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Vinyl chloride

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716488/simultaneous-anaerobic-transformation-of-carbon-tetrachloride-to-carbon-dioxide-and-tetrachloroethene-to-ethene-in-a-continuous-flow-column
#1
Mohammad F Azizian, Lewis Semprini
The simultaneous anaerobic transformation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and carbon tetrachloride (CT) was evaluated in a continuous flow column. The column was packed with quartz sand and bioaugmented with the Evanite culture (EV) that is capable of transforming PCE to ethene. Azizian and Semprini (2016) reported that PCE and CT could be simultaneously transformed in the column, with PCE (0.1mM) transformed mainly to ethene and CT (0.015mM) to chloroform (CF) (20%) and an unknown transformation product, likely carbon dioxide (CO2)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715151/nickel-catalyzed-intermolecular-carbosulfonylation-of-alkynes-via-sulfonyl-radicals
#2
Andrés García-Domínguez, Simona Müller, Cristina Nevado
β,β-Disubstituted vinyl sulfones were obtained with complete regio- and stereocontrol in a multicomponent reaction involving alkynes, organoboronic acids, and sulfonyl chlorides in the presence of a nickel catalyst. The reaction proceeds via sulfonyl radicals generated in situ under mild reaction conditions.
July 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700100/total-synthesis-of-n-methylwelwitindolinone%C3%A2-b-isothiocyanate
#3
Julius R Reyes, Jiasu Xu, Kenichi Kobayashi, Vikram Bhat, Viresh H Rawal
The asymmetric synthesis of (-)-N-methylwelwitindolinone B isothiocyanate is reported. Critical challenges overcome through these studies include the stereoselective installation of the sterically congested C13 alkyl chloride and control of the wayward reactivity of the indole unit to standard oxidants. A Pt-catalyzed hydrosilylation helped stymie unwanted rearrangements facilitated by vinyl group participation during the chloride installation step, and a new Fe(II) -catalyzed oxidation accomplished the problematic conversion of indole into 2-indolinone...
July 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691817/the-microwave-spectrum-and-molecular-structure-of-z-1-chloro-2-fluoroethylene-acetylene-demonstrating-the-importance-of-the-balance-between-steric-and-electrostatic-interactions-in-heterodimer-formation
#4
Helen O Leung, Mark D Marshall, Nazir D Khan
The structure of the gas-phase heterodimer formed between (Z)-1-chloro-2-fluoroethylene and acetylene is determined via Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy from 5.5 to 20.8 GHz. In the first instance where in the presence of both a fluorine atom and a chlorine atom on the haloethylene the protic acid binds to the chlorine atom, the acetylene adopts a configuration similar to that in the analogous complex with vinyl chloride. Positioned in a manner to interact favorably with both the chlorine atom and the hydrogen atom geminal to it, the acetylene molecule is able to maximize the overall electrostatic stabilization even though other regions of the haloethylene offer individual sites of greater positive or negative electrostatic potential...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674687/effect-of-chemical-grafting-parameters-on-the-manufacture-of-functionalized-pvoh-films-having-controlled-water-solubility
#5
Andreas Haas, Daniel Schlemmer, Uwe Grupa, Markus Schmid
This study investigated the chemical grafting of a single-layer poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) film. The effect of the grafting parameters (grafting time, grafting temperature, and concentration of fatty acid chloride) on the hydrophobicity of the film surface and the film solubility were evaluated. The PVOH substrate film (cold-water soluble at 20°C) was manufactured by flat extrusion and had a thickness of 50 μm (±5 μm). The chemical grafting was performed using the transfer method with palmitoyl chloride (C16)...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648989/thiol-functionalized-nanogels-as-reactive-plasticizers-for-crosslinked-polymer-networks
#6
Manju Saraswathy, Jeffrey W Stansbury, Devatha P Nair
Significant efforts have been expended to mitigate plasticizer migration from crosslinked methacrylic and poly(vinyl chloride) polymer networks by synthesizing reactive plasticizers that can blend homogenously within the networks to reduce polymer property change, acute toxicity and downstream environmental effects of plasticizer migration with limited and varying amount of success. We hypothesized that appropriate thiol-functionalized nanogels synthesized using the same monomers as the parent network to generate highly compact, crosslinked structures will form thermally stable, homogenous networks and perform as optimal reactive plasticizers...
April 27, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646683/fabrication-of-low-fire-hazard-flexible-poly-vinyl-chloride-via-reutilization-of-heavy-metal-biosorbents
#7
Ye-Tang Pan, De-Yi Wang
As a naturally abundant biopolymer, chitosan is considered to be a suitable adsorbent for stannate (SnO3(2-)) in tin plating wastewater. However, mass transfer of the adsorbent and its recycling remain challenging problems. Though flexible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is highly flammable due to the addition of plasticizers, the traditional flame retardant, antimony trioxide (Sb2O3), is potentially harmful. In this study, chitosan was anchored onto the surface of PVC resin to adsorb SnO3(2-) from wastewater. Thereafter, tin-doped chitosan-coated PVC resin was readily recycled and processed into a flexible PVC composite (modified fPVC)...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629192/effects-of-sulfate-chloride-and-bicarbonate-on-iron-stability-in-a-pvc-u-drinking-pipe
#8
Jiaying Wang, Tao Tao, Hexiang Yan
In order to describe iron stability in plastic pipes and to ensure the drinking water security, the influence factors and rules for iron adsorption and release were studied, dependent on the Unplasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) drinking pipes employed in this research. In this paper, sulfate, chloride, and bicarbonate, as well as synthesized models, were chosen to investigate the iron stability on the inner wall of PVC-U drinking pipes. The existence of the three kinds of anions could significantly affect the process of iron adsorption, and a positive association was found between the level of anion concentration and the adsorption rate...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620663/reductive-dissolution-of-supergrowth-carbon-nanotubes-for-tougher-nanocomposites-by-reactive-coagulation-spinning
#9
A J Clancy, D B Anthony, S J Fisher, H S Leese, C S Roberts, M S P Shaffer
Long single-walled carbon nanotubes, with lengths >10 μm, can be spontaneously dissolved by stirring in a sodium naphthalide N,N-dimethylacetamide solution, yielding solutions of individualised nanotubide ions at concentrations up to 0.74 mg mL(-1). This process was directly compared to ultrasonication and found to be less damaging while maintaining greater intrinsic length, with increased individualisation, yield, and concentration. Nanotubide solutions were spun into fibres using a new reactive coagulation process, which covalently grafts a poly(vinyl chloride) matrix to the nanotubes directly at the point of fibre formation...
June 29, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602302/fabrication-of-porous-ionic-liquid-polymer-as-solid-phase-microextraction-coating-for-analysis-of-organic-acids-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#10
Zhentao Tang, Yixiang Duan
A kind of porous ionic liquid polymer was designed as coating material for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers to extract polar organic acids. The synthesized ionic liquids (1-vinyl-3-(4-vinyl-benzyl)imidazolium chloride) were polymerized in the presence of azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), and subsequently coated on stainless steel wires with physical adhesion. To guarantee the adhesion between coating and the surface of stainless steel wires, micro-wave induced plasma was applied to modify the stainless steel wires...
September 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581756/cl-loss-dynamics-of-vinyl-chloride-cations-in-the-b-2-a-state-role-of-the-c-2-a-state
#11
Xiangkun Wu, Manman Wu, Xiaofeng Tang, Xiaoguo Zhou, Shilin Liu, Fuyi Liu, Liusi Sheng
The dissociative photoionization of vinyl chloride (C2H3Cl) in the 11.0-14.2 eV photon energy range was investigated using threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) velocity map imaging. Three electronic states, A2A', B2A" and C2A', of the C2H3Cl+ cation were prepared, and their dissociation dynamics were investigated. A unique fragment ion, C2H3+, was observed within the excitation energy range. TPEPICO 3-dimensional time-sliced velocity map images of C2H3+ provided the kinetic energy release distributions (KERD) and anisotropy parameters in dissociation of internal-energy-selected C2H3Cl+ cations...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541561/effects-of-rainfall-exclusion-on-leaf-gas-exchange-traits-and-osmotic-adjustment-in-mature-canopy-trees-of-dryobalanops-aromatica-dipterocarpaceae-in-a-malaysian-tropical-rain-forest
#12
Yuta Inoue, Tomoaki Ichie, Tanaka Kenzo, Aogu Yoneyama, Tomo'omi Kumagai, Tohru Nakashizuka
Climate change exposes vegetation to unusual levels of drought, risking a decline in productivity and an increase in mortality. It still remains unclear how trees and forests respond to such unusual drought, particularly Southeast Asian tropical rain forests. To understand leaf ecophysiological responses of tropical rain forest trees to soil drying, a rainfall exclusion experiment was conducted on mature canopy trees of Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn.f. (Dipterocarpaceae) for 4 months in an aseasonal tropical rain forest in Sarawak, Malaysia...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533514/isolation-and-genomic-characterization-of-a-dehalococcoides-strain-suggests-genomic-rearrangement-during-culture
#13
Masafumi Yohda, Kentaro Ikegami, Yuto Aita, Mizuki Kitajima, Ayane Takechi, Megumi Iwamoto, Tomomi Fukuda, Noriyoshi Tamura, Junji Shibasaki, Seiji Koike, Daisuke Komatsu, Sakari Miyagi, Minoru Nishimura, Yoshihito Uchino, Akino Shiroma, Makiko Shimoji, Hinako Tamotsu, Noriko Ashimine, Misuzu Shinzato, Shun Ohki, Kazuma Nakano, Kuniko Teruya, Kazuhito Satou, Takashi Hirano, Osami Yagi
We have developed and characterized a bacterial consortium that reductively dechlorinates trichloroethene to ethene. Quantitative PCR analysis for the 16S rRNA and reductive dehalogenase genes showed that the consortium is highly enriched with Dehalococcoides spp. that have two vinyl chloride reductive dehalogenase genes, bvcA and vcrA, and a trichloroethene reductive dehalogenase gene, tceA. The metagenome analysis of the consortium by the next generation sequencer SOLiD 3 Plus suggests that a Dehalococcoides sp...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532077/preparation-of-robust-braid-reinforced-poly-vinyl-chloride-ultrafiltration-hollow-fiber-membrane-with-antifouling-surface-and-application-to-filtration-of-activated-sludge-solution
#14
Zhuang Zhou, Saeid Rajabzadeh, Lifeng Fang, Taro Miyoshi, Yuriko Kakihana, Hideto Matsuyama
Braid-reinforced hollow fiber membranes with high mechanical properties and considerable antifouling surface were prepared by blending poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) with poly(vinyl chloride-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (poly(VC-co-PEGMA)) copolymer via non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS). The tensile strength of the braid-reinforced PVC hollow fiber membranes were significantly larger than those of previously reported various types of PVC hollow fiber membranes. The high interfacial bonding strength indicated the good compatibility between the coating materials and the surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-braid...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530296/post-cycloaddition-modification-of-a-porous-mof-for-improved-gc-separation-of-ethanol-and-water
#15
Ya-Jun Zhang, Cheng Chen, Li-Xuan Cai, Bin Tan, Xiao-Dong Yang, Jie Zhang, Min Ji
An olefin-containing pyridinium derivative, 1-(4-carboxybenzyl)-4-[2-(4-pyridyl)-vinyl]-pyridinium chloride (HBCbpeCl) has been introduced into a novel 2D metal-organic framework with rare right- and left-handed spiral nanotubular channels arranged alternately in the structure. The 1D channel is modified by positively-charged pyridinium segments, which shows high affinities to Lewis basic molecules such as methanol, ethanol, and water vapor. Additionally, the BCbpe molecules in the structure have been directed through cation-π interactions to be aligned antiparallel to each other with the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bond arranged properly for [2 + 2] photocycloaddition, which can be triggered to undergo structural transformation from 2D to 3D...
May 30, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508901/from-polyethylene-waxes-to-hdpe-using-an-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-bis-arylimino-2-3-5-6-bis-pentamethylene-pyridyl-chromium-iii-chloride-pre-catalyst-in-ethylene-polymerisation
#16
Chuanbing Huang, Shizhen Du, Gregory A Solan, Yang Sun, Wen-Hua Sun
Five examples of α,α'-bis(arylimino)-2,3:5,6-bis(pentamethylene)pyridyl-chromium(iii) chlorides (aryl = 2,6-Me2Ph Cr1, 2,6-Et2Ph Cr2, 2,6-i-Pr2Ph Cr3, 2,4,6-Me3Ph Cr4, 2,6-Et2-4-MePh Cr5) have been synthesized by the one-pot template reaction of α,α'-dioxo-2,3:5,6-bis(pentamethylene)pyridine, CrCl3·6H2O and the corresponding aniline. The molecular structures of Cr1 and Cr4 reveal distorted octahedral geometries with the N,N,N-ligand adopting a mer-configuration. On activation with an aluminium alkyl co-catalyst, Cr1-Cr5 exhibited high catalytic activities in ethylene polymerization and showed outstanding thermal stability operating effectively at 80 °C with activities up to 1...
May 30, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505511/novel-electrodialysis-cation-exchange-membrane-prepared-by-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-sulfonic-acid-heavy-metal-ions-removal
#17
M Nemati, S M Hosseini, M Shabanian
In the present work a novel heterogeneous cation exchange membrane (CEM) composed of poly vinyl chloride (PVC) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid based hydrogel (AMAH) was prepared. The membranes were fabricated with different fractions of AMAH to optimize the performance in desalination. The hydrogel was characterized by FT-IR to prove the successful synthesis. The membrane properties such as permselectivity, ionic permeability, flux, water content, electrical resistance, morphology, contact angle and dimensional stability were evaluated...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496072/improvement-of-chromium-vi-extraction-from-acidic-solutions-using-a-poly-vinyl-chloride-based-polymer-inclusion-membrane-with-aliquat-336-as-the-carrier
#18
Shigehiro Kagaya, Tomonori Maeno, Kazuma Ito, Makoto Gemmei-Ide, Robert W Cattrall, Spas D Kolev
An important reason for the inefficient extraction of Cr(VI) from its acidic solutions into polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) as the base-polymer and Aliquat 336 as the carrier, was found to be associated with the leaching of Aliquat 336 from the PIMs into the solutions, where it subsequently reduced the anionic Cr(VI) species to cationic Cr(III) species. The PIM extraction efficiency for Cr(VI) was significantly improved by the addition of NaNO3 to the solutions, which suppressed the leaching of Aliquat 336 and the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III)...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494362/transformation-of-carbon-tetrachloride-and-chloroform-by-trichloroethene-respiring-anaerobic-mixed-cultures-and-supernatant
#19
Kyle E Vickstrom, Mohammad F Azizian, Lewis Semprini
Carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF) were transformed in batch reactor experiments conducted with anaerobic dechlorinating cultures and supernatant (ADC + S) harvested from continuous flow reactors. The Evanite (EV) and Victoria/Stanford (VS) cultures, capable of respiring trichloroethene (TCE), 1,2-cis-dichloroethene (cDCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) to ethene (ETH), were grown in continuous flow reactors receiving an influent feed of saturated TCE (10 mM; 60 mEq) and formate (45 mM; 90 mEq) but no CT or CF...
April 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490663/quantitative-estimated-exposure-to-vinyl-chloride-and-risk-of-angiosarcoma-of-the-liver-and-hepatocellular-cancer-in-the-us-industry-wide-vinyl-chloride-cohort-mortality-update-through-2013
#20
Kenneth A Mundt, Linda D Dell, Lori Crawford, Alexa E Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate mortality risks of angiosarcoma of the liver (ASL), primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other cancers among 9951 men employed between 1942 and 1972 at 35 US vinyl chloride (VC) or polyvinyl chloride plants followed for mortality through 31 December 2013. METHODS: SMR and time-dependent Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to evaluate mortality risks by cumulative VC exposure. RESULTS: Liver cancer mortality was elevated (SMR=2...
May 10, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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