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oncology and cancer

Alvaro Vidal, Nicolas Arnold, Mihai Dorin Vartolomei, Bernhard Kiss, Fiona Burkhard, George N Thalmann, Beat Roth
OBJECTIVES: To prospectively evaluate the long-term oncological and functional outcomes of postoperative total parenteral nutrition after radical cystectomy. METHODS: A total of 157 consecutive patients (≤cT3, cN0, cM0) who underwent extended pelvic lymph node dissection, radical cystectomy and ileal urinary diversion from September 2008 to March 2011 at a single center were randomized to receive either postoperative total parenteral nutrition (group A; n = 74) or oral nutrition alone (group B; n = 83)...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Michael L Schulte, Matthew R Hight, Gregory D Ayers, Qi Liu, Yu Shyr, M Kay Washington, H Charles Manning
PURPOSE: This study aimed to study whether cancer cells possess distinguishing metabolic features compared with surrounding normal cells, such as increased glutamine uptake. Given this, quantitative measures of glutamine uptake may reflect critical processes in oncology. Approximately, 10 % of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) express BRAF (V600E) , which may be actionable with selective BRAF inhibitors or in combination with inhibitors of complementary signaling axes. Non-invasive and quantitative predictive measures of response to these targeted therapies remain poorly developed in this setting...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Benjamin Kearns, Abdullah Pandor, Matt Stevenson, Jean Hamilton, Duncan Chambers, Mark Clowes, John Graham, M Satish Kumar
As part of its single technology appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the company that manufactures cabazitaxel (Jevtana(®), Sanofi, UK) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of cabazitaxel for treatment of patients with metastatic hormone-relapsed prostate cancer (mHRPC) previously treated with a docetaxel-containing regimen. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG)...
October 22, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
Miriam Krischke, Georg Hempel, Swantje Völler, Nicolas André, Maurizio D'Incalci, Gianni Bisogno, Wolfgang Köpcke, Matthias Borowski, Ralf Herold, Alan V Boddy, Joachim Boos
PURPOSE: Doxorubicin is a key component in many pediatric oncology treatment regimens; still pharmacology data on which current dosing regimens are based are very limited. METHODS: We conducted a multinational pharmacokinetic study investigating age dependency of doxorubicin metabolism and elimination in children with cancer. One hundred and one patients treated with doxorubicin according to a cancer-specific national or European therapeutic trial were recruited...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Yuichiro Miyake, Junichi Nishimura, Hidekazu Takahashi, Naotsugu Haraguchi, Taishi Hata, Ichiro Takemasa, Tsunekazu Mizushima, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori
PURPOSE: Laparoscopic surgery for locally advanced colorectal cancer suspected of direct invasion to adjacent organs or structures remains controversial because of its high conversion rate, inadequate oncologic clearance and surgical outcomes. This study retrospectively evaluated the short-term outcomes of laparoscopic multivisceral resection for colorectal cancer and investigated the factors influencing conversion to open surgery. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2015, 39 patients who underwent laparoscopic multivisceral resection for colorectal cancer intraoperatively suspected of direct invasion to adjacent organs or structures were included...
October 21, 2016: Surgery Today
Masatoyo Nakajo, Yoriko Kajiya, Megumi Jinguji, Yoshiaki Nakabeppu, Masayuki Nakajo, Tohru Nihara, Takashi Yoshiura
Positron emission tomography (PET) or PET/computed tomography (CT) using (18)F-3'-fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine ((18)F-FLT) offers noninvasive assessment of cell proliferation in human cancers in vivo. The present review discusses the current status on clinical applications of (18)F-FLT-PET (or PET/CT) in digestive and abdominal oncology by comparing with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG)-PET (or PET/CT). The results of this review show that although (18)F-FLT uptake is lower in most cases of digestive and abdominal malignancies compared with (18)F-FDG uptake, (18)F-FLT-PET can be used to detect primary tumors...
October 21, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Abby R Rosenberg, Kira Bona, Tyler Ketterl, Claire M Wharton, Joanne Wolfe, K Scott Baker
PURPOSE: The prevalence of intimacy and substance use among adolescents and young adults during cancer therapy has not been well described. METHODS: The "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer" study was a prospective, multicenter, mixed-methods cohort study. English-speaking patients 14-25 years old with newly diagnosed cancer were invited to complete a comprehensive survey at the time of enrollment (T1) and 3-6 months later (T2). Intimate relationships and health behaviors were assessed with questions adapted from the Guidelines for Adolescent Preventative Services assessment...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
A Kanashiro, J M Gaya, J Palou, L Gausa, H Villavicencio
OBJECTIVES: To review our experience in robot-assisted radical cystectomy, assessing the complications and oncological and functional results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2007 to 2014, we performed 67 robot-assisted radical cystectomies combined with lymphadenectomy in 61 cases. The operations were performed on 37 patients due to muscle-invasive tumours and on 30 due to high-risk nonmuscle-invasive tumours. Urinary diversion was conducted extracorporeally, using a Studer neobladder in 47 cases...
October 18, 2016: Actas Urologicas Españolas
Omar Mahmoud, Lara Hathout, Sherif G Shaaban, Mohamed A Elshaikh, Sushil Beriwal, William Small
PURPOSE: The Gynecologic Oncology group (GOG) 0263 trial is currently exploring whether adding chemotherapy to adjuvant radiotherapy improves recurrence-free and/or overall survival in stage IB-IIA cervical cancer patients with pathologic intermediate-risk factors. Using the National Cancer Data Base, we evaluated the benefit of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy over adjuvant radiotherapy alone in the community practice setting. MATERIALS: The analysis included 869 stage IB-IIA cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy retrieving intermediate-risk factors justifying adjuvant therapy...
October 18, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Yuri N Clement, Varune Mahase, Annelise Jagroop, Kelly Kissoon, Aarti Maharaj, Prashant Mathura, Chrys Mc Quan, Divya Ramadhin, Cherrista Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a major disease worldwide, and many patients use complementary and alternative treatments. The purpose of this study was to identify the herbal remedies and functional foods used as complementary medicine by prostate, breast and colorectal cancer patients at speciality care facilities in Trinidad. We also sought to determine how patients rated the efficacy of these modalities compared with conventional treatment. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted using an interviewer-administered pilot-tested de novo questionnaire during the period June to August 2012 at two speciality treatment centres on the island...
October 21, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Niamh M Long, Andrew J Plodkowski, Rachel Schor-Bardach, Alexander I Geyer, Junting Zheng, Chaya S Moskowitz, Michelle S Ginsberg
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to describe the computed tomographic features of organizing pneumonia (OP) in an oncologic patient population and to also identify features associated with lung cancer and patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). METHODS: In retrospective computed tomographies from 151 patients with pathologically confirmed OP between January 2009 and September 2014, number of lesions, location, size, margin type, and consistency, as well as volume of lymphadenopathy and the presence and size of pleural effusions, were recorded...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Stefano Salciccia, Alessandro Gentilucci, Susanna Cattarino, Alessandro Sciarra
On the basis of the trials available, are we ready to consider GnRH antagonists better than agonists? Is there a population of patients who may benefit from antagonists more than agonists?We specifically focused our analysis on the significance of oncological results obtained in phase III trials directly comparing Degarelix with GnRH agonists. Oncological results were evaluated only in 1 trial (CS21) with some subanalysis and they were not the primary endpoints of the study. The follow-up duration was 364 days, and therefore, the number of events (all causes deaths and prostate cancer (PC), Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), Hazard ratio (HR)-related deaths) was very low in both groups and this aspect strongly reduces the significance of overall survival evaluation...
October 15, 2016: Urologia
Shane Sinclair, Reanne Booker, Tak Fung, Shelley Raffin-Bouchal, Bert Enns, Kate Beamer, Naree Ager
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationships between spiritual, religious, and sociodemographic factors and post-traumatic growth, quality of life, and spiritual well-being in outpatients undergoing bone marrow and/or stem cell transplantation (BMSCT).
. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, descriptive, exploratory.
. SETTING: Outpatient bone marrow transplantation clinic at the Tom Baker Cancer Centre in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
. SAMPLE: 100 patients (21 pre-BMSCT and 79 post-BMSCT) accrued consecutively via non-probability sampling...
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
Mary Anne Purtzer, Carol J Hermansen-Kobulnicky
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To investigate oncology professionals' perspectives about, experience with, and envisioned feasibility of incorporating patient self-monitoring as a patient-centered practice. 
. RESEARCH APPROACH: An interpretive, descriptive study.
. SETTING: Four health systems and five cancer centers in three states. 
. PARTICIPANTS: 38 nurses, nurse practitioners, oncologists, physician assistants, and radiation therapists...
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
Pamela A Lowry, Morganna L Freeman, Jeffery S Russell
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and lethal skin cancer with few known treatment options. Management of this disease is challenging, and oncology nurses must understand the medical, physical, and psychosocial burden that MCC places on the patient and family caregivers. Patients must navigate a complex medical and insurance network that often fails to support patients with rare cancers. Nurses must advocate for these patients to ensure quality comprehensive cancer care.
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
Charlotte Handberg, Julie Midtgaard, Claus Vinther Nielsen, Sally Thorne, Kirsten Lomborg
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to describe and interpret the attitudes and conduct of hospital healthcare professionals (HCPs) in association with male cancer survivors and their municipal rehabilitation participation. DESIGN: Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted, consisting of participant observation and 9 semi-structured focus group interviews with 58 hospital HCPs. METHODS: Using interpretive description methodology with symbolic interaction as a theoretical framework, data were collected through fieldwork in three oncology wards in Denmark...
October 20, 2016: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
E B Thorgersen, M A Goscinski, M Spasojevic, A M Solbakken, A B Mariathasan, K Boye, S G Larsen, K Flatmark
BACKGROUND: High morbidity, increased mortality, and impaired long-term oncologic outcome have been reported after deep surgical site infection (SSI) in rectal cancer surgery. The rate, risk factors and consequences of deep SSI after (chemo)radiotherapy [(C)RT], and surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) in a tertiary university hospital single centre cohort of 540 patients are presented. METHODS: Patients with LARC, operated between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2015, were identified in the institutional prospective database...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Folkert de Groot, Stefano Capri, Jean-Claude Castanier, David Cunningham, Bruno Flamion, Mathias Flume, Harald Herholz, Lars-Åke Levin, Oriol Solà-Morales, Christoph J Rupprecht, Natalie Shalet, Andrew Walker, Olivier Wong
With finite resources, healthcare payers must make difficult choices regarding spending and the ethical distribution of funds. Here, we describe some of the ethical issues surrounding inequity in healthcare in nine major European countries, using cancer care as an example. To identify relevant studies, we conducted a systematic literature search. The results of the literature review suggest that although prevention, access to early diagnosis, and radiotherapy are key factors associated with good outcomes in oncology, public and political attention often focusses on the availability of pharmacological treatments...
October 21, 2016: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Juliet Shih, Heather Leutwyler, Christine Ritchie, Steven M Paul, Jon D Levine, Bruce Cooper, Fay Wright, Yvette P Conley, Christine Miaskowski
PURPOSE: Between 14 and 85 % of patients report noticeable changes in cognitive function during chemotherapy (CTX). The purposes of this study were to determine which demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics were associated with inter-individual variability in initial levels of attentional function as well as with changes in the trajectories of attentional function in a sample of oncology patients who received two cycles of CTX. METHODS: Oncology outpatients (n = 1329) were recruited from two comprehensive cancer centers, one veteran's affairs hospital, and four community-based oncology programs...
October 20, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
H G Schnürch, S Ackermann, C D Alt, J Barinoff, C Böing, C Dannecker, F Gieseking, A Günthert, P Hantschmann, L C Horn, R Kürzl, P Mallmann, S Marnitz, G Mehlhorn, C C Hack, M C Koch, U Torsten, W Weikel, L Wölber, M Hampl
Purpose: This is an official guideline, published and coordinated by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie (AGO, Study Group for Gynecologic Oncology) of the Deutsche Krebsgesellschaft (DKG, German Cancer Society) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe (DGGG, German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics). The number of cases with vulvar cancer is on the rise, but because of the former rarity of this condition and the resulting lack of literature with a high level of evidence, in many areas knowledge of the optimal clinical management still lags behind what would be required...
October 2016: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
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