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Vinyl chloride

Kun Dai, Kuan Wang, Yang Li, Jian-Gang Chen, Zhong-Wen Liu, Jian Lu, Zhao-Tie Liu
A novel, high-efficiency and high-selectivity construction of β-trifluoromethyl enol ether via base-induced/promoted C-O coupling of trifluoromethylated vinyl chloride and phenols is presented with a broad substrate scope. The reaction mechanism, especially the significantly high selectivity, was excavated and understood via DFT calculation, and is well supported by the experimental observation.
April 20, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
M Tran Minh, A Mazzola, F Perdigao, F Charlotte, G Rousseau, F Conti
Angiosarcoma is a rare type of soft tissue sarcoma that accounts for less than 1% of all sarcomas and only 2% of all primary hepatic tumours. Thorotrast, arsenic, and vinyl chloride monomer are frequently listed as occupational exposure risks. The estimated latency is long (10-40 years) in occupational cases and very long (60 years or more) in non-occupational cases. The symptoms and CT-scan appearance of hepatic angiosarcoma (HAS) are non-specific. We present a case of a 65-year-old Caucasian male with history of cryptogenic cirrhosis, low alpha-foetoprotein levels and a single, 4-cm nodule of potential atypical hepatocellular carcinoma (no washout at MRI and CT-scan) in segment VIII...
April 14, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Fatehy M Abdel-Haleem, Mahmoud S Rizk
We report on the development of optochemical sensor based on Mn(III)-salophen ionophore. The sensor was prepared by embedding the ionophore in a plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) impregnated with the chromoionophore ETH7075. Optical response to thiocyanate occurred due to thiocyanate extraction into the polymer via formation of strong complex with the ionophore and simultaneous protonation of the indicator dye yielding the optical response at 545nm. The developed optochemical sensor exhibited high selectivity for thiocyanate over other anions including the most lipophilic species such as salicylate and perchlorate...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Yi Liang, Laura J Cook, Timothy E Mattes
Assessment and monitoring of microbial community dynamics is useful when tracking the progress of vinyl chloride (VC) bioremediation strategies, particularly in dilute plumes where apparent VC attenuation rates are low. In a long-term field study, the abundance and the activity of microbial VC degraders were tracked in three monitoring wells (MW05, MW25, and MW19) along a dilute VC plume at Naval Air Station (NAS) Oceana. High-throughput sequencing of partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and transcripts revealed diverse groundwater microbial communities and showed that methanotrophs and anaerobic respirers (e...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jiaqi Shi, Tao Long, Rongrong Ying, Lei Wang, Xin Zhu, Yusuo Lin
Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (BCEE) is a common chemical material and a frequently detected contaminant in groundwater. It has a strong toxicity and some other chemicals such as poly(vinyl chloride-co-isobutyl vinyl ether) contain similar chloroaliphatic ether structure. So the effective degradation method and transformation pathways for BCEE need to be learned. The present study compared the degradation rate of BCEE by Fenton's reagent and other common oxidation methods, and optimized the reaction conditions. Oxidation intermediates and pathways were also proposed and toxicities of the intermediates were investigated...
March 30, 2017: Chemosphere
Hong Sik Han, Young Jin Lee, Young-Sik Jung, Soo Bong Han
A new photoredox-catalyzed chlorotrifluoromethylation reaction of internal arylalkynes under mild conditions using visible light has been developed. The reactions proceed with high levels of regio- and stereoselectivity and utilize commercially available CF3SO2Cl as both the CF3 and Cl source. In the mechanistic pathway for this process, generation of the CF3 radical and chloride ion occurs by Ir(ppy)3-photocatalyzed reductive decomposition of CF3SO2Cl. The synthetically important trifluoromethyl-substituted vinyl chlorides produced in this process can be readily transformed to 1,1-bis-arylalkenes by using Suzuki coupling...
April 10, 2017: Organic Letters
Evan Kerek, Mohamed Hassanin, Wenzhou Zhang, Elmar J Prenner
Upon uptake of Hg and Cd into living systems, possible targets for metal induced toxicity include the membranes surrounding nervous, cardiovascular and renal cells. To further our understanding of the interactions of Hg and Cd with different lipid structures under physiologically relevant chloride and pH conditions (100 mM NaCl pH 7.4), we used fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering to monitor changes in membrane fluidity and phase transition and liposome size. The metal effects were studied on zwitterionic, cationic and anionic lipids to elucidate electrostatically driven metal-lipid interactions...
April 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Bo Lou, Nataliia Beztsinna, Grigoris Mountrichas, Joep B van den Dikkenberg, Stergios Pispas, Wim E Hennink
The success of siRNA gene therapy requires the availability of safe and efficient delivery systems. In the present study, we investigated poly(vinyl benzyl trimethylammonium chloride) (PVTC) and its block copolymer with poly(oligo(ethyleneglycol) methacrylate) (POEGMA) as delivery vector for siRNA. Small polyplexes ranging from 8 to 25nm in diameter were formed in aqueous solution by spontaneous self-assembly of both the homopolymer and block copolymer with siRNA and the formed particles were stable at physiological ionic strength...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Yiwen Liu, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Jing Sun, Dongbo Wang, Lai Peng, Bing-Jie Ni
Recent studies have investigated the potential of enhanced groundwater Vinyl Chloride (VC) remediation in the presence of methane and ethene through the interactions of VC-assimilating bacteria, methanotrophs and ethenotrophs. In this study, a mathematical model was developed to describe aerobic biotransformation of VC in the presence of methane and ethene for the first time. It examines the metabolism of VC by VC-assimilating bacteria as well as cometabolism of VC by both methanotrophs and ethenotrophs, using methane and ethene respectively, under aerobic conditions...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Gerard Lligadas, Silvia Grama, Virgil Percec
Single electron transfer-living radical polymerization (SET-LRP) represents a robust and versatile tool for the synthesis of vinyl polymers with well-defined topology and chain end functionality. The crucial step in SET-LRP is the disproportionation of the Cu(I)X generated by activation with Cu(0) wire, powder, or nascent Cu(0) generated in situ into nascent, extremely reactive Cu(0) atoms and nanoparticles and Cu(II)X2. Nascent Cu(0) activates the initiator and dormant chains via a homogeneous or heterogeneous outer-sphere single-electron transfer mechanism (SET-LRP)...
March 22, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Vignesh Nayak, M S Jyothi, R Geetha Balakrishna, Mahesh Padaki, Sebastien Deon
Herein, an attempt has been made to prepare a novel membrane with good efficiency for removal of heavy metal ions namely lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr). 4-amino benzoic acid (ABA) was covalently grafted onto the poly vinyl chloride (PVC) backbone by CN bond to enhance the hydrophilicity. (1)H NMR and ATR-IR spectroscopy analysis confirmed the chemical modification of PVC. Further the modified polymer was blended in different compositions with polysulfone (PSf) for optimization. Morphological changes that occurred in blend membranes, due to the incorporation of modified PVC was studied by AFM and SEM techniques...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Siti Hatijah Mortan, Lucía Martín-González, Teresa Vicent, Gloria Caminal, Ivonne Nijenhuis, Lorenz Adrian, Ernest Marco-Urrea
1,1,2-Trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) is a non-flammable organic solvent and common environmental contaminant in groundwater. Organohalide-respiring bacteria are key microorganisms to remediate 1,1,2-TCA because they can gain metabolic energy during its dechlorination under anaerobic conditions. However, all current isolates produce hazardous end products such as vinyl chloride, monochloroethane or 1,2-dichloroethane that accumulate in the medium. Here, we constructed a syntrophic co-culture of Dehalogenimonas and Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains to achieve complete detoxification of 1,1,2-TCA to ethene...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Joseph Derosa, Annabelle L Cantu, Mark N Boulous, Miriam L O'Duill, Joshua L Turnbull, Zhen Liu, Daizy M De La Torre, Keary M Engle
A regioselective anti-hydrochlorination of unactivated alkynes is reported. The reaction utilizes in situ generated HCl as the source of both the Cl(-) and H(+) and is catalyzed by palladium(II) acetate, with loadings as low as 25 ppm. Removable picolinamide and 8-aminoquinoline bidentate directing groups are used to control the regioselectivity of the chloropalladation step and stabilize the resulting alkenylpalladium(II) intermediate for subsequent protodepalladation. This method provides access to a broad array of substituted alkenyl chlorides in excellent yields and with high regioselectivity...
March 31, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jose A Cancelas, Neeta Rugg, Shawnagay Nestheide, Sarah E Hill, R Martin Emanuele, Douglas S Mckenzie
BACKGROUND: Use of the plasticiser di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood bags poses a potential dilemma. The presence of DEHP in blood bags has been shown to be beneficial to red blood cells during storage by diminishing haemolysis. However, DEHP use in PVC may be carcinogenic or estrogenising. Vepoloxamer is a poloxamer with rheological and cytoprotective rheological properties and a favourable toxicity profile in clinical trials. We hypothesised that vepoloxamer may be sufficient to replace the plasticiser DEHP to prevent elevated haemolysis while conserving the biochemical and redox potential++ in RBCs stored for up to 42 days...
March 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
Alice M Shumate, Jamille Taylor, Elizabeth McFarland, Christina Tan, Mary Anne Duncan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this investigation was to examine the health impact of and medical response to a mass casualty chemical incident caused by a vinyl chloride release. METHODS: Key staff at area hospitals were interviewed about communication during the response, the number of patients treated and care required, and lessons learned. Clinical information related to the incident and medical history were abstracted from hospital charts. RESULTS: Hospital interviews identified a desire for more thorough and timely incident-specific information and an under-utilization of regionally available resources...
March 6, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
X G Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Nikolas Poulis, Anthony Prombonas, Stavros Yannikakis, Thanasis Karampotsos, Martha-Spyridoula Katsarou, Nikolaos Drakoulis
INTRODUCTION: Surface integrity of dental elastomeric impression materials that are subjected to disinfection is of major importance for the quality of the final prosthetic restorations. AIM: The aim of this qualitative Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) study was to reveal the effects of immersion or ozone disinfection on the surface of four dental elastomeric impression materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four dental elastomeric impression material brands were used (two vinyl polysiloxane silicones, one polyether, and one vinyl polyether silicone)...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Ning He, Soma Papp, Tom Lindfors, Lajos Höfler, Rose-Marie Latonen, Róbert E Gyurcsányi
Electrically conducting polymers (ECPs) are one of the most popular types of materials to interface ion-selective membranes (ISMs) with electron-conducting substrates to construct solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (SCISEs). For optimal ion-to-electron transduction and potential stability, the p-doped ECPs with low oxidation potentials such as PPy need to be generally in their conducting form along with providing a sufficiently hydrophobic interface to counteract the aqueous layer formation. The first criterion requires that the ECPs are in their oxidized state, but the high charge density of this state is detrimental for the prevention of the aqueous layer formation...
February 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Kwangjae Lee, Young-Seok Shim, Young Geun Song, Soo Deok Han, Youn-Sung Lee, Chong-Yun Kang
A fire detector is the most important component in a fire alarm system. Herein, we present the feasibility of a highly sensitive and rapid response gas sensor based on metal oxides as a high performance fire detector. The glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique is used to make the highly porous structure such as nanocolumns (NCs) of various metal oxides for enhancing the gas-sensing performance. To measure the fire detection, the interface circuitry for our sensors (NiO, SnO₂, WO₃ and In₂O₃ NCs) is designed...
February 7, 2017: Sensors
Megan J Neufeld, Alec Lutzke, Jesus B Tapia, Melissa M Reynolds
It has been previously demonstrated that copper-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) accelerate formation of the therapeutically active molecule nitric oxide (NO) from S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs). Because RSNOs are naturally present in blood, this function is hypothesized to permit the controlled production of NO through use of MOF-based blood-contacting materials. The practical implementation of MOFs in this application typically requires incorporation within a polymer support, yet this immobilization has been shown to impair the ability of the MOF to interact with the NO-forming RSNO substrate...
February 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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