, which are thought to encode different aspects of visual signals such as motion and color (Ichinose et al. J Neurosci 34(26):8761-8771, 2014; Euler et al. Nat Rev Neurosci 15(8):507-519, 2014). To investigate functional aspects of OFF bipolar cells, single cell recordings are preferred; however, bipolar cells in the mouse retina are small and hard to distinguish from other types of cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yoshihiko Tsukamoto
The mouse retina has a layered structure that is composed of five classes of neurons supported by Müller glial and pigment epithelial cells. Recent studies have made progress in the classification of bipolar and ganglion cells, and also in the wiring of rod-driven signaling, color coding, and directional selectivity. Molecular biological techniques, such as genetic manipulation, transcriptomics, and fluorescence imaging, have contributed a lot to these advancements. The mouse retina has consistently been an important experimental system for both basic and clinical neurosciences...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Harald Hampel, Nicola Toschi, Claudio Babiloni, Filippo Baldacci, Keith L Black, Arun L W Bokde, René S Bun, Francesco Cacciola, Enrica Cavedo, Patrizia A Chiesa, Olivier Colliot, Cristina-Maria Coman, Bruno Dubois, Andrea Duggento, Stanley Durrleman, Maria-Teresa Ferretti, Nathalie George, Remy Genthon, Marie-Odile Habert, Karl Herholz, Yosef Koronyo, Maya Koronyo-Hamaoui, Foudil Lamari, Todd Langevin, Stéphane Lehéricy, Jean Lorenceau, Christian Neri, Robert Nisticò, Francis Nyasse-Messene, Craig Ritchie, Simone Rossi, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Olaf Sporns, Steven R Verdooner, Andrea Vergallo, Nicolas Villain, Erfan Younesi, Francesco Garaci, Simone Lista
The Precision Neurology development process implements systems theory with system biology and neurophysiology in a parallel, bidirectional research path: a combined hypothesis-driven investigation of systems dysfunction within distinct molecular, cellular, and large-scale neural network systems in both animal models as well as through tests for the usefulness of these candidate dynamic systems biomarkers in different diseases and subgroups at different stages of pathophysiological progression. This translational research path is paralleled by an "omics"-based, hypothesis-free, exploratory research pathway, which will collect multimodal data from progressing asymptomatic, preclinical, and clinical neurodegenerative disease (ND) populations, within the wide continuous biological and clinical spectrum of ND, applying high-throughput and high-content technologies combined with powerful computational and statistical modeling tools, aimed at identifying novel dysfunctional systems and predictive marker signatures associated with ND...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Katie L Bessette, Katie L Burkhouse, Scott A Langenecker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Marco K Wittmann, Patricia L Lockwood, Matthew F S Rushworth
Activity in a network of areas spanning the superior temporal sulcus, dorsomedial frontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex is concerned with how nonhuman primates negotiate the social worlds in which they live. Central aspects of these circuits are retained in humans. Activity in these areas codes for primates' interactions with one another, their attempts to find out about one another, and their attempts to prevent others from finding out too much about themselves. Moreover, important features of the social world, such as dominance status, cooperation, and competition, modulate activity in these areas...
March 21, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Andres Canales, Seongjun Park, Antje Kilias, Polina Anikeeva
Multifunctional devices for modulation and probing of neuronal activity during free behavior facilitate studies of functions and pathologies of the nervous system. Probes composed of stiff materials, such as metals and semiconductors, exhibit elastic and chemical mismatch with the neural tissue, which is hypothesized to contribute to sustained tissue damage and gliosis. Dense glial scars have been found to encapsulate implanted devices, corrode their surfaces, and often yield poor recording quality in long-term experiments...
March 21, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Pradipta Ray, Andrew Torck, Lilyana Quigley, Andi Wangzhou, Matthew Neiman, Chandranshu Rao, Tiffany Lam, Ji-Young Kim, Tae Hoon Kim, Michael Q Zhang, Gregory Dussor, Theodore J Price
Molecular neurobiological insight into human nervous tissues is needed to generate next generation therapeutics for neurological disorders like chronic pain. We obtained human Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) samples from organ donors and performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to study the human DRG (hDRG) transcriptional landscape, systematically comparing it with publicly available data from a variety of human and orthologous mouse tissues, including mouse DRG (mDRG). We characterized the hDRG transcriptional profile in terms of tissue-restricted gene co-expression patterns and putative transcriptional regulators, and formulated an information-theoretic framework to quantify DRG enrichment...
March 20, 2018: Pain
Erez Freud, Amanda K Robinson, Marlene Behrmann
An evolving view in cognitive neuroscience is that the dorsal visual pathway not only plays a key role in visuomotor behavior but that it also contributes functionally to the recognition of objects. To characterize the nature of the object representations derived by the dorsal pathway, we assessed perceptual performance in the context of the continuous flash suppression paradigm, which suppresses object processing in the ventral pathway while sparing computation in the dorsal pathway. In a series of experiments, prime stimuli, which were rendered imperceptible by the continuous flash suppression, still contributed to perceptual decisions related to the subsequent perceptible target stimuli...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Boworn Soonthornsumrith, Jirawat Saetan, Thanapong Kruangkum, Tipsuda Thongbuakaew, Thanyaporn Senarai, Ronnarong Palasoon, Prasert Sobhon, Prapee Sretarugsa
The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean species which has also been extensively used as a model in neuroscience research. The crustacean central nervous system is a highly complex structure, especially the brain. However, little information is available on the brain structure, especially the three-dimensional organization. In this study, we demonstrated the three-dimensional structure and histology of the brain of M. rosenbergii together with the distribution of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain and ovary as well as its effects on ovarian steroidogenesis...
March 20, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Shabnam Sadeghi Esfahlani, Tommy Thompson, Ali Davod Parsa, Ian Brown, Silvia Cirstea
This paper proposes the use of a non-immersive virtual reality rehabilitation system "ReHabgame" developed using Microsoft Kinect™ and the Thalmic™ Labs Myo gesture control armband. The ReHabgame was developed based on two third-person video games that provide a feasible possibility of assessing postural control and functional reach tests. It accurately quantifies specific postural control mechanisms including timed standing balance, functional reach tests using real-time anatomical landmark orientation, joint velocity, and acceleration while end trajectories were calculated using an inverse kinematics algorithm...
February 2018: Heliyon
Xin Liu, Yichen Lu, Ege Iseri, Yuhan Shi, Duygu Kuzum
Electrophysiology is a decades-old technique widely used for monitoring activity of individual neurons and local field potentials. Optogenetics has revolutionized neuroscience studies by offering selective and fast control of targeted neurons and neuron populations. The combination of these two techniques is crucial for causal investigation of neural circuits and understanding their functional connectivity. However, electrical artifacts generated by light stimulation interfere with neural recordings and hinder the development of compact closed-loop systems for precise control of neural activity...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Satish R Raj, Lauren E Stiles
Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) is a multi-system disorder that can be associated with significant functional disability. Likely due to the multi-system nature of the disorder, it can be difficult for physicians caring for these patients with POTS to know enough about the management of problems that fall within so many different specialties. This special issue was written for these clinicians and their patients. We have brought together experts on POTS with different backgrounds to share their approach to many of the medical issues that confront patients with POTS...
March 15, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Ivan Tyukin, Alexander N Gorban, Carlos Calvo, Julia Makarova, Valeri A Makarov
Codifying memories is one of the fundamental problems of modern Neuroscience. The functional mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain largely unknown. Experimental evidence suggests that some of the memory functions are performed by stratified brain structures such as the hippocampus. In this particular case, single neurons in the CA1 region receive a highly multidimensional input from the CA3 area, which is a hub for information processing. We thus assess the implication of the abundance of neuronal signalling routes converging onto single cells on the information processing...
March 19, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Ján Antolík, Andrew P Davison
Two trends have been unfolding in computational neuroscience during the last decade. First, a shift of focus to increasingly complex and heterogeneous neural network models, with a concomitant increase in the level of collaboration within the field (whether direct or in the form of building on top of existing tools and results). Second, a general trend in science toward more open communication, both internally, with other potential scientific collaborators, and externally, with the wider public. This multi-faceted development toward more integrative approaches and more intense communication within and outside of the field poses major new challenges for modelers, as currently there is a severe lack of tools to help with automatic communication and sharing of all aspects of a simulation workflow to the rest of the community...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Ruth M A Napper
The advantages of using design-based stereology in the collection of quantitative data, have been highlighted, in numerous publications, since the description of the disector method by Sterio (1984). This review article discusses the importance of total number derived with the disector method, as a key variable that must continue to be used to understand the rodent brain and that such data can be used to develop quantitative networks of the brain. The review article will highlight the huge impact total number has had on our understanding of the rodent brain and it will suggest that neuroscientists need to be aware of the increasing number of studies where density, not total number, is the quantitative measure used...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Feng Tian, Junjie Wang, Cheng Xu, Hong Li, Xin Ma
In recent years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used in studies that explored the personality-brain association. Researches on personality neuroscience have the potential to provide personality psychology with explanatory models-that is, why people differ from each other rather than how they differ from each other (DeYoung and Gray, 2009). As one of the most important dimensions of personality traits, extraversion is the most stable core and a universal component in personality theory...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Bart Lutters, Paul Foley, Peter J Koehler
We commemorate the centenary of Constantin von Economo's description of encephalitis lethargica, a mysterious disease that had a significant effect on 20th-century neuroscience. In the acute phase, encephalitis lethargica was marked by intractable somnolence, which von Economo attributed to lesions in the diencephalon, thereby paving the way for future efforts to localize the regulation of sleep in the subcortical brain. At the same time, neuropathologic findings in postencephalitic parkinsonism affirmed the role of the substantia nigra in the pathophysiology of parkinsonism...
March 20, 2018: Neurology
Viviana Betti, Maurizio Corbetta, Francesco de Pasquale, Vincent Wens, Stefania Della Penna
Networks hubs represent points of convergence for the integration of information across many different nodes and systems. While a great deal is known on the topology of hub regions in the human brain, little is known about their temporal dynamics. Here, we examine the static and dynamic centrality of hub regions when measured in the absence of a task (rest) or during the observation of natural or synthetic visual stimuli. We used Magnetoencephalography (MEG) in humans (both sexes) to measure static and transient regional and network-level interaction in α and β band limited power (BLP) in three conditions: visual fixation (rest), viewing of movie clips (natural vision), and time-scrambled versions of the same clips (scrambled vision)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Maritta Välimäki, Kaisa Mishina, Johanna K Kaakinen, Suvi K Holm, Jukka Vahlo, Markus Kirjonen, Virve Pekurinen, Olli Tenovuo, Jyrki Korkeila, Heikki Hämäläinen, Jaana Sarajuuri, Pekka Rantanen, Tage Orenius, Aki Koponen
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health problem that often requires intensive and long-term rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether rehabilitative digital gaming facilitates cognitive functioning and general well-being in people with TBI. METHODS: A total of 90 Finnish-speaking adults with TBI (18-65 years) were recruited from an outpatient neuroscience clinic. The participants were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: a rehabilitation gaming group (n=29, intervention), an entertainment gaming group (n=29, active control), or a passive control group (n=32)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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