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Vinyl chloride

Congxian Jia, William C Vogt, Keith A Wear, T Joshua Pfefer, Brian S Garra
Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is emerging as a potentially important aid for breast cancer detection. Well-validated tissue-simulating phantoms are needed for objective, quantitative, and physically realistic testing for system development. Prior reported PAT phantoms with homogenous structures do not incorporate the irregular layered structure of breast tissue. To assess the impact of this simplification, we design and construct two-layer breast phantoms incorporating vessel-simulating inclusions and realistic undulations at the fat/fibroglandular tissue interface...
October 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Peng Yu, Bill Morandi
We describe here a nickel-catalyzed cyanation reaction of aryl (pseudo)halides that employs butyronitrile as a cyanating reagent instead of highly toxic cyanide salts. A dual catalytic cycle merging retro-hydrocyanation and cross-coupling enables the conversion of a broad array of aryl chlorides and aryl/vinyl triflates into their corresponding nitriles. This new reaction provides a strategically distinct approach to the safe preparation of aryl cyanides, which are essential compounds in agrochemistry and medicinal chemistry...
October 8, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Won Seok Chi, Chang Soo Lee, Hu Long, Myoung Hwan Oh, Alex Zettl, Carlo Carraro, Jong Hak Kim, Roya Maboudian
A simple and flexible strategy for controlled synthesis of mesoporous metal oxide films using an amphiphilic graft copolymer as sacrificial template is presented and the effectiveness of this approach for gas sensing applications is reported. The amphiphilic graft copolymer, poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PVC-g-POEM) is used as a sacrificial template for the direct synthesis of mesoporous SnO2. The graft copolymer self-assembly is shown to enable a good control over the morphology of the resulting SnO2 layer...
October 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Seong Ji Ye, Hieu Trung Bui, Young Yun Kim, Kin Liao, Kyeong Min Cho, Hee-Tae Jung, Yongku Kang, Do Youb Kim, O Ok Park
In this article, we report a new and simple approach for the synthesis of uniformly dispersed PtPd alloy nanocatalysts supported on graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) (PtPd-GNPs) through the introduction of bifunctional materials that can be used to modify the GNP surface and simultaneously reduce metal ions. Through the use of poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid), poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), and poly(vinyl alcohol) as bifunctional materials, PtPd-GNPs can be produced using a procedure that is far simpler than previously reported methods...
October 5, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yi Liang, Xikun Liu, Michael A Singletary, Kai Wang, Timothy E Mattes
Bioremediation of vinyl chloride (VC) contamination in groundwater could be mediated by three major bacterial guilds: anaerobic VC-dechlorinators, methanotrophs, and ethene-oxidizing bacteria (etheneotrophs) via metabolic or cometabolic pathways. We collected 95 groundwater samples across 6 chlorinated ethene-contaminated sites and searched for relationships among VC biodegradation gene abundance and expression and site geochemical parameters (e.g., VC concentrations). Functional genes from the three major VC-degrading bacterial guilds were present in 99% and expressed in 59% of the samples...
October 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Megan J Neufeld, Alec Lutzke, W Matthew Jones, Melissa M Reynolds
Cu-BTTri (H3BTTri = 1,3,5-tris[1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl]benzene) is a water-stable, copper-based metal-organic framework (MOF) that exhibits the ability to generate therapeutic nitric oxide (NO) from S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) available within the bloodstream. Immobilization of Cu-BTTri within a polymeric membrane may allow for localized NO generation at the blood-material interface. This work demonstrates that Cu-BTTri can be incorporated within hydrophilic membranes prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), a polymer that has been examined for numerous biomedical applications...
October 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Grazia Malta, Simon J Freakley, Simon A Kondrat, Graham J Hutchings
The replacement of mercuric chloride in the production of vinyl chloride monomer, a precursor to PVC, would greatly reduce the environmental impact of this large scale industrial process. The validation of single Au cations supported on carbon as the best catalyst for this reaction at an industrial scale has resulted from nearly 35 years of research. In this feature article we review the development of this catalyst system and address the limitations of a range of characterisation techniques used previously which may induce damage to the fresh catalyst...
October 4, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
SheJiang Liu, QinMing Yang, YongKui Yang, Hui Ding, Yun Qi
Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is among the most ubiquitous chlorinated compounds found in groundwater contamination. Its chlorinated degradation by-products remain highly toxic. In this study, an anaerobic/aerobic permeable reactive barrier system consisting of four different functional layers was designed to remediate PCE-contaminated groundwater. The first (oxygen capture) layer maintained the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration at < 1.35 mg/L in influent supplied to the second (anaerobic) layer. The third (oxygen-releasing) layer maintained DO concentration at > 11...
September 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Miao-Miao Li, Yi Wei, Jie Liu, Hong-Wei Chen, Liang-Qiu Lu, Wen-Jing Xiao
Catalytic asymmetric cycloadditions of reactive ketene intermediates provide new opportunities for the production of chiral heterocyclic molecules. Though known for over 100 years, ketenes still remain underexplored in the field of transition-metal (TM)-catalyzed asymmetric cycloadditions because (1) ketenes, as highly electron-deficient species, are possibly unstable to low-valence TMs (i.e., decarbonylation or aggregation) and (2) the conventional thermal synthesis of ketenes from acyl chlorides and amines may be incompatible with TM catalysis (i...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Anupam Bera, Jaladhi S Trivedi, Sweta Binod Kumar, Arvind K Singh Chandel, Soumya Haldar, Suresh K Jewrajka
Propensity towards anti-organic fouling, anti-biofouling property and low rejection of multivalent cation (monovalent counter ion) restricts the application of the state-of-art poly(piperazineamide) [poly(PIP)] thin film composite (TFC) nanofiltration (NF) membrane for the treatment of water containing toxic heavy metal ions, organic fouling agents and microbes. Herein, we report the preparation of thin film nanocomposite (TFNC) NF membranes with improved heavy metal ions rejection efficacy, anti-biofouling property, and anti-organic fouling properties compared to that of poly(PIP) TFC NF membrane...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Mahesh S Deshmukh, Atul Chaudhary, Pavel N Zolotarev, Ramamoorthy Boomishankar
A novel three-dimensional coordination network 1 in a new 4,5,6-connected topology (4,5,6T115) built from linear Cu(II)4Cl3(H2O)2 clusters and tetrahedral tetrakis(3-pyridyl)vinylsilane ligands is reported. Utilizing a similar tetrahedral ligand, tetrakis(3-pyridyl)ethylsilane, a different framework 2 having Cu(II)2Cl(H2O)2 clusters is obtained in tcs topology. The activated sample of 1 shows an excellent and reversible uptake of I2 in solid as well as in solution phases owing to the presence of uncoordinated chloride ions and electron rich vinylic groups in it...
October 2, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Soumyendu Roy, Moshe David-Pur, Yael Hanein
Wearable electronics offer new opportunities in a wide range of applications, especially sweat analysis using skin sensors. A fundamental challenge in these applications is the formation of sensitive and stable electrodes. In this article we report the development of a wearable sensor based on carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode arrays for sweat sensing. Solid-state ion selective electrodes (ISEs), sensitive to Na(+) ions, were prepared by drop coating plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) doped with ionophore and ion exchanger on CNT electrodes...
October 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Miho Yoshikawa, Ming Zhang, Koki Toyota
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major pollutants that are found in contaminated sites, particularly in developed countries such as Japan. Various microorganisms that degrade individual VOCs have been reported, and genomic information related to their phylogenetic classification and VOC-degrading enzymes is available. However, the biodegradation of multiple VOCs remains a challenging issue. Practical sites, such as chemical factories, research facilities, and illegal dumping sites, are often contaminated with multiple VOCs...
September 12, 2017: Microbes and Environments
Shinichi Komaba, Tatsuya Akatsuka, Kohei Ohura, Chihiro Suzuki, Naoaki Yabuuchi, Shintaro Kanazawa, Kazuhiko Tsuchiya, Taku Hasegawa
All-solid-state ion-selective electrodes as potentiometric ion sensors for lithium, sodium, and potassium have been demonstrated by installing a composite layer containing a powder of alkali insertion materials, LixFePO4, Na0.33MnO2, and KxMnO2·nH2O, respectively, as an inner solid-contact layer between the electrode substrate and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based ion-sensitive membrane containing the corresponding ionophores for Li(+), Na(+), and K(+) ions. These double-layer ion-selective electrodes, consisting of the composite and PVC layers prepared by a simple drop cast method, exhibit a quick potential response (less than 5 s) to each alkali-metal ion with sufficient Nernstian slopes of calibration curves, ca...
September 13, 2017: Analyst
Mohamed Ismaeil, Naoko Yoshida, Arata Katayama
Chloroethenes (CEs) are widespread groundwater toxicants that are reductively dechlorinated to nontoxic ethene (ETH) by members of Dehalococcoides. This study established a Dehalococcoides-dominated enrichment culture (designated "YN3") that dechlorinates tetrachloroethene (PCE) to ETH with high dechlorination activity, that is, complete dechlorination of 800 μM PCE to ETH within 14 days in the presence of Dehalococcoides species at 5.7 ± 1.9 × 10(7) copies of 16S rRNA gene/mL. The metagenome of YN3 harbored 18 rdhA genes (designated YN3rdhA1-18) encoding the catalytic subunit of reductive dehalogenase (RdhA), four of which were suggested to be involved in PCE-to-ETH dechlorination based on significant increases in their transcription in response to CE addition...
2017: BioMed Research International
Dina S Ahmed, Gamal A El-Hiti, Ayad S Hameed, Emad Yousif, Ahmed Ahmed
Three new tetra-Schiff bases were synthesized and characterized to be used as photostabilizers for poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films. The photostability of PVC films (40 μm thickness) in the presence of Schiff bases (0.5 wt %) upon irradiation (300 h) with a UV light (λmax = 365 nm and light intensity = 6.43 × 10(-9) ein∙dm(-3)∙s(-1)) was examined using various spectroscopic measurements and surface morphology analysis. The changes in various functional groups' indices, weight and viscosity average molecular weight of PVC films were monitored against irradiation time...
September 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Kyu Won Lee, Jae Woo Chung, Seung-Yeop Kwak
Herein, we describe the preparation of flexible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) containing hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG)-functionalized graphene oxide (HGO) as a reinforcing filler and reveal that the obtained composites exhibit greatly improved gas barrier properties. Moreover, we show that HGO, synthesized by surface-initiated ring-opening polymerization of glycidol followed by esterification with butyric anhydride, exists as individual exfoliated nanosheets possessing abundant functional groups capable of interacting with PVC...
September 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Cindy Kunze, Gabriele Diekert, Torsten Schubert
Reductive dehalogenases (RDases) of organohalide-respiring bacteria are cobamide-containing iron-sulfur proteins that catalyze different reductive dehalogenation reactions. Here, we report a functional analysis of two recombinant RDases, the tetrachloroethene (PCE) reductive dehalogenase (PceA) of Desulfitobacterium hafniense Y51 and the 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) reductive dehalogenase (DcaA) of Desulfitobacterium dichloroeliminans DCA1. Both enzymes share 88% protein sequence identity, but appeared to have divergent mechanisms...
September 4, 2017: FEBS Journal
Ji-Na Hao, Xiao-Yu Xu, Xiao Lian, Chi Zhang, Bing Yan
A luminescent nanoprobe based on a lanthanide-transition heterometallic metal-organic framework (MOF) is first designed for specific detection of urinary thiodiglycolic acid (TDGA) which is the biomarker of carcinogenic vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and represents the internal dose of human exposure to VCM. The nanoprobe demonstrates high selectivity to TDGA with about 27.5-fold luminescence enhancement. It also displays excellent sensitivity with a detection limit as low as 89 ng·mL(-1) and fast response to TDGA within 4 min, while refraining from the interference of other coexisting species in urine...
September 1, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Alexander J Wright, Marcus J Main, Nicholas J Cooper, Barry A Blight, Simon J Holder
We report a facile method for the absorption (characterized by the weight/weight swelling degree, Q) of a variety of chemical warfare agents (CWAs); including sulfur mustard (HD) (Q = 40) and V-series (VM, VX, i-Bu-VX, n-Bu-VX) of nerve agents (Q ≥ 45) and a simulant, methyl benzoate (Q = 55), through the use of a poly(styrene-co-vinyl benzyl chloride-co-divinylbenzene) lightly cross-linked poly high internal phase emulsion (polyHIPE). By varying the vinyl benzyl chloride (VBC) content and the volume of the internal phase of the precursor emulsion it is demonstrated that absorption is facilitated both by the swelling of the polymer and the uptake of liquid in the pores...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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