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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926930/cytomegalovirus-specific-il-10-producing-cd4-t-cells-are-governed-by-type-i-ifn-induced-il-27-and-promote-virus-persistence
#1
Mathew Clement, Morgan Marsden, Maria A Stacey, Juneid Abdul-Karim, Silvia Gimeno Brias, Diana Costa Bento, Martin J Scurr, Peter Ghazal, Casey T Weaver, Gianluca Carlesso, Simon Clare, Simon A Jones, Andrew Godkin, Gareth W Jones, Ian R Humphreys
CD4+ T cells support host defence against herpesviruses and other viral pathogens. We identified that CD4+ T cells from systemic and mucosal tissues of hosts infected with the β-herpesviridae human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) express the regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. IL-10+CD4+ T cells co-expressed TH1-associated transcription factors and chemokine receptors. Mice lacking T cell-derived IL-10 elicited enhanced antiviral T cell responses and restricted MCMV persistence in salivary glands and secretion in saliva...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914460/possible-mechanisms-of-acquisition-of-herpesvirus-virokines
#2
E A Gorshkova, E S Shilov
The genomes of certain types of human and primate herpesviruses contain functional homologs of important host cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, and IL-10), or so-called virokines. Virokines can interact with immune cell receptors, transmit a signal to them, and thus switch the type of immune response that facilitates viral infection development. In this work, we have summarized possible ways of virokine origin and proposed an evolutionary scenario of virokine acquisition with involvement of retroviral coinfection of the host...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911112/treatment-of-alpha-and-beta-herpesvirus-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#3
C L Abad, R R Razonable
Human herpesviruses frequently cause infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Areas covered: We provide an overview of the clinical impact of alpha and beta herpesviruses and highlight the mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical indications, and adverse effects of antiviral drugs for the management of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and cytomegalovirus. We comprehensively evaluated key clinical trials that led to drug approval, and served as the foundation for management guidelines...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908828/assessment-of-the-potential-for-host-targeted-iminosugars-uv-4-and-uv-5-activity-against-filovirus-infections-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#4
Kelly L Warfield, Travis K Warren, Xiangguo Qiu, Jay Wells, Chad E Mire, Joan B Geisbert, Kelly S Stuthman, Nicole L Garza, Sean A Van Tongeren, Amy C Shurtleff, Krystle N Agans, Gary Wong, Michael V Callahan, Thomas W Geisbert, Brennan Klose, Urban Ramstedt, Anthony M Treston
Iminosugars are host-directed antivirals with broad-spectrum activity. The iminosugar, N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ or Miglustat(®)), is used in humans for treatment of Gaucher's disease and has mild antiviral properties. More potent analogs of NB-DNJ have been generated and have demonstrated activity against a variety of viruses including flaviviruses, influenza, herpesviruses and filoviruses. In the current study, a panel of analogs based on NB-DNJ was analyzed for activity against Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg viruses (MARV)...
November 28, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883971/2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-and-the-viral-infection
#5
REVIEW
Filomena Fiorito, Rita Santamaria, Carlo Irace, Luisa De Martino, Giuseppe Iovane
Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a widespread highly toxic environmental contaminant, suppresses immune response and leads to an increased susceptibility to infectious agents. In particular, several studies have provided evidence that TCDD decreases resistance to numerous viruses. Indeed, in vivo and in vitro investigations showed that the presence of TCDD is able to interfere with the replication of both human and animal viruses, such as influenza A viruses, coxsackie virus B3, immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex II, and bovine herpesvirus 1...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881138/bohv-4-based-vector-delivering-ebola-virus-surface-glycoprotein
#6
Alfonso Rosamilia, Sarah Jacca, Giulia Tebaldi, Silvia Tiberti, Valentina Franceschi, Francesca Macchi, Sandro Cavirani, Gary Kobinger, Donald P Knowles, Gaetano Donofrio
BACKGROUND: Ebola virus (EBOV) is a Category A pathogen that is a member of Filoviridae family that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. Unpredictable and devastating outbreaks of disease have recently occurred in Africa and current immunoprophylaxis and therapies are limited. The main limitation of working with pathogens like EBOV is the need for costly containment. To potentiate further and wider opportunity for EBOV prophylactics and therapies development, innovative approaches are necessary...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874833/a-herpesviral-induction-of-rae-1-nkg2d-ligand-expression-occurs-through-release-of-hdac-mediated-repression
#7
Trever T Greene, Maria Tokuyama, Giselle M Knudsen, Michele Kunz, James Lin, Alexander L Greninger, Victor R DeFilippis, Joseph L DeRisi, David H Raulet, Laurent Coscoy
Natural Killer (NK) cells are essential for control of viral infection and cancer. NK cells express NKG2D, an activating receptor that directly recognizes NKG2D ligands. These are expressed at low level on healthy cells, but are induced by stresses like infection and transformation. The physiological events that drive NKG2D ligand expression during infection are still poorly understood. We observed that the mouse cytomegalovirus encoded protein m18 is necessary and sufficient to drive expression of the RAE-1 family of NKG2D ligands...
November 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873273/isolation-and-characterization-of-exosomes-released-by-ebv-immortalized-cells
#8
Gulfaraz Khan, Waqar Ahmed
Epstein-Barr virus is an oncogenic herpesvirus associated with several human malignancies. Although the details of the molecular steps involved in EBV-mediated cell transformation and immune evasion are not fully known, a number of viral products, including EBV latent proteins and non-protein coding RNAs have been shown to be involved, directly or indirectly in these processes. In recent years, a growing body of data indicates that some viruses are able to transport selected products to neighboring cells and induce biological changes by exploiting the exosome secretory pathway...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872774/pulmonary-kaposi-sarcoma-an-uncommon-cause-of-respiratory-failure-in-the-era-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Stanley M Nwabudike, Stefan Hemmings, Yonette Paul, Yordanis Habtegebriel, Octavius Polk, Alem Mehari
Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) is the most common malignancy associated with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and is caused by Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV 8) or Kaposi Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV). In about 90% of cases Kaposi Sarcoma is associated with cutaneous lesions; however visceral disease can occur in the absence of cutaneous involvement. In the era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), the incidence of KS has declined. Clinical features of pulmonary KS might be difficult to distinguish from pneumonia in the immunocompromised patients and could lead to diagnostic challenges...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871228/genome-wide-analysis-of-g-quadruplexes-in-herpesvirus-genomes
#10
Banhi Biswas, Manish Kandpal, Utkarsh Kumar Jauhari, Perumal Vivekanandan
BACKGROUND: G-quadruplexes are increasingly recognized as regulatory elements in human, animal, bacterial and plant genomes. The presence and function of G-quadruplexes are not well studied among herpesviruses; in particular, there are no systematic genome-wide analysis of these important secondary structures in herpesvirus genomes. RESULTS: We performed genome-wide analysis of putative quadruplex sequences (PQS) in human herpesviruses. We found unusually high PQS densities among human herpesviruses...
November 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864801/high-prevalence-of-human-herpesvirus-8-infection-in-diabetes-type-2-patients-and-detection-of-a-new-virus-subtype
#11
Enrica Piras, Maria A Madeddu, Giuseppina Palmieri, Fabrizio Angius, Pierpaolo Contini, Raffaello Pompei, Angela Ingianni
The prevalence of Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) DNA and antiviral antibodies in Diabetes type 2 (DM2) and control subjects was studied, in order to confirm a possible link between DM2 and HHV8 infection. The HHV8-DNA from diabetic patients was typed for detecting possible genomic differences with known HHV8 reference viruses.DM2 patients and healthy controls were examined for the presence of HHV8 DNA into the peripheral blood lymphocytes. Both anti-lytic and latent phase antibodies were detected in HHV8 positive and negative diabetic patients, as well in a number of controls...
November 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862208/cytokine-and-cellular-responses-to-human-herpesvirus-6b-in-patients-with-b-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#12
Faten Nefzi, Claude Lambert, Agnès Gautheret-Dejean, Sylvain Fisson, Quentin Khebizi, Abderrahim Khelif, Henri Agut, Mahjoub Aouni
Primary infection with human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), is followed by its lifelong persistence in the host. Most T-cell responses to HHV-6 have been characterized using peripheral blood from healthy adults; however, the role of HHV-6 infection in immune modulation has not been elucidated for some diseases. Therefore, in this study the immune response to HHV-6 infection in patients with B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) was analyzed. HHV-6 load was quantified in blood samples taken at the time of diagnosis of leukemia and on remission...
November 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860066/crispr-cas9-a-powerful-tool-to-target-human-herpesviruses
#13
REVIEW
Ferdy R van Diemen, Robert Jan Lebbink
Over 90% of the adult population is infected with one or multiple herpesviruses. These viruses are characterized by their ability to establish latency, where the host is unable to clear the invader from infected cells resulting in a lifelong infection. Herpesviruses cause a wide variety of (recurrent) diseases such as cold sores, shingles, congenial defects and several malignancies. Although the productive phase of a herpesvirus infection can often be efficiently limited by nucleoside analogues, these drugs are ineffective during a latent herpesvirus infection and are therefore unable to clear herpesviruses from the human host...
November 16, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859994/transmission-of-chromosomally-integrated-human-herpesvirus-6-via-cord-blood-transplantation
#14
Yuji Yamada, Tomoo Osumi, Ken-Ichi Imadome, Etsuko Takahashi, Tamae Ohye, Tetsushi Yoshikawa, Daisuke Tomizawa, Motohiro Kato, Kimikazu Matsumoto
Chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 (ciHHV-6) can be transmitted via allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. To date, only a few cases have been reported. Here, we report a case identified as transmission of ciHHV-6 via cord blood transplantation. Distinguishing transmission of ciHHV-6 from HHV-6 reactivation in cases with high titer of HHV-6 DNA load after transplantation is important to prevent unnecessary exposure to antiviral drugs which could be toxic. This article is protected by copyright...
November 16, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854239/kshv-entry-and-trafficking-in-target-cells-hijacking-of-cell-signal-pathways-actin-and-membrane-dynamics
#15
REVIEW
Binod Kumar, Bala Chandran
Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is etiologically associated with human endothelial cell hyperplastic Kaposi's sarcoma and B-cell primary effusion lymphoma. KSHV infection of adherent endothelial and fibroblast cells are used as in vitro models for infection and KSHV enters these cells by host membrane bleb and actin mediated macropinocytosis or clathrin endocytosis pathways, respectively. Infection in endothelial and fibroblast cells is initiated by the interactions between multiple viral envelope glycoproteins and cell surface associated heparan sulfate (HS), integrins (α3β1, αVβ3 and αVβ5), and EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase (EphA2R)...
November 14, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853717/amiata-donkey-milk-chain-animal-health-evaluation-and-milk-quality
#16
Giuseppe Ragona, Franco Corrias, Martina Benedetti, Maria Paladini, Federica Salari, Lolanda Altomonte, Mina Martini
This study presents an investigation of Amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. Thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. The following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp.) and donkey abortion agents (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Salmonella abortus equi, Equine viral arterithis virus, Equine herpesvirus type 1)...
June 3, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852859/kshv-micrornas-target-gadd45b-to-protect-infected-cells-from-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis
#17
Xiaoyan Liu, Christine Happel, Joseph M Ziegelbauer
: Kaposi's sarcoma is one of the most common malignancies in HIV-infected individuals. The responsible agent, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, HHV8) expresses multiple microRNAs (miRNAs), but the targets and functions of these miRNAs are not completely understood. After infection in primary endothelial cells with KSHV, growth arrest DNA damage-inducible gene 45 beta (GADD45B) is one of the most repressed genes using genomic expression profiling. GADD45B was also repressed in mRNA expression profiling experiments when KSHV miRNAs were introduced to uninfected cells...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852850/dual-function-of-the-pul7-pul51-tegument-protein-complex-in-hsv-1-infection
#18
Anna Albecka, Danielle J Owen, Lyudmila Ivanova, Juliane Brun, Rukayya Liman, Laura Davies, M Firoz Ahmed, Susanna Colaco, Michael Hollinshead, Stephen C Graham, Colin M Crump
: The tegument of herpesviruses is a highly complex structural layer between the nucleocapsid and the envelope of virions. Tegument proteins play both structural and regulatory functions during replication and spread, but the interactions and functions of many of these proteins are poorly understood. Here we focus on two tegument proteins from herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), pUL7 and pUL51, which have homologues in all other herpesviruses. We have now identified that HSV-1 pUL7 and pUL51 form a stable and direct protein-protein interaction, their expression levels rely on the presence of each other and that they function as a complex in infected cells...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852816/occurrence-of-primary-lymphocytic-hypophysitis-in-two-horses-and-presence-of-scattered-t-lymphocytes-in-the-normal-equine-pituitary-gland
#19
Llorenç Grau-Roma, Robert Peckham, Jacqui Paton, Anina Stahel, Simone de Brot
The postmortem examination of a 14-year-old Appaloosa gelding with clinically diagnosed pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction showed a unique finding of moderate multifocal lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH). The pituitary glands of 24 horses submitted for postmortem examination were examined grossly and examined histologically for the presence of lymphocytes. Of these 23 horses, 1 additional case suffered from moderate LH. The 2 cases with LH tested negative for Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4 by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry (IHC), and no viral particles were observed by electron microscopy in 1 case examined...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837274/regulation-of-the-viral-life-cycle-by-murine-gammaherpesvirus-68-micrornas
#20
Soowon Kang, Chanoh Jeon, Kyungtaek Im, Moon Jung Song, Hyeyoung Min
γ-Herpesviruses (γHV) such as Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus are important human pathogens involved in lymphoproliferation and tumorigenesis. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68, γHV-68) is an effective model for the study of γHV pathogenesis and host-virus interaction because it is closely related to human γHV. Similarly to human γHV, MHV-68 encodes 15 microRNAs (miRNAs). Although their functions remain unknown, they are thought to regulate the viral life cycle or host-virus interactions, similarly to other human γHV...
November 11, 2016: Archives of Virology
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