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oncology and cancer

Anton Buzdin, Maxim Sorokin, Andrew Garazha, Marina Sekacheva, Ella Kim, Nikolay Zhukov, Ye Wang, Xinmin Li, Souvik Kar, Christian Hartmann, Amir Samii, Alf Giese, Nicolas Borisov
Anticancer target drugs (ATDs) specifically bind and inhibit molecular targets that play important roles in cancer development and progression, being deeply implicated in intracellular signaling pathways. To date, hundreds of different ATDs were approved for clinical use in the different countries. Compared to previous chemotherapy treatments, ATDs often demonstrate reduced side effects and increased efficiency, but also have higher costs. However, the efficiency of ATDs for the advanced stage tumors is still insufficient...
June 20, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Benjamin Pradere, Benoit Peyronnet, Gauthier Delporte, Quentin Manach, Zine-Eddine Khene, Morgan Moulin, Mathieu Roumiguié, Jérome Rizk, Nicolas Brichart, Jean-Baptiste Beauval, Luc Cormier, Axel Bex, Morgan Rouprêt, Franck Bruyère, Karim Bensalah
INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to assess the prevalence of intraoperative cyst rupture (CR) and its impact on oncological outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHOD: All patients who underwent PN for a cystic renal masse through an open (OPN) or robot-assisted (RAPN) approach at eight academic institutions were included in a retrospective study. All operative reports were carefully reviewed and any description of cyst rupture, cyst effraction or local spillage intraoperatively was recorded as CR...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Urology
Marco Rossi, Sina Mirbagheri, Ali Keshavarzian, Faraz Bishehsari
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most diagnosed cancers in the world. Even though screening, surgery and oncology have greatly advanced, CRC is still one of the leading causes of cancer deaths, with 700,000 annual mortalities in both men and women. Environmental and lifestyle factors brought up by industrialization, such as an altered diet, lack of physical activity, increase in alcohol consumption, and circadian disruption, have greatly affected the burden of CRC. These factors increase the CRC risk, at least partly, by pathologically altering the colonic environment, including composition of the gut microbiota, referred to as dysbiosis...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Nicole L Lebo, Rebecca Griffiths, Stephen Hall, Jim Dimitroulakos, Stephanie Johnson-Obaseki
BACKGROUND: Preclinical and early-phase clinical studies have suggested an oncoprotective role of statins in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The purpose of this study was to determine whether incidental statin use in patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative HNSCC is predictive of improved oncologic outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 1194 patients from the Ontario Cancer Registry diagnosed with HNSCC from 2007 to 2012 was performed using linked databases from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences...
June 22, 2018: Head & Neck
Kazuto Ito, Shiro Saito, Atsunori Yorozu, Shinsuke Kojima, Takashi Kikuchi, Satoshi Higashide, Manabu Aoki, Hirofumi Koga, Takefumi Satoh, Toshio Ohashi, Katsumasa Nakamura, Norihisa Katayama, Nobumichi Tanaka, Masahiro Nakano, Naoyuki Shigematsu, Takushi Dokiya, Masanori Fukushima
BACKGROUND: Investigating oncological outcomes in patients registered in the Japanese Prostate Cancer Outcome Study of Permanent Iodine-125 Seed Implantation (J-POPS) in terms of biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) by the Phoenix and the newly developed J-POPS definitions, exploration of predictive factors for bRFS, and preliminary verification of pitfalls of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure definitions. METHODS: Between July 2005 and June 2007, 2316 clinically localized patients underwent permanent seed implantation...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Alexander Haussmann, Nadine Ungar, Martina Gabrian, Angeliki Tsiouris, Monika Sieverding, Joachim Wiskemann, Karen Steindorf
PURPOSE: Although many cancer patients benefit from physical activity (PA), healthcare professionals (HCP) still do not promote it routinely. Including different groups of HCP, this study aimed to examine how structural barriers are perceived as impeding by HCP for promoting PA to cancer patients, how the perceptions of structural barriers are associated with promoting PA, and how HCP react to information resources. METHODS: A total of 287 physicians in outpatient care, 242 physicians in inpatient care, and 388 oncology nurses completed our questionnaire (paper-pencil or online)...
June 23, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Raymond U Osarogiagbon
The goal of this article is to provide an overview of the state of the evidence for, and challenges to, sustainable implementation of multidisciplinary thoracic oncology programs. Multidisciplinary care is much advocated by professional groups and makers of clinical guidelines, but little practiced. The gap between universal recommendation and scant evidence of practice suggests the existence of major barriers to program implementation. We examine 2 articles published in this issue of Clinical Lung Cancer to illustrate problems with the evidence base for multidisciplinary care...
July 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Vivek Verma, J Isabelle Choi, Amit Sawant, Rao P Gullapalli, Wengen Chen, Abass Alavi, Charles B Simone
Molecular and functional imaging is increasingly being used to guide radiotherapy (RT) management and target delineation. This review summarizes existing data in several disease sites of various functional imaging modalities, chiefly positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), with respect to RT target definition and management. For gliomas, differentiation between postoperative changes and viable tumor is discussed, as well as focal dose escalation and reirradiation. Head and neck neoplasms may also benefit from precise PET/CT-based target delineation, especially for cancers of unknown primary; focal dose escalation is also described...
June 2018: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
Catherine Paterson, Charlotte Primeau, Irene Pullar, Ghulam Nabi
BACKGROUND: An important question revolves around when the most opportune time is to introduce recovery-optimizing behaviors for men opting for radical prostatectomy (RP) for localized prostate cancer (PCa). An emerging field of research describes the role of preoperative strategies to improve treatment tolerance and overall physical and psychological recovery. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of a multimodal prehabilitation intervention for men and their partners before RP for localized PCa...
June 22, 2018: Cancer Nursing
Shuangjiao Deng, Hongfei Wang, Heng Fan, Lijuan Zhang, Jianli Hu, Qing Tang, Zhexing Shou, Xingxing Liu, Dongmei Zuo, Jia Yang, Meng Xu, Qianyun Chen, Yalan Dong, Zhen Nan, Hui Wu, Yujin Liu
Our study was to explore the potential role of miRNA-200b in modulating tumorigenesis in the model of ulcerative colitis-related colorectal cancer (UCRCC) and, further, to decipher the underlying mechanisms associated with this effect. In this study, we examined a greater number of polyps or adenomas, a higher grade of epithelial dysplasia accompanied with a decrease in survival ratio in azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model mice compared to mice treated with over-expressed miRNA-200b. Surprisingly, enforced miRNA-200b expression significantly suppressed AOM/DSS-induced up-regulation of oncologic markers including β-catenin and CD133...
June 19, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
N Biglia, V E Bounous, M Gallo, L Fuso, L G Sgro, F Maggiorotto, R Ponzone
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role and feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients with a local recurrence and no clinically positive axillary lymph nodes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 71 patients underwent SLNB for breast cancer recurrence. At first surgery, they had received SLNB (46.5%), axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) (36.6%) or no axillary surgery (16.9%). RESULTS: Lymphatic migration was successful in 53 out of 71 patients (74...
June 7, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Xinan Sheng, Dengfeng Cao, Jianlin Yuan, Fangjian Zhou, Qiang Wei, Xiaodong Xie, Chuanliang Cui, Zhihong Chi, Lu Si, Siming Li, Lili Mao, Bin Lian, Bixia Tang, Xieqiao Yan, Xuan Wang, Yan Kong, Jie Dai, Xue Bai, Li Zhou, Jun Guo
BACKGROUND: Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a rare type of renal cancer with a poor prognosis. As there are no standard guidelines for the management of metastatic CDC (mCDC), we evaluated the efficacy and safety of combined therapies of sorafenib, gemcitabine, plus cisplatin in patients with mCDC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, multicentre, single-arm, open-label, phase 2 trial ( identifier NCT01762150) that enrolled 26 mCDC patients with no prior systemic chemotherapy...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
John Paul Shen, Trey Ideker
Synthetic lethal interactions, in which the simultaneous loss-of-function of two genes produces a lethal phenotype, are being explored as a means to therapeutically exploit cancer-specific vulnerabilities and expand the scope of precision oncology. Currently, three FDA approved drugs work by targeting the synthetic lethal interaction between BRCA1/2 and PARP. This review examines additional efforts to discover networks of synthetic lethal interactions and discusses both challenges and opportunities regarding the translation of new synthetic lethal interactions into the clinic...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Joe Pelt, Sara Busatto, Mauro Ferrari, E Aubrey Thompson, Kabir Mody, Joy Wolfram
Clinically approved cancer therapies include small molecules, antibodies, and nanoparticles. There has been major progress in the treatment of several cancer types over recent decades. However, many challenges remain for optimal use of conventional and nanoparticle-based therapies in oncology including poor drug delivery, rapid clearance, and drug resistance. The antimalarial agent chloroquine has been found to mitigate some of these challenges by modulating cancer cells and the tissue microenvironment. Particularly, chloroquine was recently found to reduce immunological clearance of nanoparticles by resident macrophages in the liver, leading to increased tumor accumulation of nanodrugs...
June 19, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Paul G Richardson, Jacob Laubach, Sara Gandolfi, Thierry Facon, Katja Weisel, Peter O'Gorman
In multiple myeloma (MM), maintenance therapy is a longer and less intensive treatment course than initial therapy that is administered after induction to delay disease progression. Maintenance and continuous therapy have been shown to suppress minimal residual disease and deepen and prolong responses, with the goal of improving progression-free survival and overall survival. Areas covered: In this review, we have summarized current clinical trial data on maintenance and continuous therapy in newly-diagnosed MM and relapsed/refractory MM (RRMM), focusing on lenalidomide and bortezomib...
June 22, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Márcia M Carneiro, Ana M Cota, Maria C Amaral, Moisa L Pedrosa, Bruna O Martins, Marcelo H Furtado, Rivia M Lamaita, Marcia C F Ferreira
Breast cancer may affect young women who have not yet completed childbearing. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) provides alternatives for fertility preservation such as oocyte, embryo or ovarian tissue cryopreservation. We reviewed the published literature on fertility-preserving management in breast cancer, aiming at finding evidence to answer the following questions: (1) What are the fertility sparing options available?; (2) How do these women respond to IVF? and (3) Can pregnancy influence breast cancer recurrence? There is a paucity of publications describing clinical experience and outcome data which limits accessibility to fertility preservation in this setting...
June 22, 2018: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
Ekrem İslamoğlu, Hakan Anıl, İbrahim Erol, Selim Taş, Mutlu Ateş, Murat Savaş
OBJECTIVE: To present the surgical and pathological results of robotic radical cystectomy (RRC) operations performed in our clinic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 18 patients, who underwent RRC and intracorporeal urinary diversion between October 2016 and September 2017 for clinically localized bladder cancer in our clinic, were included in the study. The results were evaluated under three headings. 1. operative outcomes (total operation time, perioperative blood loss, postoperative hematocrit decrease) 2...
July 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
Alessandro Isidori, Federica Loscocco, Marilena Ciciarello, Giulia Corradi, Mariangela Lecciso, Darina Ocadlikova, Sarah Parisi, Valentina Salvestrini, Sergio Amadori, Giuseppe Visani, Antonio Curti
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease, which mainly affects the elderly population. Unfortunately, the prognosis of patients aged >65 years is dismal, with 1-year overall survival approaching 10% with conventional therapies. The hypothesis of harnessing the immune system against cancer, including leukemia, has been postulated for a long time, and several clinical attempts have been made in this field. In the last years, we increased our knowledge about the interplay between AML and immune cells, but no major improvement has been translated, up to now, from bench to bedside...
June 22, 2018: Cancers
Yosuke Kito, Nozomu Machida, Sadayuki Kawai, Satoshi Hamauchi, Takahiro Tsushima, Akiko Todaka, Tomoya Yokota, Kentaro Yamazaki, Akira Fukutomi, Yusuke Onozawa, Kunihiro Tsuji, Hisashi Doyama, Yutaka Haraguchi, Koji Nakashima, Kenji Kunieda, Keisei Taku, Keita Mori, Hirofumi Yasui
PURPOSE: Although oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 every 3 weeks was approved for advanced gastric cancer in Japan, data regarding S-1 plus oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 (SOX130) are limited in Japanese patients with advanced gastric cancer. We investigated the feasibility and safety of SOX130 in Japanese patients with advanced gastric cancer. METHODS: Patients with unresectable or recurrent gastric adenocarcinoma, no previous chemotherapy, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status of 0-1 were treated with SOX130...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Begum Yetis Sayin, Mehmet Ali Oto
Cardiologists are seeing an increasing number of oncology patients every day, and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is one of the problems patients encounter during follow-up. Cardio-oncology is the care of patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease, whether overt or occult, already established or acquired during treatment. Cardiovascular complications can occur acutely during or shortly after treatment and persist as long-term effects for months to years after treatment. As a delayed effect of cancer treatment, cardiovascular damage can occur months to years after the initial treatment...
June 22, 2018: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
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