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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545483/encephalitis-associated-with-human-herpesvirus-7-infection-in-an-immunocompetent-adult
#1
Mónica Parra, Adoración Alcala, Cristina Amoros, Anna Baeza, Antonio Galiana, David Tarragó, Miguel Ángel García-Quesada, Victoria Sánchez-Hellín
BACKGROUND: Primary Human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) infection usually occurs during childhood and causes several clinical manifestations: mainly exanthem subitum (roseola infantum), followed by a lifelong latent state with possible reactivation in case of immunodeficiency. Nevertheless, some considerably different approaches exist regarding the natural history of HHV-7 and the possible consequences of HHV-7 infection in immunocompetent adults. In particular, little is known about its pathogenic role in central nervous system (CNS) disease in nonimmunosuppressed adults...
May 25, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543733/development-of-real-time-rt-pcr-assays-for-detection-of-three-classes-of-hhv-6a-gene-transcripts
#2
Masaru Ihira, Akiko Urashima, Hiroki Miura, Fumihiko Hattori, Yoshiki Kawamura, Ken Sugata, Tetsushi Yoshikawa
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), a member of the betaherpesvirus family, has two distinct species: HHV-6A and HHV-6B. HHV-6B real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been used to distinguish between active and latent viral infection. In this study, we developed a real-time RT-PCR assay to detect HHV-6A-specific transcripts and evaluated its reliability for analysis of clinical samples. To develop HHV-6A-specific real-time RT-PCR assays, three different classes of gene transcripts (immediate early: U90; early: U12; and late: U100) were selected as targets...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542909/the-role-of-metabolic-reprogramming-in-%C3%AE-herpesvirus-associated-oncogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Angela Kwok-Fung Lo, Christopher W Dawson, Lawrence S Young, Kwok-Wai Lo
The γ-herpesviruses, EBV and KSHV, are closely associated with a number of human cancers. While the signal transduction pathways exploited by γ-herpesviruses to promote cell growth, survival and transformation have been reported, recent studies have uncovered the impact of γ-herpesvirus infection on host cell metabolism. Here, we review the mechanisms utilised by γ-herpesviruses to induce metabolic reprogramming in host cells, focusing on their ability to modulate the activity of metabolic regulators and manipulate metabolic pathways...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542724/viruses-and-endogenous-retroviruses-in-multiple-sclerosis-from-correlation-to-causation
#4
REVIEW
A-F A Mentis, E Dardiotis, N Grigoriadis, E Petinaki, G M Hadjigeorgiou
Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated disease with an environmental component. According to a long-standing but unproven hypothesis dating to initial descriptions of multiple sclerosis (MS) at the end of the 19th century, viruses are either directly or indirectly implicated in MS pathogenesis. Whether viruses in MS are principally causal or simply contributory remains to be proven, but many viruses or viral elements-predominantly Epstein-Barr virus, human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) but also less common viruses such as Saffold and measles viruses-are associated with MS...
May 23, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542207/metagenomic-sequencing-complements-routine-diagnostics-in-identifying-viral-pathogens-in-lung-transplant-recipients-with-unknown-etiology-of-respiratory-infection
#5
Dagmara W Lewandowska, Peter W Schreiber, Macé M Schuurmans, Bettina Ruehe, Osvaldo Zagordi, Cornelia Bayard, Michael Greiner, Fabienne D Geissberger, Riccarda Capaul, Andrea Zbinden, Jürg Böni, Christian Benden, Nicolas J Mueller, Alexandra Trkola, Michael Huber
BACKGROUND: Lung transplant patients are a vulnerable group of immunosuppressed patients that are prone to frequent respiratory infections. We studied 60 episodes of respiratory symptoms in 71 lung transplant patients. Almost half of these episodes were of unknown infectious etiology despite extensive routine diagnostic testing. METHODS: We re-analyzed respiratory samples of all episodes with undetermined etiology in order to detect potential viral pathogens missed/not accounted for in routine diagnostics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534034/clinical-and-mucosal-immune-correlates-of-hiv-1-semen-levels-in-antiretroviral-naive-men
#6
Brendan J W Osborne, Angie K Marsh, Sanja Huibner, Kamnoosh Shahabi, Cindy Liu, Tania Contente, Nico J D Nagelkerke, Colin Kovacs, Erika Benko, Lance Price, Kelly S MacDonald, Rupert Kaul
BACKGROUND: This study was done to characterize parameters associated with semen human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) viral load (VL) variability in HIV-infected, therapy-naive men. METHODS: Paired blood and semen samples were collected from 30 HIV-infected, therapy-naive men who have sex with men, and 13 participants were observed longitudinally for up to 1 year. Human immunodeficiency virus RNA, bacterial load by 16S RNA, herpesvirus (Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus [CMV]) shedding, and semen cytokines/chemokines were quantified, and semen T-cell subsets were assessed by multiparameter flow cytometry...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531260/comparison-of-kaposi-sarcoma-risk-in-hiv-positive-adults-across-five-continents-a-multiregional-multicohort-study
#7
Julia Bohlius
Background: We compared Kaposi sarcoma (KS) risk in adults who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) across the Asia-Pacific, South Africa, Europe, Latin, and North America. Methods: We included cohort data of HIV-positive adults who initiated ART after 1995 within the framework of two large collaborations of observational HIV cohorts. We present incidence rates and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs). Results: We included 208,140 patients from 57 countries...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514666/a-temporal-proteomic-map-of-epstein-barr-virus-lytic-replication-in-b-cells
#8
Ina Ersing, Luis Nobre, Liang Wei Wang, Lior Soday, Yijie Ma, Joao A Paulo, Yohei Narita, Camille W Ashbaugh, Chang Jiang, Nicholas E Grayson, Elliott Kieff, Steven P Gygi, Michael P Weekes, Benjamin E Gewurz
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication contributes to multiple human diseases, including infectious mononucleosis, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, B cell lymphomas, and oral hairy leukoplakia. We performed systematic quantitative analyses of temporal changes in host and EBV proteins during lytic replication to gain insights into virus-host interactions, using conditional Burkitt lymphoma models of type I and II EBV infection. We quantified profiles of >8,000 cellular and 69 EBV proteins, including >500 plasma membrane proteins, providing temporal views of the lytic B cell proteome and EBV virome...
May 16, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502522/human-herpesvirus-8-related-diseases-histopathologic-diagnosis-and-disease-mechanisms
#9
REVIEW
Matthew Auten, Annette S Kim, Kyle T Bradley, Flavia G Rosado
The emergence of HIV/AIDS more than three decades ago led to an increased incidence of diseases caused by HHV8 co-infection, particularly Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman disease. Over time, the development of highly effective AIDS therapies has resulted in a decreased incidence of HHV8-associated entities, which are now more commonly found in patients with undiagnosed and/or untreated AIDS. Due to their rarity, some of these diseases may be difficult to recognize without appropriate clinical information...
April 6, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501929/hyponatremia-associated-with-human-herpesvirus-6-hhv-6-encephalitis-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-presentation-different-from-hhv-6-myelitis
#10
Koichi Murakami, Sumiko Kohashi, Masatoshi Sakurai, Jun Kato, Takaaki Toyama, Yuya Koda, Yusuke Yamane, Risa Hashida, Ryohei Abe, Rie Yamazaki, Taku Kikuchi, Takayuki Shimizu, Shigeaki Suzuki, Naoki Hasegawa, Shinichiro Okamoto, Takehiko Mori
Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) encephalitis and myelitis following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is frequently life-threatening. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical significance of hyponatremia in cases of HHV-6 encephalitis/myelitis. Using an institutional database and medical records, we identified and retrospectively analyzed 16 cases of HHV-6 encephalitis and/or myelitis after allogeneic HSCT. HHV-6 encephalitis and myelitis were defined as the symptoms/signs with HHV-6-DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid...
May 13, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501028/multicentric-castleman-disease-of-hyaline-vascular-variant-presenting-with-unusual-systemic-manifestations-a-case-report
#11
B M D B Basnayake, A W M Wazil, T Kannangara, N V I Ratnatunga, S Hewamana, A M Ameer
BACKGROUND: Castleman disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder presenting with localized or disseminated lymphadenopathy and systemic manifestations. It can be categorized in numerous ways, such as unicentric versus multicentric, histopathological variants (hyaline-vascular, plasma cell, and mixed), or subtypes based on causative viral infections (human immunodeficiency virus, human herpesvirus-8, or Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus). Presentation ranges from asymptomatic to symptoms involving multiple organs...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497735/-endogenous-retroviral-sequences-in-the-human-genome-can-play-a-physiological-or-pathological-role
#12
Julie Medina, Benjamin Charvet, Pascal Leblanc, Raphaële Germi, Branka Horvat, Patrice N Marche, Hervé Perron
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) represent a large part of our genome and the few elements that have retained a potential of expression still remain "dormant" in physiological conditions. In some instances, they can be awakened by environmental factors activating their expression. The best studied conditions of HERV activation are infections caused by microorganisms such as viruses of the Herpesvirus family. This activation can thus lead to the expression of pathogenic proteins such as envelope proteins belonging to the HERV-W and HERV-K families, respectively involved in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
April 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494237/microbial-vertical-transmission-during-human-pregnancy
#13
REVIEW
Nitin Arora, Yoel Sadovsky, Terence S Dermody, Carolyn B Coyne
Congenital infections with pathogens such as Zika virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Listeria monocytogenes, Treponema pallidium, parvovirus, HIV, varicella zoster virus, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpesviruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the devastating impact of microbial infections on the developing fetus, relatively little is known about how pathogens associated with congenital disease breach the placental barrier to transit vertically during human pregnancy. In this Review, we focus on transplacental transmission of pathogens during human gestation...
May 10, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490711/purification-crystallization-and-x-ray-diffraction-study-of-the-c-terminal-domain-of-human-herpesvirus-6a-immediate-early-protein-2
#14
Junjie Wang, Mitsuhiro Nishimura, Aika Wakata, Yasuko Mori
Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) starts its replication cycle following the action of immediate early proteins that transactivate viral promoters. Immediate early protein 2 (IE2) of HHV-6A is a 1500 amino acid polypeptide with a C-terminal region that is conserved among beta-herpesvirus subfamily members. In this study, a structural domain in the homologous C-terminal region was subjected to secondary structure prediction, and residues 1324-1500 were subsequently designated as the C-terminal domain of IE2 (IE2-CTD)...
April 7, 2017: Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484459/human-cytomegalovirus-induced-degradation-of-cytip-modulates-dendritic-cell-adhesion-and-migration
#15
Linda Grosche, Christina Draßner, Petra Mühl-Zürbes, Lisa Kamm, Vu Thuy Khanh Le-Trilling, Mirko Trilling, Alexander Steinkasserer, Christiane S Heilingloh
As potent antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for the initiation of effective antiviral immune responses. Viruses and especially herpesviruses, which are able to establish lifelong persistence, exploit several immune evasion mechanisms targeting DC biology. Our group has previously shown that the α-herpesvirus herpes simplex virus type 1 inhibits mature DC (mDC) migration by inducing adhesion via degrading the cellular protein CYTIP (cytohesin-1 interacting protein), an important negative regulator of β2-integrin activity...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478829/the-use-of-heparin-in-infertility-and-recurrent-pregnancy-loss-are-its-antiviral-properties-at-play
#16
Eva Eliassen, Roberto Marci, Dario Di Luca, Roberta Rizzo
Recently, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) has been implicated in cases of poor pregnancy outcomes. The ability of HHV-6 to disrupt endothelial cell functioning may inhibit the creation of an appropriate uterine environment for implantation and fetal development, resulting in infertility and pregnancy loss, among other complications. Heparin has been used to treat pregnant women who are predisposed to thrombosis, and it has also been used in some women with infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss without associated thrombotic events...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476346/comparative-evaluation-of-a-laboratory-developed-real-time-pcr-assay-and-the-realstar-%C3%A2-hhv-6-pcr-kit-for-quantitative-detection-of-human-herpesvirus-6
#17
Cyril C Y Yip, Siddharth Sridhar, Andrew K W Cheng, Ami M Y Fung, Vincent C C Cheng, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen
BACKGROUND: HHV-6 reactivation in immunocompromised patients is common and may be associated with serious morbidity and mortality; therefore, early detection and initiation of therapy might be of benefit. Real-time PCR assays allow for early identification of HHV-6 reactivation to assist in providing a timely response. Thus, we compared the performance of an in-house developed HHV-6 quantitative PCR assay with a commercially available kit, the RealStar(®) HHV-6 PCR Kit. METHOD: The analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy of the in-house developed HHV-6 qPCR assay were evaluated...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472480/characterizing-the-cellular-immune-response-to-parainfluenza-virus-3
#18
Paibel I Aguayo-Hiraldo, Reuben J Arasaratnam, Ifigeneia Tzannou, Manik Kuvalekar, Premal Lulla, Swati Naik, Caridad A Martinez, Pedro A Piedra, Juan F Vera, Ann M Leen
Parainfluenza virus (PIV) 3 infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals with no approved therapies. Our group has demonstrated the safety and efficacy of adoptively transferred virus-specific T cells for the prevention and treatment of a broad range of viral infections including BK virus, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, human herpesvirus 6 and Epstein-Barr virus. However, this approach is restricted to well-characterized viruses with known immunogenic/protective T cell target antigens, precluding extension to PIV-3...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469695/molecular-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-opportunistic-infections-and-mortality-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-central-china
#19
Rongrong Yang, Hong Zhang, Yong Xiong, Xien Gui, Yongxi Zhang, Liping Deng, Shicheng Gao, Mingqi Luo, Wei Hou, Deyin Guo
BACKGROUND: CSF PCR is the standard diagnostic technique used in resource-rich settings to detect pathogens of the CNS infection. However, it is not currently used for routine CSF testing in China. Knowledge of CNS opportunistic infections among people living with HIV in China is limited. METHODS: Intensive cerebrospiral fluid (CSF) testing was performed to evaluate for bacterial, viral and fungal etiologies. Pathogen-specific primers were used to detect DNA from cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and John Cunningham virus (JCV) via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468887/stabilization-of-telomere-g-quadruplexes-interferes-with-human-herpesvirus-6a-chromosomal-integration
#20
Shella Gilbert-Girard, Annie Gravel, Sara Artusi, Sara N Richter, Nina Wallaschek, Benedikt B Kaufer, Louis Flamand
Human herpesvirus 6A and 6B (HHV-6A/B) can integrate their genomes into the telomeres of human chromosomes using a mechanism that remains poorly understood. To achieve a better understanding of the HHV-6 integration mechanism, we made use of BRACO-19, a compound that stabilizes G-quadruplex secondary structures and prevent telomere elongation by the telomerase complex. First, we analyzed the folding of telomeric sequences into G-quadruplex structures and their binding to BRACO-19 using G-quadruplex specific antibodies and surface plasmon resonance...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Virology
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