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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234632/an-ecological-study-of-the-association-between-air-pollution-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-incidence-in-texas
#1
Luca Cicalese, Loren Raun, Ali Shirafkan, Laura Campos, Daria Zorzi, Mauro Montalbano, Colin Rhoads, Valia Gazis, Katherine Ensor, Cristiana Rastellini
Introduction: Primary liver cancer is a significant cause of cancer-related death in both the United States and the world at large. Hepatocellular carcinoma comprises 90% of these primary liver cancers and has numerous known etiologies. Evaluation of these identified etiologies and other traditional risk factors cannot explain the high incidence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma in Texas. Texas is home to the second largest petrochemical industry and agricultural industry in the nation; industrial activity and exposure to pathogenic chemicals have never been assessed as potential links to the state's increased incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma...
November 2017: Liver Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227109/fast-and-environmentally-friendly-microfluidic-technique-for-the-fabrication-of-polymer-microspheres
#2
Yanlin Zhang, Robert W Cattrall, Spas D Kolev
This paper reports on a novel microfluidic technique for the fabrication of microspheres of synthetic polymers including poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), and polystyrene (PS). The polymers are dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and the method is based on the diminished solubility of THF in a 20% (w/v) NaCl solution which allows the formation of droplets of the polymer solution. These polymer solution droplets are generated in a microfluidic system and their desolvation is accomplished within seconds by allowing the droplets to rise by buoyancy through a NaCl solution with a concentration lower than 15%...
December 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215482/association-of-telomere-length-with-chromosomal-damage-among-chinese-workers-exposed-to-vinyl-chloride-monomer
#3
Guo-Qiao Zheng, Guang-Hui Zhang, Xiao-Wen Xu, Jin-Wei Wang, Li-Bo Yu, Ya-Nan Zhang, Jing-Wen Huang, Yong-Liang Li, Paul W Braudt-Rauf, Zhao-Lin Xia
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between relative telomere length (RTL) and chromosomal damage represented by micronucleus (MN) frequencies among vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) -exposed workers. METHODS: A group of 126 VCM-exposed workers, 60 internal controls, and 25 external controls were examined for RTL by Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and MN frequencies by cytokinesis-block micronucleus test. Cumulative exposure dose was used to estimate the exposure of VCM-exposed workers...
December 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211330/cross-coupling-of-sodium-sulfinates-with-aryl-heteroaryl-and-vinyl-halides-by-nickel-photoredox-dual-catalysis
#4
Huifeng Yue, Chen Zhu, Magnus Rueping
An efficient photoredox/nickel dual catalyzed sulfonylation reaction of aryl, heteroaryl, and vinyl halides has been achieved for the first time. This newly developed sulfonylation protocol provides a versatile method for the synthesis of diverse aromatic sulfones at room temperature and shows excellent functional group tolerance. The electrophilic coupling partners are not limited to aryl, heteroaryl and vinyl bromides but also less reactive aryl chlorides are suitable substrates for this transformation.
December 6, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209916/carcinogens-that-induce-the-a-t-t-a-nucleotide-substitutions-in-the-genome
#5
Guangbiao Zhou, Xinchun Zhao
Recently, Ng et al. reported that the A:T > T:A substitutions, proposed to be a signature of aristolochic acid (AA) exposure, were detected in 76/98 (78%) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from the Taiwan Province of China, and 47% to 1.7% of HCCs from the Chinese mainland and other countries harbored the nucleotide changes. However, other carcinogens, e.g., tobacco carcinogens 4-aminobiphenyl and 1,3-butadiene, air toxic vinyl chloride and its reactive metabolites chloroethylene oxide, melphalan and chlorambucil, also cause this signature in the genome...
December 5, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199597/hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-possible-chemical-and-biological-causes-a-review
#6
Pinar Erkekoglu, Didem Oral, Ming-Wei Chao, Belmar Kocer-Gumusel
The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multistep process. In HCC, progressive and morphologically distinct preneoplastic lesions/alterations associated with chronic liver injury, inflammation, hepatocellular degeneration/regeneration, necrosis, and small-cell dysplasia can be observed. The incidence of HCC exhibits regional and ethnic differences. Several cytotoxic and DNA-damaging chemicals are suggested to be the underlying causes of HCC-for example, acrylamide, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), and dietary contaminants (aflatoxins, ochratoxins)...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173494/the-lymphocyte-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-test-in-human-populations-occupationally-exposed-to-vinyl-chloride-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Claudia Bolognesi, Marco Bruzzone, Marcello Ceppi, Micheline Kirsch-Volders
Vinyl chloride (VC) is widely used in industry in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which is used to manufacture a large variety of materials. VC was classified as a known (Group 1) human carcinogen by IARC on the basis of increased risk for liver angiosarcoma and hepatocellular cancer, and the carcinogenicity of VC was shown to be mediated by a genotoxic mechanism. Following inhalation, the compound is rapidly absorbed and metabolized in the liver to the electrophilic metabolites chloroethylene-oxide and chloroacetaldehyde, which form DNA adducts that can be processed into point mutations in cancer-related genes detected in humans and rats exposed to VC...
October 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165555/prenatal-exposure-to-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp-disrupts-ovarian-function-in-a-transgenerational-manner-in-female-mice
#8
Saniya Rattan, Emily Brehm, Liying Gao, Sarah Niermann, Jodi A Flaws
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer found in polyvinyl chloride products such as vinyl flooring, plastic food containers, medical devices, and children's toys. DEHP is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and is a known endocrine disrupting chemical. Little is known about the effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on the ovary and whether effects occur in subsequent generations. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to DEHP disrupts ovarian functions in the F1, F2, and F3 generations of female mice...
November 20, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165091/antibacterial-assessment-of-heteroaryl-vinyl-benzyl-and-alkyl-tetrazole-compounds
#9
Joshua Dudley, Liana Feinn, Heather DeFrancesco, Erica Lindsay, Adiel Coca, Elizabeth Lewis Roberts
BACKGROUND: In previous reports, the antibacterial properties of certain tetrazole derivatives have been described. We have previously reported the antibacterial properties of aryl 1H-tetrazole compounds. OBJECTIVE: To study the antibacterial activity of 5-substituted heteroaryl, vinyl, benzyl, and alkyl 1H-tetrazole derivatives. METHODS: The antibacterial properties of heteroaryl, vinyl, benzylic, and aliphatic tetrazole derivatives were investigated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
November 20, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156238/co2-capture-by-nitrogen-doped-porous-carbons-derived-from-nitrogen-containing-hyper-cross-linked-polymers
#10
Lishu Shao, Mingqiang Liu, Jianhan Huang, You-Nian Liu
The N-containing hyper-cross-linked polymers with different porosity and polarity were prepared from 4-vinylbenzyl chloride and 4-vinyl pyridine by the suspension polymerization and Friedel-Crafts reaction. A carbonization process by KOH chemical activation was carried out for the N-containing hyper-cross-linked polymers, and hence a series of N-doped porous carbons (NDPC) was easily fabricated. These porous materials were comparatively evaluated for CO2 adsorption. The NDPC were much more efficient than the N-containing hyper-cross-linked polymers for the CO2 capture and the CO2 uptake had a linear correlation to the ultramicropore volume (d ≤ 0...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143792/polyphosphates-as-inhibitors-for-poly-vinyl-chloride-photodegradation
#11
Dina S Ahmed, Gamal A El-Hiti, Emad Yousif, Ayad S Hameed
Three polyphosphates were used as inhibitors for poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) photodegradation. The polyphosphates were added to PVC at a concentration of 0.5% by weight. The PVC films (40 µm thickness) were irradiated at room temperature with ultraviolet (UV) light for up to 300 h. The changes in PVC films after irradiation were monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, weight loss, viscosity-average molecular weight determination, and atomic force microscopy. These changes were very noticeable in the blank PVC films compared to the ones obtained when additives were used...
October 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137802/nanocomposite-materials-based-on-poly-vinyl-chloride-and-bovine-serum-albumin-modified-zno-through-ultrasonic-irradiation-as-a-green-technique-optical-thermal-mechanical-and-morphological-properties
#12
Shadpour Mallakpour, Marzieh Darvishzadeh
In this project, physicochemical properties of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) reinforced by ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were studied. Firstly, ZnO NPs were modified with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as an organo-modifier and biocompatible substance through ultrasound irradiation as environmental friendly, low cost and rapid means. Nanocomposite (NC) films were prepared by loadings of various ratios of ZnO/BSA NPs (3, 6 and 9wt%) inside the PVC. Structural morphology and physical properties of the ZnO-BSA NPs and NC films were investigated via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137762/ultrasonic-promoted-rapid-preparation-of-pvc-tio2-bsa-nanocomposites-characterization-and-photocatalytic-degradation-of-methylene-blue
#13
Shadpour Mallakpour, Sima Shamsaddinimotlagh
In the present project in order to prevent agglomeration and better dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix, initially, the surface of TiO2 NPs was covered by bovine serum albumin protein (BSA) via sonication method. Then, the TiO2-BSA powders were embedded into the PVC matrix using ultrasonic irradiations. With mechanical and magnetic stirring homogenous mixture was not obtained. So sonication process was very essential and vital. Physical, chemical and structural properties of the samples were investigated with various tools...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137761/ultrasound-assisted-surface-treatment-of-zro2-with-bsa-and-incorporating-in-pvc-to-improve-the-properties-of-the-obtained-nanocomposites-fabrication-and-characterization
#14
Shadpour Mallakpour, Zahra Hajjari
This paper describes the preparation of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) nanocomposites (NCs) reinforced with modified zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticles (NPs). The ZrO2 NPs were defined as efficient filler for PVC NCs. For achieving the best dispersion and improvement of properties, the surface of ZrO2 NPs was modified by Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). Carboxylic acids and amines are important functional groups of BSA which handle the grafting BSA on the surface of ZrO2 NPs. The PVC/ZrO2-BSA NCs were fabricated by incorporation of various amounts of the ZrO2-BSA NPs (3, 6 and 9wt%) into PVC matrix...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137752/microwave-and-ultrasound-assisted-synthesis-of-poly-vinyl-chloride-riboflavin-modified-mwcnts-examination-of-thermal-mechanical-and-morphology-properties
#15
Amir Abdolmaleki, Shadpour Mallakpour, Faezeh Azimi
This study focused on the preparation and investigation of physicochemical features of new poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) nanocomposites (NCs) including different amounts of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) functionalized with riboflavin (RIB). Firstly, to increase the hydrophilicity of MWCNTs, the surface of them was functionalized by incorporating and formation of ester groups with RIB as a low cost and environmentally friendly biomolecule through ultrasound and microwave irradiations...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131975/identification-of-urinary-biomarkers-of-exposure-to-di-2-propylheptyl-phthalate-using-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-and-two-data-screening-approaches
#16
Chia-Lung Shih, Pao-Mei Liao, Jen-Yi Hsu, Yi-Ning Chung, Victor G Zgoda, Pao-Chi Liao
Di-(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP) is a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride and vinyl chloride copolymer that has been suggested to be a toxicant in rats and may affect human health. Because the use of DPHP is increasing, the general German population is being exposed to DPHP. Toxicant metabolism is important for human toxicant exposure assessments. To date, the knowledge regarding DPHP metabolism has been limited, and only four metabolites have been identified in human urine. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography was coupled with Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and two data-screening approaches-the signal mining algorithm with isotope tracing (SMAIT) and the mass defect filter (MDF)-for DPHP metabolite candidate discovery...
October 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129863/origin-of-the-optical-response-of-a-dye-doped-plasticized-poly-vinyl-chloride-based-photonic-crystal-ion-sensor
#17
Shoma Aki, Kenji Sueyoshi, Hideaki Hisamoto, Tatsuro Endo
We investigated the origin of the optical responses of a two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D-PhC) optode membrane ion sensor based on plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) containing lipophilic dye. We previously developed a highly sensitive potassium ion sensor. However, the contributions of various factors to the sensor's optical response could not be distinguished. Here, we synthesized a lipophilic dye with spectral changes that do not overlap with those of propagated light in the PhC. Using this synthesized dye excluded the contribution of light absorption by the dye to the peak intensity change of the ion sensor...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126033/natural-attenuation-of-chlorinated-ethenes-in-hyporheic-zones-a-review-of-key-biogeochemical-processes-and-in-situ-transformation-potential
#18
REVIEW
John J Weatherill, Siavash Atashgahi, Uwe Schneidewind, Stefan Krause, Sami Ullah, Nigel Cassidy, Michael O Rivett
Chlorinated ethenes (CEs) are legacy contaminants whose chemical footprint is expected to persist in aquifers around the world for many decades to come. These organohalides have been reported in river systems with concerning prevalence and are thought to be significant chemical stressors in urban water ecosystems. The aquifer-river interface (known as the hyporheic zone) is a critical pathway for CE discharge to surface water bodies in groundwater baseflow. This pore water system may represent a natural bioreactor where anoxic and oxic biotransformation process act in synergy to reduce or even eliminate contaminant fluxes to surface water...
October 30, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123858/development-of-new-equipment-for-intra-arrest-brain-cooling-that-uses-cooled-oxygen-in-the-lungs-volunteer-study
#19
Atsushi Sakurai, Rumi Tagami, Shingo Ihara, Junko Yamaguchi, Atsunori Sugita, Nami Sawada, Tomohide Komatsu, Satoshi Hori, Kosaku Kinoshita
Aims: Many experimental studies have reported that intra-arrest cooling during cardiac arrest is a promising treatment to mitigate brain injury. However, there is no clinically established method for cooling the brain during cardiac arrest. We hypothesized that, as blood flow in the lungs must be very slow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the blood could be cooled by ventilating the lungs with cooled oxygen like a radiator, and that this cooled blood would in turn cool the brain...
April 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119762/-mortality-study-update-of-workers-exposed-to-vinyl-chloride-in-plants-located-in-ferrara-and-ravenna-emilia-romagna-region-northern-italy
#20
Corrado Scarnato, Rossella Rambaldi, Gianpiero Mancini, Sandra Olanda, Maria Rosa Spagnolo, Elisabetta Previati, Valerio Parmeggiani, Salvatore Minisci, Pietro Comba, Roberta Pirastu
OBJECTIVES: to update the mortality study of subjects exposed to vinyl chloride in the phases of synthesis of the monomer and polymerization in the plants of Ferrara and Ravenna (Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy). DESIGN: both for the whole cohort and for the two plants, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), were calculated for different death causes, then stratified by duration and latency, periods of the beginning of work and cumulative exposure (ppm-years)...
September 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
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