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Global burden of disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640688/unintentional-poisoning-in-china-1990-to-2015-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#1
Yumeng Tang, Lan Zhang, Jingju Pan, Qingjun Zhang, Tianjing He, Zeni Wu, Jian Zhan, Qian Li
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the unintentional poisoning burden and risk factors in China from 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We extracted data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 to compare mortality, prevalence, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life lost, years lived with a disability, and risk factors of unintentional poisoning in China. We determined the median of the percent change and 95% uncertainty interval for the period between 1990 and 2015...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637001/a-novel-method-to-generate-salmonella-typhi-ty21a-ghosts-exploiting-the-%C3%AE-phage-holin-endolysin-system
#2
Gayeon Won, Boram Kim, John Hwa Lee
Human typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi still poses a severe global disease burden in developing countries despite the availability of commercial vaccines. In this study, we constructed a non-living S. Typhi Ty21a vaccine candidate by employing a lambda (λ) phage-derived holin-endolysin system to efficiently construct bacterial ghosts. The lysis plasmid pJHL464 harbors an R lysis cassette that is stringently regulated by dual promoters containing cI857/λPR and ParaBAD/araC components. The plasmid was introduced into an asd gene-deleted S...
June 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634009/the-fish-parasite-ichthyophthirius-multifiliis-host-immunology-vaccines-and-novel-treatments
#3
REVIEW
Louise von Gersdorff Jørgensen
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, the causative agent of white spot disease (Ichthyophthiriasis) is a major burden for fish farmers and aquarists globally. The parasite infects the skin and the gills of freshwater fish, which may acquire a protective adaptive immune response against this disease, making vaccine strategies feasible. However, there is no prophylactic treatment available and repetitive treatments with auxiliary substances are needed to control the infection. Historically, a variety of drugs and chemicals have been used to combat the disease but due to changing regulations and recognition of carcinogenic and environmentally damaging effects the most efficient compounds are prohibited...
June 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633867/review-of-a-causal-role-of-fructose-containing-sugars-in-myocardial-susceptibility-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#4
REVIEW
Gerald J Maarman, Amy E Mendham, Kim Lamont, Cindy George
In 2012, the World Health Organization Global Status Report on noncommunicable diseases showed that 7.4 million deaths were due to ischemic heart disease. Consequently, cardiovascular disease is a significant health burden, especially when partnered with comorbidities such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of note, these diseases can all be induced or exacerbated by diet. Carbohydrates, in particular, fructose and glucose, generally form the largest part of the human diet. Accumulating evidence from animal studies suggests that if large amounts of fructose are consumed either in isolation or in combination with glucose (fructose-containing sugars), myocardial susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury increases...
June 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633501/epidemiology-of-pediatric-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-the-united-states-1993-2014
#5
Sarah E Smith, Robert Pratt, Lisa Trieu, Pennan M Barry, Dzung T Thai, Shama Desai Ahuja, Sarita Shah
Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is an important global public health threat, but accurate estimates of MDR TB burden among children are lacking. Methods: We analyzed demographic, clinical and laboratory data for newly-diagnosed pediatric (<15 years) TB cases reported to the US National TB Surveillance System (NTSS) during 1993-2014. MDR TB was defined as culture-confirmed TB disease with resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. To ascertain potential under-estimation of pediatric MDR TB, we surveyed high burden states for clinically-diagnosed cases treated for MDR TB...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632794/migrants-healthy-worker-effect-and-mortality-trends-in-the-gulf-cooperation-council-countries
#6
Karima Chaabna, Sohaila Cheema, Ravinder Mamtani
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Saudi Arabia, have experienced unique demographic changes. The major population growth contributor in these countries is young migrants, which has led to a shift in the population age pyramid. Migrants constitute the vast proportion of GCC countries' population reaching >80% in Qatar and UAE. Using Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015) and United Nations data, for the GCC countries, we assessed the association between age-standardized mortality and population size trends with linear and polynomial regressions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632767/how-is-indonesia-coping-with-its-epidemic-of-chronic-noncommunicable-diseases-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#7
Julia Schröders, Stig Wall, Mohammad Hakimi, Fatwa Sari Tetra Dewi, Lars Weinehall, Mark Nichter, Maria Nilsson, Hari Kusnanto, Ekowati Rahajeng, Nawi Ng
BACKGROUND: Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have emerged as a huge global health problem in low- and middle-income countries. The magnitude of the rise of NCDs is particularly visible in Southeast Asia where limited resources have been used to address this rising epidemic, as in the case of Indonesia. Robust evidence to measure growing NCD-related burdens at national and local levels and to aid national discussion on social determinants of health and intra-country inequalities is needed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632735/validity-of-a-minimally-invasive-autopsy-for-cause-of-death-determination-in-stillborn-babies-and-neonates-in-mozambique-an-observational-study
#8
Clara Menendez, Paola Castillo, Miguel J Martínez, Dercio Jordao, Lucilia Lovane, Mamudo R Ismail, Carla Carrilho, Cesaltina Lorenzoni, Fabiola Fernandes, Tacilta Nhampossa, Juan Carlos Hurtado, Mireia Navarro, Isaac Casas, Paula Santos Ritchie, Sonia Bandeira, Sibone Mocumbi, Zara Jaze, Flora Mabota, Khátia Munguambe, Maria Maixenchs, Ariadna Sanz, Inacio Mandomando, Alfons Nadal, Anna Goncé, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Llorenç Quintó, Jordi Vila, Eusebio Macete, Pedro Alonso, Jaume Ordi, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Over 5 million stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur annually. Limited and imprecise information on the cause of these deaths hampers progress in achieving global health targets. Complete diagnostic autopsies (CDAs)-the gold standard for cause of death determination-are difficult to perform in most high-burden settings. Therefore, validation of simpler and more feasible methods is needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this observational study, the validity of a minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) method in determining the cause of death was assessed in 18 stillbirths and 41 neonatal deaths by comparing the results of the MIA with those of the CDA...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632448/neuroregeneration-versus-neurodegeneration-toward-a-paradigm-shift-in-alzheimer-s-disease-drug-discovery
#9
Elisa Uliassi, Annachiara Gandini, Rosaria Carmela Perone, Maria Laura Bolognesi
Alzheimer's disease represents an enormous global burden in terms of human suffering and economic cost. To tackle the current lack of effective drugs and the continuous clinical trial failures might require a shift from the prevailing paradigm targeting pathogenesis to the one targeting neural stem cells (NSCs) regeneration. In this context, small molecules have come to the forefront for their potential to manipulate NSCs, provide therapeutic tools and unveil NSCs biology. Classically, these molecules have been generated either by target-based or phenotypic approaches...
June 20, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629430/bangladesh-policy-on-prevention-and-control-of-non-communicable-diseases-a-policy-analysis
#10
Tuhin Biswas, Sonia Pervin, Md Imtiaz Alam Tanim, Louis Niessen, Anwar Islam
BACKGROUND: This paper is aimed at critically assessing the extent to which Non-Communicable Disease NCD-related policies introduced in Bangladesh align with the World Health Organization's (WHO) 2013-2020 Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of NCDs. METHODS: The authors reviewed all relevant policy documents introduced by the Government of Bangladesh since its independence in 1971. The literature review targeted scientific and grey literature documents involving internet-based search, and expert consultation and snowballing to identify relevant policy documents...
June 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624159/from-the-laboratory-to-the-field-updating-capacity-building-in-medical-entomology
#11
Antonio Paulo Gouveia Almeida, Florence Fouque, Pascal Launois, Carla A Sousa, Henrique Silveira
Training and innovation in the field of medical entomology are essential to mitigate the burden of vector-borne diseases globally. However, there is a shortage of medical entomologists worldwide, and there are large discrepancies in capacity building in this field. In this article, we discuss the current situation, what is needed from the medical entomologist of today, and how we can bridge this gap.
June 14, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623146/an-update-of-the-global-burden-of-pertussis-in-children-younger-than-5-years-a-modelling-study
#12
Karene Hoi Ting Yeung, Philippe Duclos, E Anthony S Nelson, Raymond Christiaan W Hutubessy
BACKGROUND: Since the publication in 2003 of a model to estimate the disease burden of pertussis, new evidence of the protective effect of incomplete pertussis vaccination against severe pertussis has been reported. We revised the model to provide new estimates of regional and global pertussis cases and deaths for children younger than 5 years. METHODS: We developed a revised model with data from 2014 to estimate pertussis cases and deaths. Pertussis cases were defined according to the WHO clinical case definition, as a coughing illness lasting at least 2 weeks with paroxysms of coughing, inspiratory whooping, or post-tussive vomiting...
June 13, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621751/geographic-variations-in-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-luxembourg
#13
Ala'a Alkerwi, Illiasse El Bahi, Saverio Stranges, Jean Beissel, Charles Delagardelle, Stephanie Noppe, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated behavioural and metabolic risk factors constitute a major public health concern at a global level. Many reports worldwide have documented different risk profiles for populations with demographic variations. The objective of this study was to examine geographic variations in the top leading cardio metabolic and behavioural risk factors in Luxembourg, in order to provide an overall picture of CVD burden across the country. The analysis conducted was based on data from the nationwide ORISCAV-LUX survey, including 1432 subjects, aged 18-69 years...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621720/know-your-noodles-assessing-variations-in-sodium-content-of-instant-noodles-across-countries
#14
Clare Farrand, Karen Charlton, Michelle Crino, Joseph Santos, Rodrigo Rodriguez-Fernandez, Cliona Ni Mhurchu, Jacqui Webster
Reducing salt intake is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs). Ultra-processed foods contribute ~80% of dietary salt in high income countries, and are becoming prominent in low-middle income countries. Instant noodle consumption is particularly high in the Asia Pacific region. The aim of this study was to compare the sodium content of instant noodles sold worldwide to identify potential for reformulation. Analysis was undertaken for 765 instant noodle products from 10 countries using packaged food composition databases of ultra-processed foods compiled by the Global Food Monitoring Group (GFMG) and national shop survey data...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620563/pharmacological-threat-to-lungs-a-case-series-and-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Omar Irfan, Jaleed A Gilani, Abeel Irshad, Babar Irfan, Javaid A Khan
Drug-induced organ damage stands as a prevalent yet much-neglected issue globally. Keeping in view it's rising frequency, health care providers stand obliged to be well versed with the de-merits of the agents they prescribe. Drug therapies causing damage present with a non-specific clinical presentation, histological findings or radiology, which further elaborates on the necessity of a conscientious diagnosis. Pulmonary architecture ranging from the airways, lung parenchyma, mediastinum, pleura, pulmonary vasculature or the neuromuscular system, all can fall victim to the dreaded outcomes of this menace...
May 9, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619398/global-burden-of-disease-of-mercury-used-in-artisanal-small-scale-gold-mining
#16
Nadine Steckling, Myriam Tobollik, Dietrich Plass, Claudia Hornberg, Bret Ericson, Richard Fuller, Stephan Bose-O'Reilly
BACKGROUND: Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the world's largest anthropogenic source of mercury emission. Gold miners are highly exposed to metallic mercury and suffer occupational mercury intoxication. The global disease burden as a result of this exposure is largely unknown because the informal character of ASGM restricts the availability of reliable data. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of occupational mercury intoxication and the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to chronic metallic mercury vapor intoxication (CMMVI) among ASGM gold miners globally and in selected countries...
March 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619123/chd-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-global-expert-exchange-recommendations
#17
Robert M R Tulloh, Constancio Medrano-Lopez, Paul A Checchia, Claudia Stapper, Naokata Sumitomo, Matthias Gorenflo, Eun Jung Bae, Antonio Juanico, Juan M Gil-Jaurena, Mei-Hwan Wu, Talal Farha, Ali Dodge-Khatami, Rocky Tsang, Gerard Notario, Colleen Wegzyn
BACKGROUND: Palivizumab is the standard immunoprophylaxis against serious disease due to respiratory syncytial virus infection. Current evidence-based prophylaxis guidelines may not address certain children with CHD within specific high-risk groups or clinical/management settings. METHODS: An international steering committee of clinicians with expertise in paediatric heart disease identified key questions concerning palivizumab administration; in collaboration with an additional international expert faculty, evidence-based recommendations were formulated using a quasi-Delphi consensus methodology...
June 16, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619082/assessing-changes-in-knowledge-attitude-and-practices-on-dengue-diagnosis-and-management-among-primary-care-physicians-after-the-largest-dengue-epidemic-in-singapore
#18
Junxiong Pang, Zoe Jane-Lara Hildon, Tun Linn Thein, Jing Jin, Yee Sin Leo
BACKGROUND: Dengue results in high morbidity and mortality globally. The knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of dengue management, including diagnosis, among primary care physicians (PCPs) are important to reduce dengue transmission and burden. However, there is a lack of understanding on the impact of dengue epidemic on dengue management. Hence, the aim of this study is to examine the changes in KAP on dengue management among PCPs before and after the largest dengue epidemic in 2013 in Singapore...
June 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619031/healthy-people-and-healthy-profits-elaborating-a-conceptual-framework-for-governing-the-commercial-determinants-of-non-communicable-diseases-and-identifying-options-for-reducing-risk-exposure
#19
REVIEW
Kent Buse, Sonja Tanaka, Sarah Hawkes
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent a significant threat to human health and well-being, and carry significant implications for economic development and health care and other costs for governments and business, families and individuals. Risks for many of the major NCDs are associated with the production, marketing and consumption of commercially produced food and drink, particularly those containing sugar, salt and transfats (in ultra-processed products), alcohol and tobacco...
June 15, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617836/molecular-diversity-and-frequency-of-the-diarrheagenic-enteric-protozoan-giardia-duodenalis-and-cryptosporidium-spp-in-a-hospital-setting-in-northern-spain
#20
José Manuel Azcona-Gutiérrez, Aida de Lucio, Marta Hernández-de-Mingo, Concepción García-García, Luis Miguel Soria-Blanco, Lucía Morales, María Aguilera, Isabel Fuentes, David Carmena
BACKGROUND: Human giardiosis and cryptosporidiosis are caused by the enteric protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. Both pathogens are major contributors to the global burden of diarrhoeal disease, affecting primarily children and immunodebilitated individuals in resource-poor settings. Giardiosis and cryptosporidiosis also represent an important, often underestimate, public health threat in developed countries. In Spain only limited information is currently available on the epidemiology of these infections...
2017: PloS One
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