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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787887/human-pegivirus-persistence-in-the-human-blood-virome-after-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#1
Diem-Lan Vu, Samuel Cordey, Federico Simonetta, Francisco Brito, Mylène Docquier, Lara Turin, Christian van Delden, Elsa Boely, Carole Dantin, Amandine Pradier, Eddy Roosnek, Yves Chalandon, Evgeny M Zdobnov, Stavroula Masouridi-Levrat, Laurent Kaiser
OBJECTIVES: As commensal viruses are defined by the immunological tolerance afforded to them, any immunomodulation, such as is received during haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, may shift the demarcation between innocuous viral resident and disease-causing pathogen. METHODS: We analysed by deep-sequencing the plasma virome of 40 allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients 1 month post-transplantation. As human pegivirus (HPgV) was highly prevalent, we performed a one-year screening of 122 plasma samples by specific rRT-PCR assay...
May 19, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785130/human-herpesvirus-6-pneumonitis-in-a-patient-with-follicular-lymphoma-following-immunochemotherapy-with-rituximab
#2
Saeko Kuwahara-Ota, Yoshiaki Chinen, Yoshimi Mizuno, Tomoko Takimoto-Shimomura, Yayoi Matsumura-Kimoto, Kazuna Tanba, Taku Tsukamoto, Shinsuke Mizutani, Yuji Shimura, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Shigeo Horiike, Junya Kuroda
Primary infection with human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) commonly occurs at an early age in children, most often at 3 years of age, and is associated with childhood diseases, such as exanthema subitum, hepatitis, febrile convulsions, or encephalitis. However, the virus occasionally reactivates from its latent state in immunosuppressed adults, especially post-transplant, resulting in serious disseminated, sometimes life-threatening end-organ complications. Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old man with relapsed follicular lymphoma who developed HHV-6 pneumonitis...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773792/mxb-is-an-interferon-induced-restriction-factor-of-human-herpesviruses
#3
Michel Crameri, Michael Bauer, Nicole Caduff, Raphael Walker, Fiona Steiner, Francesca D Franzoso, Cornelia Gujer, Karin Boucke, Talissa Kucera, Andrea Zbinden, Christian Münz, Cornel Fraefel, Urs F Greber, Jovan Pavlovic
The type I interferon (IFN) system plays an important role in controlling herpesvirus infections, but it is unclear which IFN-mediated effectors interfere with herpesvirus replication. Here we report that human myxovirus resistance protein B (MxB, also designated Mx2) is a potent human herpesvirus restriction factor in the context of IFN. We demonstrate that ectopic MxB expression restricts a range of herpesviruses from the Alphaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae, including herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769344/efficient-delivery-of-hcmv-t-cell-antigens-by-attenuated-sendai-virus-vectors
#4
Richard Kiener, Markus Fleischmann, Marian Alexander Wiegand, Niels A W Lemmermann, Christiane Schwegler, Christine Kaufmann, Angelique Renzaho, Simone Thomas, Eva Felder, Hans Helmut Niller, Benedikt Asbach, Ralf Wagner
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) represents a major cause of clinical complications during pregnancy as well as immunosuppression and the licensing of a protective HCMV vaccine remains an unmet global need. Herein, we designed and validated novel Sendai virus (SeV) vectors delivering T cell immunogens IE-1 and pp65. To enhance vector safety, we used a replication-deficient strain (rdSeV) that infects target cells in a non-productive manner while retaining viral gene expression. In this study, we explored the impact that transduction with rdSeV has on human dendritic cells (DCs) by comparing it to the parental, replication-competent Sendai virus strain (rcSeV) as well as the poxvirus strain Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760169/dysbiosis-of-maternal-and-neonatal-microbiota-associated-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Jinfeng Wang, Jiayong Zheng, Wenyu Shi, Nan Du, Xiaomin Xu, Yanming Zhang, Peifeng Ji, Fengyi Zhang, Zhen Jia, Yeping Wang, Zhi Zheng, Hongping Zhang, Fangqing Zhao
OBJECTIVE: The initial colonisation of the human microbiota and the impact of maternal health on neonatal microbiota at birth remain largely unknown. The aim of our study is to investigate the possible dysbiosis of maternal and neonatal microbiota associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to estimate the potential risks of the microbial shift to neonates. DESIGN: Pregnant women and neonates suffering from GDM were enrolled and 581 maternal (oral, intestinal and vaginal) and 248 neonatal (oral, pharyngeal, meconium and amniotic fluid) samples were collected...
May 14, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755712/lymphoproliferative-syndromes-associated-with-human-herpesvirus-6a-and-human-herpesvirus-6b
#6
REVIEW
Eva Eliassen, Gerhard Krueger, Mario Luppi, Dharam Ablashi
Human herpesvirus 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) have been noted since their discovery for their T-lymphotropism. Although it has proven difficult to determine the extent to which HHV-6A and HHV-6B are involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, evidence suggests that primary infection and reactivation of both viruses may induce or contribute to the progression of several lymphoproliferative disorders, ranging from benign to malignant and including infectious mononucleosis-like illness, drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DIHS/DRESS), and nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's lymphoma...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748909/the-effect-of-storage-temperature-on-the-biological-activity-of-extracellular-vesicles-for-the-complement-system
#7
Sang June Park, Hyungtaek Jeon, Seung-Min Yoo, Myung-Shin Lee
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are mediators of intercellular communication by transporting cargo containing proteins, lipids, mRNA, and miRNA. There is increasing evidence that EVs have various roles in regulating migration, invasion, stemness, survival, and immune functions. Previously, we have found that EVs from Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-infected human endothelial cells have the potential to activate the complement system. Although many studies have shown that the physical properties of EVs can be changed by their storage condition, there have been few studies for the stability of biological activity of EVs in various storage conditions...
May 10, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746593/peroxisomes-support-human-herpesvirus-8-latency-by-stabilizing-the-viral-oncogenic-protein-vflip-via-the-mavs-traf-complex
#8
Young Bong Choi, Yeeun Choi, Edward William Harhaj
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is causally related to human malignancies. HHV-8 latent viral FLICE-inhibitory protein (vFLIP) is a viral oncoprotein that is linked to pathogenesis, but how its expression is regulated is largely unknown. In an attempt to understand the role of the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) adaptor in HHV-8 infection, we discovered that vFLIP expression was post-translationally up-regulated by the MAVS signaling complex on peroxisomes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that vFLIP could be targeted to the peroxisomes, where it was oncogenically active, in a PEX19-dependent manner...
May 10, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743595/transactivation-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-herv-k-by-kshv-promotes-kaposi-s-sarcoma-development
#9
Lu Dai, Luis Del Valle, Wendell Miley, Denise Whitby, Augusto C Ochoa, Erik K Flemington, Zhiqiang Qin
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of several human cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), which represents the most common AIDS-associated malignancy that lacks effective treatment options. Despite its clear role in AIDS malignancies, the fact that only a small set of KSHV-infected patients will eventually develop these tumors implies that additional co-factors are required for the development of KSHV-related cancers. In the current study, we demonstrate for the first time that KSHV de novo infection or viral latent proteins are able to transactivate human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) through a variety of cellular signaling pathways and transcriptional factors...
May 10, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743366/regulation-of-virus-associated-lymphoma-growth-and-gene-expression-by-bacterial-quorum-sensing-molecules
#10
Jing Qiao, Yueyu Cao, Jovanny Zabaleta, Liang Yang, Lu Dai, Zhiqiang Qin
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) can cause several human cancers including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which frequently occur in immunocompromised patients. KSHV infected patients often suffer from polymicrobial infections caused by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how these co-infected microorganisms or their secreted metabolites may affect KSHV infection and virus-associated malignancies pathogenesis. Quorum sensing (QS), a cell density-based intercellular communication system, employs extracellular diffusible signaling molecules to regulate bacterial virulence mechanisms in a wide range of bacterial pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa , which is one of mostly common opportunistic microorganisms found in immunocompromised individuals...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736315/kshv-co-infection-regulates-hpv16-cervical-cancer-cells-pathogenesis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#11
Lu Dai, Jing Qiao, Luis Del Valle, Zhiqiang Qin
High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the etiological agent of cervical, oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Another oncogenic virus, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) can cause several human cancers arising in those immunocompromised patients. KSHV DNA has been detected in the oral cavity and the female genital tract, although its detection rate in cervical samples is relatively low. Therefore, it remains unclear about the role of KSHV co-infection in the development of HPV-related neoplasia...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733294/human-herpesvirus-encoded-kinase-induces-b-cell-lymphomas-in-vivo
#12
Penny M Anders, Nathan D Montgomery, Stephanie A Montgomery, Aadra P Bhatt, Dirk P Dittmer, Blossom Damania
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gammaherpesvirus that is the etiological agent of the endothelial cell cancer Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and 2 B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KSHV ORF36, also known as viral protein kinase (vPK), is a viral serine/threonine kinase. We previously reported that KSHV vPK enhances cell proliferation and mimics cellular S6 kinase to phosphorylate ribosomal protein S6, a protein involved in protein synthesis...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733293/a-viral-protein-kinase-drug-target-for-tumors
#13
Richard F Ambinder
The human gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), are both associated with tumors. Standard antiviral therapies are ineffective at treating these tumors. A serine/threonine kinase important for viral replication is conserved across the herpesviruses. Expression of the KSHV protein kinase in transgenic mice under the control of a ubiquitin promoter was associated with B cell lymphoproliferative disease and lymphoma. If the viral protein kinase is important in the pathogenesis of KSHV lymphoproliferative disease or lymphoma, the kinase may present a very good target for pharmacologic therapies...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728131/multicentric-castleman-s-disease-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-two-case-reports
#14
Amanda Caroline Ribeiro Sales, Valter Romão de Souza Junior, Marta Iglis de Oliveira, Claudia Azevedo Braga Albuquerque, Evônio de Barros Campelo Júnior, Paulo Sérgio Ramos de Araújo
BACKGROUND: Castleman's Disease is a rare B-cell lymphoproliferative disease. It is mostly benign and is characterized by non-neoplastic lymph node hypertrophy, associated with infection by human herpesvirus-8 in people with the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Although the unicentric or localized form presents as benign, the multifocal form can manifest severe systemic symptoms. We report two unusual cases of men presenting cervical enlarged lymph nodes that were believed to be infectious...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727474/high-prevalence-and-correlates-of-human-herpesvirus-6a-in-nevocytic-nevus-and-seborrheic-diseases-implication-from-a-pilot-study-of-skin-patient-tissues-in-shanghai
#15
Ling Ding, Xiaohui Mo, Liming Zhang, Feng Zhou, Caixia Zhu, Yuyan Wang, Cankun Cai, Yeqiang Liu, Fang Wei, Qiliang Cai
Skin disorders vary greatly in symptoms and severity, and the causes of these disorders are largely unknown. Human herpesvirus (HHV) has been shown to cause many diseases. However, the prevalence and correlate of each HHV infection with different skin disorders remains obscure. To reveal the potential link of certain type of skin disease with herpesvirus infection, a total of 272 patient tissues with inflammatory or neoplastic skin diseases including 7 subtypes in Shanghai, China, were investigated. We found that the overall prevalence of HHV-6A in inflammatory or neoplastic skin tissues is the most common (40...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722363/pediatric-kaposi-sarcoma-in-context-of-the-hiv-epidemic-in-sub-saharan-africa-current-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
Nader Kim El-Mallawany, Casey L McAtee, Liane R Campbell, Peter N Kazembe
The global experience with pediatric Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has evolved immensely since the onset of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). In this review, current perspectives on childhood KS are discussed in the context of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Endemic (HIV-unrelated) KS was first described over 50 years ago in central and eastern Africa, regions where human herpesvirus-8, the causative agent of KS, is endemic. With the alarming rise in HIV prevalence over the past few decades, KS has become not only the most common HIV-related malignancy in Africa, but also one of the most common overall childhood cancers throughout the central, eastern, and southern regions of the continent...
2018: Pediatric Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721246/acute-encephalopathy-with-biphasic-seizures-and-late-reduced-diffusion-associated-with-streptococcus-sanguinis-sepsis
#17
Hitoshi Awaguni, Jun Shinozuka, Shin-Ichiro Tanaka, Sayaka Kadowaki, Shigeru Makino, Rikken Maruyama, Yosuke Shigematsu, Kenji Hamaoka, Shinsaku Imashuku
Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) develops in association with systemic as well as central nervous system (CNS) viral or bacterial infections. AESD is most often noted with influenza or human herpesvirus 6 infection in previously healthy infants. However, AESD has also been reported in an infant with developmental retardation and in a mentally and motor-disabled adolescent. Here, we report the case of a 4- year-old female with significant development delay due to spinal muscular atrophy, who developed AESD during Streptococcus sanguinis sepsis with no apparent CNS infection...
March 22, 2018: Pediatric Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717439/using-droplet-digital-pcr-to-detect-coinfection-of-human-herpesviruses-6a-and-6b-hhv-6a-and-hhv-6b-in-clinical-samples
#18
Ashley Vellucci, Emily C Leibovitch, Steven Jacobson
Droplet digital™ polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR™) is a unique digital PCR technique that allows for absolute quantification of nucleic acid samples. This technique operates on the basis of amplification within water-oil emulsion droplets and can detect very small quantities of target molecules, yielding extremely precise data. Here, we describe in detail a ddPCR procedure for multiplexed detection of two clinically relevant herpesviruses, HHV-6A and HHV-6B.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698478/cross-sectional-analysis-of-cd8-t-cell-immunity-to-human-herpesvirus-6b
#19
Larissa K Martin, Alexandra Hollaus, Anna Stahuber, Christoph Hübener, Alessia Fraccaroli, Johanna Tischer, Andrea Schub, Andreas Moosmann
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is prevalent in healthy persons, causes disease in immunosuppressed carriers, and may be involved in autoimmune disease. Cytotoxic CD8 T cells are probably important for effective control of infection. However, the HHV-6-specific CD8 T cell repertoire is largely uncharacterized. Therefore, we undertook a virus-wide analysis of CD8 T cell responses to HHV-6. We used a simple anchor motif-based algorithm (SAMBA) to identify 299 epitope candidates potentially presented by the HLA class I molecule B*08:01...
April 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698475/cadm1-is-essential-for-kshv-encoded-vgpcr-and-vflip-mediated-chronic-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#20
Richard Hunte, Patricia Alonso, Remy Thomas, Cassandra Alexandria Bazile, Juan Carlos Ramos, Louise van der Weyden, Juan Dominguez-Bendala, Wasif Noor Khan, Noula Shembade
Approximately 12% of all human cancers worldwide are caused by infections with oncogenic viruses. Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 (KSHV/HHV8) is one of the oncogenic viruses responsible for human cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL), and the lymphoproliferative disorder multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). Chronic inflammation mediated by KSHV infection plays a decisive role in the development and survival of these cancers. NF-κB, a family of transcription factors regulating inflammation, cell survival, and proliferation, is persistently activated in KSHV-infected cells...
April 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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