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Michael Easson, Brian Condon, Andres Villalpando, SeChin Chang
A review is reported herein of the research progress made at the USDA's Southern Regional Research Center to provide an ultrasound and enzymatic alternative to the current textile processing method of scouring greige cotton textile with caustic chemicals. The review covers early efforts to measure pectin and wax removal from greige cotton textiles using standard wicking methodology and further describes an investigation of newly discovered polygalacturonase enzymes as bioscouring agents. Additional research is reviewed involving efforts to characterize and optimize the ultrasound-enhanced enzymatic scouring process through a statistical examination of the operating parameters of power, enzyme concentration, ultrasonic frequency and time...
November 13, 2017: Ultrasonics
Jie Yuan, Jin Xiao, Fachuang Li, Bingjie Wang, Zhen Yao, Bailie Yu, Liuyun Zhang
Spent cathode carbon (SCC) from aluminum electrolysis has been treated in ultrasonic-assisted caustic leaching and acid leaching process, and purified SCC used as carbon source to synthesize silicon carbide (SiC) was investigated. Chemical and mineralogical properties have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC). Various experimental factors temperature, time, liquid-solid ratio, ultrasonic power, and initial concentration of alkali or acid affecting on SCC leaching result were studied...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Rhonda F Souza, Liela Bayeh, Stuart J Spechler, Uttam K Tambar, Richard K Bruick
Traditionally, reflux esophagitis was assumed to develop as a caustic, chemical injury inflicted by refluxed acid. Recently, however, studies in rats and humans suggest that reflux esophagitis develops as a cytokine-mediated inflammatory injury, with hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α playing a major role. In response to the reflux of acid and bile, HIF-2α in esophageal epithelial cells becomes stabilized, thereby increasing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines that attract T lymphocytes and other inflammatory cells to damage the esophagus...
November 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Marlies E R Christiaens, Sylvia Gildemyn, Silvio Matassa, Tess Ysebaert, Jo De Vrieze, Korneel Rabaey
Conventional plant and meat protein production have low nitrogen usage efficiencies and high energy needs. Microbial protein (MP) is an alternative that offers higher nitrogen conversion efficiencies with low energy needs if nitrogen is recovered from a concentrated waste source such as source-separated urine. An electrochemical cell (EC) was optimized for ammonia recovery as NH3/H2 gas mixtures usable for MP production. Undiluted hydrolyzed urine was fed to the caustic-generating cathode compartment for ammonia stripping with redirection to the anode compartment for additional ammonium extraction...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Liang He, Qing-Qing Guan, Lin-Cai Peng, Ke-Li Chen, Xin-Sheng Chai
In this study, a reutilization of caustic lye during cold caustic extraction (i.e., CCE) process to produce high-purity dissolving pulp and high-concentrated hemicellulose solution was proposed. The results showed that the lye can be reused about 12 times for producing high-purity dissolving pulps. With the number of CCE stages of 12, the hemicellulose in the lye can be auto-concentrated to about 37g/L. The alkali efficiency of the modified CCE process was about 6 (or 3) times better than the traditional CCE process with low- (or middle-) consistency of pulps...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Maximino Avendaño-Alejo, Edwin Román-Hernández, Luis Castañeda, Victor Ivan Moreno-Oliva
We study the formation of caustic surfaces produced by conic lenses, considering a plane wavefront propagating parallel to the optical axis. The shape of the caustic can be modified by changing the parameters of the lens in such a way that if we are able to vanish the caustic, the optical system produces the sharpest diffraction-limited images. Alternatively, caustic surfaces with a large area can be applied to the design of non-imaging optical systems, with potential applications such as diffusers of light for illumination or solar concentrators...
August 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Antonín Mikš, Petr Pokorný
This paper analyzes the influence of spherical aberration on the depth of focus of symmetrical optical systems for imaging of axial points. A calculation of a beam's caustics is discussed using ray equations in the image plane and considering longitudinal spherical aberration as well. Concurrently, the influence of aberration coefficients on extremes of such a curve is presented. Afterwards, conditions for aberration coefficients are derived if the Strehl definition should be the same in two symmetrically placed planes with respect to the paraxial image plane...
June 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Joshua S Harvey, Hannah E Smithson, Clive R Siviour, Giles E M Gasper, Sigbjørn O Sønnesyn, Brian K Tanner, Tom C B McLeish
The rainbow has been the subject of discussion across a variety of historical periods and cultures, and numerous optical explanations have been suggested. Here, we further explore the scientific treatise De iride [On the Rainbow] written by Robert Grosseteste in the 13th century. Attempting to account for the shape of the rainbow, Grosseteste bases his explanation on the optical properties of transparent cones, which he claims can give rise to arc-shaped projections through refraction. By stating that atmospheric phenomena are reducible to the geometric optics of a conical prism, the De iride lays out a coherent and testable hypothesis...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Martin Stubenvoll, Bernd Schäfer, Klaus Mann
We report a method for passive compensation of thermally induced focal shifts and higher-order aberrations of NIR laser processing optics. Theoretical considerations are made on the elimination of aberrations including polarization effects using a multi-stage compensation element with optical flats of both positive and negative dn/dT. A compensation layout is designed and optimized utilizing numerical simulations of thermo-optic effects. Based on these findings, optical elements for compensation of an F-Theta objective are manufactured...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
Blazena Caganova, Tatiana Foltanova, Erik Puchon, Elena Ondriasova, Silvia Plackova, Tomas Fazekas, Magdalena Kuzelova
Caustic poisonings are still associated with many fatalities. Studies focusing on the elderly are rare. The purpose of the present study was to compare the clinical outcomes of caustic ingestion injury in elderly and non-elderly adults with regard to gender, intent of exposure, substance ingested, severity of mucosal injury, complications, and mortality. Caustic substance exposures reported to the National Toxicological Information Centre in Slovakia during 1998-2015 were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups: the non-elderly (<60 years) and elderly adults (≥60 years)...
October 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Paula Ortega-Vidals, Omar de Jesús Cabrera-Rosas, Ernesto Espíndola Ramos, Salvador Alejandro Juárez Reyes, Israel Julían Macías, Gilberto Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón Silva-Ortigoza, Citlalli Teresa Sosa-Sánchez
The aim of the present work is to obtain an integral representation of the field associated with the refraction of a plane wave by an arbitrary surface. To this end, in the first part we consider two optical media with refraction indexes n1 and n2 separated by an arbitrary interface, and we show that the optical path length, ϕ, associated with the evolution of the plane wave is a complete integral of the eikonal equation in the optical medium with refraction index n2. Then by using the k function procedure introduced by Stavroudis, we define a new complete integral, S, of the eikonal equation...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Jacob Rubinstein, Gershon Wolansky
The Fermat principle is generalized to a system of rays. It is shown that all the ray mappings that are compatible with two given intensities of a monochromatic wave, measured at two planes, are stationary points of a canonical functional, which is the weighted average of the actions of all the rays. It is further shown that there exist at least two stationary points for this functional, implying that in the geometrical optics regime the phase from intensity problem has inherently more than one solution. The caustic structures of all the possible ray mappings are analyzed...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Giovanni Firpo, Ambra Vola, Raffaella Lissandrin, Francesca Tamarozzi, Enrico Brunetti
Puncture, Aspiration, Injection of scolicidal agent, Re-aspiration is the most widely used percutaneous treatment of cystic echinococcosis (CE). Among its perceived risks is chemical sclerosing cholangitis, a serious complication due to the caustic effect of the scolicidal solution on the biliary tree, when a patent cystobiliary fistula occurs. To simplify the protocol, we decided to omit injection and reaspiration of the scolicidal agent and to implement a full course of albendazole (ABZ) therapy instead of the routine 1-month ABZ prophylaxis...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Alessandra Marcuz de Souza Campos, Fábio Bucaretchi, Luciane Cristina Rodrigues Fernandes, Carla Borrasca Fernandes, Eduardo Mello de Capitani, Ana Raquel Medeiros Beck
OBJECTIVES: To analyze and to compare clinical repercussions of accidents involving legally and illegally commercialized household sanitizers in children under 7 years of age. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to collect data from electronic database of a regional Poison Control Center during one year. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive non-parametric statistics and association tests. Results: The sample had 737 reported cases. Most of the accidents occurred with children under 3 years of age (median: 1 year of age; interquartile interval: 1-3 years of age), at home (92...
January 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Hunniya Waseem, Matthew Welch
CLINICAL INTRODUCTION: A 44-year-old woman, with an unremarkable medical history, presented in the middle of the night with discomfort in her throat. She described being assaulted by an assailant who put his 'fist in her mouth', trying to suffocate her. On examination, she had normal observations and no signs of injury, other than scratch marks around her mouth; she reported no odynophagia and was able to swallow fluids readily. During examination, she complained that lying flat made her increasingly uncomfortable and was causing burgeoning dyspnoea...
October 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Timor Melamed, Amir Shlivinski
We present a practical algorithm for designing an aperture field (source) that propagates along a predefined generic beam trajectory that consists of both convex and concave sections. We employ here the mechanism that forms the well-known Airy beam in which the beam trajectory follows a smooth convex caustic of the geometric optics rays and generalize it for a class of beams that are referred to as "caustic beams" (CBs). The implementation is based on "back-tracing" rays from the predefined beam trajectory to the source's aperture to form its phase distribution...
July 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Pablo Vaveliuk, Alberto Lencina, Óscar Martínez-Matos
Caustic optical beams arising from a spectral phase whose power lies in an unusual range of values less than two are presented. Unlike what happens for conventional phase powers greater than two, it is feasible to generate caustic structures having properties that do not follow the established sorting. For instance, an asymptotic cusp caustic beam having a cusp point at infinity is demonstrated. For the sake of completeness, the caustic beam properties are analyzed within the whole real range of the phase power...
October 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Jin Xiao, Jie Yuan, Zhongliang Tian, Kai Yang, Zhen Yao, Bailie Yu, Liuyun Zhang
The spent cathode carbon (SCC) from aluminum electrolysis was subjected to caustic leaching to investigate the different effects of ultrasound-assisted and traditional methods on element fluorine (F) leaching rate and leaching residue carbon content. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) dissolved in deionized water was used as the reaction system. Through single-factor experiments and a comparison of two leaching techniques, the optimum F leaching rate and residue carbon content for ultrasound-assisted leaching process were obtained at a temperature of 70°C, residue time of 40min, initial mass ratio of alkali to SCC (initial alkali-to-material ratio) of 0...
January 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Verónica Alonso, Devicka Ojha, Harsha Nalluri, Juan Carlos de Agustín
BACKGROUND: The treatment of recurrent esophageal stricture secondary to the ingestion of a caustic agent is an arduous task. Self-expanding esophageal stents may be an alternative to repeated endoscopic esophageal dilations. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a two-year-old male with a severe and long esophageal stricture successfully treated by the combination of dilations and stent placement. After five months of serial pneumatic dilations, three self-expanding nitinol stents internally coated with silicone were introduced through a gastrostomy, covering the entire esophagus...
October 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Hooman Bahrami-Motlagh, Mohammad Hadizadeh-Neisanghalb, Hassan Peyvandi
INTRODUCTION: Endoscopy is an invasive procedure and finding noninvasive alternative tools in detection of probable upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract injuries following caustic ingestion is an area of interest. The present study aimed to evaluate the screening performance characteristics of thoraco-abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan in this regard. METHODS: This prospective cross sectional study was conducted on patients presenting to emergency department following acute caustic ingestion...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
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