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human herpesvirus

Hans R Gelderblom, Dick Madeley
Diagnostic electron microscopy (DEM) was an essential component of viral diagnosis until the development of highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT). The simple negative staining technique of DEM was applied widely to smallpox diagnosis until the world-wide eradication of the human-specific pathogen in 1980. Since then, the threat of smallpox re-emerging through laboratory escape, molecular manipulation, synthetic biology or bioterrorism has not totally disappeared and would be a major problem in an unvaccinated population...
March 22, 2018: Viruses
Afsar R Naqvi, Jennifer Shango, Alexandra Seal, Deepak Shukla, Salvador Nares
Prevalence of the members of herpesvirus family in oral inflammatory diseases is increasingly acknowledged suggesting their likely role as an etiological factor. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In our recent miRNA profiling of healthy and diseased human tooth pulps, elevated expression of human herpesvirus encoded viral microRNAs (v-miRs) were identified. Based on the fold induction and significance values, we selected three v-miRs namely miR-K12-3-3p [Kaposi sarcoma-associated virus (KSHV)], miR-H1 [herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1)], and miR-UL-70-3p [human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)] to further examine their impact on host cellular functions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Timsy Uppal, Roni Sarkar, Ranjit Dhelaria, Subhash C Verma
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or Human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8), an oncogenic human herpesvirus and the leading cause of cancer in HIV-infected individuals, is a major public health concern with recurring reports of epidemics on a global level. The early detection of KSHV virus and subsequent activation of the antiviral immune response by the host's immune system are crucial to prevent KSHV infection. The host's immune system is an evolutionary conserved system that provides the most important line of defense against invading microbial pathogens, including viruses...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Irene Baquedano Lobera, Raquel Bernadó Fonz, Sara Laliena Aznar, Matilde Bustillo Alonso, Carmelo Guerrero Laleona
The main clinical manifestation of human herpesvirus 6 is exanthema subitum (also known as roseola infantum) and febrile syndrome. Central nervous system manifestations are not unusual in herpesvirus 6 infection, and even though the pathophysiology is not clear, they need to be early diagnosed and treated in order to avoid potentially serious damage. We present the case of an immunocompetent 2-year-old girl with encephalitis as a complication of herpesvirus 6 infection. We want to emphasize the significance of an early diagnosis and treatment in order to prevent further complications due to the central nervous system extension...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Jessica M Hogestyn, David J Mock, Margot Mayer-Proschel
Human herpesviruses (HVs) have developed ingenious mechanisms that enable them to traverse the defenses of the central nervous system (CNS). The ability of HVs to enter a state of latency, a defining characteristic of this viral family, allows them to persist in the human host indefinitely. As such, HVs represent the most frequently detected pathogens in the brain. Under constant immune pressure, these infections are largely asymptomatic in healthy hosts. However, many neurotropic HVs have been directly connected with CNS pathology in the context of other stressors and genetic risk factors...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Alexander L Greninger, Giselle M Knudsen, Pavitra Roychoudhury, Derek J Hanson, Ruth Hall Sedlak, Hong Xie, Jon Guan, Thuy Nguyen, Vikas Peddu, Michael Boeckh, Meei-Li Huang, Linda Cook, Daniel P Depledge, Danielle M Zerr, David M Koelle, Soren Gantt, Tetsushi Yoshikawa, Mary Caserta, Joshua A Hill, Keith R Jerome
BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus-6A and -6B (HHV-6) are betaherpesviruses that reach > 90% seroprevalence in the adult population. Unique among human herpesviruses, HHV-6 can integrate into the subtelomeric regions of human chromosomes; when this occurs in germ line cells it causes a condition called inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (iciHHV-6). Only two complete genomes are available for replicating HHV-6B, leading to numerous conflicting annotations and little known about the global genomic diversity of this ubiquitous virus...
March 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
Afsar R Naqvi, Alexandra Seal, Jennifer Shango, Maria Brambila Navarette, Gloria Martinez, Gabriela Chapa, Shirin Hasan, Tejabhiram Yadavalli, Dinesh Jaishankar, Deepak Shukla, Salvador Nares
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs of ~18-25 nucleotides that have gained extensive attention as critical regulators in complex gene networks including immune cell lineage commitment, differentiation, maturation, and maintenance of immune homeostasis and function. Many viruses encode miRNAs that directly downregulate the expression of factors of the innate immune system, which includes proteins involved in promoting apoptosis and recruitment. In this study, we examined the expression profiles of three previously identified viral miRNAs (v-miRs) from the human herpesvirus (HHV) family, HSV-1 (miR-H1), KSHV (miR-K12-3-3p), and HCMV (miR-US4) in healthy and diseased periodontal tissues and observed increased levels of v-miRs in diseased tissues...
March 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Hirofumi Shibata, Takahiro Yasumi, Saeko Shimodera, Eitaro Hiejima, Kazushi Izawa, Tomoki Kawai, Ryutaro Shirakawa, Taizo Wada, Ryuta Nishikomori, Hisanori Horiuchi, Osamu Ohara, Eiichi Ishii, Toshio Heike
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is the major form of hereditary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH); as such, it requires prompt and accurate diagnosis. We previously reported that FHL type 3 (FHL3) can be rapidly screened by detecting munc13-4 expression in platelets using flow cytometry; however, the reliability of the munc13-4 expression assay for FHL3 diagnosis is unclear. Regardless of the type of UNC13D mutation, all reported FHL3 cases examined for munc13-4 protein showed significantly reduced expression...
March 16, 2018: Blood
Romina Brignardello-Petersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
Dimitri Topalis, Sarah Gillemot, Robert Snoeck, Graciela Andrei
Herpesviruses thymidine kinase (TK) and protein kinase (PK) allow the activation of nucleoside analogues used in anti-herpesvirus treatments. Mutations emerging in these two genes often lead to emergence of drug-resistant strains responsible for life-threatening diseases in immunocompromised populations. In this review, we analyze the binding of different nucleoside analogues to the TK active site of the three α-herpesviruses [Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV)] and present the impact of known mutations on the structure of the viral TKs...
March 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
Kazuya Miyashita, Fumi Miyagawa, Yuki Nakamura, Rie Ommori, Hiroaki Azukizawa, Hideo Asada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Acta Dermato-venereologica
Íñigo Corral, Susana Sainz de la Maza, Mario Rodríguez, Michal-Maciej Kawiorski, María-José López-Martínez, Juan-Carlos Galán
Neurological manifestations associated with HHV-7 have been described in primary infection in children, and very occasionally in immunocompromised adult patients. However, the role of HHV-7 reactivation as a cause of central nervous system (CNS) diseases in immunocompetent adults has not yet been defined. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and microbiological features of adults with neurological symptoms who underwent lumbar puncture and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for herpesviruses (HHV-1-8) and enteroviruses performed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), during a 4-year period...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Tetsuo Koshizuka, Takahiro Kobayashi, Ken Ishioka, Tatsuo Suzutani
Nedd4 is a family of ubiquitin E3 ligases that regulate numerous cellular processes. In this report, we showed that alpha- and beta-herpesviruses have membrane proteins that regulate the function of the Nedd4 family members. Although the homology search score was quite low, UL56 of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, ORF0 of varicella-zoster virus, UL42 of human cytomegalovirus, and U24 of human herpesvirus 6A, 6B, and 7 all possess at least one PPxY (PY) motif in their cytoplasmic domain, and are able to bind with Itch, a member of the Nedd4 family...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Miri Shnayder, Aharon Nachshon, Benjamin Krishna, Emma Poole, Alina Boshkov, Amit Binyamin, Itay Maza, John Sinclair, Michal Schwartz, Noam Stern-Ginossar
Primary infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) results in a lifelong infection due to its ability to establish latent infection, with one characterized viral reservoir being hematopoietic cells. Although reactivation from latency causes serious disease in immunocompromised individuals, our molecular understanding of latency is limited. Here, we delineate viral gene expression during natural HCMV persistent infection by analyzing the massive transcriptome RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) atlas generated by the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Rossana Mineri, Jacopo Mariotti, Barbara Sarina, Lucio Morabito, Roberto Crocchiolo, Stefania Bramanti, Tiziana Sarno, Federica Tordato, Carmelo Carlo-Stella, Armando Santoro, Luca Castagna
The monitoring of Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation has proven to be useful in preventing life-threatening complications; however, the pathogenic role of HHV-6 after autologous transplantation is not well-characterized, although viral reactivation might be responsible for significant complications even after this type of transplant. Here we report, for the first time to our knowledge, the case of a patient with chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (ciHHV-6), presenting with high titers of HHV-6 DNA copies after autologous transplantation, mimicking HHV-6 reactivation...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Elisenda Alari-Pahissa, Antía Moreira, Ana Zabalza, Roberto Alvarez-Lafuente, Elvira Munteis, Andrea Vera, Rafael Arroyo, Jose C Alvarez-Cermeño, Luisa Maria Villar, Miguel López-Botet, Jose E Martínez-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been recently associated with a lower multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility, remaining controversial whether it has a protective role or is merely an epiphenomenon related to westernization and early-life viral infections. We aimed to evaluate whether CMV serostatus may differ in early MS as compared to non-early MS patients, analyzing the putative association of this virus with MS clinical course and humoral immune responses against other herpesviruses...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Kimberly Boyd, Joshua M Harrison, Michael J Kavanaugh
The heterophile antibody (Monospot), initial test of choice for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated infectious mononucleosis, is both sensitive (70-92%) and specific (96-100%). False positives have been demonstrated in cases of viral hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus, leukemia, lymphoma, pancreatic cancer, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rubella. We present a case of a 46-yr-old male who developed fever, chills, headaches, myalgia, fatigue, and photophobia 1 d after returning from the Philippines. He demonstrated a mild transaminitis and significant thrombocytopenia (12,000 cells/μL)...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Jay A Fishman
Hurdles exist to clinical xenotransplantation including potential infectious transmission from non-human species to xenograft recipients. In anticipation of clinical trials of xenotransplantation, the associated infectious risks have been investigated. Swine and immunocompromised humans share some potential pathogens. Swine herpesviruses including porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) and porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus (PLHV) are largely species-specific and do not, generally, infect human cells. Human cellular receptors exist for porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) which infects certain human-derived cell lines in vitro...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Roberta Rizzo, Dario Di Luca
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) comprises two viral species, HHV-6A and HHV-6B, closely related but differing for pathogenic and biological characteristics. Both viral species are predominantly lymphotropic, infecting T lymphocytes and other lymphoid cells, including natural killer (NK) cells. The interactions between HHV-6 and NK cells have been scarcely studied, but it has become clear that NK cells are not only crucial in immune protection during the early phases of infection, but also that HHV-6 infection can affect NK cell functions...
March 7, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Cheng Zhang, Yun Yu, Jun-Feng Yu, Bo-Dong Li, Cheng-Fan Zhou, Xiao-Dong Yang, Xian Wang, Changhao Wu, Tong Shen, Qi-Xing Zhu
Occupational trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure can induce hypersensitivity dermatitis and severe liver injury. Recently, several clinical investigations indicate that viral infection, such as human herpesvirus-6, is associated with hepatic dysfunction in patients with TCE-related generalized skin disorders. However, whether viral infection potentiates TCE-induced liver injury remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the contribution of viral infection to the development of TCE-sensitization-induced liver injury in BALB/c mice...
March 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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