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Vinyl chloride

Vidya A Fleetwood, Jamie C Harris, Minh B Luu
A 77-year-old male with a history of metastatic scalp angiosarcoma presented with intractable gastrointestinal bleeding from a jejunal mass detected on capsule endoscopy. He underwent laparoscopic-assisted resection of the mass. Intraoperatively, an isolated small bowel mass with bulky lymphadenopathy was seen and resected en bloc. Pathology showed a 6.8cm high-grade metastatic angiosarcoma with nodal involvement and negative margins. Angiosarcoma is a sarcoma with a grim prognosis. The incidence is 2% of all soft tissue sarcomas; cutaneous lesions comprise 27% of manifestations and usually appear on head and neck...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Agnese Lai, Federico Aulenta, Marina Mingazzini, Maria Teresa Palumbo, Marco Petrangeli Papini, Roberta Verdini, Mauro Majone
A sequential reductive-oxidative treatment was developed in this study in a continuous-flow bioelectrochemical reactor to address bioremediation of groundwater contaminated by trichloroethene (TCE) and less-chlorinated but still harmful intermediates, such as vinyl chloride. In order to optimize the anodic compartment, whereby the oxygen-driven microbial oxidation of TCE-daughter products occurs, abiotic batch experiments were performed with various anode materials poised at +1.20 V vs. SHE (i.e., graphite rods and titanium mesh anode coated with mixed metal oxides (MMO)) and setups (i...
November 22, 2016: Chemosphere
José B M Rodrigues, Claire I G L Sarantópoulos, Renata Bromberg, Juliana C Andrade, Kleber Brunelli, Luciana Miyagusku, Miriam G Marquezini, Eunice A Yamada
This study evaluates the potential of using non-irradiated barrier-shrink bags containing ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), polyamide (PA) and ethylene ionomer in their structures to preserve vacuum-packaged fresh beef as an alternative to traditional gamma-ray cross-linked bags containing polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC). Boneless beef rib eye roll cuts were vacuum-packed in an industrial processing plant using EVOH 44% mol, EVOH 32% mol and a control PVDC barrier shrink bags. The cuts were evaluated during storage at 0...
November 12, 2016: Meat Science
Giuseppe Suaria, Carlo G Avio, Annabella Mineo, Gwendolyn L Lattin, Marcello G Magaldi, Genuario Belmonte, Charles J Moore, Francesco Regoli, Stefano Aliani
The Mediterranean Sea has been recently proposed as one of the most impacted regions of the world with regards to microplastics, however the polymeric composition of these floating particles is still largely unknown. Here we present the results of a large-scale survey of neustonic micro- and meso-plastics floating in Mediterranean waters, providing the first extensive characterization of their chemical identity as well as detailed information on their abundance and geographical distribution. All particles >700 μm collected in our samples were identified through FT-IR analysis (n = 4050 particles), shedding for the first time light on the polymeric diversity of this emerging pollutant...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
Haiyan Xiang, Mijun Peng, Hui Li, Sheng Peng, Shuyun Shi
The existence of strong intramolecular hydrogen bond in salicylic acid (SA) weakens its intermolecular hydrogen bonding with functional monomer, then it is a challenge work to fabricate molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for SA recognition with high capacity and good selectivity. Here, hollow porous dummy MIPs (HPDMIPs) were prepared using benzoic acid (BA) as dummy template, ionic liquid (i.e. 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) as functional monomer, and MCM-48 as sacrificial support. Factors that affected adsorption, such as type of template and porogen, mole ratio of template-functional monomer-cross-linker and type of binding solvent, were optimized in detail...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Hangzhen Lan, Tuukka Rönkkö, Jevgeni Parshintsev, Kari Hartonen, Ning Gan, Motolani Sakeye, Jawad Sarfraz, Marja-Liisa Riekkola
In this study, a novel solid phase microextration (SPME) Arrow was prepared for the sampling of volatile low molecular weight alkylamines (trimethylamine (TMA) and triethylamine (TEA)) in wastewater, salmon and mushroom samples before gas chromatographic separation with mass spectrometer as detector. Acidified zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (A-ZIF-8) was utilized as adsorbent and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as the adhesive. The custom SPME Arrow was fabricated via a physical adhesion: (1) ZIF-8 particles were suspended in a mixture of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and PVC to form a homogeneous suspension, (2) a non-coated stainless steel SPME Arrow was dipped in the ZIF-8/PVC suspension for several times to obtain a uniform and thick coating, (3) the pore size of ZIF-8 was modified by headspace exposure to hydrochloric acid in order to increase the extraction efficiency for amines...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Christine E Duval, Timothy A DeVol, Scott M Husson
This contribution describes the synthesis of robust extractive scintillating resin and its use in a flow-cell detector for the direct detection of uranium in environmental waters. The base poly[(4-methyl styrene)-co-(4-vinylbenzyl chloride)-co-(divinylbenzene)-co-(2-(1-napthyl)-4-vinyl-5-phenyloxazole)] resin contains covalently bound fluorophores. Uranium-binding functionality was added to the resin by an Arbuzov reaction followed by hydrolysis via strong acid or trimethylsilyl bromide (TMSBr)-mediated methanolysis...
December 1, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Koshlan Mayer-Blackwell, Maeva Fincker, Olivia Molenda, Benjamin Callahan, Holly Sewell, Susan Holmes, Elizabeth A Edwards, Alfred M Spormann
Bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons such as perchloroethene and trichloroethene can result in the accumulation of the undesirable intermediate vinyl chloride. Such accumulation can either be due to the absence of specific vinyl chloride respiring Dehalococcoides mccartyi or to the inhibition of such strains by the metabolism of other microorganisms. The fitness of vinyl chloride respiring Dehalococcoides mccartyi subpopulations is particularly uncertain in the presence of chloroethene/chloroethane cocontaminant mixtures, which are commonly found in contaminated groundwater...
November 3, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Nannan Feng, Guoqiao Zheng, Yanhui Hao, Yong Li, Yandan Xu, Xiaowen Xu, Guanghui Zhang, Jinwei Wang, Yongliang Li, Paul Brandt-Rauf, Zhao-Lin Xia
BACKGROUND: Vinyl chloride is an occupational carcinogen which caused micronuclei in human directly. It has recently been demonstrated that micronuclei formation could generate a spectrum of genomic rearrangements and play a key role in the early tumorigenesis process. We aimed to investigate the association between polymorphisms in the apoptosis process related genes and micronuclei rate in vinyl chloride-exposed workers in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytokinesis block micronucleus test was performed on 342 vinyl chloride-exposed workers and 107 nonexposed workers to determine chromosomal damage...
November 1, 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Anuj Kumar, Yujin Lee, Doyeon Kim, Kummara Madhusudana Rao, Jisoo Kim, Soyoung Park, Adnan Haider, Do Hyun Lee, Sung Soo Han
Cellulose nanocrystals reinforced poly (vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate hybrid scaffolds were fabricated by using freeze casting and freeze drying method. In this study, the effect of crosslinking agents such as calcium chloride, orthophosphoric acid, and borax on morphological, structural, thermal, mechanical, and cytocompatibility (cell adhesion and proliferation) properties was investigated. The results showed that the change in type of crosslinking agent significantly changed the properties of the hybrid scaffolds...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Zhongbing Chen, Jan Vymazal, Peter Kuschk
Three different flow regimes were carried out in a pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland-treating sulfate rich wastewater contaminated with monochlorobenzene (MCB) and perchloroethene (PCE). The three regimes were continuous flow, 7-day cycle discontinuous flow, and 2.5-day cycle discontinuous flow. The results show that intensifying the tidal regime (2.5-day cycle) significantly enhanced MCB removal before 2 m from the inlet and increasing PCE removal efficiency at 0.5 m. The PCE dechlorination process was promoted with tidal operation, especially under the 2...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
John J Guardiola, Juliane I Beier, K Cameron Falkner, Benjamin Wheeler, Craig James McClain, Matt Cave
BACKGROUND: Occupational vinyl chloride (VC) exposures have been associated with toxicant-associated steatohepatitis and liver cancer. Metabolomics has been used to clarify mode of action in drug-induced liver injury but has not been performed following VC exposures. METHODS: Plasma samples from 17 highly exposed VC workers without liver cancer and 27 unexposed healthy volunteers were obtained for metabolite extraction and GC/MS and LC/MS(2) analysis. Following ion identification/quantification, Ingenuity pathway analysis was performed...
December 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Vita Wonoputri, Cindy Gunawan, Sanly Liu, Nicolas Barraud, Lachlan Hartley Yee, May Lim, Rose Amal
In this study, we developed a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-solvent casted mixed metal copper and iron complexes capable of catalytic generation of the antibiofilm nitric oxide (NO) from endogenous nitrite. In the absence of additional reducing agent, we demonstrated that the presence of iron complex facilitates a redox cycling, converting the copper(II) complex to active copper(I) species, which catalyzes the generation of NO from nitrite. Assessed by protein assay and surface coverage analyses, the presence of the mixed metal complexes in systems containing water industry-relevant nitrite-producing nitrifying biofilms was shown to result in a 'non-toxic mode' of biofilm suppression, while confining the bacterial growth to the free-floating planktonic phase...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jeong-Ann Park, Song-Bae Kim
Antimicrobial electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers were synthesized by impregnating benzyl triethylammonium chloride (BTEAC) as an antimicrobial agent into PVA nanofibers. The BTEAC-PVA nanofibers were heat-methanol treated during the preparation for various tests. The BTEAC-PVA nanofibers became more hydrophilic than the PVA nanofibers due to incorporation of BTEAC. Through heat-methanol treatment, thermal property, crystallinity, and water stability of BTEAC-PVA nanofibers were improved considerably...
October 14, 2016: Chemosphere
Kyu Won Lee, Jae Woo Chung, Seung-Yeop Kwak
A highly self-plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is demonstrated for the first time via click grafting of hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG). The plasticizing effect of the grafted HPG on PVC is systematically investigated by various analytical methods. The amorphous and bulky dendritic structure of HPG efficiently increases the free volume of the grafted PVC, which leads to a remarkably lower glass transition temperature comparable to that of the conventional plasticized PVC. Viscoelastic analysis reveals that HPG considerably improves the softness of the grafted PVC at room temperature and promotes the segmental motion in the system...
October 14, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Evan L Anderson, Nicole M Gingery, Paul Garrett Boswell, Xin V Chen, Jozsef Rabai, Philippe Buhlmann
Potentiometric selectivities show that in fluorous ion-selective electrode membranes the tetrabutylammonium ion binds to fluorophilic proton ionophores. For the ionophore bis 3-(perfluorooctyl)propyl](2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)amine, this type of interaction is confirmed by the effect of the ionophore on the ionic conductivity of perfluoro(perhydrophenanthrene) solutions of a fluorophilic NBu4(+) salt. In this system, ion pairs, triple ions, and higher ionic aggregates dominate over single ions, and the ionophore increases the conductivity by favoring the formation of ion aggregates with a net charge...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Lucas W Erickson, Erika L Lucas, Emily J Tollefson, Elizabeth R Jarvo
The stereospecific reductive cross-electrophile coupling reaction of 2-vinyl-4-halotetrahydropyrans for vinylcyclopropane synthesis is reported. The nickel-catalyzed reaction occurs with both alkyl fluorides and alkyl chlorides. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported cross-electrophile coupling reaction of an alkyl fluoride. Ring contraction proceeds with high stereospecificity, providing selective synthesis of either diastereomer of di- and trisubstituted cyclopropanes. The utility of this methodology is demonstrated by several synthetic applications including the synthesis of the natural product dictyopterene A...
October 6, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Christine M Le, Theresa Sperger, Rui Fu, Xiao Hou, Yong Hwan Lim, Franziska Schoenebeck, Mark Lautens
We report a highly robust, general and stereoselective method for the synthesis of 3-(chloromethylene)oxindoles from alkyne-tethered carbamoyl chlorides using PdCl2(PhCN)2 as the catalyst. The transformation involves a stereo- and regioselective chloropalladation of an internal alkyne to generate a nucleophilic vinyl Pd(II) species, which then undergoes an intramolecular cross-coupling with a carbamoyl chloride. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions, is insensitive to the presence of moisture and air, and is readily scalable...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Lisanne C Anders, Heegook Yeo, Brenna R Kaelin, Anna L Lang, Adrienne M Bushau, Amanda N Douglas, Matt Cave, Gavin E Arteel, Craig J McClain, Juliane I Beier
BACKGROUND: Vinyl chloride (VC) causes toxicant-associated steatohepatitis at high exposure levels. Recent work by this group suggests that underlying liver disease may predispose the liver to VC hepatotoxicity at lower exposure levels. The most common form of underlying liver disease in the developed world is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is well-known that the type of dietary fat can play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. However, whether the combination of dietary fat and VC/metabolites promotes liver injury has not been studied...
November 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
A Ronca, S Ronca, G Forte, S Zeppetelli, A Gloria, R De Santis, L Ambrosio
A vinyl-terminated Polycaprolactone has been developed for tissue engineering applications using a one-step synthesis and functionalization method based on Ring Opening Polymerization (ROP) of ԑ-caprolactone, with Hydroxyl Ethyl Vinyl Ether (HEVE) acting both as the initiator of ROP and as photo-curable functional group. The proposed method employs a catalyst based on Al, instead of the most popular Tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate, to reduce the cytotoxicity. Following the synthesis of the vinyl-terminated polycaprolactone, its reaction with Fumaryl Chloride (FuCl) results in a divinyl-fumarate polycaprolactone (VPCLF)...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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