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Calcium channel beta subunits

Zewei Sun, Dongchen Zhou, Xudong Xie, Shuai Wang, Zhen Wang, Wenting Zhao, Hongfei Xu, Liangrong Zheng
Increased macrophage accumulation occurs in the atria of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the phenotype and functions of the macrophages in AF remain unclear. We investigated the macrophage-atrial myocyte interaction in AF patients and found that the increased macrophages were mainly pro-inflammatory macrophages (iNOS(+), Arg1(-)). Tachypacing of HL-1 atrial myocytes also led to pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated pro-inflammatory macrophages-induced atrial electrical remodeling, evidenced by increased AF incidence and decreased atrial effective refractory period and L-type calcium currents (I Ca-L) in both canine and mouse AF models...
November 2016: Basic Research in Cardiology
Eric Seidel, Ute I Scholl
The adrenal cortex is a major site of steroid hormone production. Two hormones are of particular importance: aldosterone, which is produced in the zona glomerulosa in response to volume depletion and hyperkalemia, and cortisol, which is produced in the zona fasciculata in response to stress. In both cases, acute stimulation leads to increased hormone production, and chronic stimulation causes hyperplasia of the respective zone. Aldosterone- and cortisol-producing adenomas (APAs and CPAs) are benign tumors of the adrenal cortex that cause excess hormone production, leading to primary aldosteronism and Cushing's syndrome, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Chuanming Xu, Aihua Lu, Hong Wang, Hui Fang, Li Zhou, Peng Sun, Tianxin Yang
(Pro)renin receptor (PRR) is highly expressed in the distal nephron with unclear functional implication. The present study was conducted to explore a potential role of renal PRR during high K+ (HK) loading. In normal Sprague-Dawley rats, a 1-week HK intake increased renal expression of full-length PRR and urinary excretion of soluble PRR (sPRR). Administration of PRO20, a decoy peptide antagonist of PRR, to K+-loaded animals elevated plasma K+ level and decreased urinary K+ excretion, accompanied with suppressed aldosterone excretion...
July 20, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
A M Dopico, A N Bukiya, G Kuntamallappanavar, J Liu
In alcohol-naïve systems, ethanol (<100mM) exposure of calcium-gated BK channels perturbs physiology and behavior. Brief (several minutes) ethanol exposure usually leads to increased BK current, which results from ethanol interaction with a pocket mapped to the BK channel-forming slo1 protein cytosolic tail domain. The importance of this region in ethanol-induced intoxication has been independently supported by an unbiased screen of Caenorhabditis elegans slo1 mutants. However, ethanol-induced BK activation is not universal as refractoriness and inhibition have been reported...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
Xiao-Rong Liu, Dan Huang, Jie Wang, Yi-Fan Wang, Hui Sun, Bin Tang, Wen Li, Jin-Xing Lai, Na He, Mei Wu, Tao Su, Heng Meng, Yi-Wu Shi, Bing-Mei Li, Bei-Sha Tang, Wei-Ping Liao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential causative genes of paroxysmal hypnogenic dyskinesia (PHD), which was initially considered a subtype of paroxysmal dyskinesia and has been recently considered a form of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE). METHODS: Eleven patients with PHD were recruited. Mutations in proline-rich region transmembrane protein-2 (PRRT2), myofibrillogenesis regulator 1 (MR-1), solute carrier family 2, member 1 (SLC2A1), calcium-activated potassium channel alpha subunit (KCNMA1), cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 4 (CHRNA4), cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 2 (CHRNB2), cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 2 (CHRNA2), and potassium channel subfamily T member 1 (KCNT1) were screened by direct sequencing...
April 2016: Neurol Genet
William Ondo
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of essential tremor, especially at the cellular level, is poorly understood. Although no drug has been specifically designed to treat essential tremor, several medications improve tremor, and others worsen it. Studying the mechanism of actions of these medications can help our understanding of tremor pathophysiology and contribute to future rational drug design. METHODS: We reviewed literature, concentrating on mechanisms of action, of various medications that mitigate tremor...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Xiu-Li Kuang, Yimei Liu, Yuhua Chang, Jing Zhou, He Zhang, Yiping Li, Jia Qu, Shengzhou Wu
Dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and calcium homeostasis has been implicated in the neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The cytosolic calcium concentration is maintained by store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), which is repressed by Alzheimer's disease-associated mutants, such as mutant presenilins. We hypothesized that inhibition of UPS impacts SOCE. This study showed that pretreatment with sub-lethal levels of proteasome inhibitors, including MG-132 and clasto-lactacystin-β-lactone (LA), reduced SOCE after depletion of endoplasmic reticulum calcium in rat neurons...
April 2016: Cell Calcium
Melanija Tomić, Paula Bargi-Souza, Elias Leiva-Salcedo, Maria Tereza Nunes, Stanko S Stojilkovic
TαT1 cells are mouse thyrotroph cell line frequently used for studies on thyroid-stimulating hormone beta subunit gene expression and other cellular functions. Here we have characterized calcium-signaling pathways in TαT1 cells, an issue not previously addressed in these cells and incompletely described in native thyrotrophs. TαT1 cells are excitable and fire action potentials spontaneously and in response to application of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), the native hypothalamic agonist for thyrotrophs...
December 2015: Cell Calcium
Takayuki Ohnishi, Masako Yanazawa, Tomoya Sasahara, Yasuki Kitamura, Hidekazu Hiroaki, Yugo Fukazawa, Isao Kii, Takashi Nishiyama, Akiyoshi Kakita, Hiroyuki Takeda, Akihide Takeuchi, Yoshie Arai, Akane Ito, Hitomi Komura, Hajime Hirao, Kaori Satomura, Masafumi Inoue, Shin-ichi Muramatsu, Ko Matsui, Mari Tada, Michio Sato, Eri Saijo, Yoshiki Shigemitsu, Satoko Sakai, Yoshitaka Umetsu, Natsuko Goda, Naomi Takino, Hitoshi Takahashi, Masatoshi Hagiwara, Tatsuya Sawasaki, Genji Iwasaki, Yu Nakamura, Yo-ichi Nabeshima, David B Teplow, Minako Hoshi
Neurodegeneration correlates with Alzheimer's disease (AD) symptoms, but the molecular identities of pathogenic amyloid β-protein (Aβ) oligomers and their targets, leading to neurodegeneration, remain unclear. Amylospheroids (ASPD) are AD patient-derived 10- to 15-nm spherical Aβ oligomers that cause selective degeneration of mature neurons. Here, we show that the ASPD target is neuron-specific Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α3 subunit (NAKα3). ASPD-binding to NAKα3 impaired NAKα3-specific activity, activated N-type voltage-gated calcium channels, and caused mitochondrial calcium dyshomeostasis, tau abnormalities, and neurodegeneration...
August 11, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Akito Nakao, Takafumi Miki, Hirotaka Shoji, Miyuki Nishi, Hiroshi Takeshima, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Yasuo Mori
Calcium (Ca(2+)) influx through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) induces numerous intracellular events such as neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release, synaptic plasticity, and gene regulation. It has been shown that genes related to Ca(2+) signaling, such as the CACNA1C, CACNB2, and CACNA1I genes that encode VGCC subunits, are associated with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Recently, VGCC beta-anchoring and -regulatory protein (BARP) was identified as a novel regulator of VGCC activity via the interaction of VGCC β subunits...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
C Ayada, G Turgut, S Turgut
BACKGROUND: Elevated L-type Ca²⁺channel expression level increases Ca²⁺ influx. This can cause hypertrophy and pathological remodeling of the heart especially under stress conditions. Nesfatin-1 can activate hypothalamic L, P and Q type Ca²⁺ channels and increase insulin secretion in pancreatic islet beta cells via activation of L-type Ca²⁺ channels. On the other hand, the effect of nesfatin-1 on cardiac L-type Ca²⁺ channels has not been studied yet. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify the effect of peripheral chronic Nesfatin-1 application on cardiac L-type Ca²⁺ channel α1c subunit expression level in normal rats and those subjected to chronic restraint stress...
2015: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Muthiah Subramanian, N Senthil, S Sujatha
Inherited channelopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from dysfunction of ion channels in cellular membranes. They may manifest as diseases affecting skeletal muscle contraction, the conduction system of the heart, nervous system function, and vision syndromes. We describe a family of South Indian descent with hypokalemic periodic paralysis in which four members also have idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a genetically heterogeneous channelopathy that has been linked to mutations in genes encoding three ion channels CACNIAS, SCN4A, and KCNJ2 predominantly...
2015: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Jing Yan, Evi Schmid, Ahmad Almilaji, Ekaterina Shumilina, Oliver Borst, Stefan Laufer, Meinrad Gawaz, Florian Lang
TGFβ is a powerful regulator of megakaryocyte maturation and platelet formation. As previously shown for other cell types, TGFβ may up-regulate the expression of the serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1, an effect requiring p38 kinase. SGK1 has in turn recently been shown to participate in the regulation of cytosolic Ca(2+) activity ([Ca(2+)]i) in megakaryocytes and platelets. SGK1 phosphorylates the IκB kinase (IKKα/β), which in turn phosphorylates the inhibitor protein IκBα resulting in nuclear translocation of nuclear factor NFκB...
May 22, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Deependra Kumar, Nina Dedic, Cornelia Flachskamm, Stephanie Voulé, Jan M Deussing, Mayumi Kimura
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The CACNA1C gene encodes the alpha 1C (α1C) subunit of the Cav1.2 voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel (LTCC). Some of the other voltage-dependent calcium channels, e.g., P-/Q-type, Cav2.1; N-type, Cav2.2; E-/R-type, Cav2.3; and T-type, Cav3.3 have been implicated in sleep modulation. However, the contribution of LTCCs to sleep remains largely unknown. Based on recent genome-wide association studies, CACNA1C emerged as one of potential candidate genes associated with both sleep and psychiatric disorders...
September 2015: Sleep
Di Bian, Yi-guo Chen, Yue-jiao Sui, Hui Tian, Yu-li Liu, Rui Cao, Cheng-lin Li, Bao-yan Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Neiguan" (PC 6) on expression of sodium (Nav) channel α-subunit 1.5 and Nav β-subunits β 1-β 4 (the known myocardial sodium channel proteins) in acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) rats so as to explore its mechanisms underlying protection of ischemic myocardium. METHODS: Sixty SD male rats were randomly divided into normal control, AMI model, Neiguan (PC 6), Lieque (LU 7) and non-acupoint groups...
February 2015: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
A Jafari, E Noursadeghi, F Khodagholi, R Saghiri, R Sauve, A Aliaghaei, A Eliassi
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of amyloid-beta (Aβ)-induced neuronal toxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanism of how Aβ affects mitochondrial function remains uncertain. Because mitochondrial potassium channels have been involved in several mitochondrial functions including cytoprotection, apoptosis and calcium homeostasis, a study was undertaken to investigate whether the gating behavior of the mitochondrial ATP- and ChTx-insensitive-IbTx-sensitive Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel (mitoBKCa) is altered in a rat model of Aβ neurotoxicity...
July 2015: Experimental Neurology
Karen Castillo, Gustavo F Contreras, Amaury Pupo, Yolima P Torres, Alan Neely, Carlos González, Ramon Latorre
Being activated by depolarizing voltages and increases in cytoplasmic Ca(2+), voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels and their modulatory β-subunits are able to dampen or stop excitatory stimuli in a wide range of cellular types, including both neuronal and nonneuronal tissues. Minimal alterations in BK channel function may contribute to the pathophysiology of several diseases, including hypertension, asthma, cancer, epilepsy, and diabetes. Several gating processes, allosterically coupled to each other, control BK channel activity and are potential targets for regulation by auxiliary β-subunits that are expressed together with the α (BK)-subunit in almost every tissue type where they are found...
April 14, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yanli Deng, Xuefeng Han, Shaoxun Tang, Wenjun Xiao, Zhiliang Tan, Chuanshe Zhou, Min Wang, Jinghe Kang
To explore the regulatory mechanisms of magnolol and honokiol on calcium-activated potassium channels signaling pathway in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-induced diarrhea mice, the concentrations of serum chloride ion (Cl(-)), sodium ion (Na(+)), potassium ion (K(+)) and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) were measured. Additionally, the mRNA expressions of calmodulin 1 (CaM), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha subunit (CaMKIIα) and beta subunit (CaMKIIβ), ryanodine receptor 1, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3 receptors), protein kinases C (PKC), potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channels (SK) and potassium large conductance calcium-activated channels(BK)were determined...
May 15, 2015: European Journal of Pharmacology
Michael E Hildebrand, Terrance P Snutch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Channels
Yuan Zhang, Jiaoqian Ying, Dongsheng Jiang, Zhigang Chang, Hua Li, Guoqiang Zhang, Shan Gong, Xinghong Jiang, Jin Tao
Recent studies have demonstrated that urotensin-II (U-II) plays important roles in cardiovascular actions including cardiac positive inotropic effects and increasing cardiac output. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects of U-II in cardiomyocytes still remain unknown. We show by electrophysiological studies that U-II dose-dependently potentiates L-type Ca(2+) currents (ICa,L) in adult rat ventricular myocytes. This effect was U-II receptor (U-IIR)-dependent and was associated with a depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation...
March 27, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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