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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651365/cathepsin-k-inhibitors-for-osteoporosis-biology-potential-clinical-utility-and-lessons-learned
#1
Matthew T Drake, Bart L Clarke, Merry Jo Oursler, Sundeep Khosla
Cathepsin K is a cysteine protease member of the cathepsin lysosomal protease family. While cathepsin K is highly expressed in osteoclasts, lower levels of cathepsin K are also found in a variety of other tissues. Secretion of cathepsin K from the osteoclast into the sealed osteoclast-bone cell interface results in efficient degradation of type I collagen. The absence of cathepsin K activity in humans results in pycnodysostosis, characterized by increased bone mineral density and fractures. Pharmacological cathepsin K inhibition leads to continuous increases in BMD for up to five years of treatment and improves bone strength at the spine and hip...
June 23, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651310/clinicopathological-characteristics-of-extremely-young-korean-multiple-myeloma-patients-therapeutic-implications
#2
Junghoon Shin, Youngil Koh, Jeonghwan Youk, Miso Kim, Byung Soo Kim, Chul Won Choi, Hwa Jung Sung, Yong Park, Sung-Soo Yoon, Inho Kim
Background/Aims: Although multiple myeloma (MM) is typically a disease of the elderly, a certain subset of extremely young patients exists. It is necessary to establish clinicopathological characteristics for this population. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of MM patients whose age was 40 years or younger at diagnosis. Results: A total of 32 patients were analyzed (male to female ratio 19:13, median age 37 years). According to International Staging System, 29%, 48%, and 16% were in stage I, II, and III, respectively...
June 26, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651263/quality-and-dose-optimized-ct-trauma-protocol-recommendation-from-a-university-level-i-trauma-center
#3
Johannes Kahn, David Kaul, Georg Böning, Roman Rotzinger, Patrick Freyhardt, Philipp Schwabe, Martin H Maurer, Diane Miriam Renz, Florian Streitparth
Purpose As a supra-regional level-I trauma center, we evaluated computed tomography (CT) acquisitions of polytraumatized patients for quality and dose optimization purposes. Adapted statistical iterative reconstruction [(AS)IR] levels, tube voltage reduction as well as a split-bolus contrast agent (CA) protocol were applied. Materials and Methods 61 patients were split into 3 different groups that differed with respect to tube voltage (120 - 140 kVp) and level of applied ASIR reconstruction (ASIR 20 - 50 %)...
June 26, 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651235/alpinumisoflavone-inhibits-osteoclast-differentiation-and-exerts-anti-osteoporotic-effect-in-ovariectomized-mice
#4
Wei Cong, Chao Zhou, Jun Yin
Alpinumisoflavone (AIF), a naturally occurring flavonoid compound exacted from Derris eriocarpa, has been found to have a number of pharmacological activities. However, its role in bone disorder has not been investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of AIF on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice model and related underlying mechanisms. Our study provides experimental evidence that AIF could regulate the remodeling process of bone and exert osteoprotective effect against ovariectomy-induced bone loss...
June 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651187/association-of-ectopic-fat-with-abdominal-aorto-illiac-and-coronary-artery-calcification-in-african-ancestry-men
#5
Allison L Kuipers, Joseph M Zmuda, J Jeffrey Carr, James G Terry, Sangeeta Nair, Ryan Cvejkus, Clareann H Bunker, Alan L Patrick, Christina L Wassel, Iva Miljkovic
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is strong evidence that fat accumulating in non-adipose sites, "ectopic fat", is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), including vascular calcification. Most previous studies of this association have assessed only a single ectopic fat depot. Therefore, our aim was to assess the association of total, regional, and ectopic fat with abdominal aorto-illiac calcification (AAC) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in 798 African ancestry men. METHODS: Participants (mean age 62) were from the Tobago Bone Health Study cohort...
June 16, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651178/the-influence-of-impact-direction-and-axial-loading-on-the-bone-fracture-pattern
#6
Haim Cohen, Chen Kugel, Hila May, Bahaa Medlej, Dan Stein, Viviane Slon, Tamar Brosh, Israel Hershkovitz
The effect of the direction of the impact and the presence of axial loading on fracture patterns have not yet been established in experimental 3-point bending studies. PURPOSE: To reveal the association between the direction of the force and the fracture pattern, with and without axial loading. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A Dynatup Model POE 2000 (Instron Co.) low energy pendulum impact machine was utilized to apply impact loading on fresh pig femoral bones (n=50). The bone clamp shaft was adjusted to position the bone for three-point bending with and without additional bone compression...
May 22, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651093/the-effect-of-a-hydroxyapatite-impregnated-pcl-membrane-in-rat-subcritical-calvarial-bone-defects
#7
Monica Feresini Groppo, Paulo Henrique Caria, Alexandre Rodrigues Freire, Sidney R Figueroba, Wilson Alves Ribeiro-Neto, Rosario Elida Suman Bretas, Felippe Bevilacqua Prado, Francisco Haiter-Neto, Flavio Henrique Aguiar, Ana Claudia Rossi
OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the effect of polymeric-nanofibers membranes impregnated with microparticulate hydroxyapatite (HA) in the subcritical calvarial bone defects (SCBD) healing. DESIGN: PCL membranes with and without HA were obtained by electrospinning. SCBD were perforated (3.3mm) in left and right sides of 36 rat calvarias. The right-side SBCD of 18 animals was filled with HA mixed with blood clot and blood clot at the contralateral side. The remaining animals received PCL+HA membrane at the right-side SCBD and PCL membrane at the contralateral side...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651071/an-independent-active-contours-segmentation-framework-for-bone-micro-ct-images
#8
Vasileios Ch Korfiatis, Simone Tassani, George K Matsopoulos
Micro-CT is an imaging technique for small tissues and objects that is gaining increased popularity especially as a pre-clinical application. Nevertheless, there is no well-established micro-CT segmentation method, while typical procedures lack sophistication and frequently require a degree of manual intervention, leading to errors and subjective results. To address these issues, a novel segmentation framework, called Independent Active Contours Segmentation (IACS), is proposed in this paper. The proposed IACS is based on two autonomous modules, namely automatic ROI extraction and IAC Evolution, which segments the ROI image using multiple Active Contours that evolve simultaneously and independently of one another...
June 19, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651069/automatic-mpst-cut-for-segmentation-of-carpal-bones-from-mr-volumes
#9
Laura Gemme, Sonia Nardotto, Silvana G Dellepiane
In the context of rheumatic diseases, several studies suggest that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) allows the detection of the three main signs of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) at higher sensitivities than available through conventional radiology. The rapid, accurate segmentation of bones is an essential preliminary step for quantitative diagnosis, erosion evaluation, and multi-temporal data fusion. In the present paper, a new, semi-automatic, 3D graph-based segmentation method to extract carpal bone data is proposed...
June 12, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651068/effect-of-choukroun-platelet-rich-fibrin-combined-with-autologous-micro-morselized-bone-on-the-repair-of-mandibular-defects-in-rabbits
#10
Tian Zhou, Hua-Wei Yang, Zhuo-Wei Tian, Yang Wang, Xiao-Shan Tang, Jing-Zhou Hu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of Choukroun platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) combined with autologous micro-morselized bone on the repair of mandibular defects in rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six healthy New Zealand rabbits were selected for the present study. After models of mandibular defects were established, rabbits were randomly divided into Choukroun PRF, autologous micro-morselized bone (autologous), Choukroun PRF combined with autologous bone (combined) and model groups...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650944/intramedullary-implant-choice-and-cost-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-diaphyseal-forearm-fractures
#11
Austin Heare, Dawn Goral, Matthew Belton, Corey Beebe, Anastasiya Trizno, Jason Stoneback
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare outcomes and costs between titanium elastic nails (TENs), stainless steel elastic nails (SENs), and Kirschner wires (K-wires) in the treatment of pediatric diaphyseal forearm fractures with intramedullary fixation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Level 1 Pediatric Trauma Center. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 100 patients (65 male and 35 female) under 18 years of age with diaphyseal forearm fractures treated with intramedullary fixation were included in the study...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650942/open-supracondylar-intercondylar-fractures-of-the-femur-treatment-with-taylor-spatial-frame
#12
Francesco Sala, Ahmed M Thabet, Paolo Capitani, Federico Bove, Amr A Abdelgawad, Giovanni Lovisetti
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the Taylor spatial frame (TSF) for primary and definitive fixation of open supracondylar-intracondylar femoral (SIF) fractures. DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: Level I trauma center. PATIENTS: Subset of 20 SIF open fractures treated with TSF extracted from a consecutive series of 80 SIF fractures treated between 2007 and 2013. INTERVENTION: Eighteen (90%) fractures underwent definitive fixation with the TSF; 2 were treated primarily within 24 hours of injury...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650892/the-2017-hormone-therapy-position-statement-of-the-north-american-menopause-society
#13
(no author information available yet)
The 2017 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) updates the 2012 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society and identifies future research needs. An Advisory Panel of clinicians and researchers expert in the field of women's health and menopause was recruited by NAMS to review the 2012 Position Statement, evaluate new literature, assess the evidence, and reach consensus on recommendations, using the level of evidence to identify the strength of recommendations and the quality of the evidence...
June 22, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650886/elevated-fdg-activity-in-the-nonpneumatized-sphenoid-bone-in-an-infant
#14
Yin Jie Chen, Nelleke Tolboom, Lisa J States, Hongming Zhuang
A 7-month-old boy with malignant rhabdoid tumor of the right lateral neck, status post resection and chemotherapy, underwent FDG PET/CT for restaging. The images showed diffuse increased activity in the spleen and in the bone marrow of the appendicular bones and the spine, which is related to hematopoietin administered after chemotherapy. The images also revealed intense activity in the region of sphenoid bone, which is not a common region to have elevated FDG activity. The subsequent MRI scan showed that this activity was due to not-yet-converted red marrow in the sphenoid bone in this pediatric patient...
June 24, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650883/iliac-crest-bone-graft-a-minimally-invasive-harvesting-technique
#15
Gregory D Lopez, Fady Y Hijji, Ankur S Narain, Kelly H Yom, Kern Singh
Typical sources for graft material utilized in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion include both autograft and allograft. Autograft is frequently utilized due to its theorized benefits in promoting fusion. During minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, autograft is often obtained locally during the laminectomy and facetectomy. However, this locally obtained bone graft has exhibited questionable osteoconductive properties, often necessitating the addition of biologics to improve fusion rates...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650869/the-2017-hormone-therapy-position-statement-of-the-north-american-menopause-society
#16
(no author information available yet)
The 2017 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) updates the 2012 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society and identifies future research needs. An Advisory Panel of clinicians and researchers expert in the field of women's health and menopause was recruited by NAMS to review the 2012 Position Statement, evaluate new literature, assess the evidence, and reach consensus on recommendations, using the level of evidence to identify the strength of recommendations and the quality of the evidence...
July 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650835/a-new-representation-in-pso-for-discretization-based-feature-selection
#17
Binh Tran, Bing Xue, Mengjie Zhang
In machine learning, discretization and feature selection (FS) are important techniques for preprocessing data to improve the performance of an algorithm on high-dimensional data. Since many FS methods require discrete data, a common practice is to apply discretization before FS. In addition, for the sake of efficiency, features are usually discretized individually (or univariate). This scheme works based on the assumption that each feature independently influences the task, which may not hold in cases where feature interactions exist...
June 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650796/comparison-of-bovine-bone-autogenic-bone-mixture-versus-platelet-rich-fibrin-for-maxillary-sinus-grafting-histologic-and-histomorphologic-study
#18
Hakan Ocak, Nukhet Kutuk, Umut Demetoglu, Esra Balcıoglu, Saim Ozdamar, Alper Alkan
Numerous grafting materials have been used to augment the maxillary sinus floor for long-term stability and success for implant-supported prosthesis. To enhance bone formation, adjunctive blood-born growth factor sources have gained popularity during the recent years. The present study compared the use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and bovine-autogenous bone mixture for maxillary sinus floor elevation. A split-face model was used to apply 2 different filling materials for maxillary sinus floor elevation in 22 healthy adult sheep...
June 2017: Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650795/quantitation-of-mandibular-symphysis-bone-as-source-of-bone-grafting-description-in-class-i-and-class-iii-skeletal-conditions
#19
Humberto Velásquez, Sergio Olate, César Díaz, Pablo Navarro, Eduardo Borie, Márcio de Moraes
The aim of this study was to quantify the cortical and cancellous bone in the mandibular symphysis and relate it to the teeth and to the skeletal class. A descriptive study was conducted using cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT). Class I and class III subjects were included, defined according to dental occlusion and cephalogram results. Linear measurements were taken on the CBCT of the mandibular canines, lateral incisors, and central incisors, where the analysis was related to the axial and apical axes considering the bone in relation to the dental area...
June 2017: Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650786/alveolar-fracture-caused-by-tooth-extraction-at-home
#20
Fabrício Kitazono de Carvalho, Thaís Aparecida Xavier, Nicole Gonçalves Lima, Alexandra Mussolino de Queiroz, Marcilene Coelho Vinhorte, Paulo Nelson-Filho
Injuries to the teeth and surrounding structures are relatively common. Although traumatic injuries caused by falls or activities related to sports are widely discussed, the same cannot be said regarding accidents arising from non-professional extraction of primary teeth. The present study reports a 6-year-old male child who underwent mandibular alveolar bone fracture during non-professional extraction of his central lower left incisor at home, performed by his 30-year-old aunt. The root of the tooth was with an irregular physiological resorption, which acted as a lever component for the mechanical force applied, leading to bone fracture...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
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