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Vinyl chloride

Qiang Chen, Wenjuan Zhang, Gregory A Solan, Tongling Liang, Wen-Hua Sun
Four examples of phenol-substituted methylene-bridged bis(imino)pyridines, CH(C6H4-4-OH){2'-(4-C6H2-2,6-R22N[double bond, length as m-dash]CMe)-6'-(2'',6''-R12C6H3N[double bond, length as m-dash]CMe)C5H3N}2 [R1 = R2 = Me L1, R1 = R2 = Et L2, R1 = Et, R2 = Me L3, R1 = iPr, R2 = Me L4], have been synthesized and fully characterized. Treatment of L1-L4 with two equivalents of cobaltous chloride affords the bimetallic complexes, [(L)Co2Cl4] (L = L1 Co1, L2 Co2, L3 Co3, L4 Co4), in good yield. The molecular structure of Co1 shows the two metal centers to be separated by a distance of 13...
April 18, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Naser Shaalan, Nawres Laftah, Gamal A El-Hiti, Mohammad Hayal Alotaibi, Raad Muslih, Dina S Ahmed, Emad Yousif
Five Schiff bases containing a thiadiazole moiety have been used as poly(vinyl chloride) photostabilizers at low concentrations. The efficiency of Schiff bases as photostabilizers was investigated using various techniques, for example, the changes in poly(vinyl chloride) infrared spectra, molecular weight, chain scission quantum yield, and surface morphology were monitored upon irradiation with an ultraviolet light. Evidently, all the additives used inhibited poly(vinyl chloride) photodegradation at a significant level...
April 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jing Leng, Hua-Li Qin
A new fluorosulfonylation reagent 1-bromoethene-1-sulfonyl fluoride was developed (1-Br-ESF). This unique reagent possesses three addressable handles (vinyl, bromide, and sulfonyl fluoride) and has great potential to function as a tris-electrophile and as a sulfur(vi) fluoride exchange (SuFEx) clickable material to enrich the SuFEx tool cabinet. The application of this reagent for regioselective synthesis of 5-sulfonylfluoro isoxazoles has been realized through a [3+2] cycloaddition with N-hydroxybenzimidoyl chlorides...
April 16, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Na Liu, Longzhen Ding, Haijun Li, Pengpeng Zhang, Jixing Zheng, Chih-Huang Weng
The study aimed to determine the possible contribution of specific growth conditions and community structures to variable carbon enrichment factors (Ɛ-carbon ) values for the degradation of chlorinated ethenes (CEs) by a bacterial consortium with multiple dechlorinating genes. Ɛ-carbon values for trichloroethylene, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride were -7.24% ± 0.59%, -14.6% ± 1.71%, and -21.1% ± 1.14%, respectively, during their degradation by a microbial consortium containing multiple dechlorinating genes including tceA and vcrA...
April 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Mona Y Elnaggar, E S Fathy, Medhat M Hassan
Composites of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with 2% calcium carbonate, 2% diethyl phthalate, 2% paraffin wax and 2% lead sulfate and different contents of antimony trioxide (Sb2 O3 ) prepared by melting and irradiated with gamma-ray have been considered. Assessment of the mechanical and thermal properties of the unirradiated and irradiated FPVC were completed utilizing elasticity (TS), Elongation at break (Eb) and TGA measurements. TS and thermal stability of FPVC displayed advanced improvement after addition of additives and this approach highlighted the efficiency of those ingredients on PVC...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Technology
Jinbao Huang, Xinsheng Li, Guisheng Zeng, Xiaocai Cheng, Hong Tong, Daiqiang Wang
The studies on the pyrolysis mechanisms of waste PVC contribute to development and application of pyrolysis technology for mixed waste plastics. In the article, the thermal decomposition mechanisms of model compound of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) have been investigated by employing density functional theory methods at M06-2X/6-31++G(d,p) level in order to illuminate the elimination of HCl and the formation of hydrocarbons. Various possible pyrolysis paths for the formation of main products were proposed, and the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters in every path were calculated...
March 22, 2018: Waste Management
Dorota Watrobska-Swietlikowska, Agnieszka Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Ronan MacLoughlin
INTRODUCTION: Newborn infants and small children require large amounts of calcium and phosphate in a low volume of solution which can increase the risk of precipitation of calcium phosphate. Calcium gluconate is the predominant calcium salt form employed in parenteral nutrition (PN) compounding due to its solubility profile with phosphate. Unfortunately, calcium gluconate contains higher levels of aluminum contamination than calcium chloride, resulting in an increased potential for aluminum toxicity in patients receiving traditional PN...
January 10, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Mahroo Khaleghi, Khadijeh Didehban, Meisam Shabanian
Melamine terephthaldehyde modified graphene oxide (MTR-GO) with optimum content was easily prepared via ultrasonication method and used as anti-corrosion additive for Poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC). The effects of ultrasonicated MTR-GO on the mechanical, chemical and thermal resistance of the PVC were thoroughly studied. Change percentage of tensile strength and weight change percentage of PVC (P) and PVC/MTR-GO nanocomposite (PN) in acetone and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) media at two different exposure temperature (20 °C and 50 °C) were examined...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Jonathan L Kuo, Chris Lorenc, Janine M Abuyuan, Jack R Norton
Radical cyclizations are most often achieved in the presence of a radical initiator and Bu3 SnH, but environmental considerations demand that alternative reagents be developed - ones that can serve as a synthetic equivalents to the hydrogen atom. We have revisited [CpV(CO)3 H]- , a known replacement for Bu3 SnH, and found that it can be used catalytically under H2 in the presence of a base. We have carried out the tin-free and catalytic radical cyclization of alkyl iodide substrates. The reactions are atom-efficient and the conditions are mild, with broad tolerance for functional groups...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Takashi Masadome, Hidekazu Ishikawa
An optode method for the determination of sulfate ion was developed. The optode membrane is 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether-plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membrane containing tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester. The method is based on formation of an ion associate between the excess of 2-aminoperimidine hydrobromide (Ap) and sulfate ion in the sample solution, and detection of the concentration of the remaining Ap ion by the optode. Under the optimal conditions, a good linear relationship was found to exist between the absorbance of the optode membrane, and concentrations of sulfate ion in a concentration range from 20 to 400 μM...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Anna L Lang, Liya Chen, Gavin D Poff, Wen-Xing Ding, Russel A Barnett, Gavin E Arteel, Juliane I Beier
Vinyl chloride (VC), a common industrial organochlorine and environmental pollutant, has been shown to directly cause hepatic angiosarcoma and toxicant-associated steatohepatitis at high exposure levels. However, the impact of lower concentrations of VC on the progression of underlying liver diseases (e.g., nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD]) is unclear. Given the high prevalence of NAFLD in the United States (and worldwide) population, this is an important concern. Recent studies by our group with VC metabolites suggest a potential interaction between VC exposure and underlying liver disease to cause enhanced damage...
March 2018: Hepatology Communications
Ryoichi Fujiwara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Hepatology Communications
Jiwoo An, Jared L Anderson
A double-confined polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) sorbent coating was fabricated for the determination of nine ultraviolet (UV) filters in sample solutions containing high salt content by direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The IL monomer and crosslinker cations and anions, namely, 1-vinyl-3-decylimidazolium styrenesulfonate ([VImC10 ][SS]) and 1,12-di(3-vinylbenzylimidazolium) dodecane distyrenesulfonate ([(VBIm)2 C12 ] 2[SS]), were co-polymerized to create a highly stable sorbent coating which allowed for up to 120 direct-immersion extractions in 25% NaCl (w/v) solution without a decrease in its extraction capability...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Mekonnen Abiyot Ashagre, Takashi Masadome
A new microfluidic polymer chip with an embedded cationic surfactant (CS) ion-selective optode (CS-optode) as a detector of flow-injection analysis (FIA) for the determination of CSs was developed. The optode sensing membrane is based on a poly(vinyl chloride) membrane plasticized with 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether containing tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester. Under the optimal flow conditions of the FIA system, the CS-optode showed a good linear relationship between the peak heights in the absorbance, and the concentrations of CS in a concentration range from 50 to 400 μmol dm-3...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Alexander D Malkin, Sang-Ho Ye, Evan J Lee, Xiguang Yang, Yang Zhu, Lara J Gamble, William J Federspiel, William R Wagner
Respiratory assist devices, that utilize ∼2 m2 of hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) to achieve desired gas transfer rates, have been limited in their adoption due to such blood biocompatibility limitations. This study reports two techniques for the functionalization and subsequent conjugation of zwitterionic sulfobetaine (SB) block copolymers to polymethylpentene (PMP) HFM surfaces with the intention of reducing thrombus formation in respiratory assist devices. Amine or hydroxyl functionalization of PMP HFMs (PMP-A or PMP-H) was accomplished using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Gretchen L W Heavner, Cresten B Mansfeldt, Garrett E Debs, Sage T Hellerstedt, Annette R Rowe, Ruth E Richardson
Using mRNA transcript levels for key functional enzymes as proxies for the organohalide respiration (OHR) rate, is a promising approach for monitoring bioremediation populations in situ at chlorinated solvent-contaminated field sites. However, to date, no correlations have been empirically derived for chlorinated solvent respiring, Dehalococcoides mccartyi (DMC) containing, bioaugmentation cultures. In the current study, genome-wide transcriptome and proteome data were first used to confirm the most highly expressed OHR-related enzymes in the bioaugmentation culture, KB-1TM, including several reductive dehalogenases (RDases) and a Ni-Fe hydrogenase, Hup...
February 8, 2018: Microorganisms
Víctor Samper Barceló, Stefan Bienz
Highly functionalized 5-membered N-heterocyclic compounds, 4-aryl-3-chloro-5-methoxy-1-methyl-3-pyrrolin-2-ones, have been synthesized in moderate to high yields by the reaction of N,N-dimethylated aromatic α-amino acids with oxalyl chloride, followed by solvolysis with MeOH. The products possess a number of functional groups such as an amide, a mixed amido/alkoxy acetal, a vinyl halide, and an alkene, and thus are promising candidates to be used as starting materials for the synthesis of diverse five-membered N-heterocyclic compounds...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Stefan Sommer, Martin Koch, Alina Adams
Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is today one of the most important commodity polymers. Its broad range of applications is due to the presence of plasticizers whose concentration largely impacts the microscopic and the macroscopic properties. Quantifying the concentration of plasticizer in PVC products is therefore of fundamental importance. Thus, in this paper, the applicability of terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy for the characterization of plasticized PVC is for the first time evaluated in a systematic way...
February 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Duaa Ghazi, Gamal A El-Hiti, Emad Yousif, Dina S Ahmed, Mohammad Hayal Alotaibi
Three organotin(IV) complexes containing ciprofloxacin as a ligand (Ph₃SnL, Me₂SnL₂ and Bu₂SnL₂; 0.5% by weight) were used as additives to inhibit the photodegradation of polyvinyl chloride films (40 µm thickness) upon irradiation with ultraviolet light (λmax = 313 at a light intensity = 7.75 × 10-7 ein dm-3 S-1) at room temperature. The efficiency of organotin(IV) complexes as photostabilizers was determined by monitoring the changes in the weight, growth of specific functional groups (hydroxyl, carbonyl and carbene), viscosity, average molecular weight, chain scission and degree of deterioration of the polymeric films upon irradiation...
January 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Puyou Jia, Meng Zhang, Lihong Hu, Fei Song, Guodong Feng, Yonghong Zhou
The waste cooking oil (WCO) production from the catering industry and food processing industry causes serious environmental, economic and social problems. However, WCO can be used for the preparation of fine chemicals such as internal plasticizer. With this aim, this work is focused on preparing internal plasticizer by using WCO and determining technical viability of non-migration poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) materials. The mannich base of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) was synthesized from WCO via esterification, interesterification and mannich reaction, which was used to produce self-plasticization PVC materials as an internal plasticizer...
January 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
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