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Vinyl chloride

Vita Wonoputri, Cindy Gunawan, Sanly Liu, Nicolas Barraud, Lachlan Hartley Yee, May Lim, Rose Amal
In this study, we developed a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-solvent casted mixed metal copper and iron complexes capable of catalytic generation of the antibiofilm nitric oxide (NO) from endogenous nitrite. In the absence of additional reducing agent, we demonstrated that the presence of iron complex facilitates a redox cycling, converting the copper(II) complex to active copper(I) species, which catalyzes the generation of NO from nitrite. Assessed by protein assay and surface coverage analyses, the presence of the mixed metal complexes in systems containing water industry-relevant nitrite-producing nitrifying biofilms was shown to result in a 'non-toxic mode' of biofilm suppression, while confining the bacterial growth to the free-floating planktonic phase...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jeong-Ann Park, Song-Bae Kim
Antimicrobial electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers were synthesized by impregnating benzyl triethylammonium chloride (BTEAC) as an antimicrobial agent into PVA nanofibers. The BTEAC-PVA nanofibers were heat-methanol treated during the preparation for various tests. The BTEAC-PVA nanofibers became more hydrophilic than the PVA nanofibers due to incorporation of BTEAC. Through heat-methanol treatment, thermal property, crystallinity, and water stability of BTEAC-PVA nanofibers were improved considerably...
October 14, 2016: Chemosphere
Kyu Won Lee, Jae Woo Chung, Seung-Yeop Kwak
A highly self-plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is demonstrated for the first time via click grafting of hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG). The plasticizing effect of the grafted HPG on PVC is systematically investigated by various analytical methods. The amorphous and bulky dendritic structure of HPG efficiently increases the free volume of the grafted PVC, which leads to a remarkably lower glass transition temperature comparable to that of the conventional plasticized PVC. Viscoelastic analysis reveals that HPG considerably improves the softness of the grafted PVC at room temperature and promotes the segmental motion in the system...
October 14, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Evan L Anderson, Nicole M Gingery, Paul Garrett Boswell, Xin V Chen, Jozsef Rabai, Philippe Buhlmann
Potentiometric selectivities show that in fluorous ion-selective electrode membranes the tetrabutylammonium ion binds to fluorophilic proton ionophores. For the ionophore bis 3-(perfluorooctyl)propyl](2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)amine, this type of interaction is confirmed by the effect of the ionophore on the ionic conductivity of perfluoro(perhydrophenanthrene) solutions of a fluorophilic NBu4(+) salt. In this system, ion pairs, triple ions, and higher ionic aggregates dominate over single ions, and the ionophore increases the conductivity by favoring the formation of ion aggregates with a net charge...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Lucas W Erickson, Erika L Lucas, Emily J Tollefson, Elizabeth R Jarvo
The stereospecific reductive cross-electrophile coupling reaction of 2-vinyl-4-halotetrahydropyrans for vinylcyclopropane synthesis is reported. The nickel-catalyzed reaction occurs with both alkyl fluorides and alkyl chlorides. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported cross-electrophile coupling reaction of an alkyl fluoride. Ring contraction proceeds with high stereospecificity, providing selective synthesis of either diastereomer of di- and trisubstituted cyclopropanes. The utility of this methodology is demonstrated by several synthetic applications including the synthesis of the natural product dictyopterene A...
October 6, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Christine M Le, Theresa Sperger, Rui Fu, Xiao Hou, Yong Hwan Lim, Franziska Schoenebeck, Mark Lautens
We report a highly robust, general and stereoselective method for the synthesis of 3-(chloromethylene)oxindoles from alkyne-tethered carbamoyl chlorides using PdCl2(PhCN)2 as the catalyst. The transformation involves a stereo- and regioselective chloropalladation of an internal alkyne to generate a nucleophilic vinyl Pd(II) species, which then undergoes an intramolecular cross-coupling with a carbamoyl chloride. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions, is insensitive to the presence of moisture and air, and is readily scalable...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Lisanne C Anders, Heegook Yeo, Brenna R Kaelin, Anna L Lang, Adrienne M Bushau, Amanda N Douglas, Matt Cave, Gavin E Arteel, Craig J McClain, Juliane I Beier
BACKGROUND: Vinyl chloride (VC) causes toxicant-associated steatohepatitis at high exposure levels. Recent work by this group suggests that underlying liver disease may predispose the liver to VC hepatotoxicity at lower exposure levels. The most common form of underlying liver disease in the developed world is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is well-known that the type of dietary fat can play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. However, whether the combination of dietary fat and VC/metabolites promotes liver injury has not been studied...
September 28, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
A Ronca, S Ronca, G Forte, S Zeppetelli, A Gloria, R De Santis, L Ambrosio
A vinyl-terminated Polycaprolactone has been developed for tissue engineering applications using a one-step synthesis and functionalization method based on Ring Opening Polymerization (ROP) of ԑ-caprolactone, with Hydroxyl Ethyl Vinyl Ether (HEVE) acting both as the initiator of ROP and as photo-curable functional group. The proposed method employs a catalyst based on Al, instead of the most popular Tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate, to reduce the cytotoxicity. Following the synthesis of the vinyl-terminated polycaprolactone, its reaction with Fumaryl Chloride (FuCl) results in a divinyl-fumarate polycaprolactone (VPCLF)...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Helen O Leung, Mark D Marshall
Fourier transform microwave rotational spectroscopy is used to determine the structure of the gas-phase bimolecular complex formed between (E)-1-chloro-2-fluoroethylene and hydrogen chloride. Extensively split by nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure and isotopic dilution, the spectrum is first identified via weak features observed using a broadband chirped pulse spectrometer in the 5.6-18.1 GHz range and studied in detail with greater sensitivity and resolution over 6.0-20.0 GHz with a Balle-Flygare, narrowband instrument...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Hesamoddin Rabiee, S Mojtaba Seyedi, Hossein Rabiei, Negar Alvandifar
Two non-ionic and hydrophilic surfactant additives, Tetronic-1107 and Triton X-100, were added to poly(vinyl chloride)/NMP polymeric solution to prepare ultrafiltration membranes via immersion precipitation. Surfactants at three different weight percentages up to 6 wt% were added, and the fabricated membranes were characterized and their performance for water treatment in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a foulant was assessed. The scanning electron microscopy images indicated remarkable changes in morphology due to higher thermodynamic instability after surfactant addition...
September 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Soda Chanthamath, Seiji Iwasa
The transition-metal-catalyzed asymmetric cyclopropanation of olefins with diazoacetates has become one of the most important methods for the synthesis of optically active cyclopropane derivatives, which are key pharmaceutical building blocks and present in a large number of natural products. To date, significant progress has been made in this area of research, and efficient stereocontrolled synthetic approaches to cyclopropane derivatives have been developed using rhodium, ruthenium, copper, and cobalt catalysts...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
A J M Kouyoumdjian, R A Lazar, N K H Slater
In this study, the surface of a microporous walled micro-capillary film (MMCF) was modified into a weak anion exchanger by coupling cyanuric chloride and 2-diethylaminoethylamine (DEAE) to the ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) matrix. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements of modified and unmodified MMCFs confirmed the addition of a triazine ring and DEAE onto the membrane. Binding of bovine serum albumin (BSA) at pH 7.2 was found to follow a Langmuir isotherm with a maximum equilibrium binding of 12...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Siavash Atashgahi, Yue Lu, Ying Zheng, Edoardo Saccenti, Maria Suarez-Diez, Javier Ramiro-Garcia, Heinrich Eisenmann, Martin Elsner, Alfons J M Stams, Dirk Springael, Winnie Dejonghe, Hauke Smidt
Biostimulation is widely used to enhance reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes in contaminated aquifers. However, the knowledge on corresponding biogeochemical responses is limited. In this study, glycerol was injected in an aquifer contaminated with cis-dichloroethene (cDCE), and geochemical and microbial shifts were followed for 265 days. Consistent with anoxic conditions and sulfate reduction after biostimulation, MiSeq 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed temporarily increased relative abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes and sulfate reducing Deltaproteobacteria...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Jia -Ying Wang, Shu-Ping Li, Kun-Lun Xin, Tao Tao
The update of pipeline was quick over the last few years and the plastic pipes were widely used in the drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs), especially in the small-diameter pipes. In this study, the iron adsorptive characteristics and the affecting factors in unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) pipe were investigated. Results showed that the average amount of iron in the 10-year-old PVC-U pipe's interior surface was 2.80 wt% which was almost 187 times larger than that in a new one. Goethite (α-FeOOH) and magnetite (Fe3O4) were the major iron compounds in the scales which covered on the old pipes' interior surface and showed loose and porous images under a scanning electron microscope...
September 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jenny N Poynter, Michaela Richardson, Michelle Roesler, Cindy K Blair, Betsy Hirsch, Phuong Nguyen, Adina Cioc, James R Cerhan, Erica Warlick
Benzene exposure is one of the few well-established risk factors for myeloid malignancy. Exposure to other chemicals has been inconsistently associated with hematologic malignancies. We evaluated occupational and residential chemical exposures as risk factors for AML and MDS using population-based data. AML and MDS cases were identified by the Minnesota Cancer Surveillance System. Controls were identified through the Minnesota driver's license/identification card list. Chemical exposures were measured by self-report...
September 7, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Azza Aziz, Tagreed Abdel-Fattah Mohamed, Nesrin Khamees, Abeer Rashad Derar
The potentiometric response characteristics and analytical applications of a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-free all-solid-state ion-selective electrode for dapoxetine hydrochloride (DAP) are examined. The Nernstian response of the electrode was evaluated by comparison with PVC-based liquid membrane and carbon paste electrodes. The PVC-free electrode is prepared by direct incorporation of dapoxetine-tetraphenyl borate (DAP-TPB) as a sensing element into a commercial nail varnish containing cellulose acetate propionate...
September 1, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Mustafa M Ali, Gamal A El-Hiti, Emad Yousif
Three organotin complexes containing furosemide as a ligand (L), Ph₃SnL, Me₂SnL₂ and Bu₂SnL₂, were synthesized and characterized. Octahedral geometry was proposed for the Me₂SnL₂ and Bu₂SnL₂, while the Ph₃SnL complex has trigonal bipyramid geometry. The synthesized organotin complexes (0.5% by weight) were used as additives to improve the photostability of poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, (40 μm thickness) upon irradiation. The changes imposed on functional groups, weight loss and viscosity average molecular weight of PVC films were monitored...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Søren Tolborg, Sebastian Meier, Shunmugavel Saravanamurugan, Peter Fristrup, Esben Taarning, Irantzu Sádaba
A highly selective self-condensation of glycolaldehyde to different C4 molecules has been achieved using Lewis acidic stannosilicate catalysts in water at moderate temperatures (40-100 °C). The medium-sized zeolite pores (10-membered ring framework) in Sn-MFI facilitate the formation of tetrose sugars while hindering consecutive aldol reactions leading to hexose sugars. High yields of tetrose sugars (74 %) with minor amounts of vinyl glycolic acid (VGA), an α-hydroxyacid, are obtained using Sn-MFI with selectivities towards C4 products reaching 97 %...
August 26, 2016: ChemSusChem
Richmond Lee, Michelle L Coote
Accurate quantum chemical calculations were employed to investigate the mechanism of ozone-initiated oxidation of C-H bonds of saturated hydrocarbons and polymers. Step wise hydrogen atom abstraction generates the first resting state the trihydroxide -COOOH, which undergoes decomposition to produce the free radical species alkoxyl -CO˙ and peroxyl ˙OOH thereby setting off a complex chain of radical processes. The H transfer from peroxyl radical to alkoxyl allows formation of inactive alcohol and the singlet excited dioxygen...
September 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Maria Guido, Samantha Sarcognato, Guido Pelletti, Matteo Fassan, Bruno Murer, Rossella Snenghi
Strong experimental and clinical evidences have definitely linked occupational vinyl chloride exposure to development of angiosarcoma of the liver. In contrast, despite the International Agency for Research on Cancer has included vinyl chloride among the causes of hepatocellular carcinoma, the association between vinyl chloride exposure and hepatocellular carcinoma remains debated. This issue is relevant, since occupational exposure to high levels of vinyl chloride may still occur. We report a unique case of sequential occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and angiosarcoma of the liver, in a vinyl chloride-exposed worker without cirrhosis and any known risk factor for chronic liver disease...
August 17, 2016: Human Pathology
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