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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634436/dual-coding-theory-explains-biphasic-collective-computation-in-neural-decision-making
#1
Bryan C Daniels, Jessica C Flack, David C Krakauer
A central question in cognitive neuroscience is how unitary, coherent decisions at the whole organism level can arise from the distributed behavior of a large population of neurons with only partially overlapping information. We address this issue by studying neural spiking behavior recorded from a multielectrode array with 169 channels during a visual motion direction discrimination task. It is well known that in this task there are two distinct phases in neural spiking behavior. Here we show Phase I is a distributed or incompressible phase in which uncertainty about the decision is substantially reduced by pooling information from many cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634305/data-driven-extraction-of-a-nested-model-of-human-brain-function
#2
Taylor Bolt, Jason S Nomi, B T Thomas Yeo, Lucina Q Uddin
Decades of cognitive neuroscience research have revealed two basic facts regarding task-driven brain activation patterns. First, distinct patterns of activation occur in response to different task demands. Second, a superordinate, dichotomous pattern of activation/de-activation, is common across a variety of task demands. We explore the possibility that a hierarchical model incorporates these two observed brain activation phenomena into a unifying framework. We apply a latent variable approach, exploratory bi-factor analysis, to a large set of human (both sexes) brain activation maps (n = 108) encompassing cognition, perception, action and emotion behavioral domains, to determine the potential existence of a nested structure of factors that underlies a variety of commonly observed activation patterns...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633990/cellular-gauge-symmetry-and-the-li-organization-principle-a-mathematical-addendum-quantifying-energetic-dynamics-in-physical-and-biological-systems-through-a-simple-geometric-tool-and-geodetic-curves
#3
REVIEW
Alexander Yurkin, Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Pedro C Marijuán
The present Addendum complements the accompanying paper "Cellular Gauge Symmetry and the Li Organization Principle"; it illustrates a recently-developed geometrical physical model able to assess electronic movements and energetic paths in atomic shells. The model describes a multi-level system of circular, wavy and zigzag paths which can be projected onto a horizontal tape. This model ushers in a visual interpretation of the distribution of atomic electrons' energy levels and the corresponding quantum numbers through rather simple tools, such as compasses, rulers and straightforward calculations...
June 17, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632043/simultanagnosia-and-object-individuation
#4
Veronica Mazza
Simultanagnosic patients have difficulty in perceiving multiple objects when presented simultaneously. In this review article, I discuss how neuropsychological research on simultanagnosia has been inspirational for two interconnected lines of research related to the core mechanisms by which the visual system processes cluttered scenes. First, I review previous studies on enumeration tasks indicating that, despite their inability to identify multiple objects, simultanagnosic patients can enumerate up to 2-3 elements as efficiently as healthy individuals (the so-called "subitizing" phenomenon)...
June 6, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631991/steven-r-pliszka-neuroscience-for-the-mental-health-clinician-2nd-ed
#5
Margaret Semrud-Clikeman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630894/next-generation-probes-particles-and-proteins-for-neural-interfacing
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan Rivnay, Huiliang Wang, Lief Fenno, Karl Deisseroth, George G Malliaras
Bidirectional interfacing with the nervous system enables neuroscience research, diagnosis, and therapy. This two-way communication allows us to monitor the state of the brain and its composite networks and cells as well as to influence them to treat disease or repair/restore sensory or motor function. To provide the most stable and effective interface, the tools of the trade must bridge the soft, ion-rich, and evolving nature of neural tissue with the largely rigid, static realm of microelectronics and medical instruments that allow for readout, analysis, and/or control...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630769/comparing-the-expression-of-genes-related-to-serotonin-5-ht-in-c57bl-6j-mice-and-humans-based-on-data-available-at-the-allen-mouse-brain-atlas-and-allen-human-brain-atlas
#7
C A Acevedo-Triana, L A León, F P Cardenas
Brain atlases are tools based on comprehensive studies used to locate biological characteristics (structures, connections, proteins, and gene expression) in different regions of the brain. These atlases have been disseminated to the point where tools have been created to store, manage, and share the information they contain. This study used the data published by the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas (2004) for mice (C57BL/6J) and Allen Human Brain Atlas (2010) for humans (6 donors) to compare the expression of serotonin-related genes...
2017: Neurology Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630524/a-martingale-analysis-of-first-passage-times-of-time-dependent-wiener-diffusion-models
#8
Vaibhav Srivastava, Samuel F Feng, Jonathan D Cohen, Naomi Ehrich Leonard, Amitai Shenhav
Research in psychology and neuroscience has successfully modeled decision making as a process of noisy evidence accumulation to a decision bound. While there are several variants and implementations of this idea, the majority of these models make use of a noisy accumulation between two absorbing boundaries. A common assumption of these models is that decision parameters, e.g., the rate of accumulation (drift rate), remain fixed over the course of a decision, allowing the derivation of analytic formulas for the probabilities of hitting the upper or lower decision threshold, and the mean decision time...
April 2017: Journal of Mathematical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630450/concurrent-talking-in-immersive-virtual-reality-on-the-dominance-of-visual-speech-cues
#9
Mar Gonzalez-Franco, Antonella Maselli, Dinei Florencio, Nikolai Smolyanskiy, Zhengyou Zhang
Humans are good at selectively listening to specific target conversations, even in the presence of multiple concurrent speakers. In our research, we study how auditory-visual cues modulate this selective listening. We do so by using immersive Virtual Reality technologies with spatialized audio. Exposing 32 participants to an Information Masking Task with concurrent speakers, we find significantly more errors in the decision-making processes triggered by asynchronous audiovisual speech cues. More precisely, the results show that lips on the Target speaker matched to a secondary (Mask) speaker's audio severely increase the participants' comprehension error rates...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629236/advances-in-new-psychoactive-substances-identification-the-u-r-i-to-n-consortium
#10
Elisabetta Bertol, Fabio Vaiano, Francesco Mari, Maria Grazia Di Milia, Silvia Bua, Claudiu T Supuran, Fabrizio Carta
Identification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in biological and non-biological samples represents a hard challenge for forensic toxicologists. Their great chemical variety and the speed with which new NPS are synthesised and spread make stringent the need of advanced tools for their detection based on multidisciplinary approaches. For this reason, in August 2016, the "Unit of Research and Innovation in Forensic Toxicology and Neuroscience of Addiction" (U.R.I.To.N.) was founded by the Forensic Toxicology Division of the University of Florence...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628104/active-dendritic-integration-as-a-mechanism-for-robust-and-precise-grid-cell-firing
#11
Christoph Schmidt-Hieber, Gabija Toleikyte, Laurence Aitchison, Arnd Roth, Beverley A Clark, Tiago Branco, Michael Häusser
Understanding how active dendrites are exploited for behaviorally relevant computations is a fundamental challenge in neuroscience. Grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex are an attractive model system for addressing this question, as the computation they perform is clear: they convert synaptic inputs into spatially modulated, periodic firing. Whether active dendrites contribute to the generation of the dual temporal and rate codes characteristic of grid cell output is unknown. We show that dendrites of medial entorhinal cortex neurons are highly excitable and exhibit a supralinear input-output function in vitro, while in vivo recordings reveal membrane potential signatures consistent with recruitment of active dendritic conductances...
June 19, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628004/visual-field-map-clusters-in-human-frontoparietal-cortex
#12
Wayne E Mackey, Jonathan Winawer, Clayton E Curtis
The visual neurosciences have made enormous progress in recent decades, in part because of the ability to drive visual areas by their sensory inputs, allowing researchers to reliably define visual areas across individuals and across species. Similar strategies for parcellating higher-order cortex have proven elusive. Here, using a novel experimental task and nonlinear population receptive field modeling we map and characterize the topographic organization of several regions in human frontoparietal cortex. We discover representations of both polar angle and eccentricity that are organized into clusters, similar to visual cortex, where multiple gradients of polar angle of the contralateral visual field share a confluent fovea...
June 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626813/hallucinations-as-top-down-effects-on-perception
#13
R Powers Albert, Megan Kelley, Philip R Corlett
The problem of whether and how information is integrated across hierarchical brain networks embodies a fundamental tension in contemporary cognitive neuroscience, and by extension, cognitive neuropsychiatry. Indeed, the penetrability of perceptual processes in a 'top-down' manner by higher-level cognition-a natural extension of hierarchical models of perception-may contradict a strictly modular view of mental organization. Furthermore, some in the cognitive science community have challenged cognitive penetration as an unlikely, if not impossible, process...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626392/sensing-the-worst-neurophenomenological-perspectives-on-neutral-stimuli-misperception-in-schizophrenia-spectrum
#14
Mariateresa Sestito, Josef Parnas, Carlo Maggini, Vittorio Gallese
While investigating social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, prominent evidence has been found that patients with schizophrenia show a tendency to misclassify neutral stimuli as negatively valenced. Within this population, patients presenting delusions are more prone to this phenomenon. In a previous study, Schizophrenia spectrum (SzSp) patients rated positive, negative and neutral stimuli that were multimodally presented, while assessed with a checklist exploring anomalous subjective experiences and evaluated for positive and negative symptomatology...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626229/linking-social-context-and-addiction-neuroscience-a-computational-psychiatry-approach
#15
Andrea Reiter, Andreas Heinz, Lorenz Deserno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624265/the-neuroscience-of-understanding-the-emotions-of-others
#16
REVIEW
Robert P Spunt, Ralph Adolphs
We cannot help but impute emotions to the behaviors of others, and constantly infer not only what others are feeling, but also why they feel that way. The comprehension of other people's emotional states is computationally complex and difficult, requiring the flexible, context-sensitive deployment of cognitive operations that encompass rapid orienting to, and recognition of, emotionally salient cues; classification of emotions into culturally-learned categories; and using an abstract theory of mind to reason about what caused the emotion, what future actions the person might be planning, and what we should do next in response...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622675/state-of-the-art-methods-for-brain-tissue-segmentation-a-review
#17
Lingraj Dora, Sanjay Agrawal, Rutuparna Panda, Ajith Abraham
Brain tissue segmentation is one of the most sought after research area in medical image processing. It provides detailed quantitative brain analysis for accurate disease diagnosis, detection and classification of abnormalities. It plays an essential role in discriminating healthy tissues from lesion tissues. Therefore, accurate disease diagnosis and treatment planning depends merely on the performance of segmentation method used. In this paper, we have studied the recent advances in brain tissue segmentation methods and their state-of-the-art in neuroscience research...
June 14, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620831/cephalopod-biology-and-care-a-cost-fa1301-cephsinaction-training-school-anaesthesia-and-scientific-procedures
#18
Vanessa M Lopes, Eduardo Sampaio, Katina Roumbedakis, Nobuaki K Tanaka, Lucía Carulla, Guillermo Gambús, Theodosia Woo, Catarina P P Martins, Virginie Penicaud, Colette Gibbings, Jessica Eberle, Perla Tedesco, Isabel Fernández, Tania Rodríguez-González, Pamela Imperadore, Giovanna Ponte, Graziano Fiorito
Cephalopods are the sole invertebrates included in the list of regulated species following the Directive 2010/63/EU. According to the Directive, achieving competence through adequate training is a requisite for people having a role in the different functions (article 23) as such carrying out procedures on animals, designing procedures and projects, taking care of animals, killing animals. Cephalopod Biology and Care Training Program is specifically designed to comply with the requirements of the "working document on the development of a common education and training framework to fulfil the requirements under the Directive 2010/63/EU"...
September 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620348/the-utility-of-fdg-pet-ct-in-clinically-suspected-paraneoplastic-neurological-syndrome-a-literature-review-and-retrospective-case-series
#19
Mark P Maskery, Jonathan Hill, John R Cain, Hedley C A Emsley
Paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) describes a spectrum of rare, heterogeneous neurological conditions associated with an underlying malignancy. Diagnosis of PNS is inherently difficult, with frequent misdiagnosis and delay. The literature suggests an underlying immune-mediated pathophysiology, and patients are usually tested for the presence of onconeural antibodies. With direct tumor therapy being the most effective method of stabilizing patients, there is a strong emphasis on detecting underlying tumors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620289/dazzled-by-the-mystery-of-mentalism-the-cognitive-neuroscience-of-mental-athletes
#20
Andres Rieznik, Mikhail Lebedev, Mariano Sigman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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