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human herpesvirus

Binod Kumar, Dipanjan Dutta, Jawed Iqbal, Mairaj Ahmed Ansari, Arunava Roy, Leela Chikoti, Gina Pisano, Mohanan Valiya Veettil, Bala Chandran
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) binding to the endothelial cell surface heparan sulfate is followed by sequential interactions with α3β1, αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrins and Ephrin A2 receptor tyrosine kinase (EphA2R). These interactions activate host cell pre-existing FAK, Src, PI3-K and RhoGTPase signaling cascades, c-Cbl mediated ubiquitination of receptors, recruitment of CIB1, p130Cas and Crk adaptor molecules, and membrane bleb formation leading to lipid raft dependent macropinocytosis of KSHV into human microvascular dermal endothelial (HMVEC-d) cells...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
Zeliha Esin Celik, Murat Celik, Erdem Sen, Hakan Cebeci, Ozlem Ata, Cagdas Yavas
Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a vascular tumor caused by infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), is a systemic disease that can present with cutaneous lesions with or without visceral involvement. Very few cases of KS, most of which were associated with AIDS, have been reported in the adrenal gland. Anaplastic transformation of KS is a rare clinical presentation known as an aggressive disease with local recurrence and metastatic potential. We report here a 47-year-old HIV negative male presented with extra-adrenal symptoms and had an incidentally detected anaplastic adrenal KS exhibited aggressive clinical course...
2016: Case Reports in Pathology
Paul F Lambert
Genetically engineered mice (GEMs) have provided valuable insights into the carcinogenic properties of various human tumor viruses, which, in aggregate, are etiologically associated with over 15% of all human cancers. This review provides an overview of seminal discoveries made through the use of GEM models for human DNA tumor viruses. Emphasis is placed on the discoveries made in the study of human papillomaviruses, Merkel cell carcinoma-associated polyomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, because GEMs have contributed extensively to our understanding of how these DNA tumor viruses directly contribute to human cancers...
September 29, 2016: Annual Review of Virology
Dana Elena Giza, Enrique Fuentes-Mattei, Marc David Bullock, Stefan Tudor, Matthew Joseph Goblirsch, Muller Fabbri, Florea Lupu, Sai-Ching Jim Yeung, Catalin Vasilescu, George Adrian Calin
Regardless of its etiology, once septic shock is established, survival rates drop by 7.6% for every hour antibiotic therapy is delayed. The early identification of the cause of infection and prognostic stratification of patients with sepsis are therefore important clinical priorities. Biomarkers are potentially valuable clinical tools in this context, but to date, no single biomarker has been shown to perform adequately. Hence, in an effort to discover novel diagnostic and prognostic markers in sepsis, new genomic approaches have been employed...
October 14, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Miyeon Cho, Seok Won Jung, Soomin Lee, Kuwon Son, Gyu Hwan Park, Jong-Wha Jung, Yu Su Shin, Taegun Seo, Hyosun Cho, Hyojeung Kang
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a Gammaherpesvirus that causes acute infection and establishes life-long latency. KSHV causes several human cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma, an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Genipin, an aglycone derived from geniposide found in Gardenia jasminoides, is known to be an excellent natural cross-linker, strong apoptosis inducer, and antiviral agent. Although evidence suggests antiviral activity of genipin in several in vitro viral infection systems, no inhibitory effect of genipin on KSHV infection has been reported...
2016: PloS One
Jill D Henning, Luis A Bonachea, Clareann H Bunker, Alan L Patrick, Frank J Jenkins
OBJECTIVES: To compare the cytokine profile between human herpesvirus 8 seropositive and seronegative men with and without prostate cancer. METHODS: The study sample was obtained from the Tobago Prostate Survey, an ongoing study of prostate cancer in the Caribbean island of Tobago. Participants in the study were recruited mostly by public service announcement and by word of mouth. For analyses of circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, participants with biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer (n = 79) were compared with control participants (n = 87)...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Patricia Moran Losada, Philippe Chouvarine, Marie Dorda, Silke Hedtfeld, Samira Mielke, Angela Schulz, Lutz Wiehlmann, Burkhard Tümmler
Chronic airway infections determine most morbidity in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Herein, we present unbiased quantitative data about the frequency and abundance of DNA viruses, archaea, bacteria, moulds and fungi in CF lower airways. Induced sputa were collected on several occasions from children, adolescents and adults with CF. Deep sputum metagenome sequencing identified, on average, approximately 10 DNA viruses or fungi and several hundred bacterial taxa. The metagenome of a CF patient was typically found to be made up of an individual signature of multiple, lowly abundant species superimposed by few disease-associated pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, as major components...
April 2016: ERJ Open Research
Joshua C Pritchett, Jaime S Green, Angela M Thomm, Konstance K Knox, Michael R Verneris, Troy C Lund
Human herpesvirus-6B (HHV-6B) commonly reactivates after umbilical cord blood transplant (UCBT) and is associated with delayed engraftment, fever, rash, and CNS dysfunction. Recently CD134 (OX40) has been implicated as a potential viral entry receptor. We evaluated CD4(+)CD134(+)/(neg-lo) and CD8(+) CD134(+)/(neg-lo) cells at day +28 after UCBT in 20 subjects with previously documented HHV-6 reactivation and persistent viremia. Analysis of CD4(+)CD134(+) cells compared to CD4(+)CD134(neg-lo) cells showed 0...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Maria-Luisa Del Rio, Ana Maria Bravo Moral, Carlos Fernandez-Renedo, Leo Buhler, Jose-Antonio Perez-Simon, Olivier Chaloin, Rafael Alvarez Nogal, Maximino Fernandez-Caso, Jose-Ignacio Rodriguez-Barbosa
CD160 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily. It exhibits a pattern of expression coincident in humans and mice that is mainly restricted to cytotoxic cells and to all intestinal intraepithelial T lymphocytes. B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and CD160 interact with cysteine-rich domain 1 of the extracellular region of Herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM). CD160 engagement by HVEM can deliver inhibitory signals to a small subset of human CD4 T cells and attenuate its proliferation and cytokine secretion, but can also costimulate natural killer cells or intraepithelial lymphocytes...
September 15, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Brian M Schmidt, Crystal M Holmes
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a tumor derived from endothelial cell lineage caused by Kaposi sarcoma-associated virus or human herpesvirus-8. The authors have set forth to describe a unique presentation of the classical form of KS in a homosexual individual. The authors demonstrate that a full history and physical are important in determining how to guide treatment along with ancillary tests, which can prove vital to determine management strategy. The authors then provide a brief discussion about variants of KS, biopsy techniques, and current treatment options available to patients diagnosed with this condition...
September 2016: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
Tzu-Hsuan Chang, Shie-Shan Wang, Lee-Wen Chen, Ying-Ju Shih, Li-Kwan Chang, Shih-Tung Liu, Pey-Jium Chang
The switch between latency and the lytic cycle of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is controlled by the expression of virally encoded ORF50 protein. Thus far, the regulatory mechanism underlying the protein stability of ORF50 is unknown. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that a protein abundance regulatory signal (PARS) at the ORF50 C-terminal region modulates its protein abundance. The PARS region consists of PARS-I (aa 490-535) and PARS-II (aa 590-650), and mutations in either component result in abundant expression of ORF50...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
D Topalis, S Gillemot, R Snoeck, G Andrei
Emergence of drug-resistance to all FDA-approved antiherpesvirus agents is an increasing concern in immunocompromised patients. Herpesvirus DNA polymerase (DNApol) is currently the target of nucleos(t)ide analogue-based therapy. Mutations in DNApol that confer resistance arose in immunocompromised patients infected with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and to lesser extent in herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). In this review, we present distinct drug-resistant mutational profiles of herpesvirus DNApol...
September 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Alina Sultanova, Maksims Cistjakovs, Sabine Gravelsina, Svetlana Chapenko, Silvija Roga, Egils Cunskis, Zaiga Nora-Krukle, Valerija Groma, Ildze Ventina, Modra Murovska
OBJECTIVES: Viral infections have been frequently cited as important environmental factors implicated in the onset of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of HHV-6 infection in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis. METHODS: This study included 45 patients (42 female and 3 male; median age 47.00 IQR: 38.50-57.00) with histologically, laboratory and clinically confirmed autoimmune thyroiditis, as well as 30 autopsied subjects (26 women and 4 men; median age 58...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Julie Morscio, Thomas Tousseyn
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is an aggressive complication of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation that arises in up to 20% of transplant recipients. Infection or reactivation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous human herpesvirus, in combination with chronic immunosuppression are considered as the main predisposing factors, however insight in PTLD biology is fragmentary. The study of PTLD is complicated by its morphological heterogeneity and the lack of prospective trials, which also impede treatment optimization...
September 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
Nicole Arnold, Thomas Girke, Suhas Sureshchandra, Ilhem Messaoudi
: Primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV), a neurotropic alpha herpesvirus, results in varicella. VZV establishes latency in the sensory ganglia and can reactivate later in life to cause herpes zoster. The relationship between VZV and its host during acute infection in the sensory ganglia is not well understood due to limited access to clinical specimens. Intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with simian varicella virus (SVV), recapitulates the hallmarks of VZV infection in humans...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
Roberto Crocchiolo, Laura Giordano, Andrea Rimondo, Muriel Bologna, Barbara Sarina, Lucio Morabito, Stefania Bramanti, Luca Castagna, Rossana Mineri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Since HHV-6 reactivation after transplant has been reported to increase the risk of CMV infection, we tested this hypothesis in the HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation setting. STUDY DESIGN: From February 2011 to October 2015, 75 patients received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using a T-cell replete graft from a HLA-haploidentical donor at our Institution. RESULTS: Interestingly, 87% of HHV-6 reactivations were followed by a CMV reactivation, at a median of 15days between the two viruses...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Ryo Hanajiri, Takeshi Kobayashi, Kosuke Yoshioka, Daisuke Watanabe, Kyoko Watakabe, Yutaka Murata, Takeshi Hagino, Yasushi Seno, Yuho Najima, Aiko Igarashi, Noriko Doki, Kazuhiko Kakihana, Hisashi Sakamaki, Kazuteru Ohashi
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Here, we described the clinical characteristics and outcomes of central nervous system (CNS) infections occurring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in a single institution over the previous 6 years. METHODS: Charts of 353 consecutive allogeneic transplant recipients were retrospectively reviewed for CNS infection. RESULTS: A total of 17 cases of CNS infection were identified at a median of 38 days (range, 10-1028 days) after allo-HSCT...
September 17, 2016: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
Priscila H Goncalves, Joseph Ziegelbauer, Thomas S Uldrick, Robert Yarchoan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the pathogenesis and recent advances in the management of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)-associated diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: KSHV, a gammaherpesvirus, causes several tumors and related diseases, including Kaposi sarcoma, a form of multicentric Castleman disease (KSHV-MCD), and primary effusion lymphoma. These most often develop in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). KSHV-associated inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS) is a newly described syndrome with high mortality that has inflammatory symptoms-like MCD but not the pathologic lymph node findings...
September 22, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Amy K Wray, Kevin J Olival, David Morán, Maria Renee Lopez, Danilo Alvarez, Isamara Navarrete-Macias, Eliza Liang, Nancy B Simmons, W Ian Lipkin, Peter Daszak, Simon J Anthony
Certain bat species serve as natural reservoirs for pathogens in several key viral families including henipa-, lyssa-, corona-, and filoviruses, which may pose serious threats to human health. The Common Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus), due to its abundance, sanguivorous feeding habit involving humans and domestic animals, and highly social behavioral ecology, may have an unusually high potential for interspecies disease transmission. Previous studies have investigated rabies dynamics in D. rotundus, yet the diversity of other viruses, bacteria, and other microbes that these bats may carry remains largely unknown...
September 22, 2016: EcoHealth
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