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Cross-border trafficking

Frederike Ambagtsheer, Willem Weimar
Over the years, the trade in human organs has become an object of international concern. Since the 1980s, antiorgan trade initiatives have mainly involved the strengthening of legislative responses. Little attention however is given to nonlegislative responses by law enforcement authorities. The HOTT project is a European Union-funded research project titled "trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal." Its objectives are to increase knowledge, raise awareness, and improve the nonlegislative response to the crime...
February 2016: Transplantation Direct
Paul Holmes, Conny Rijken, Sergio D'Orsi, Luuk Esser, Floor Hol, Anne Gallagher, Galit Greenberg, Louis Helberg, Lisa Horvatits, Sean McCarthy, Jonathan Ratel, Nancy Scheper-Hughes, John Forsythe
In this short summary report on the legal definition of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and improving cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, challenges, and recommendations in the areas of defining the crime, criminal investigation and prosecution, and cross-border cooperation are made. These are the outcomes of a working group discussion during the writers' conference of the HOTT project, a European Union-funded project against trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal...
February 2016: Transplantation Direct
Lee G Fradkin, Vivian Budnik
The nuclear envelope (NE) physically separates the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. While this barrier provides advantages, it also presents a challenge for the nuclear export of large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. Decades-old dogma holds that all such border-crossing is via the nuclear pore complex (NPC). However, the diameter of the NPC central channel limits the passage of large cargos. Here, we review evidence that such large RNPs employ an endogenous NE-budding pathway, previously thought to be exclusive to the nuclear egress of Herpes viruses...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Julian Broséus, Simon Baechler, Natacha Gentile, Pierre Esseiva
Illicit drug analyses usually focus on the identification and quantitation of questioned material to support the judicial process. In parallel, more and more laboratories develop physical and chemical profiling methods in a forensic intelligence perspective. The analysis of large databases resulting from this approach enables not only to draw tactical and operational intelligence, but may also contribute to the strategic overview of drugs markets. In Western Switzerland, the chemical analysis of illicit drug seizures is centralised in a laboratory hosted by the University of Lausanne...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Saori Yoshida, Toshiyuki Fukutomi, Toru Kimura, Hiroyuki Sakurai, Ryo Hatano, Hiroto Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi Mukaisho, Takanori Hattori, Hiroyuki Sugihara, Shinji Asano
Ezrin is an actin binding protein which cross-links membrane proteins with cytoskeleton directly or indirectly via PDZ domain-containing scaffold proteins. It is mainly expressed at the brush border membrane (BBM) of gastrointestinal tracts, and is involved in the construction of microvilli structure and the functional expression of membrane protein complexes at the cell surface. To precisely study the roles of ezrin on the expression of membrane proteins at the cell surface, here we prepared the BBM fractions of ileums from the wild-type and ezrin-knockdown (Vil2(kd/kd)) mice, analyzed them by mass spectrometry, and compared their proteomic patterns...
2016: Biomedical Research
Sanja Duvnjak, Ivana Račić, Silvio Špičić, Maja Zdelar-Tuk, Irena Reil, Željko Cvetnić
Porcine brucellosis is a common bacterial zoonosis which can cause significant financial losses. Its diverse and often complicated factors have hampered efforts to control disease spread. The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of porcine brucellosis primarily in Croatia and its relationship to genotypes present in other, mostly European countries. One hundred and seven Brucella suis strains isolated from swine, hares, cattle, humans, wild hares, a wild boar and a mare originating mainly from Croatia (112), but also a few from Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Macedonia (15) were tested using classical microbiological testing, Bruce-ladder, RFLP, Multiplex-suis and genotyped using multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA)...
October 22, 2015: Veterinary Microbiology
María Jesús Santesmases
In this paper I explore the early circulation of penicillin. I review the early distribution in Spain of a scarce product, reflect on the available sources about the illegal penicillin trade and discuss some cases of smuggling. I argue the early distribution of penicillin involved time and geography, a particular chronology of post Second World War geopolitics. Penicillin practices and experiences belong to this period, in a dictatorship that tolerated smuggling and illegal trade of other products, some, like penicillin, produced in neighbouring countries...
2014: Medicina Nei Secoli
Gajendra K Goswami
Old family laws presume that the husband is the father of any child born to a married couple; a socio-legal fiction. A social and biological father is presumed to be one and the same. The cocoon of legitimacy protects marriage but the child born outside valid marriage is recognised as 'illegitimate'. Assisted reproduction technologies strengthened reproductive rights but confuse purity of lineage and genetically divorce socio-legal parentage from biological parentage. The lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender reproductive rights, surrogacy, gamete donation, delayed pregnancies using cryopreserved embryos, single parentage, virgin mothers (virgin birth), live-in relationship are increasingly recognised under the cover of human dignity but obscure parentage...
December 2015: Medico-legal Journal
David Stuckler, Sarah Steele, Mark Lurie, Sanjay Basu
Mineral mining is among the world's most hazardous occupations. It is especially dangerous in southern Africa, where mining activity is a leading cause of HIV and tuberculosis epidemics. Inside mines, silica dust exposure causes long-term pulmonary damage. Living conditions are often substandard; poorly ventilated living quarters facilitate tuberculosis and airborne disease spread, and high rates of alcohol and tobacco use compromise immune responses. Family segregation, a legacy of apartheid's migrational labor system, increases the likelihood of risky sexual activity...
2013: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
Tara Gomes, J Michael Paterson, David N Juurlink, Irfan A Dhalla, Muhammad M Mamdani
BACKGROUND: In August 2010, a tamper-resistant formulation of controlled-release oxycodone (OxyContin-OP) was introduced in the United States but not in Canada. Our objective was to determine whether introduction of OxyContin-OP in the United States influenced prescription volumes for the original controlled-release oxycodone formulation (OxyContin) at Canadian pharmacies near the international border. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, serial, cross-sectional study of prescriptions dispensed from pharmacies in the 3 cities with the highest volume of US-Canada border crossings in Ontario: Niagara Falls, Windsor and Sarnia...
2012: Open Medicine: a Peer-reviewed, Independent, Open-access Journal
Lisa Merry, Anita J Gagnon, Isabelle Hemlin, Heather Clarke, Jason Hickey
INTRODUCTION: The movement of women across international borders is occurring at greater rates than ever before, yet the relationship between migration and women's health has been under-explored. One reason may be difficulty measuring migration variables including country of birth, length of time in country, immigration status, language ability, and ethnicity. A range of social, environmental, cultural, and medical characteristics associated with the pre-, during- and post-migration phases are also important to consider...
2011: International Journal for Equity in Health
Sverre Molland
Over the past few years some governments and development organizations have increasingly articulated cross-border mobility as "trafficking in persons". The notion of a market where traffickers prey on the "supply" of migrants that flows across international borders to meet the "demand" for labour has become a central trope among anti-trafficking development organizations. This article problematizes such economism by drawing attention to the oscillating cross-border migration of Lao sex workers within a border zone between Laos and Thailand...
2010: Development and Change
Gergana Danailova-Trainor, Frank Laczko
Poverty is often regarded as the "root cause" of trafficking, but the linkages between poverty, a lack of development and trafficking are complex. For example, there is some evidence to suggest that victims of cross-border trafficking are more likely to originate from middle-income rather than lower-income countries. Trafficking and development have tended to be treated as very separate policy areas and the assessment of the development impact of counter-trafficking programmes is still at an early stage. This paper outlines a possible framework for a more evidence-based approach to understanding the linkages between trafficking, trafficking policy and human development...
2010: International Migration
Patricia Case, Case Patricia, Rebeca Ramos, Kimberly C Brouwer, Michelle Firestone-Cruz, Robin A Pollini, Miguel A Fraga, Thomas L Patterson, Steffanie A Strathdee
Injection drug use is of increasing concern along the US-Mexico border where Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juarez are located. Methamphetamine has long been manufactured and trafficked through Mexico, with low rates of use within Mexico. With methamphetamine use now considered epidemic in the United States, and with associated individual and community harms such as HIV, STDs, domestic violence and crime, there is concern that rates of methamphetamine in the Northwestern border regions of Mexico may be rising. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the context of injection drug use in Tijuana and Cd...
February 2008: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
K E Duftschmid
Cross-border movement of radioactive materials and contaminated items, in particular metallurgical scrap, has become a problem of increasing importance. Radioactive sources out of regulatory control, now often called 'orphan sources', have frequently caused serious, even deadly, radiation exposures and widespread contamination. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission reported over 2,300 incidents of radioactive materials found in recycled metal scrap and more than 50 accidental smeltings of radioactive sources...
March 2002: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
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