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Vinyl chloride

Mekonnen Abiyot Ashagre, Takashi Masadome
A new microfluidic polymer chip with an embedded cationic surfactant (CS) ion-selective optode (CS-optode) as a detector of flow-injection analysis (FIA) for the determination of CSs was developed. The optode sensing membrane is based on a poly(vinyl chloride) membrane plasticized with 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether containing tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester. Under the optimal flow conditions of the FIA system, the CS-optode showed a good linear relationship between the peak heights in the absorbance, and the concentrations of CS in a concentration range from 50 to 400 μmol dm-3...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Alexander D Malkin, Sang-Ho Ye, Evan J Lee, Xiguang Yang, Yang Zhu, Lara J Gamble, William J Federspiel, William R Wagner
Respiratory assist devices, that utilize ∼2 m2 of hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) to achieve desired gas transfer rates, have been limited in their adoption due to such blood biocompatibility limitations. This study reports two techniques for the functionalization and subsequent conjugation of zwitterionic sulfobetaine (SB) block copolymers to polymethylpentene (PMP) HFM surfaces with the intention of reducing thrombus formation in respiratory assist devices. Amine or hydroxyl functionalization of PMP HFMs (PMP-A or PMP-H) was accomplished using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Gretchen L W Heavner, Cresten B Mansfeldt, Garrett E Debs, Sage T Hellerstedt, Annette R Rowe, Ruth E Richardson
Using mRNA transcript levels for key functional enzymes as proxies for the organohalide respiration (OHR) rate, is a promising approach for monitoring bioremediation populations in situ at chlorinated solvent-contaminated field sites. However, to date, no correlations have been empirically derived for chlorinated solvent respiring, Dehalococcoides mccartyi (DMC) containing, bioaugmentation cultures. In the current study, genome-wide transcriptome and proteome data were first used to confirm the most highly expressed OHR-related enzymes in the bioaugmentation culture, KB-1TM, including several reductive dehalogenases (RDases) and a Ni-Fe hydrogenase, Hup...
February 8, 2018: Microorganisms
Víctor Samper Barceló, Stefan Bienz
Highly functionalized 5-membered N-heterocyclic compounds, 4-aryl-3-chloro-5-methoxy-1-methyl-3-pyrrolin-2-ones, have been synthesized in moderate to high yields by the reaction of N,N-dimethylated aromatic α-amino acids with oxalyl chloride, followed by solvolysis with MeOH. The products possess a number of functional groups such as an amide, a mixed amido/alkoxy acetal, a vinyl halide, and an alkene, and thus are promising candidates to be used as starting materials for the synthesis of diverse five-membered N-heterocyclic compounds...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Stefan Sommer, Martin Koch, Alina Adams
Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is today one of the most important commodity polymers. Its broad range of applications is due to the presence of plasticizers whose concentration largely impacts the microscopic and the macroscopic properties. Quantifying the concentration of plasticizer in PVC products is therefore of fundamental importance. Thus, in this paper, the applicability of terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy for the characterization of plasticized PVC is for the first time evaluated in a systematic way...
February 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Duaa Ghazi, Gamal A El-Hiti, Emad Yousif, Dina S Ahmed, Mohammad Hayal Alotaibi
Three organotin(IV) complexes containing ciprofloxacin as a ligand (Ph₃SnL, Me₂SnL₂ and Bu₂SnL₂; 0.5% by weight) were used as additives to inhibit the photodegradation of polyvinyl chloride films (40 µm thickness) upon irradiation with ultraviolet light (λmax = 313 at a light intensity = 7.75 × 10-7 ein dm-3 S-1) at room temperature. The efficiency of organotin(IV) complexes as photostabilizers was determined by monitoring the changes in the weight, growth of specific functional groups (hydroxyl, carbonyl and carbene), viscosity, average molecular weight, chain scission and degree of deterioration of the polymeric films upon irradiation...
January 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Puyou Jia, Meng Zhang, Lihong Hu, Fei Song, Guodong Feng, Yonghong Zhou
The waste cooking oil (WCO) production from the catering industry and food processing industry causes serious environmental, economic and social problems. However, WCO can be used for the preparation of fine chemicals such as internal plasticizer. With this aim, this work is focused on preparing internal plasticizer by using WCO and determining technical viability of non-migration poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) materials. The mannich base of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) was synthesized from WCO via esterification, interesterification and mannich reaction, which was used to produce self-plasticization PVC materials as an internal plasticizer...
January 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Flemming Heinen, Elric Engelage, Alexander Dreger, Robert Weiss, Stefan Matthias Huber
Hypervalent iodine(III) derivatives are known as versatile reagents in organic synthesis, but there is only one previous report on their use as Lewis acidic organocatalysts. Herein, we present first strong indications on the crucial role of halogen bonding in this kind of catalyses. To this end, the solvolysis of benzhydryl chloride and the Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene with methyl vinyl ketone serve as benchmark reactions for halide abstraction and the activation of neutral compounds. Iodolium compounds (cyclic diaryliodonium species) were used as activators or catalysts, and their activity could be markedly reduced or completely switched off by sterically blocking one or two of their electrophilic axes...
January 24, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Rong Yu, Richard G Andrachek, Leo G Lehmicke, David L Freedman
Biostimulation was identified as a potential technology to treat a fractured sandstone aquifer contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE). Most of the mass of TCE and cis-DCE resides within the rock matrix and strategies to restore groundwater to pre-existing conditions are severely limited by back diffusion. A microcosm study using crushed rock and groundwater from the site was performed to assess biostimulation and natural attenuation. Lactate, hydrogen release compound® (HRC), and emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) significantly increased the rate of TCE reduction to cis-DCE...
January 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Alexandra R T Santos, Felismina T C Moreira, Luísa A Helguero, M Goreti F Sales
This work reports a very simple approach for creating a synthetic antibody against any protein of interest and its application in potentiometric transduction. The selected protein was Breast Cancer Antigen (CA 15-3), which is implicated in breast cancer disease and used to follow-up breast cancer patients during treatment. The new material with antibody-like properties was obtained by molecular-imprinting technology, prepared by electropolymerizing pyrrol (Py, 5.0 × 10-3 mol/L) around Breast Cancer Antigen (CA 15-3) (100 U/mL) on a fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive glass support...
January 19, 2018: Biosensors
Gabriela T Niño de Guzmán, Cathleen J Hapeman, Patricia D Millner, Laura L McConnell, Dana Jackson, David Kindig, Alba Torrents
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a highly effective industrial degreasing agent and known carcinogen. It was frequently buried improperly in landfills and has subsequently become one of the most common groundwater and soil contaminants in the USA. A common strategy to remediate TCE-contaminated sites and to prevent movement of the TCE plumes into waterways is to construct biowalls which consist of biomaterials and amendments to enhance biodegradation. This approach was chosen to contain a TCE plume emanating from a closed landfill in Maryland...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
J H Choe, J Jeon, M E Lee, J J Wie, H-J Jin, Y S Yun
Polymeric nanocomposites with graphene-based nanocarbons (GNCs) have been extensively studied with emphasis on the percolation of nanofillers toward electrical, rheological, and mechanical reinforcement. In this study, we report an unusual indirect reinforcing phenomenon of highly defective GNCs dispersed in the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix via densification of the polymer packing originating from nanoscale confinement. Herein, chemically reduced graphene oxide nanoribbons (C-rGONRs) are employed as a nanofiller...
January 11, 2018: Nanoscale
Guojun Lan, Yan Wang, Yiyang Qiu, Xiaolong Wang, Ji Liang, Wenfeng Han, Haodong Tang, Huazhang Liu, Jian Liu, Ying Li
N-Doped mesoporous carbon extrudate with a major quaternary N species has been successfully prepared through direct carbonization of wheat flour/gluten with silica, which is a cheap and convenient method for scale-up production approach. The obtained carbon extrudate metal-free catalyst enables highly efficient production of vinyl chloride monomer through acetylene hydrochlorination, with a superior catalytic performance and excellent stability (>85% conversion and vinyl chloride selectivity over 99% at 220 °C)...
January 4, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Anne E Taylor, Peter J Bottomley, Lewis Semprini
Ethene (ETH)-grown inocula of Nocardioides JS614 grow on vinyl chloride (VC), vinyl fluoride (VF), or vinyl bromide (VB) as the sole carbon and energy source, with faster growth rates and higher cell yields on VC and VF than on VB. However, whereas acetate-grown inocula of JS614 grow on VC and VF after a lag period, growth on VB did not occur unless supplemental ethene oxide (EtO) was present in the medium. Despite inferior growth on VB, the maximum rate of VB consumption by ETH-grown cells was ~ 50% greater than the rates of VC and VF consumption, but Br- release during VB consumption was non-stoichiometric with VB consumption (~ 66%) compared to 100% release of Cl- and F- during VC and VF consumption...
January 3, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hualin Wang, Minmin Chen, Chongyang Jin, Baicheng Niu, Suwei Jiang, Xingjiang Li, Shaotong Jiang
The objective of present work was to construct [2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride functionalized reduced graphene oxide/poly (ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (MTAC-rGO/EVOH) multilayer films by using layer-by-layer assembly under a parallel electric field. Besides the barrier and mechanical properties, the film antibacterial activities and cytotoxicity of MTAC-rGO nanosheets were extensively investigated. The functionalization of rGO was achieved by grafting MTAC onto graphene framework through C (sp3)-C bonds...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Luca Cicalese, Loren Raun, Ali Shirafkan, Laura Campos, Daria Zorzi, Mauro Montalbano, Colin Rhoads, Valia Gazis, Katherine Ensor, Cristiana Rastellini
Introduction: Primary liver cancer is a significant cause of cancer-related death in both the United States and the world at large. Hepatocellular carcinoma comprises 90% of these primary liver cancers and has numerous known etiologies. Evaluation of these identified etiologies and other traditional risk factors cannot explain the high incidence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma in Texas. Texas is home to the second largest petrochemical industry and agricultural industry in the nation; industrial activity and exposure to pathogenic chemicals have never been assessed as potential links to the state's increased incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma...
November 2017: Liver Cancer
Yanlin Zhang, Robert W Cattrall, Spas D Kolev
This paper reports on a novel microfluidic technique for the fabrication of microspheres of synthetic polymers including poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), and polystyrene (PS). The polymers are dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and the method is based on the diminished solubility of THF in a 20% (w/v) NaCl solution which allows the formation of droplets of the polymer solution. These polymer solution droplets are generated in a microfluidic system and their desolvation is accomplished within seconds by allowing the droplets to rise by buoyancy through a NaCl solution with a concentration lower than 15%...
December 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Guo-Qiao Zheng, Guang-Hui Zhang, Xiao-Wen Xu, Jin-Wei Wang, Li-Bo Yu, Ya-Nan Zhang, Jing-Wen Huang, Yong-Liang Li, Paul W Braudt-Rauf, Zhao-Lin Xia
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between relative telomere length (RTL) and chromosomal damage represented by micronucleus (MN) frequencies among vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) -exposed workers. METHODS: A group of 126 VCM-exposed workers, 60 internal controls, and 25 external controls were examined for RTL by Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and MN frequencies by cytokinesis-block micronucleus test. Cumulative exposure dose was used to estimate the exposure of VCM-exposed workers...
December 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Huifeng Yue, Chen Zhu, Magnus Rueping
An efficient photoredox/nickel dual catalyzed sulfonylation reaction of aryl, heteroaryl, and vinyl halides has been achieved for the first time. This newly developed sulfonylation protocol provides a versatile method for the synthesis of diverse aromatic sulfones at room temperature and shows excellent functional group tolerance. The electrophilic coupling partners are not limited to aryl, heteroaryl and vinyl bromides but also less reactive aryl chlorides are suitable substrates for this transformation.
December 6, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Guangbiao Zhou, Xinchun Zhao
Recently, Ng et al. reported that the A:T > T:A substitutions, proposed to be a signature of aristolochic acid (AA) exposure, were detected in 76/98 (78%) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from the Taiwan Province of China, and 47% to 1.7% of HCCs from the Chinese mainland and other countries harbored the nucleotide changes. However, other carcinogens, e.g., tobacco carcinogens 4-aminobiphenyl and 1,3-butadiene, air toxic vinyl chloride and its reactive metabolites chloroethylene oxide, melphalan and chlorambucil, also cause this signature in the genome...
December 5, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
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