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Omega 3 fatty acids

Delbert G Robinson, Juan A Gallego, Majnu John, Lauren A Hanna, Jian-Ping Zhang, Michael L Birnbaum, Jessica Greenberg, Melissa Naraine, Bart D Peters, Robert K McNamara, Anil K Malhotra, Philip R Szeszko
Omega-3 treatment studies for multi-episode schizophrenia or clinical high risk for conversion to psychosis states have had variable, and often negative, results. To examine adjunctive omega-3 treatment for recent onset psychosis, participants aged 15-40 years with recent onset schizophrenia-spectrum (n = 46) or bipolar (n = 4) disorders and current psychotic symptoms were treated for 16 weeks with risperidone and randomly-assigned omega-3 (EPA 740 mg and DHA 400 mg daily) or matching placebo...
September 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Annie Penfield-Cyr, Carmen Monthe-Dreze, Marcela C Smid, Sarbattama Sen
PURPOSE: Maternal body mass index (BMI) and systemic fatty acid (FA) concentrations affect inflammatory balance in pregnancy and play a key role in fetal growth and well-being. Little is known about how maternal BMI may affect the association between key FA concentrations and neonatal outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between the maternal omega (n)6:n3 FA ratio and neonatal outcomes according to maternal pre-pregnancy BMI category. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network randomized controlled trial of omega-3 FA supplementation to prevent recurrent preterm birth...
September 18, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Maryam Beheshti Foroutani, Christopher C Parrish, Jeanette Wells, Richard G Taylor, Matthew L Rise, Fereidoon Shahidi
Due to limited fish meal and fish oil resources and their high costs for the aquaculture industry, it is necessary to find alternative sustainable sources of protein and lipids. Therefore, seven different diets were formulated with different levels of animal by-products, vegetable proteins, fish oil and rapeseed oil, to feed farmed Atlantic salmon, and their effects on growth performance, muscle lipid class, and fatty acid composition were examined. Protein sources included anchovy, poultry, feather, blood, corn, soy and wheat...
2018: PloS One
Stéphane Walrand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A large percentage of older adults do not receive recommended amounts of many nutrients from food alone. Accordingly, the routine use of dietary supplements has become common among older persons. Although supplement use provides potential benefits by increasing nutrient intakes, there are potential drawbacks. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have pointed to potential reductions in the risk to develop age-related diseases among older people who reported long-term use of multivitamin supplements...
September 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Yeonji Yang, Youngyo Kim, Youjin Je
INTRODUCTION: The evidence on the association of fish or omega-3 fatty acid intake with depression is inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to examine this association. METHODS: Database searches in PubMed and Web of Science were conducted to identify relevant articles published up to April 2018, which were supplemented by hand-searches of reference lists of the retrieved articles. Using a random-effects model, we calculated pooled relative risks (RR) of depression in relation to consumption of fish or omega-3 fatty acids after adjusting for potential confounders...
September 20, 2018: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists
Sagar Nayak, Inna Khozin-Goldberg, Guy Cohen, Dina Zilberg
Arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4 n -6) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA, 20:3 n -6) are omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), which are key precursors for lipid mediators of the immune system and inflammatory response. The microalga Lobosphaera incisa (WT) and its Δ5-desaturase mutant P127 (MUT) are unique photosynthetic sources for ARA and DGLA, respectively. This study explores the effect of dietary supplementation with L. incisa and P127 biomass on tissue fatty acid composition, immune function, and disease resistance in zebrafish ( Danio rerio )...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Natalia Castejón, Sonia Moreno-Pérez, Erick Abreu Silveira, Gloria Fernández Lorente, José M Guisán, Francisco J Señoráns
Enzymatic synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from chia (Salvia hispanica L.) oil has been performed with different modified derivatives and compared with commercial immobilized lipases to produce omega-3 rich FAEE. Therefore, the main objective was to synthesize omega-3 esters from chia oil catalysed by polyethylene glycol-modified lipases using a biocatalyst with higher stability than commercial derivatives. Lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL) was immobilized by hydrophobic adsorption on Sepabeads C-18 followed by a physicochemical coating of lipase surface with a dense layer of PEG...
January 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Gita Thanarajasingam, Matthew J Maurer, Thomas M Habermann, Grzegorz S Nowakowski, Nabila N Bennani-Baiti, Carrie A Thompson, James R Cerhan, Thomas E Witzig
Dietary factors that may reduce the risk of relapse or prolong remission are an area of interest for patients with cancer. There is little data on the role of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) in patients diagnosed with lymphoma. This pilot biomarker study evaluated the prognostic significance of n-3 FA levels in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In this analysis, low n-3 FA may be associated with inferior event free survival at 24 months in this disease. Larger studies are needed to confirm this association and could provide the basis for prospective investigation of whether modifying n-3 levels with diet may improve outcome in lymphoma...
September 20, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Maricel Gómez-Soler, Begoña Cordobilla, Xavier Morató, Víctor Fernández-Dueñas, Joan C Domingo, Francisco Ciruela
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. The main treatment of PD consists of medication with dopamine-based drugs, which palliate the symptoms but may produce adverse effects after chronic administration. Accordingly, there is a need to develop novel neuroprotective therapies. Several studies suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( n -3 PUFA) might provide protection against brain damage. Here, we studied several experimental models of PD, using striatal neuronal cultures, striatal slices, and mice, to assess the neuroprotective effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main n -3 PUFA in the brain, administered in its triglyceride form (TG-DHA)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Li Gao, Liyuan Lin, Nan Shan, Chun-Yan Ren, Xin Long, Yu-Han Sun, Wang
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation shows some treatment efficacy for gestational diabetes. This systematic review and meta-analysis is conducted to investigate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for glycemic control in patients with gestational diabetes. METHODS: The databases including PubMed, Embase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library databases are systematically searched for collecting the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid versus placebo for gestational diabetes...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan Ajith, Thankamani Gopinathan Jayakumar
Incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) increases worldwide with varying etiological factors. In addition to the control of risk factors, dietary modification has been recommended to reduce the prevalence. Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (FAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), of fish oil are beneficial for the prevention of CHD. The effect can be ascribed to anti-inflammatory, vasodilating, antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive activities and lowering of triacyl glycerol level. The American Heart Association advises two fish meals per week in subjects without CHD or supplementation of 1 g of EPA plus DHA per day in subjects with CHD...
September 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Mehrdad Amini, Fereshteh Bahmani, Fatemeh Foroozanfard, Zahra Vahedpoor, Amir Ghaderi, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Hassan Karbassizadeh, Zatollah Asemi
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fish oil omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on mental health parameters and metabolic status of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 60 women with PCOS, aged 18-40 years old. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either 2 × 1000 mg/day fish oil omega-3 fatty acid (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) after lunch for 12 weeks...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
D S Murray, M J Kainz, L Hebberecht, K R Sales, K Hindar, M J G Gage
Triploidy could prevent escaped farm salmon breeding in the wild, while also improving nutrient quality within farmed fillets. Despite these potential advantages, triploid Atlantic salmon have not been widely used in aquaculture, and their reproductive function has yet to be fully evaluated. Here, we compare reproductive function and fillet composition between triploid and diploid farm salmon under standard aquaculture rearing conditions. We show that female triploids are sterile and do not develop gonads. By contrast, males produce large numbers of motile spermatozoa capable of fertilizing wild salmon eggs...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Lorenzo Anez-Bustillos, Eileen Cowan, Maria B Cubria, Juan C Villa-Camacho, Amin Mohamadi, Duy T Dao, Amy Pan, Gillian L Fell, Meredith A Baker, Prathima Nandivada, Ara Nazarian, Mark Puder
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Altering the lipid component in diets may affect the incidence of metabolic bone disease in patients dependent on parenteral nutrition. Consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) can impact bone health by modulating calcium metabolism, prostaglandin synthesis, lipid oxidation, osteoblast formation, and osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary effects of PUFA on murine bone health. METHODS: Three-weeks-old male (n = 30) and female (n = 30) C57BL/6J mice were randomized into one of three dietary groups...
September 1, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Jung-Il Kang, Hoon-Seok Yoon, Sung Min Kim, Jeong Eon Park, Yu Jae Hyun, Ara Ko, Yong-Seok Ahn, Young Sang Koh, Jin Won Hyun, Eun-Sook Yoo, Hee-Kyoung Kang
Hair growth is regulated by the interaction between dermal papilla cells (DPC) and other cells inside the hair follicle. Here, we show the effect and action mechanism of mackerel-derived fermented fish oil (FFO) extract and its component docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the control of hair growth. The hair growth effect of FFO extract was evaluated by the culture method of vibrissa follicles and in vivo dotmatrix planimetry method. FFO extract increased the length of hair-fibers and enabled stimulated initiation into the anagen phase of the hair cycle...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xuan Fang, Wenbin Cai, Qian Cheng, Ding Ai, Xian Wang, Bruce D Hammock, Yi Zhu, Xu Zhang
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation is a recommended preventive approach against cardiovascular diseases, but its mechanism of protection against myocardial infarction (MI) injury is not fully understood. Eicosanoid metabolomics demonstrated an abnormal eicosanoid profile was in the plasma of mice receiving MI surgery. 19,20-EDP, 17,18-EEQ, 14,15-EET and 9,10-EpOME were decreased, and PGE2 was increased by the surgery. N-3 PUFA-rich diets feeding or transgene of Fat-1 shifted the eicosanoid profile to an n-3 PUFA dominant style and attenuated the myocardial infarction injury...
September 14, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Nazarii Kobyliak, Ludovico Abenavoli, Tetyana Falalyeyeva, Galyna Mykhalchyshyn, Luigi Boccuto, Liudmyla Kononenko, Dmytro Kyriienko, Iuliia Komisarenko, Oleg Dynnyk
BACKGROUND: The manipulation of gut microbiota via administration of probiotics has been proposed as a potential strategy for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Hence, we performed a double-blind single center randomized placebo-controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the efficacy of co-administration of probiotics with omega-3 vs. placebo in type-2 diabetic patients with NAFLD. METHODS: A total of 48 patients met the criteria for inclusion. They were randomly assigned to receive "Symbiter Omega" combination of probiotic biomass supplemented with flax and wheat germ oil (250 mg of each, concentration of omega-3 fatty acids 1-5%) or placebo for 8-weeks...
September 13, 2018: Minerva Medica
Stephanie Jayson, Amanda Ferguson, Matthias Goetz, Andrew Routh, Benjamin Tapley, Luke Harding, Christopher J Michaels, Jeff Dawson
It is vital to provide appropriate nutrition to maintain healthy populations in conservation breeding programs. Knowledge of the wild diet of a species can be used to inform captive diet formulation. The nutritional content of the wild diet of the critically endangered mountain chicken frog (Leptodactylus fallax) is unknown, like that of most amphibians. In this study, we analyzed the nutritional content of food items that comprise 91% of the wild diet of L. fallax, by dry weight of food items, and all food items offered to captive L...
September 17, 2018: Zoo Biology
Ho-Jae Lee, Young-Min Han, Jeong Min An, Eun A Kang, Yong Jin Park, Ji-Young Cha, Ki Baik Hahm
Although inflammation is defensive and healing process that maintains organ homeostasis, unresolved inflammation can lead to diseases. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially n-6 PUFAs abundant in Western diet, are precursors of pro-inflammatory mediators, whereas n-3 PUFAs possess anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, interest in the cancer-preventive effect of n-3 PUFAs is increasing. Areas covered: We have observed significant reductions of gastrointestinal (GI) tumorigenesis in the Fat-1 transgenic mouse as evidenced that the decrease in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric tumorigenesis, colon, biliary and pancreatic cancer was seen in Fat-1 mice producing n-3 PUFAs...
September 17, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Xiaoyan Jiang, Jun Suenaga, Hongjian Pu, Zhishuo Wei, Amanda D Smith, Xiaoming Hu, Yejie Shi, Jun Chen
Post-stroke treatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may be a promising therapy in young animals but this has not been tested in aged subjects, a population at most risk of ischemic stroke. Herein we examined the therapeutic efficacy of n-3 PUFAs after distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) in young (10-12 weeks old) and aged (18 months old) mice. Post-ischemic mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups that received: 1) regular food with low content of n-3 PUFAs, 2) intraperitoneal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a major component of n-3 PUFAs) injections, 3) Fish oil (FO, containing high concentration of n-3 PUFAs) dietary supplement, or 4) combined treatment with DHA and FO dietary supplement...
September 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
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