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Vinyl chloride

Masafumi Yohda, Kentaro Ikegami, Yuto Aita, Mizuki Kitajima, Ayane Takechi, Megumi Iwamoto, Tomomi Fukuda, Noriyoshi Tamura, Junji Shibasaki, Seiji Koike, Daisuke Komatsu, Sakari Miyagi, Minoru Nishimura, Yoshihito Uchino, Akino Shiroma, Makiko Shimoji, Hinako Tamotsu, Noriko Ashimine, Misuzu Shinzato, Shun Ohki, Kazuma Nakano, Kuniko Teruya, Kazuhito Satou, Takashi Hirano, Osami Yagi
We have developed and characterized a bacterial consortium that reductively dechlorinates trichloroethene to ethene. Quantitative PCR analysis for the 16S rRNA and reductive dehalogenase genes showed that the consortium is highly enriched with Dehalococcoides spp. that have two vinyl chloride reductive dehalogenase genes, bvcA and vcrA, and a trichloroethene reductive dehalogenase gene, tceA. The metagenome analysis of the consortium by the next generation sequencer SOLiD 3 Plus suggests that a Dehalococcoides sp...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zhuang Zhou, Saeid Rajabzadeh, Lifeng Fang, Taro Miyoshi, Yuriko Kakihana, Hideto Matsuyama
Braid-reinforced hollow fiber membranes with high mechanical properties and considerable antifouling surface were prepared by blending poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) with poly(vinyl chloride-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (poly(VC-co-PEGMA)) copolymer via non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS). The tensile strength of the braid-reinforced PVC hollow fiber membranes were significantly larger than those of previously reported various types of PVC hollow fiber membranes. The high interfacial bonding strength indicated the good compatibility between the coating materials and the surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-braid...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Ya-Jun Zhang, Cheng Chen, Li-Xuan Cai, Bin Tan, Xiao-Dong Yang, Jie Zhang, Min Ji
An olefin-containing pyridinium derivative, 1-(4-carboxybenzyl)-4-[2-(4-pyridyl)-vinyl]-pyridinium chloride (HBCbpeCl) has been introduced into a novel 2D metal-organic framework with rare right- and left-handed spiral nanotubular channels arranged alternately in the structure. The 1D channel is modified by positively-charged pyridinium segments, which shows high affinities to Lewis basic molecules such as methanol, ethanol, and water vapor. Additionally, the BCbpe molecules in the structure have been directed through cation-π interactions to be aligned antiparallel to each other with the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bond arranged properly for [2 + 2] photocycloaddition, which can be triggered to undergo structural transformation from 2D to 3D...
May 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Chuanbing Huang, Shizhen Du, Gregory A Solan, Yang Sun, Wen-Hua Sun
Five examples of α,α'-bis(arylimino)-2,3:5,6-bis(pentamethylene)pyridyl-chromium(iii) chlorides (aryl = 2,6-Me2Ph Cr1, 2,6-Et2Ph Cr2, 2,6-i-Pr2Ph Cr3, 2,4,6-Me3Ph Cr4, 2,6-Et2-4-MePh Cr5) have been synthesized by the one-pot template reaction of α,α'-dioxo-2,3:5,6-bis(pentamethylene)pyridine, CrCl3·6H2O and the corresponding aniline. The molecular structures of Cr1 and Cr4 reveal distorted octahedral geometries with the N,N,N-ligand adopting a mer-configuration. On activation with an aluminium alkyl co-catalyst, Cr1-Cr5 exhibited high catalytic activities in ethylene polymerization and showed outstanding thermal stability operating effectively at 80 °C with activities up to 1...
May 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
M Nemati, S M Hosseini, M Shabanian
In the present work a novel heterogeneous cation exchange membrane (CEM) composed of poly vinyl chloride (PVC) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid based hydrogel (AMAH) was prepared. The membranes were fabricated with different fractions of AMAH to optimize the performance in desalination. The hydrogel was characterized by FT-IR to prove the successful synthesis. The membrane properties such as permselectivity, ionic permeability, flux, water content, electrical resistance, morphology, contact angle and dimensional stability were evaluated...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Shigehiro Kagaya, Tomonori Maeno, Kazuma Ito, Makoto Gemmei-Ide, Robert W Cattrall, Spas D Kolev
An important reason for the inefficient extraction of Cr(VI) from its acidic solutions into polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) as the base-polymer and Aliquat 336 as the carrier, was found to be associated with the leaching of Aliquat 336 from the PIMs into the solutions, where it subsequently reduced the anionic Cr(VI) species to cationic Cr(III) species. The PIM extraction efficiency for Cr(VI) was significantly improved by the addition of NaNO3 to the solutions, which suppressed the leaching of Aliquat 336 and the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III)...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Kyle E Vickstrom, Mohammad F Azizian, Lewis Semprini
Carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF) were transformed in batch reactor experiments conducted with anaerobic dechlorinating cultures and supernatant (ADC + S) harvested from continuous flow reactors. The Evanite (EV) and Victoria/Stanford (VS) cultures, capable of respiring trichloroethene (TCE), 1,2-cis-dichloroethene (cDCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) to ethene (ETH), were grown in continuous flow reactors receiving an influent feed of saturated TCE (10 mM; 60 mEq) and formate (45 mM; 90 mEq) but no CT or CF...
April 29, 2017: Chemosphere
Kenneth A Mundt, Linda D Dell, Lori Crawford, Alexa E Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate mortality risks of angiosarcoma of the liver (ASL), primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other cancers among 9951 men employed between 1942 and 1972 at 35 US vinyl chloride (VC) or polyvinyl chloride plants followed for mortality through 31 December 2013. METHODS: SMR and time-dependent Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to evaluate mortality risks by cumulative VC exposure. RESULTS: Liver cancer mortality was elevated (SMR=2...
May 10, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
J R Black, M S Islam, H L Carmichael, B L Slaten, Brian K Little, G Mills
Efficient reduction of CCl4 took place upon exposure to 350-nm photons of aqueous solutions containing sulfonated poly(ether etherketone) (SPEEK) as a sensitizer and either poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) or HCO2H/HCO2(-) buffer. The photoreaction formed chloride ions whose concentration increased linearly with time in solutions free of O2, whereas slower reductions occurred in the presence of air. Utilization of formate buffer as the H-atom donor yielded photoreactions at least 10 times faster than those in the presence of PVA and generated CHCl3 as another reaction product...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Siva Sankar Sana, Vijaya Kumar Naidu Boya
Herein, the authors developed a new and potential semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) hydrogels of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA), acryl amide and diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride employing chemical cross-linker N, N'-methylene bisacrylamide (NNMBA) and ammonium persulphate as an initiator by radical polymerisation. To analyse the copolymer formation between two monomers and IPN cross-linking reaction, the resulting hydrogel was characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the surface morphology was analysed using scanning electron microscopy...
February 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
Emily K Legault, C Andrew James, Keith Stewart, Indulis Muiznieks, Sharon L Doty, Stuart E Strand
A controlled field study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of transgenic poplars for phytoremediation in a field setting. Three hydraulically contained test beds were planted with twelve transgenic poplars, twelve wild type (WT) poplars, or left unplanted, and dosed with equivalent amounts of trichloroethylene (TCE). Degradation of TCE was enhanced in the transgenic tree bed, but not to the extent of the enhanced removal observed in laboratory studies. Total chlorinated ethene removal was 87% in the CYP2E1 bed, 85% in the WT bed, and 34% in the unplanted bed in 2012...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Xiaoxiang Wen, Huihui Wang, Yi Wei, Xiaoying Wang, Chuanfu Liu
The preparation of cellulose laurate was investigated through transesterification in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) cosolvent system by using vinyl laurate as an acylation reagent and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) as an effective catalyst. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time and the molar ratio of vinyl laurate to anhydride glucose unit (AGU) were investigated. The degree of substitution (DS) ranged from 1.47 to 2.74 under the selected conditions and the reaction order of three hydroxyl groups was C-6>C-3>C-2...
July 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Sayed M Saleh, Reham Ali, Ibrahim A I Ali
In this work, a novel optical fluoro-chemisensor was designed and synthesized for copper (II) ions detection. The sensor film is created by embedded N,N-Bis(2-hydroxo-5-bromobenzyl)ethylenediamine in poly vinyl chloride (PVC) film in presence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as plasticizer. The receptor Schiff base reveals "off-on" mode with high selectivity, significant sensitivity to Cu(II) ions. The selectivity of optical sensor for Cu(II) ions is the result of chelation enhanced fluorescence (CHEF). The optimal conditions of pH and response time at which higher efficiency of sensor film is performed was found to be 6...
April 20, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Judit Oliver-Meseguer, Antonio Doménech-Carbó, Mercedes Boronat, Antonio Leyva-Pérez, Avelino Corma
HCl in solution accepts electron density from Au NPs and partially reduces at room temperature, as occurs with other simple diatomic molecules, such as O2 and H2 . The activation can be run catalytically in the presence of alkynes to give exclusively E-vinyl chlorides, after the regio- and stereoselective transfer of HCl. Based also on this method, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) can be produced in a milder and greener way than current industrial processes.
June 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Kun Dai, Kuan Wang, Yang Li, Jian-Gang Chen, Zhong-Wen Liu, Jian Lu, Zhao-Tie Liu
A novel, high-efficiency and high-selectivity construction of β-trifluoromethyl enol ether via base-induced/promoted C-O coupling of trifluoromethylated vinyl chloride and phenols is presented with a broad substrate scope. The reaction mechanism, especially the significantly high selectivity, was excavated and understood via DFT calculation and is well supported by the experimental observation.
May 5, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
M Tran Minh, A Mazzola, F Perdigao, F Charlotte, G Rousseau, F Conti
Angiosarcoma is a rare type of soft tissue sarcoma that accounts for less than 1% of all sarcomas and only 2% of all primary hepatic tumours. Thorotrast, arsenic, and vinyl chloride monomer are frequently listed as occupational exposure risks. The estimated latency is long (10-40 years) in occupational cases and very long (60 years or more) in non-occupational cases. The symptoms and CT-scan appearance of hepatic angiosarcoma (HAS) are non-specific. We present a case of a 65-year-old Caucasian male with history of cryptogenic cirrhosis, low alpha-foetoprotein levels and a single, 4-cm nodule of potential atypical hepatocellular carcinoma (no washout at MRI and CT-scan) in segment VIII...
April 14, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Fatehy M Abdel-Haleem, Mahmoud S Rizk
We report on the development of optochemical sensor based on Mn(III)-salophen ionophore. The sensor was prepared by embedding the ionophore in a plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) impregnated with the chromoionophore ETH7075. Optical response to thiocyanate occurred due to thiocyanate extraction into the polymer via formation of strong complex with the ionophore and simultaneous protonation of the indicator dye yielding the optical response at 545nm. The developed optochemical sensor exhibited high selectivity for thiocyanate over other anions including the most lipophilic species such as salicylate and perchlorate...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Yi Liang, Laura J Cook, Timothy E Mattes
Assessment and monitoring of microbial community dynamics is useful when tracking the progress of vinyl chloride (VC) bioremediation strategies, particularly in dilute plumes where apparent VC attenuation rates are low. In a long-term field study, the abundance and the activity of microbial VC degraders were tracked in three monitoring wells (MW05, MW25, and MW19) along a dilute VC plume at Naval Air Station (NAS) Oceana. High-throughput sequencing of partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and transcripts revealed diverse groundwater microbial communities and showed that methanotrophs and anaerobic respirers (e...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jiaqi Shi, Tao Long, Rongrong Ying, Lei Wang, Xin Zhu, Yusuo Lin
Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (BCEE) is a common chemical material and a frequently detected contaminant in groundwater. It has a strong toxicity and some other chemicals such as poly(vinyl chloride-co-isobutyl vinyl ether) contain similar chloroaliphatic ether structure. So the effective degradation method and transformation pathways for BCEE need to be learned. The present study compared the degradation rate of BCEE by Fenton's reagent and other common oxidation methods, and optimized the reaction conditions. Oxidation intermediates and pathways were also proposed and toxicities of the intermediates were investigated...
March 30, 2017: Chemosphere
Hong Sik Han, Young Jin Lee, Young-Sik Jung, Soo Bong Han
A new photoredox-catalyzed chlorotrifluoromethylation reaction of internal arylalkynes under mild conditions using visible light has been developed. The reactions proceed with high levels of regio- and stereoselectivity and utilize commercially available CF3SO2Cl as both the CF3 and Cl source. In the mechanistic pathway for this process, generation of the CF3 radical and chloride ion occurs by Ir(ppy)3-photocatalyzed reductive decomposition of CF3SO2Cl. The synthetically important trifluoromethyl-substituted vinyl chlorides produced in this process can be readily transformed to 1,1-bis-arylalkenes by using Suzuki coupling...
April 10, 2017: Organic Letters
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