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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443092/disarming-cellular-alarm-systems-manipulation-of-stress-induced-nkg2d-ligands-by-human-herpesviruses
#1
REVIEW
Dominik Schmiedel, Ofer Mandelboim
The coevolution of viruses and their hosts led to the repeated emergence of cellular alert signals and viral strategies to counteract them. The herpesvirus family of viruses displays the most sophisticated repertoire of immune escape mechanisms enabling infected cells to evade immune recognition and thereby maintain infection. The herpesvirus family consists of nine viruses that are capable of infecting humans: herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), roseoloviruses (HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7), and Kaposi's-sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441176/long-term-nitrite-inhalant-exposure-and-cancer-risk-in-msm
#2
Anupriya Dutta, Hajime Uno, Alex Holman, David R Lorenz, Steven M Wolinsky, Dana Gabuzda
OBJECTIVES: Nitrite inhalants (poppers) are commonly used recreational drugs among MSM and were previously associated with elevated rates of high-risk sexual behavior, HIV and human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) seroconversion, and transient immunosuppressive effects in experimental models. Whether long-term popper use is associated with cancer risk among MSM in the HAART era is unclear. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of cancer risk in 3223 HIV-infected and uninfected MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study from 1996-2010...
May 15, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430817/kaposi-sarcoma-herpesvirus-kshv-latency-associated-nuclear-antigen-lana-recruits-components-of-the-mrn-mre11-rad50-nbs1-repair-complex-to-modulate-an-innate-immune-signaling-pathway-and-viral-latency
#3
Giuseppe Mariggiò, Sandra Koch, Guigen Zhang, Magdalena Weidner-Glunde, Jessica Rückert, Semra Kati, Susann Santag, Thomas F Schulz
Kaposi Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV), a γ2-herpesvirus and class 1 carcinogen, is responsible for at least three human malignancies: Kaposi Sarcoma (KS), Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL) and Multicentric Castleman's Disease (MCD). Its major nuclear latency protein, LANA, is indispensable for the maintenance and replication of latent viral DNA in infected cells. Although LANA is mainly a nuclear protein, cytoplasmic isoforms of LANA exist and can act as antagonists of the cytoplasmic DNA sensor, cGAS. Here, we show that cytosolic LANA also recruits members of the MRN (Mre11-Rad50-NBS1) repair complex in the cytosol and thereby inhibits their recently reported role in the sensing of cytoplasmic DNA and activation of the NF-κB pathway...
April 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424322/kaposi-sarcoma-inflammatory-cytokine-syndrome-kics-a-rare-but-potentially-treatable-condition
#4
Michael Karass, Emily Grossniklaus, Talal Seoud, Sanjay Jain, Daniel A Goldstein
Kaposi sarcoma inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS) is a newly-described condition affecting individuals who are HIV-positive and are infected with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). This is a syndrome that in some ways mimics severe sepsis with associated acute respiratory distress syndrome, possibly requiring a ventilator and vasopressor support. However, unlike severe sepsis, antibiotics provide no benefit. Management of KICS has not been fully elucidated because of its high mortality rate. However, the syndrome has been successfully treated in some cases with immunomodulatory therapy...
April 19, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424280/the-major-envelope-glycoprotein-of-murid-herpesvirus-4-promotes-sexual-transmission
#5
Caroline Zeippen, Justine Javaux, Xue Xiao, Marina Ledecq, Jan Mast, Frédéric Farnir, Alain Vanderplasschen, Philip Stevenson, Laurent Gillet
Gammaherpesviruses are important human and animal pathogens. Infection control has proved difficult because the key process of transmission is ill-understood. Murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), a gammaherpesvirus of mice, transmits sexually. We show that this depends on the major virion envelope glycoprotein, gp150. Gp150 is redundant for host entry and, in vitro, it regulates rather than promotes cell binding. We show that gp150-deficient MuHV-4 reaches and replicates normally in the female genital tract after nasal infection, but is poorly released from vaginal epithelial cells and fails to pass from the female to the male genital tract during sexual contact...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423548/axl-acts-as-a-tumor-suppressor-by-regulating-light-expression-in-t-lymphoma
#6
Eun-Hee Lee, Eun-Mi Kim, Kon-Young Ji, A-Reum Park, Ha-Rim Choi, Hwa-Youn Lee, Su-Man Kim, Byung Yeoup Chung, Chul-Hong Park, Hyo Jin Choi, Young-Hyeh Ko, Hyoung-Woo Bai, Hyung-Sik Kang
Axl is an oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a role in many cancers. LIGHT (Lymphotoxin-related inducible ligand that competes for glycoprotein D binding to herpesvirus entry mediator on T cells) is a ligand that induces robust anti-tumor immunity by enhancing the recruitment and activation of effector immune cells at tumor sites. We observed that mouse EL4 and human Jurkat T lymphoma cells that stably overexpressed Axl also showed high expression of LIGHT. When Jurkat-Axl cells were treated with Gas6, a ligand for Axl, LIGHT expression was upregulated through activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and transcriptional induction by Sp1...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422050/k-mer-content-correlation-and-position-analysis-of-genome-dna-sequences-for-the-identification-of-function-and-evolutionary-features
#7
Aaron Sievers, Katharina Bosiek, Marc Bisch, Chris Dreessen, Jascha Riedel, Patrick Froß, Michael Hausmann, Georg Hildenbrand
In genome analysis, k-mer-based comparison methods have become standard tools. However, even though they are able to deliver reliable results, other algorithms seem to work better in some cases. To improve k-mer-based DNA sequence analysis and comparison, we successfully checked whether adding positional resolution is beneficial for finding and/or comparing interesting organizational structures. A simple but efficient algorithm for extracting and saving local k-mer spectra (frequency distribution of k-mers) was developed and used...
April 19, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421114/status-of-epstein-barr-virus-coinfection-with-helicobacter-pylori-in-gastric-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Shyam Singh, Hem Chandra Jha
Epstein-Barr virus is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus whose primary infection causes mononucleosis, Burkett's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, autoimmune diseases, and gastric cancer (GC). The persistent infection causes malignancies in lymph and epithelial cells. Helicobacter pylori causes gastritis in human with chronic inflammation. This chronic inflammation is thought to be the cause of genomic instability. About 45%-word population have a probability of having both pathogens, namely, H. pylori and EBV...
2017: Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420448/association-of-cognitive-function-and-liability-to-addiction-with-childhood-herpesvirus-infections-a-prospective-cohort-study
#9
Michael M Vanyukov, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Levent Kirisci, Galina P Kirillova, Maureen D Reynolds, Konasale Prasad, Ralph E Tarter, Robert H Yolken
Liability to substance use disorder (SUD) is largely nonspecific to particular drugs and is related to behavior dysregulation, including reduced cognitive control. Recent data suggest that cognitive mechanisms may be influenced by exposure to neurotropic infections, such as human herpesviruses. In this study, serological evidence of exposure to human herpesvirus Herpes simplex virus Type 1 (HSV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as well as Toxoplasma gondii was determined in childhood (age ~11 years) in 395 sons and 174 daughters of fathers with or without SUD...
April 19, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415759/kshv-co-infection-down-regulates-hpv16-e6-and-e7-from-cervical-cancer-cells
#10
Lu Dai, Yueyu Cao, Wei Jiang, Jovanny Zabaleta, Zhongmin Liu, Jing Qiao, Zhiqiang Qin
High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the etiological agent of some malignancies such as cervical, oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) represents a principal causative agent of several human cancers arising in those immunocompromised patients. Interestingly, KSHV DNA has been detected in the oral cavity and the female genital tract, although its detection rate in cervical samples is very low and few reports are about KSHV/HPV co-infection. Therefore, it remains unclear about the role of KSHV co-infection in the development of HPV-related neoplasias...
March 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415052/viral-gene-products-actively-promote-latent-infection-by-epigenetic-silencing-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
David M Knipe, Priya Raja, Jennifer Lee
Many viruses undergo an acute infection in the host organism and then are cleared by the ensuing host immune response, but other viruses establish a persistent infection involving a latent infection or a chronic infection. Latent infection by the herpesviruses or human immunodeficiency virus involves epigenetic silencing of the DNA genome or proviral genome, respectively. Latent infection was previously thought to be a default pathway resulting from infection of a nonpermissive cell, but recent studies have shown that viral gene products can promote epigenetic silencing and latent infection...
April 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410134/pathogen-associated-regulatory-non-coding-rnas-and-oncogenesis
#12
Noriyuki Yoshida, Tominori Kimura
Among all new cancer cases in 2012, on average, 15.4% were caused by Helicobacter pylori or oncoviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C viruses, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and human T-lymphotropic virus. These pathogens encode a variety of non-coding RNAs, which are important cofactors for oncogenesis. In this review, we focus on recent developments in the study of long and small non-protein-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, of oncogenic pathogens, and discuss their mechanisms of action in the multiple steps of oncogenesis...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405631/electric-cell-substrate-impedance-sensing-to-monitor-viral-growth-and-study-cellular-responses-to-infection-with-alphaherpesviruses-in-real-time
#13
Matthew R Pennington, Gerlinde R Van de Walle
Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) measures changes in an electrical circuit formed in a culture dish. As cells grow over a gold electrode, they block the flow of electricity and this is read as an increase in electrical impedance in the circuit. ECIS has previously been used in a variety of applications to study cell growth, migration, and behavior in response to stimuli in real time and without the need for cellular labels. Here, we demonstrate that ECIS is also a valuable tool with which to study infection by alphaherpesviruses...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403220/a-derivative-of-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-alpha-binds-to-the-trimer-of-human-cytomegalovirus-and-inhibits-entry-into-fibroblasts-and-endothelial-cells
#14
Cora Stegmann, Daniel Hochdorfer, Diana Lieber, Narmadha Subramanian, Dagmar Stöhr, Kerstin Laib Sampaio, Christian Sinzger
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widely distributed herpesvirus that causes significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts. Inhibitors of viral DNA replication are available, but adverse effects limit their use. Alternative antiviral strategies may include inhibition of entry. We show that soluble derivatives of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR-alpha), a putative receptor of HCMV, can inhibit HCMV infection of various cell types. A PDGFR-alpha-Fc fusion protein binds to and neutralizes cell-free virus particles at an EC50 of 10-30 ng/ml...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403202/human-cytomegalovirus-glycoprotein-complex-gh-gl-go-uses-pdgfr-%C3%AE-as-a-key-for-entry
#15
Yiquan Wu, Adrian Prager, Simone Boos, Moritz Resch, Ilija Brizic, Michael Mach, Sabrina Wildner, Laura Scrivano, Barbara Adler
Herpesvirus gH/gL envelope glycoprotein complexes are key players in virus entry as ligands for host cell receptors and by promoting fusion of viral envelopes with cellular membranes. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has two alternative gH/gL complexes, gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128,130,131A which both shape the HCMV tropism. By studying binding of HCMV particles to fibroblasts, we could for the first time show that virion gH/gL/gO binds to platelet-derived growth factor-α (PDGFR-α) on the surface of fibroblasts and that gH/gL/gO either directly or indirectly recruits gB to this complex...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398495/a-histological-study-of-fulminant-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-related-to-human-cytomegalovirus-reactivation
#16
Sho Yoneda, Akihisa Imagawa, Kenji Fukui, Sae Uno, Junji Kozawa, Makoto Sakai, Toshiki Yumioka, Hiromi Iwahashi, Iichiro Shimomura
Context: Fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is thought to be partly caused by virus infection. Objective: This study investigated the mechanism of β cell destruction in fulminant T1DM after drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS). Methods: We determined the localization of viruses of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and viral receptors of Z DNA binding protein 1 (ZBP1) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), together with inflammatory cells by immunohistochemistry of pancreas from an autopsy fulminant T1DM patient with DIHS or seven subjects with normal glucose tolerance who underwent pancreatectomy...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395104/hhv8-kshv-positive-lymphoproliferative-disorders-and-the-spectrum-of-plasmablastic-and-plasma-cell-neoplasms-2015-sh-eahp-workshop-report-part-3
#17
Amy Chadburn, Jonathan Said, Dita Gratzinger, John K C Chan, Daphne de Jong, Elaine S Jaffe, Yasodha Natkunam, John R Goodlad
Objectives: The 2015 Workshop of the Society for Hematopathology/European Association for Haematopathology aimed to review immunodeficiency-related lymphoproliferative disorders with plasmablastic and plasma cell differentiation. Methods: The workshop panel reviewed human herpes virus 8 (HHV8)/Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)-associated lesions and other lesions exhibiting plasma cell differentiation, including plasmablastic proliferations with features of myeloma/plasmacytoma, plasmablastic neoplasms presenting in extranodal sites and effusion-based lymphomas, and rendered a consensus diagnosis...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393663/herpes-simplex-virus-cytomegalovirus-and-pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-in-a-treatment-naive-hiv-positive-patient-with-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-case-report
#18
Anita Bapat, Eliahu Bishburg, Sandhya Nagarakanti
Infection with multiple pathogens concurrently has become less common since the introduction of potent antiretroviral agent and effective prophylactic agents. We describe a patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) admitted with pneumonia who was found to have AIDS and diagnosed with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, human herpesvirus type 1 (HHV-1), and a concomitant cytomegalovirus viremia. Polymerase chain reaction viral load was used for diagnosis of HHV-1 and follow-up. The patient was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ganciclovir and had a resolution of pneumonia...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393250/inhibition-of-varicella%C3%A2-zoster-virus-replication-by-an-ethanol-extract-of-lysimachia-mauritiana
#19
Sohee Bae, Yoon-Jae Song
Varicella‑zoster virus (VZV), a ubiquitous human α‑herpesvirus, is the causative agent of chickenpox and shingles. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of a 70% ethanol extract of Lysimachia mauritiana (LME) against VZV. LME strongly interfered with the replication of both laboratory and clinical strains of VZV without affecting the viability of MRC‑5 cells. Moreover, LME treatment suppressed the expression of an essential viral transactivator, immediate‑early 62 protein (IE62), in addition to other lytic genes in the later phases of viral replication...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392330/viral-reactivations-and-associated-outcomes-in-context-of-immune-reconstitution-after-pediatric-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#20
Rick Admiraal, Coco de Koning, Caroline A Lindemans, Marc B Bierings, Annemarie M J Wensing, A Birgitta Versluys, Tom F W Wolfs, Stefan Nierkens, Jaap Jan Boelens
BACKGROUND: Viral reactivations (VR) following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) contribute to significant morbidity and mortality. Timely immune reconstitution (IR) is suggested to prevent VR. OBJECTIVES: We studied the relation between IR (as a continuous over-time-predictor) and VR (as time-varying-predictor), and the relation between VR and other clinical outcomes. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, all patients receiving a first HCT between January-2004 and September-2014 were included...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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