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Vinyl chloride

Dana Hales, Laurian Vlase, Sebastian Alin Porav, Andreea Bodoki, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran, Marcela Achim, Ioan Tomuță
The aim of this study was to apply quality by design (QbD) for pharmaceutical development of enoxaparin sodium microspheres for colon-specific delivery. The Process Parameters (CPPs) and Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) were identified. A central composite experimental design was used in order to develop the design space of microspheres for colon-specific delivery that have the desired Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP). The CPPs studied were Eudragit® FS-30D/Eudragit® RS-PO ratio, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) concentration and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Xingping Dai, Dongsheng Wang, Hui Li, Yanyi Chen, Zhicheng Gong, Haiyan Xiang, Shuyun Shi, Xiaoqing Chen
Polar and hydrophilic properties of hydroxybenzoic acids usually made them coelute with interferences in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Then selective analysis of them was necessary. Herein, hollow porous ionic liquids composite polymers (PILs) based solid phase extraction (SPE) was firstly fabricated and coupled online with HPLC for selective analysis of hydroxybenzoic acids from complex matrices. Hollow porous PILs were firstly synthesized using Mobil Composition of Matter No. 48 (MCM-48) spheres as sacrificial support, 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (VMIM(+)Cl(-)) as monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
He Huang, Xiangmin Li, Chenguang Yu, Yueteng Zhang, Patrick S Mariano, Wei Wang
A simple formylation reaction of aryl halides, aryl triflates, and vinyl bromides under synergistic nickel- and organic-dye-mediated photoredox catalysis is reported. Distinct from widely used palladium-catalyzed formylation processes, this reaction proceeds by a two-step mechanistic sequence involving initial in situ generation of the diethoxymethyl radical from diethoxyacetic acid by a 4CzIPN-mediated photoredox reaction. The formyl-radical equivalent then undergoes nickel-catalyzed substitution reactions with aryl halides and triflates and vinyl bromides to form the corresponding aldehyde products...
January 9, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Marcello Lotti
Controversy exists about the association between occupational exposures to vinyl chloride and hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Two large multicentre mortality cohort studies, one American and another European, reported higher mortality for primary cancer of liver and biliary tract. However, the American study was not able to rule out misclassification, because based on death certificates and under the heading primary liver cancers, some angiosarcomas, the typical neoplasia associated with vinyl chloride, may have been included...
January 7, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Songlin Chao, Fang Zou, Fanfan Wan, Xiaobin Dong, Yanlin Wang, Yuxuan Wang, Qingxin Guan, Guichang Wang, Wei Li
Acetylene hydrochlorination is a major industrial technology for manufacturing vinyl chloride monomer in regions with abundant coal resources; however, it is plagued by the use of mercury(II) chloride catalyst. The development of a nonmercury catalyst has been extensively explored. Herein, we report a N-doped carbon catalyst derived from ZIF-8 with both high activity and quite good stability. The acetylene conversion reached 92% and decreased slightly during a 200 h test at 220 °C and atmospheric pressure...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Miho Yoshikawa, Ming Zhang, Koki Toyota
Complete bioremediation of soils containing multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) remains a challenge. To explore the possibility of complete bioremediation through integrated anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation, laboratory feasibility tests followed by alternate anaerobic-aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic biodegradation tests were performed. Chlorinated ethylenes, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC), and dichloromethane (DCM) were used for anaerobic biodegradation, whereas benzene, toluene, and DCM were used for aerobic biodegradation tests...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Wenwen Wang, Hao Zhang, Zhifeng Zhang, Mengying Luo, Yuedan Wang, Qiongzhen Liu, Yuanli Chen, Mufang Li, Dong Wang
In this study, poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibrous membrane was activated by sodium hydroxide and cyanuric chloride, and then the activated membranes were functionalized by 1,3-propanediamine, hexamethylenediamine and diethylenetriamine to be affinity membranes for bilirubin removal, respectively. The chemical structures and morphologies of membranes were investigated by SEM, FTIR and XPS. And the adsorption ability of different amine-functionalized nanofibrous membranes for bilirubin was characterized...
October 18, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Cheng-Kuan Su, Yi-Ting Chen, Yuh-Chang Sun
Exploration of brain extracellular non-protein-bound/diffusible iron species remains a critically important issue in investigations of free radical biology and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, a facile sample pretreatment scheme, involving poly(vinyl chloride)-metal ion interactions as a selective extraction procedure, was optimized in conjunction with microdialysis (MD) sampling and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in cool-plasma mode for in vivo online monitoring of rat brain extracellular Fe(II) and Fe(III) species...
February 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Olivia Molenda, Shuiquan Tang, Elizabeth A Edwards
Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain WBC-2 dechlorinates carcinogen vinyl chloride to ethene in the West Branch Canal Creek (WBC-2) microbial consortium used for bioaugmentation. We assembled and closed the complete genome sequence of this prokaryote using metagenomic sequencing from an enrichment culture.
December 22, 2016: Genome Announcements
Siavash Atashgahi, Yue Lu, Javier Ramiro-Garcia, Peng Peng, Farai Maphosa, Detmer Sipkema, Winnie Dejonghe, Hauke Smidt, Dirk Springael
Hyporheic zones mediate vinyl chloride (VC) biodegradation in groundwater discharging into surface waters. At the oxic/anoxic interface (OAI) of hyporheic zones subjected to redox oscillations, VC is degraded via co-existing aerobic ethenotrophic and anaerobic reductive dechlorination pathways. However, the identity of aerobic VC degradation pathways (cometabolic vs metabolic) and their interactions with reductive dechlorination in relation to riverbed sediment geochemistry remain ill-defined. We addressed this using microcosms containing OAI sediments incubated under fluctuating oxic/anoxic atmosphere...
December 22, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Koshlan Mayer-Blackwell, Mohammad F Azizian, Jennifer K Green, Alfred M Spormann, Lewis Semprini
In anoxic groundwater aquifers, the long-term survival of Dehalococcoides mccartyi populations expressing the gene vcrA (or bvcA) encoding reductive vinyl chloride dehalogenases are important for complete dechlorination of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) to non-chlorinated ethene. The absence or inactivity of vcrA-containing Dehalococcoides results in the accumulation of the harmful chlorinated intermediates dichloroethene (DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC). While vcrA-containing Dehalococcoides subpopulations depend on synergistic interaction with other organohalide-respiring populations generating their metabolic electron acceptors (DCE and VC), their survival requires successful competition for electron donor within the entire organohalide-respiring microbial community...
December 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Faiz Bukhari Mohd Suah, Musa Ahmad
The use of a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) as a sensing material is a new approach to overcome the selectivity and stability drawbacks of the optical chemical sensor (optode). In this study, non-plasticized PIM containing poly(vinyl chloride) as a support base, sodium morin-5-sulfonate (NaMSA) as a reagent and Aliquat 336 as a fixed carrier (ionophore) was prepared and its performance was tested for application in an optode to determine Al(3+) ions. The results showed that PIM properties are greatly influenced by the membrane composition...
January 25, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
A Paloglou, K Martakidis, D Gavril
A novel methodology of reversed flow inverse gas chromatography (RF-IGC) is presented. It permits the simultaneous determination of mass transfer coefficients across the gas liquid interface as well as the respective solubility parameters and thermodynamic functions of dissolution of gases into liquids. The standard deviation of the experimentally determined parameters is estimated for first time, which combined with the successful comparison of the values of the present parameters with other literature ones ascertain the reliability of the methodology...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Jiajia Ding, Chengguo Li, Jian Liu, Yuqing Lu, Guanghui Qin, Lihui Gan, Minnan Long
In this research, cellulose aliphatic esters (CEs) were synthesized efficiently in an N, N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride system (DMAc/LiCl) with vinyl esters (VEs, number of carbon atoms ranging from 4 to 12) as acylation reagent and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5,4,0]undec-7-ene (DBU) as catalyst. The structures and properties of the products have been characterized by various analytical techniques. The key concept in this cellulose modification was the achievement the degree of substitution (DS) >2.75 at much milder temperature and shorter reaction time (under 30°C within 15min-30min), other than previous research...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Denisa Druvari, Nikos D Koromilas, Georgia Ch Lainioti, Georgios Bokias, Gavriil Vasilopoulos, Apostolos Vantarakis, Ilias Baras, Nancy Dourala, Joannis K Kallitsis
In the present work, reactive blending of copolymers with complementary functional groups was applied to control their antimicrobial activity and antifouling action in real conditions. For this purpose, two series of copolymers, poly(4-vinylbenzyl chloride-co-acrylic acid), P(VBC-co-AAx), and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate-co-glycidyl methacrylate), P(SSNa-co-GMAx), were synthesized via free radical copolymerization and further modified by the incorporation of biocidal units either covalently (4-vinyl benzyl dimethylhexadecylammonium chloride, VBCHAM) or electrostatically bound (cetyltrimethylammonium 4-styrenesulfonate, SSAmC16)...
December 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Junying Weng, Xiaoyun Li, Ying Guan, X X Zhu, Yongjun Zhang
2D colloidal crystals (CCs) have important applications; however, the fabrication of large-area, high-quality 2D CCs is still far from being trivial, and the fabrication of 2D microgel CCs is even harder. Here, we have demonstrated that they can be facilely fabricated using charge-reversible substrates. The charge-reversible substrates were prepared by modification with amino groups. The amino groups were then protected by amidation with 2,2-dimethylsuccinic anhydride. At acidic pH, the surface charge of the modified substrate will change from negative to positive as a result of the hydrolysis of the amide bonds and the regeneration of the amino groups...
December 6, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Vidya A Fleetwood, Jamie C Harris, Minh B Luu
A 77-year-old male with a history of metastatic scalp angiosarcoma presented with intractable gastrointestinal bleeding from a jejunal mass detected on capsule endoscopy. He underwent laparoscopic-assisted resection of the mass. Intraoperatively, an isolated small bowel mass with bulky lymphadenopathy was seen and resected en bloc. Pathology showed a 6.8cm high-grade metastatic angiosarcoma with nodal involvement and negative margins. Angiosarcoma is a sarcoma with a grim prognosis. The incidence is 2% of all soft tissue sarcomas; cutaneous lesions comprise 27% of manifestations and usually appear on head and neck...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Agnese Lai, Federico Aulenta, Marina Mingazzini, Maria Teresa Palumbo, Marco Petrangeli Papini, Roberta Verdini, Mauro Majone
A sequential reductive-oxidative treatment was developed in this study in a continuous-flow bioelectrochemical reactor to address bioremediation of groundwater contaminated by trichloroethene (TCE) and less-chlorinated but still harmful intermediates, such as vinyl chloride. In order to optimize the anodic compartment, whereby the oxygen-driven microbial oxidation of TCE-daughter products occurs, abiotic batch experiments were performed with various anode materials poised at +1.20 V vs. SHE (i.e., graphite rods and titanium mesh anode coated with mixed metal oxides (MMO)) and setups (i...
February 2017: Chemosphere
José B M Rodrigues, Claire I G L Sarantópoulos, Renata Bromberg, Juliana C Andrade, Kleber Brunelli, Luciana Miyagusku, Miriam G Marquezini, Eunice A Yamada
This study evaluates the potential of using non-irradiated barrier-shrink bags containing ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), polyamide (PA) and ethylene ionomer in their structures to preserve vacuum-packaged fresh beef as an alternative to traditional gamma-ray cross-linked bags containing polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC). Boneless beef rib eye roll cuts were vacuum-packed in an industrial processing plant using EVOH 44% mol, EVOH 32% mol and a control PVDC barrier shrink bags. The cuts were evaluated during storage at 0...
March 2017: Meat Science
Giuseppe Suaria, Carlo G Avio, Annabella Mineo, Gwendolyn L Lattin, Marcello G Magaldi, Genuario Belmonte, Charles J Moore, Francesco Regoli, Stefano Aliani
The Mediterranean Sea has been recently proposed as one of the most impacted regions of the world with regards to microplastics, however the polymeric composition of these floating particles is still largely unknown. Here we present the results of a large-scale survey of neustonic micro- and meso-plastics floating in Mediterranean waters, providing the first extensive characterization of their chemical identity as well as detailed information on their abundance and geographical distribution. All particles >700 μm collected in our samples were identified through FT-IR analysis (n = 4050 particles), shedding for the first time light on the polymeric diversity of this emerging pollutant...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
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