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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343584/human-herpesvirus-8-interferon-regulatory-factors-1-and-3-mediate-replication-and-latency-activities-via-interactions-with-usp7-deubiquitinase
#1
Qiwang Xiang, Hyunwoo Ju, Qian Li, Szu-Chieh Mei, Daming Chen, Young Bong Choi, John Nicholas
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) encodes four viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRFs 1-4) that likely function to suppress innate immune and cellular stress responses through inhibitory interactions with various cellular proteins involved in these activities. It is notable that vIRFs 1 and 4 have been reported to interact with the deubiquitinase USP7, substrates of which include p53 and p53-targeting and destabilizing ubiquitin E3 ligase MDM2. Structural studies of vIRF-1 and vIRF-4 USP7-binding sequences in association with USP7 have been reported; both involve interactions with N-terminal domain residues of USP7, via EGPS and ASTS motifs in vIRF-1 and vIRF-4, respectively, but vIRF-4 residues also contact the catalytic site...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342872/human-cytomegalovirus-nuclear-capsids-associate-with-the-core-nuclear-egress-complex-and-the-viral-protein-kinase-pul97
#2
Jens Milbradt, Eric Sonntag, Sabrina Wagner, Hanife Strojan, Christina Wangen, Tihana Lenac Rovis, Berislav Lisnic, Stipan Jonjic, Heinrich Sticht, William J Britt, Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Manfred Marschall
The nuclear phase of herpesvirus replication is regulated through the formation of regulatory multi-component protein complexes. Viral genomic replication is followed by nuclear capsid assembly, DNA encapsidation and nuclear egress. The latter has been studied intensely pointing to the formation of a viral core nuclear egress complex (NEC) that recruits a multimeric assembly of viral and cellular factors for the reorganization of the nuclear envelope. To date, the mechanism of the association of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) capsids with the NEC, which in turn initiates the specific steps of nuclear capsid budding, remains undefined...
January 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342139/structure-and-mutagenesis-reveal-essential-capsid-protein-interactions-for-kshv-replication
#3
Xinghong Dai, Danyang Gong, Hanyoung Lim, Jonathan Jih, Ting-Ting Wu, Ren Sun, Z Hong Zhou
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) causes Kaposi's sarcoma, a cancer that commonly affects patients with AIDS and which is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. The KSHV capsid is highly pressurized by its double-stranded DNA genome, as are the capsids of the eight other human herpesviruses. Capsid assembly and genome packaging of herpesviruses are prone to interruption and can therefore be targeted for the structure-guided development of antiviral agents. However, herpesvirus capsids-comprising nearly 3,000 proteins and over 1,300 Å in diameter-present a formidable challenge to atomic structure determination and functional mapping of molecular interactions...
January 17, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339444/light-hvem-signaling-in-keratinocytes-controls-development-of-dermatitis
#4
Rana Herro, Jr-Wen Shui, Sonja Zahner, Daniel Sidler, Yuko Kawakami, Toshiaki Kawakami, Koji Tamada, Mitchell Kronenberg, Michael Croft
Dermatitis is often associated with an allergic reaction characterized by excessive type 2 responses leading to epidermal acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and dermal inflammation. Although factors like IL-4, IL-13, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) are thought to be instrumental for the development of this type of skin disorder, other cytokines may be critical. Here, we show that the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily protein LIGHT (homologous to lymphotoxin, exhibits inducible expression, and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for binding to HVEM, a receptor expressed on T lymphocytes) is required for experimental atopic dermatitis, and LIGHT directly controls keratinocyte hyperplasia, and production of periostin, a matricellular protein that contributes to the clinical features of atopic dermatitis as well as other skin diseases such as scleroderma...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337163/utility-of-ultra-deep-sequencing-for-detection-of-varicella-zoster-virus-antiviral-resistance-mutations
#5
Mélanie Mercier-Darty, David Boutolleau, Raphaël Lepeule, Christophe Rodriguez, Sonia Burrel
We report the first application of ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genotypic antiviral testing in a case of acyclovir-resistant VZV infection initially detected by Sanger sequencing within a deeply immunocompromised heart transplant recipient. As added-value compared to Sanger analysis, UDS revealed complex dynamics of viral population under antiviral pressure. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus affecting populations worldwide. VZV is commonly acquired in youth whose primary infection usually manifests as benign varicella (chickenpox)...
January 11, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334884/acroangiodermatitis-mimicking-kaposi-s-sarcoma-in-an-hiv-positive-man
#6
B P Goorney, J Newsham, D Fitzgerald, L Motta
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the commonest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related malignancy with its characteristic cutaneous morphological appearance and histopathological features. However, it can be simulated by other co-morbid opportunistic infections and unrelated dermatological conditions. We describe such a case of acroangiodermatitis in an HIV co-infected man, based on exclusion of KS histologically and the absence of human herpesvirus 8, the causative agent of KS.
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322174/human-herpesvirus-8-associated-inflammatory-cytokine-syndrome
#7
Marta Prieto-Barrios, Raquel Aragón-Miguel, David Tarragó-Asensio, Antonio Lalueza, Carlos Zarco-Olivo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317752/epstein-barr-virus-encoded-rnas-ebers-complement-the-loss-of-herpesvirus-telomerase-rna-vtr-in-virus-induced-tumor-formation
#8
Ahmed Kheimar, Benedikt B Kaufer
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes fatal lymphomas in chickens and is used as a natural virus-host model for herpesvirus-induced tumorigenesis. MDV encodes a telomerase RNA subunit (vTR) that is crucial for efficient MDV-induced lymphoma formation; however, the mechanism is not completely understood. Similarly, Epstein Barr-virus (EBV) encodes two RNAs (EBER-1 and EBER-2) that are highly expressed in EBV-induced tumor cells, however their role in tumorigenesis remains unclear. Intriguingly, vTR and EBER-1 have interaction partners in common that are highly conserved in humans and chickens...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316040/herpesviruses-viral-loads-and-levels-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-apical-periodontitis
#9
Aleksandar Jakovljevic, Aleksandra Knezevic, Nadja Nikolić, Ivan Soldatović, Tanja Jovanovic, Jelena Milasin, Miroslav Andric
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyse Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) viral loads in symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis lesions, to determine levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in these lesions and to investigate a possible correlation between herpesviral copy numbers and levels of proinflammatory cytokines . MATERIALS AND METHODS: 100 samples of apical periodontitis were subjected to HCMV and EBV copy numbers analysis by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and TaqMan real-time PCR...
January 9, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304865/evaluation-of-a-method-to-measure-hhv-6b-infection-in%C3%A2-vitro-based-on-cell-size
#10
Aniuska Becerra-Artiles, Tessa Santoro, Lawrence J Stern
BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) infection of cell cultures can be measured by different methods, including immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, or quantification of virus DNA by qPCR. These methods are reliable and sensitive but require long processing times and can be costly. Another method used in the field relies on the identification of enlarged cells in the culture; this method requires little sample processing and is relatively fast. However, visual inspection of cell cultures can be subjective and it can be difficult to establish clear criteria to decide if a cell is enlarged...
January 5, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301233/analyses-of-tissue-culture-adaptation-of-human-herpesvirus-6a-by-whole-genome-deep-sequencing-redefines-the-reference-sequence-and-identifies-virus-entry-complex-changes
#11
Joshua G Tweedy, Eric Escriva, Maya Topf, Ursula A Gompels
Tissue-culture adaptation of viruses can modulate infection. Laboratory passage and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)mid cloning of human cytomegalovirus, HCMV, resulted in genomic deletions and rearrangements altering genes encoding the virus entry complex, which affected cellular tropism, virulence, and vaccine development. Here, we analyse these effects on the reference genome for related betaherpesviruses, Roseolovirus, human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) strain U1102. This virus is also naturally "cloned" by germline subtelomeric chromosomal-integration in approximately 1% of human populations, and accurate references are key to understanding pathological relationships between exogenous and endogenous virus...
December 31, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299190/evaluation-of-microbiota-associated-with-herpesviruses-in-active-sites-of-generalized-aggressive-periodontitis
#12
Claudio Passariello, Pierangelo Gigola, Luca Testarelli, Monica Puttini, Serena Schippa, Stefano Petti
Aims: The present study aimed to investigate microbial patterns associated with disease progression and coinfection by different Herpesviruses in generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP). Methods: Microbiological samples were obtained from active (AS) and non-active (n-AS) sites in 165 subjects affected by GAP and were analyzed for 40 bacterial species by the Checkerboard DNA-DNA Hybridization technique and for Herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1), Human Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein Bar virus (EBV) by PCR...
April 2017: Annali di Stomatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298889/a-role-for-myosin-va-in-human-cytomegalovirus-nuclear-egress
#13
Adrian R Wilkie, Mayuri Sharma, Jean M Pesola, Maria Ericsson, Rosio Fernandez, Donald M Coen
Herpesviruses replicate and package their genomes into capsids in replication compartments within the nuclear interior. Capsids then move to the inner nuclear membrane for envelopment and release into the cytoplasm in a process called nuclear egress. We previously found that nuclear F-actin is induced upon infection with the β-herpesvirus, human cytomegalovirus, and is important for nuclear egress and capsid localization away from replication compartment-like inclusions towards the nuclear rim. Despite these and related findings, it has not been shown that any specific motor protein is involved in herpesvirus nuclear egress...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297965/the-impact-of-alternative-donor-types-on-viral-infections-in-pediatric-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#14
D Atay, A Akcay, F Erbey, G Ozturk
Viral infections remain one of the most important complications following allogeneic HSCT. Few reports compare virus infection between different donor types in pediatric patients. We retrospectively analyzed viral infections and the outcome of one hundred and seventy-one pediatric patients (median 7.38 years) who underwent allogeneic HSCT from matched related donor (MRD, n = 71), 10 of 10 HLA allele-matched unrelated donors (MUD1; n = 29), 9 of 10 HLA allele-matched unrelated donors (MUD2; n = 40), and haploidentical donors (n = 31)...
January 3, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291200/human-herpesvirus-8-positive-iatrogenic-kaposi-s-sarcoma-in-the-setting-of-refractory-ulcerative-colitis
#15
Erica Duh, Sean Fine
Although Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has been more traditionally considered an AIDS-defining illness, it may also be seen in individuals on immunosuppresive therapy. We report a case of a patient who presented to the hospital in the setting of increasingly refractory ulcerative colitis. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen was consistent with sigmoid diverticulititis and blood cultures were positive for Klebsiella. After a course of antibiotics with resolution of infection, a colonoscopy was performed to evaluate his diverticulitis and incidentally revealed a new rectal tumor...
December 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245944/extracellular-vesicles-from-kshv-infected-endothelial-cells-activate-the-complement-system
#16
Hyungtaek Jeon, Seung-Min Yoo, Hyo Sun Choi, Ji Young Mun, Hee-Gyoo Kang, Jiyeong Lee, Jinsung Park, Shou-Jiang Gao, Myung-Shin Lee
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), released by cells, are associated with cell-to-cell communication and regulate various cellular processes. EVs draw parallels with viruses for their similar structures and functions. Increasing evidences from recent studies indicate that cells infected with viruses release a variety of EVs. Delineating the functions and mechanisms of EVs released during virus infection is essential for understanding the molecular basis of viral infection and replication as well as associated pathogenesis...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244209/generation-of-a-kshv-k13-deletion-mutant-for-vflip-function-study
#17
Fei Wang, Yuanyuan Guo, Wan Li, Chun Lu, Qin Yan
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded viral Fas-associated death domain-like IL-1-converting enzyme inhibitory protein (vFLIP) is one of the latently expressed genes and plays a key role in cell survival and maintenance of latent infection by activating the NF-κB pathway. To obtain a genetic system for studying KSHV vFLIP mutation in the context of the viral genome, we generated recombinant viruses lacking the coding sequence (CDS) of vFLIP gene (K13/ORF71) by bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology and the Escherichia coli Red recombination system...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239890/omega-3-decreases-interleukin-6-levels-in-hiv-and-hhv-8-co-infected-patients-results-from-a-randomized-supplementation-trial-in-uganda
#18
Anna E Coghill, Jeanette M Schenk, Zeina Mahkoul, Jackson Orem, Warren Phipps, Corey Casper
OBJECTIVE: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an HIV-associated malignancy caused by human herpesvirus-8 that occurs at highest incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. KS patients often present with inflammatory symptoms associated with higher mortality. DESIGN: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in Uganda to test whether omega-3 (ω-3) supplementation could reduce inflammation in HIV and HHV-8 co-infected adults ≥ 18 years of age. Patients with acute illness, AIDS, or advanced KS were ineligible, as were pregnant women...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228551/human-cytomegalovirus-and-herpes-simplex-type-i-virus-can-engage-rna-polymerase-i-for-transcription-of-immediate-early-genes
#19
Ourania N Kostopoulou, Vanessa Wilhelmi, Sina Raiss, Sharan Ananthaseshan, Mikael S Lindström, Jiri Bartek, Cecilia Söderberg-Naucler
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) utilizes RNA polymerase II to transcribe viral genes and produce viral mRNAs. It can specifically target the nucleolus to facilitate viral transcription and translation. As RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-mediated transcription is active in the nucleolus, we investigated the role of Pol I, along with relative contributions of the human Pol II and Pol III, to early phases of viral transcription in HCMV infected cells, compared with Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) and Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV)...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224806/oncogenic-dna-viruses-found-in-salivary-gland-tumors
#20
Alyce A Chen, Tarik Gheit, Marco Stellin, Valentina Lupato, Giacomo Spinato, Roberto Fuson, Anna Menegaldo, Sandrine Mckay-Chopin, Elisa Dal Cin, Giancarlo Tirelli, Maria Cristina Da Mosto, Massimo Tommasino, Paolo Boscolo-Rizzo
BACKGROUND: Previous investigations studying the association of DNA viruses with salivary gland tumors (SGTs) have led to conflicting results. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different DNA viruses by using a highly sensitive assay in a multi-center series of over 100 fresh frozen salivary gland samples. METHODS: DNA was isolated from 84 SGTs (80 parotid tumors and 4 submandibular gland tumors) and 28 normal salivary tissue samples from 85 patients in Northeast Italy...
December 2017: Oral Oncology
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