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Lilong Zhang, Keli Chen, Liang He, Lincai Peng
Background: Pyrolysis has attracted growing interest as a versatile means to convert biomass into valuable products. Wheat straw has been considered to be a promising biomass resource due to its low price and easy availability. However, most of the products obtained from wheat straw pyrolysis are usually of low quality. Hot soda extraction has the advantage of selective dissolution of lignin whilst retaining the carbohydrates. This can selectively convert biomass into high-quality desired products and suppress the formation of undesirable products...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Supone Manakasettharn, Akira Takahashi, Tohru Kawamoto, Keiko Noda, Yutaka Sugiyama, Tohru Nakamura
Ammonia gas is useful but caustic thus its concentration is monitored depending on applications. We prepared indium hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles (InHCF-NPs, HCF = [FeII (CN)6 ]4- ) with average diameter around 8 nm by simple reaction at room temperature between In cations and HCF anions, and found the unique functionality of InHCF-NPs which were capable of highly sensitive (16 ppb) and exceptionally wide range (190000, 16 ppb - 0.3 %) detection of ammonia gas within 6 min by IR measurements. Slope changes of the IR peak ratio of adsorbed ammonium over CN moieties in InHCF framework indicated a good log-log linear correlation along gas concentrations, in which wide dynamic range over 105 was realized for the first time in the field of ammonia gas detection...
March 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Werner Koch, David J Tannor
Stokes phenomenon refers to the fact that an asymptotic expansion of complex functions can differ in different regions of the complex plane, and that beyond the so-called Stokes lines the expansion has an unphysical divergence. An important special case is when the Stokes lines emanate from phase space caustics of a complex trajectory manifold. In this case, symmetry determines that to second order there is a double coverage of the space, one portion of which is unphysical. Building on the seminal but laconic findings of Adachi, we show that the deviation from second order can be used to rigorously determine the Stokes lines and therefore the region of the space that should be removed...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Matthieu Bruzzi, Mircea Chirica, Matthieu Resche-Rigon, Helene Corte, Thibault Voron, Emile Sarfati, Anne-Marie Zagdanski, Pierre Cattan
BACKGROUND: Endoscopy is the best predictor of stricture formation after caustic ingestion. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the accuracy of emergency computed tomography (CT) and endoscopy in predicting risks of esophageal stricture. METHODS: We describe a CT classification of esophageal caustic injuries: Grade I show normal esophagus; Grade IIa display internal enhancement of the esophageal mucosa and enhancement of the outer wall conferring a "target" aspect; Grade IIb present as a fine rim of external esophageal wall enhancement...
March 12, 2018: Annals of Surgery
L O Gonçalves, M M Lopes, E R Rezende, G Rs Segundo
BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in childhood. The study aim is to determine the incidence of EoE in pediatric patients submitted to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), with analysis of epidemiological data regarding sex, age, symptomatology, the frequency of atopy and endoscopic and histological findings. METHODS: A retrospective, observational and analytical study performed with an evaluation of medical records of patients aged 0 to 14 years who underwent to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in a tertiary hospital from January 2004 to January 2014...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Yen-I Chen, Theodore James, Amol Agarwal, Todd H Baron, Takao Itoi, Rastislav Kunda, Jose Nieto, Majidah Bukhari, Olaya Brewer Gutierrez, Omid Sanaei, Robert Moran, Lea Fayad, Mouen A Khashab
Background and study aims:  Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE) in malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) appears to be promising; however, its role in benign GOO is unclear. The aim of this study was to ascertain the clinical efficacy and safety of EUS-GE in benign GOO. Patients and methods : This was an international retrospective series involving 5 tertiary centers. Consecutive patients who underwent EUS-GE between 1/2013 - 10/2016 for benign GOO were included...
March 2018: Endoscopy International Open
Dragoş Predescu, Silviu Constantinoiu
Background: A few decades ago, esophageal substitution was mainly dedicated particularly in postcaustic esophageal stenosis; currently, the reconstruction has expanded its palette of indications to other areas of benign esophageal pathology (severe motor disorders, esophageal achalasia with multiple relapses, peptic stenosis, etc.) but has also become a quasi-obligatory final time in the esophagectomy for cancer whenever it is possible. The techniques of esophageal reconstruction using the stomach, regardless of the indication and the chosen technical option, remain a valuable and effective method...
January 2018: Chirurgia
Mohammed H El Fahar
Oral chemical burn injuries induce more damage to the underlying tissues with extensive scarring. It is very well known that alkali causes severe liquefaction necrosis and injury to the deeper tissues. Pediatric facial burns must be managed thoroughly and always require complex reconstruction, which is a challenging process. So, any reconstructive surgeon must be aware of all the deformities that may have significant functional and aesthetic impact on the burn survivors especially children. Few medical studies addressed pediatric microsurgical reconstruction for oral burn injuries induced by chemical materials...
February 27, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Richard A F Clark, Justine Fenner, Arielle Sasson, Steve A McClain, Adam J Singer, Marcia G Tonnesen
Other than radiation, caustic strong alkali insults, and massive over-reactive inflammation (pyoderma gangrenosum), injury progression after trauma is usually secondary to ischemia from decreased blood vessel perfusion. Impeded blood flow contributes to injury progression in a variety of disorders including venous stasis ulcers, arterial ulcers, diabetic ulcers, flap and graft necrosis, sickle cell disease, cryoglobulinemia and other vasculopathies, vasculitis, post-myocardial infarction, and post stroke. The cause of impeded blood flow in these disorders/diseases is well known...
February 25, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Aditti S Barge, Prakash D Vaidya
Wet air oxidation (WAO) is a candidate technique for the effective treatment of spent caustic wastewater. In this work, cresols were chosen as model compounds to represent cresylic spent caustic wash. Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising catalyst as well as support for the wet oxidation process, due to its unique structure and properties. For the first time, GO and ruthenium supported on graphene oxide (Ru/GO) were employed for WAO of cresylic isomers. The aforesaid materials were synthesized by modified Hummer's method and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Iwona Gajda, John Greenman, Carlo Santoro, Alexey Serov, Chris Melhuish, Plamen Atanassov, Ioannis A Ieropoulos
Power output limitation is one of the main challenges that needs to be addressed for full-scale applications of the Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) technology. Previous studies have examined electrochemical performance of different cathode electrodes including the development of novel iron based electrocatalysts, however the long-term investigation into continuously operating systems is rare. This work aims to study the application of platinum group metals-free (PGM-free) catalysts integrated into an air-breathing cathode of the microbial fuel cell operating on activated sewage sludge and supplemented with acetate as the carbon energy source...
February 1, 2018: Energy: Technologies, Resources, Reserves, Demands, Impact, Conservation, Management, Policy
Vasily Yu Kharin, Daniel Seipt, Sergey G Rykovanov
A description of the spectral and angular distributions of Compton scattered light in collisions of intense laser pulses with high-energy electrons is unwieldy and usually requires numerical simulations. However, due to the large number of parameters affecting the spectra such numerical investigations can become computationally expensive. Using methods of catastrophe theory we predict higher-dimensional caustics in the spectra of the Compton scattered light, which are associated with bright narrow-band spectral lines, and in the simplest case can be controlled by the value of the linear chirp of the pulse...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Suvashis Dash, Jatin Bhojani, Sharadendu Sharma
Many chemicals used as medical treatments can cause chemical burns as an untoward side effect. One of such chemicals is potassium permanganate. It is a caustic chemical used as a disinfectant. The most common sites of burn by potassium permanganate are exposed sites like the face and hands. Chemical burns in the perianal and anal region are rare in clinical practice and even sparser in the pediatric age group. In this article, we report a case of perianal and anal chemical burn in an 18-month-old, male child, caused by potassium permanganate crystal applied wrongly for the treatment of pinworm infestation...
February 9, 2018: Drug Safety—Case Reports
Jinkai Xue, Chunkai Huang, Yanyan Zhang, Yang Liu, Mohamed Gamal El-Din
Canada has the world's largest oil sands reservoirs. Surface mining and subsequent caustic hot water extraction of bitumen lead to an enormous quantity of tailings (volumetric ratio bitumen:water=9:1). Due to the zero-discharge approach and the persistency of the complex matrix, oil producers are storing oil sands tailings in vast ponds in Northern Alberta. Oil sands tailings are comprised of sand, clay and process-affected water (OSPW). OSPW contains an extremely complex matrix of organic contaminants (e.g...
February 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rohit Ninan Benjamin, Thambu David, Ramya Iyadurai, K S Jacob
Background: People who deliberately ingest poisons commonly present to emergency departments of hospitals in India. However, there is a dearth of information on poisoning using nonorganophosphorus pesticides. Methods: This prospective, hospital-based study attempted to examine the nonorganophosphorus poisons used to attempt suicide. Data on sociodemographic characteristics of patients, site and source of poisons, co-ingested substances, premeditation, and reason for poisoning were collected...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Israel Julián-Macías, Carolina Rickenstorff-Parrao, Omar de Jesús Cabrera-Rosas, Ernesto Espíndola-Ramos, Salvador Alejandro Juárez-Reyes, Paula Ortega-Vidals, Gilberto Silva-Ortigoza, Citlalli Teresa Sosa-Sánchez
In this work we compute the wavefronts and the caustics associated with the solutions to the scalar wave equation introduced by Durnin in elliptical cylindrical coordinates generated by the function A(ϕ)=ceν(ϕ,q)+iseν(ϕ,q), with ν being an integral or nonintegral number. We show that the wavefronts and the caustic are invariant under translations along the direction of evolution of the beam. We remark that the wavefronts of the separable Mathieu beams generated by A(ϕ)=ceν(ϕ,q) and A(ϕ)=seν(ϕ,q) are cones and their caustic is the z axis; thus, they are not structurally stable...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Chaohong Huang, Hanqing Li, Jianfeng Wu, Yupeng Yan
We derive the initial distributions of phase and complex amplitude of accelerating beams with arbitrary predesigned hyperbolic trajectories using the caustic-design method and explore the relation between these beams and Hermite-Gaussian beams. The results show the hyperbolic accelerating beams are a larger class of beams than Hermite-Gaussian beams. When the bending parameter is an integer, the hyperbolic accelerating beams have a similar initial complex amplitude distribution and almost the same propagating characteristics as Hermite-Gaussian beams...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Ketki Behere, Bumjoon Cha, Seongkyu Yoon
A modified shrinking core model (MSCM) has been employed to describe the mechanism for the degradation of Protein A resin particles taking place under continuous chromatographic operation. The model is based on the hypothetical shrinkage of the boundary layer of the resin particles, which house the active Protein A ligands within their pores. It has been determined that caustic during the sanitization phase of chromatography primarily caused the Protein A ligand degradation. Protein A resins provided by manufacturers possess unique caustic stability which has been employed in MSCM to appraise the ligand degradation...
January 22, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Emo E van Halsema, Chantal A 't Hoen, Patricia S de Koning, Wilda D Rosmolen, Jeanin E van Hooft, Jacques J Bergman
BACKGROUND: Patients with therapy-resistant benign esophageal strictures (TRBES) suffer from chronic dysphagia and generally require repeated endoscopic dilations. For selected patients, esophageal self-dilation may improve patient's autonomy and reduce the number of endoscopic dilations. We evaluated the clinical course and outcomes of patients who started esophageal self-dilation at our institution. METHODS: This study was a retrospective case series of patients with TRBES who started esophageal self-dilation between 2012 and 2016 at the Academic Medical Center Amsterdam...
January 18, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
A G Magner, K Arita
The Fedoriuk-Maslov catastrophe theory of caustics and turning points is extended to solve the bifurcation problems by the improved stationary phase method (ISPM). The trace formulas for the radial power-law (RPL) potentials are presented by the ISPM based on the second- and third-order expansion of the classical action near the stationary point. A considerable enhancement of contributions of the two orbits (pair consisting of the parent and newborn orbits) at their bifurcation is shown. The ISPM trace formula is proposed for a simple bifurcation scenario of Hamiltonian systems with continuous symmetries, where the contributions of the bifurcating parent orbits vanish upon approaching the bifurcation point due to the reduction of the end-point manifold...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
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