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TRH AND Melatonin

Dolores Sgambato, Annalisa Capuano, Maria Giuseppa Sullo, Agnese Miranda, Alessandro Federico, Marco Romano
BACKGROUND: The gut-brain axis plays a potential role in numerous physiological and pathological conditions. Several substances link stomach with central nervous system. In particular, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, thyrotropinreleasing factor-containing nerve fibers and capsaicin-sensitive nerves are principal mediators of the harmful and protective central nervous system-mediated effects on gastric mucosa. Also, existing evidence indicates that nitric oxide, prostaglandins and calcitonin gene-related peptide play a role as final effectors of gastric protection...
2016: Current Neuropharmacology
György Csaba
Immune cells synthesize, store and secrete hormones, which are identical with the hormones of the endocrine glands. These are: the POMC hormones (ACTH, endorphin), the thyroid system hormones (TRH, TSH, T3), growth hormone (GH), prolactin, melatonin, histamine, serotonin, catecholamines, GnRH, LHRH, hCG, renin, VIP, ANG II. This means that the immune cells contain all of the hormones, which were searched at all and they also have receptors for these hormones. From this point of view the immune cells are similar to the unicells (Tetrahymena), so it can be supposed that these cells retained the properties characteristic at a low level of phylogeny while other cells during the evolution accumulated to form endocrine glands...
September 2014: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Francesco Portaluppi
In normal conditions, the temporal organization of blood pressure (BP) is mainly controlled by neuroendocrine mechanisms. Above all, the monoaminergic systems (including variations in activity of the autonomous nervous system, and in secretion of biogenic amines) appear to integrate the major driving factors of temporal variability, but evidence is available also for a role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, opioid, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, and endothelial systems, as well as other vasoactive peptides...
May 2014: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Walter Pierpaoli
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) aroused our interest when we were engaged in related experiments, so we decided to study its effects on organs, tissues, and aging-related metabolic and hormonal markers when administered in acute or chronic (oral) doses at various time points in its cyclic circadian pattern. We also wanted to determine what effects, if any, it had on aging processes in two essential systems, namely gonadal-reproductive and kidney-urinary. Our results show positive changes as a result of short-term acute and long-term chronic oral administration of TRH to old mice that included rapid correction to more juvenile levels of most typical aging-related hormonal and metabolic measurements...
February 2013: Current Aging Science
H Iwama, M Adachi, C Tase, Y Akama
To examine the effects of bilateral cervical sympathectomy on the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), and prolactin (PRL), 18 male rats were divided into three groups: control (Cont), sham operation (Sham), and bilateral cervical sympathectomy (Symp). All rats were kept under a normal circadian rhythm for 2 weeks. Subsequently, blood was collected and plasma ACTH as well as serum TSH, GH, and PRL levels were measured. The difference in ACTH levels between the Cont and Sham groups was not significant, but ACTH levels in the Symp group were significantly higher than those in the other groups...
September 1996: Journal of Anesthesia
Tsutomu Hashizume, Tomoyoshi Yaegashi, Jin Jin, Ken Sawai, Ferenc Fülöp, György Miklos Nagy
The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of melatonin (MEL) on the salsolinol (SAL)-induced release of prolactin (PRL) in goats. Female goats were kept at 20°C with 16 h of light, 8 h of darkness, and orally administered saline or MEL for 5 weeks. A single intravenous (i.v.) injection of saline (controls), SAL, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or a dopamine receptor antagonist, sulpiride, was given to the goats 3 weeks after the first oral administrations of saline or MEL, and the responses were compared...
April 2013: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Roberto Tarquini, Tiphanie Durfort, Jean-Christophe Francois
A customary temporal organization of physiological functions and biological processes is necessary to maintain body homeostasis and an altered body time structure may favour carcinogenesis. There is growing evidence that GH stimulates cancer growth, IGF1 may have a role in carcinogenesis and cancer promotion, GH-IGF1 axis, TRH, TSH, thyroxine, melatonin and cortisol modulate immune cell function and the immune system is often dysfunctional in patients with malignancies. The aim of our study was to evaluate GH-IGF1 axis, hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, melatonin, cortisol, lymphocyte subsets and IL2 in lung cancer patients...
October 2011: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
G Mazzoccoli, S Carughi, M Sperandeo, V Pazienza, F Giuliani, R Tarquini
Neuro-endocrine hormone secretion is characterized by circadian rhythmicity. Melatonin, GRH and GH are secreted during the night, CRH and ACTH secretion peak in the morning, determining the circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion, TRH and TSH show circadian variations with higher levels at night. Thyroxine levels do not change with clear circadian rhythmicity. In this paper we have considered a possible influence of cortisol and melatonin on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function in humans. Melatonin, cortisol, TRH, TSH and FT4 serum levels were determined in blood samples obtained every four hours for 24 hours from ten healthy males, aged 36-51 years...
April 2011: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Valerio Pazienza, Ada Piepoli, Lucia Anna Muscarella, Francesco Giuliani, Robert B Sothern
The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis function in patients suffering from lung cancer. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), interleukin (IL)-2, and melatonin serum levels were measured in blood samples collected every 4 hours for 24 hours from 11 healthy participants (H; ages 35-53 years) and 9 patients suffering from non-small-cell lung cancer (C; ages 43-63 years). Relationships between hormone levels overall and over time of day were evaluated within and among groups...
December 2012: Integrative Cancer Therapies
Alexander W Ross, Gisela Helfer, Laura Russell, Veerle M Darras, Peter J Morgan
Seasonal animals adapt their physiology and behaviour in anticipation of climate change to optimise survival of their offspring. Intra-hypothalamic thyroid hormone signalling plays an important role in seasonal responses in mammals and birds. In the F344 rat, photoperiod stimulates profound changes in food intake, body weight and reproductive status. Previous investigations of the F344 rat have suggested a role for thyroid hormone metabolism, but have only considered Dio2 expression, which was elevated in long day photoperiods...
2011: PloS One
Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Andrea Fontana, Massimiliano Copetti, Fabio Pellegrini, Ada Piepoli, Lucia Anna Muscarella, Valerio Pazienza, Francesco Giuliani, Roberto Tarquini
BACKGROUND: Close relationships among the nervous, endocrine and immune system components maintain body homeostasis. Alteration of time-related prophile of variation of system components and loss of integrated function may favour the developing of cancer and may be aggravated in the presence of neoplastic disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prophiles of time-related variation of neuro-endocrine-immune system components in lung cancer patients. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected at intervals of 4hours for 24hours from 11 healthy subjects (age range 35-53years, mean age±s...
February 2011: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ralf Paus
The role of neurohormones and neuropeptides in human hair follicle (HF) pigmentation extends far beyond the control of melanin synthesis by α-MSH and ACTH and includes melanoblast differentiation, reactive oxygen species scavenging, maintenance of HF immune privilege, and remodeling of the HF pigmentary unit (HFPU). It is now clear that human HFs are not only a target of multiple neuromediators, but also are a major non-classical production site for neurohormones such as CRH, proopiomelanocortin, ACTH, α-MSH, ß-endorphin, TRH, and melatonin...
February 2011: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
G Mazzoccoli, A De Cata, A Greco, S Carughi, F Giuliani, R Tarquini
Lymphocyte subpopulations present circadian variation of some of their subsets, this variation may influence magnitude and expression of the immune responses and may be related to the variation of neuro-endocrine humoral factors. In our study cortisol, melatonin, TRH, TSH, FT4, GH, IGF1 and IL2 serum levels were measured and lymphocyte subpopulation analyses were performed on blood samples collected every four hours for 24 hours from 11 healthy male subjects aged 38-55 years. A clear circadian rhythm was validated for cortisol serum levels, CD8, CD16, TcRδ1 with acrophase in the morning and at noon, and for melatonin, TRH, TSH, GH, CD3, CD4, CD4/CD8 ratio, HLA-DR, CD20 and CD25 with acrophase at night...
July 2010: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Angelo DE Cata, Stefano Carughi, Antonio Greco, Michele Inglese, Federico Perfetto, Roberto Tarquini
BACKGROUND: Reciprocal influences and bidirectional connections among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems, mediated by shared neuroendocrine hormones, chemo/cytokines and binding sites contribute to the maintainment of body homeostasis. The hypothalamus-pituitary axis may play an immunomodulating role and influence cellular immune responses by releasing various hormones and neuropeptides into the blood with direct modulatory action on the immune effectors, or by regulating the hormonal secretion of peripheral endocrine glands...
July 2010: In Vivo
Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi Vendemiale, Angelo De Cata, Stefano Carughi, Roberto Tarquini
BACKGROUND: The onset and the development of neoplastic disease may be influenced by many physiological, biological and immunological factors. The nervous, endocrine and immune system might act as an integrated unit to maintain body defense against this pathological process and reciprocal influences have been evidenced among hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pineal gland and immune system. In this study we evaluated differences among healthy subjects and subjects suffering from lung cancer in the 24-hour secretory profile of melatonin, cortisol, TRH, TSH, FT4, GH, IGF-1 and IL-2 and circadian variations of lymphocyte subpopulations...
2010: BMC Cancer
M P Carrera, M J Ramírez-Expósito, J M Martínez-Martos
It is well known that cancer is defined as a group of diseases that differ both regarding the tissues they affect as well as their origin. For this reason, much effort is being made in the development of new drugs with the aim of increasing survival and patients' quality of life. There is already a wide spectrum of anti-cancer agents that follow different mechanisms of action, such as the inhibitors of topoisomerases I and II and anti-mitotic chemicals, among others. Usually, these drugs are able to increase the patient's survival, although their toxicity worsens the patient's quality of life...
June 2009: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
G Mazzoccoli, A Giuliani, S Carughi, A De Cata, F Puzzolante, M La Viola, N Urbano, F Perfetto, R Tarquini
OBJECTIVE: Melatonin plays a role in the regulation of biological rhythms, body temperature presents circadian variations with lower levels during nighttime, when melatonin levels are very high, and thyroid hormones influence shiver independent thermogenesis. We have investigated on possible interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and melatonin in the control of body temperature in humans. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free-thyroxine (FT4), melatonin levels determination and body temperature measurements were obtained every four hours for 24-hours starting at 0600 h in a controlled temperature and light-dark environment from ten healthy males, aged 38-65 (mean age +/-s...
October 2004: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Richard J Naftalin, Philip Cunningham, Iram Afzal-Ahmed
1 Nootropic drugs increase glucose uptake into anaesthetised brain and into Alzheimer's diseased brain. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, TRH, which has a chemical structure similar to nootropics increases cerebellar uptake of glucose in murine rolling ataxia. This paper shows that nootropic drugs like piracetam (2-oxo 1 pyrrolidine acetamide) and levetiracetam and neuropeptides like TRH antagonise the inhibition of glucose transport by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and endogenous neuropeptide galanin in human erythrocytes in vitro...
June 2004: British Journal of Pharmacology
Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Stefano Carughi, Angelo De Cata, Marco La Viola, Antonio Giuliani, Roberto Tarquini, Federico Perfetto
BACKGROUND: A number of qualitative and quantitative changes in hormonal secretion pattern have been found in subjects suffering from neoplastic disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of alterations in neuro-endocrine system function and in the pattern of endocrine secretion in patients with lung cancer. METHODS: Cortisol, melatonin, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid-stimulating-hormone (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) serum levels were measured on blood samples collected every four hours for 24 hours from ten healthy old subjects aged 65-79 years (mean age +/- s...
February 2003: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
E Scott Graham, C A Webster, D G Hazlerigg, P J Morgan
This study demonstrates the presence of two prolactin-releasing (PR) factors in media conditioned by primary pars tuberalis cells prepared from dispersed pars tuberalis tissue. One factor was identified as thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on the basis of immunoreactivity and following purification by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The origin of TRH in the pars tuberalis conditioned media was investigated by measuring the expression of glutaminyl-cyclase (QC) by in situ hybridization...
December 2002: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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