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Jennifer H Madenspacher, Michael B Fessler
Although community-acquired pneumonia remains a major public health problem, murine models of bacterial pneumonia have recently facilitated significant preclinical advances in our understanding of the underlying cellular and molecular pathogenesis. In vivo mouse models capture the integrated physiology and resilience of the host defense response in a manner not revealed by alternative, simplified ex vivo approaches. Several methods have been described in the literature for intrapulmonary inoculation of bacteria in mice, including aerosolization, intranasal delivery, peroral endotracheal cannulation under 'blind' and visualized conditions, and transcutaneous endotracheal cannulation...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mandana Rafeey, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Saeede Sheikhi, Leila Vahedi
Introduction: Caustic ingestion that occurs accidently is one of the most common problems in children. Methods: This systematic review has been performed by searching the databases including Science Direct, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and PubMed. A strategic search was performed with keywords including caustic, corrosive, ingestion, and children, and was limited to articles in English and Persian. Data were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis2 and PASW Statistics 18. Results: We selected 64 articles regarding caustic ingestion with a total sample of 11,345 cases...
September 2016: Journal of Caring Sciences
Michael Dale Anderson, Brad Aitchison, David C Johnson
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to prepare amorphous thin films of Al2O3, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5 on both silicon substrates and aluminum blocks. Etch rates in 10M NH4OH were determined from X-ray reflectometry data collected as a function of time. Amorphous Al2O3 thin films were found to have an etch rate of 0.5 nm min-1 and an increase in roughness of ~ 0.01 nm min-1. Electron microscopy data showed etch pits, consistent with the increase in roughness. Amorphous Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 films showed no appreciable etching or roughening over the course of a ~ 500 hour continuous immersion...
October 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hasret Ayyildiz Civan, Didem Gulcu, Tulay Erkan
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a caustic agent which is used in farms, homes and hospitals for cleaning skin and wounds as an antiseptic solution. It may lead to digestive system injuries in case of ingestion. We present a two-days-old newborn case which was carried to the emergency unit with complaints of poor breastfeeding, uneasiness and crying for 4-6 hours. Her mom confessed that she had given a spoon of 10% BAC solution for her cough. Initial laboratory tests were in normal ranges. A gastroscopy performed in the second hour of her admission revealed an hyperemic and edematous mucosa in the middle third of esophagus and a circumferential ulceration followed in the distal portion...
September 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Alexis José Ormeño Julca
Exposure to potentially toxic substances represents 0.3% of annual visits to a pediatric emergency department, being a situation likely to be prevented and that generates a non-negligible morbidity and mortality. The most common route of exposure is the oral and drugs are the products most frequently involved. Esophagitis caustic ingestion of corrosive substances in childhood is now a public health problem in developing countries. Clinical manifestations vary from no injuries serious commitment to high risk of death observed more frequently in patients between one and three years old...
July 2016: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
Ievgeniia Ostrov, Avraham Harel, Solange Bernstein, Doron Steinberg, Moshe Shemesh
Microbial damages caused by biofilm forming bacteria in the dairy industry are a fundamental threat to safety and quality of dairy products. In order to ensure the optimal level of equipment hygiene in the dairy industry, it is necessary to determine the biofilm removal efficiency of cleaning agents used for cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures. However, currently there is no standard method available for evaluating and comparing cleaning agents for use in CIP procedures in the dairy industry under realistic conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Inês Rolim, Rita Vale Rodrigues, António Bettencourt, Rita Barros, Vânia Camilo, António Dias Pereira, Raquel Almeida, Paula Chaves
We report a case of metaplastic columnar epithelium in the mid-esophagus in a patient with history of caustic ingestion. A cardiac-type gastric phenotype, with early signs of intestinalization, was confirmed by immunohistochemistry studies (MUC5AC, MUC6, SOX2, and CDX2). Nonmetaplastic mucosa had histologic evidence of gastroesophageal reflux. In this case, esophageal reepithelization seems to have been modulated by acidic gastroesophageal reflux, which might activate transcription factors leading to phenotypic reprogramming of the regenerative epithelium...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Menyoung Lee, John R Wallbank, Patrick Gallagher, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Vladimir I Fal'ko, David Goldhaber-Gordon
Rational design of long-period artificial lattices yields effects unavailable in simple solids. The moiré pattern in highly aligned graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructures is a lateral superlattice with high electron mobility and an unusual electronic dispersion whose miniband edges and saddle points can be reached by electrostatic gating. We investigated the dynamics of electrons in moiré minibands by measuring ballistic transport between adjacent local contacts in a magnetic field, known as the transverse electron focusing effect...
September 30, 2016: Science
Han-Yu Deng, Wen-Ping Wang, Yi-Dan Lin, Long-Qi Chen
A best evidence topic in cardiothoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'Can mitomycin facilitate endoscopic dilatation treatment of benign esophageal stricture (mainly including caustic and anastomotic esophageal stricture)?' Altogether, 115 papers were found using the reported search, of which 6 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question, which included 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 systematic review and 4 cohort studies. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated...
September 23, 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Zhijun Ren, Hongzhen Jin, Baojin Peng, Yile Shi
We construct and generate symmetric accelerating caustic beams (ACBs) by using 3/2-order phase-only masks with elliptical contour based on optical caustics and diffraction theory. The symmetric ACBs are a type of bimodal accelerating caustic beam with two quasi-constant intensity peaks, very similar to the combination of two face-to-face Airy-like beams judging by appearance. Their fundamental optical morphology and force properties of particles in ACBs are subsequently provided. The unique optical properties of ACBs can be exploited for practical uses, such as accelerating electrons and clearing micrometer-sized particles as a laser micrometer-sized "water pump" instead of a laser micrometer-sized "snowblower" of accelerating Airy beams...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Fernando Alberca de Las Parras, María Navalón Rubio, Juan Egea Valenzuela
INTRODUCTION: Refractory esophageal stenosis (RES) is a major health problem in the pediatric population. Several techniques such as stent placement or C-mitomycin (CM) have been described as alternative treatments. We present our experience with both techniques, in our case with biodegradable stents (BS) and sometimes the association with stents and CM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six patients have been included: 2 post-operative fistulas in patients with type I esophageal atresia; 1 operated atresia without fistula; and 3 caustic strictures...
October 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Thibault Voron, Morgan Anyla, Helene Corte, Eric Roland, Nicolas Munoz-Bongrand, Emile Sarfati, Pierre Cattan, Mircea Chirica
OBJECTIVE: The study purpose was to report the indications, technical aspects, and outcomes of cervicosternolaparotomy during revision surgery after esophageal reconstruction for caustic injuries. METHODS: Patients who underwent cervicosternolaparotomy during revision surgery for graft dysfunction between 1999 and 2015 were included. Cervicosternolaparotomy was performed to mobilize and pull up the primary conduit during surgery for strictures (rescue cervicosternolaparotomy) or to allow retrosternal access for management of other graft-related complications (exposure cervicosternolaparotomy)...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Federico Marchesi, Chiara Rapacchi, Vittoria Pattonieri, Francesco Tartamella, Maria Teresa Mita, Stefano Cecchini
Refractory esophageal strictures are a common sequela of caustic ingestion. If endoscopic dilation becomes ineffective, esophagectomy represents the only therapeutic option. The minimally invasive approach, specifically the thoracoscopic access in prone position, may allow postoperative morbidity to be reduced. We present the first case described in the Literature of minimally invasive esophagectomy in prone position for a long-term failure of endoscopic dilation after caustic ingestion.
2016: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
R Karkouche, C Bernigaud, J Fontugne, O Zehou, G Bellaud, M N'Diaye, K Cherif, P Wolkenstein, O Chosidow, N Ortonne, S Ingen-Housz-Oro
BACKGROUND: Equestrian cold panniculitis has been described since 1980 in horse riders or in stable employees. Histological aspect is underdescribed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We describe clinical and histological features of six horse riding or stable employees patients presenting with upper lateral thigh lesions during the winter months between 2014 and 2016 in our dermatological department. RESULTS: Six horse riding or stable employees ladies without any known disease presented with similar symptoms...
September 16, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Lydia V Luncz, Tiago Falótico, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido, Clara Corat, Hannah Mosley, Michael Haslam
Animals foraging in their natural environments need to be proficient at recognizing and responding to changes in food targets that affect accessibility or pose a risk. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use stone tools to access a variety of nut species, including otherwise inaccessible foods. This study tests whether wild capuchins from Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil adjust their tool selection when processing cashew (Anacardium spp.) nuts. During the ripening process of cashew nuts, the amount of caustic defensive substance in the nut mesocarp decreases...
2016: Scientific Reports
D Faccialà, S Pabst, B D Bruner, A G Ciriolo, S De Silvestri, M Devetta, M Negro, H Soifer, S Stagira, N Dudovich, C Vozzi
We investigated the giant resonance in xenon by high-order harmonic generation spectroscopy driven by a two-color field. The addition of a nonperturbative second harmonic component parallel to the driving field breaks the symmetry between neighboring subcycles resulting in the appearance of spectral caustics at two distinct cutoff energies. By controlling the phase delay between the two color components it is possible to tailor the harmonic emission in order to amplify and isolate the spectral feature of interest...
August 26, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Yu He, Lingxue Wang, Yi Cai, Wei Xue
Existing catadioptric panoramic depth estimation systems usually require two panoramic imaging subsystems to achieve binocular disparity. The system structures are complicated and only sparse depth maps can be obtained. We present a novel monocular catadioptric panoramic depth estimation method that achieves dense depth maps of panoramic scenes using a single unmodified conventional catadioptric panoramic imaging system. Caustics model the reflection of the curved mirror and establish the distance relationship between the virtual and real panoramic scenes to overcome the nonlinear problem of the curved mirror...
September 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Omar de J Cabrera-Rosas, Paula Ortega-Vidals, Salvador Alejandro Juárez-Reyes, Gilberto Silva-Ortigoza
In this work we obtain the equations for curvatures of refracted wavefronts for a plano arbitrary lens. The functions H<sub>0</sub>, H<sub>1</sub>, and H<sub>2</sub> that determine the caustic also determine the curvature of these wavefronts. The analysis performed in these calculations allows us to study the behavior of the Ronchigrams for the case of plane incident wavefronts. We apply this procedure for a plano-spherical lens, and we discover that it is possible to describe the behavior of the Ronchigrams based on the τ function, which labels the refracted wavefronts of the optical system...
September 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Victor A Ferraris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Ana I Catarino, Richard Thompson, William Sanderson, Theodore B Henry
We compared procedures for digestion of mussel soft tissues and extraction of microplastics (MPs). Complete tissue digestion was achieved with 1M NaOH, 35% HNO3 and by 0.1 UHb/mL protease, but use of HNO3 caused unacceptable destruction of some MPs. Recovery of MPs spiked into mussels was similar (93 ± 10%) for NaOH and enzyme digestions. We recommend use of industrial enzymes based on digestion efficiency, MP recovery and avoidance of caustic chemicals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
September 1, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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