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Global burden of disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719331/factors-associated-with-the-duration-of-moderate-to-severe-diarrhea-among-children-in-rural-western-kenya-enrolled-in-the-global-enteric-multicenter-study-2008-2012
#1
Katharine A Schilling, Richard Omore, Gordana Derado, Tracy Ayers, John B Ochieng, Tamer H Farag, Dilruba Nasrin, Sandra Panchalingam, James P Nataro, Karen L Kotloff, Myron M Levine, Joseph Oundo, Michelle B Parsons, Cheryl Bopp, Kayla Laserson, Christine E Stauber, Richard Rothenberg, Robert F Breiman, Ciara E O'Reilly, Eric D Mintz
Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of death among young children worldwide. As rates of acute diarrhea (AD; 1-6 days duration) have decreased, persistent diarrhea (PD; > 14 days duration) accounts for a greater proportion of the diarrheal disease burden. We describe factors associated with the duration of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in Kenyan children < 5 years old enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study. We found 587 (58%) children experienced AD, 360 (35%) had prolonged acute diarrhea (ProAD; 7-13 days duration), and 73 (7%) had PD...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719263/burden-of-disease-attributed-to-waterborne-transmission-of-selected-enteric-pathogens-australia-2010
#2
Katherine B Gibney, Joanne O'Toole, Martha Sinclair, Karin Leder
AbstractUniversal access to safe drinking water is a global priority. To estimate the annual disease burden of campylobacteriosis, nontyphoidal salmonellosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and norovirus attributable to waterborne transmission in Australia, we multiplied regional World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of the proportion of cases attributable to waterborne transmission by estimates of all-source disease burden for each study pathogen. Norovirus was attributed as causing the most waterborne disease cases (479,632; 95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 0-1,111,874) followed by giardiasis and campylobacteriosis...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718431/racial-differences-in-cancer-susceptibility-and-survival-more-than-the-color-of-the-skin
#3
REVIEW
Berna C Özdemir, Gian-Paolo Dotto
Epidemiological studies point to race as a determining factor in cancer susceptibility. In US registries recording cancer incidence and survival by race (distinguishing 'black versus white'), individuals of African ancestry have a globally increased risk of malignancies compared with Caucasians and Asian Americans. Differences in socioeconomic status and health-care access play a key role. However, the lesser disease susceptibility of Hispanic populations with comparable lifestyles and socioeconomic status as African Americans (Hispanic paradox) points to the concomitant importance of genetic determinants...
March 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717741/patient-reported-burden-of-a-neuroendocrine-tumor-net-diagnosis-results-from-the-first-global-survey-of-patients-with-nets
#4
Simron Singh, Dan Granberg, Edward Wolin, Richard Warner, Maia Sissons, Teodora Kolarova, Grace Goldstein, Marianne Pavel, Kjell Öberg, John Leyden
PURPOSE: Despite the considerable impact of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) on patients' daily lives, the journey of the patient with a NET has rarely been documented, with published data to date being limited to small qualitative studies. NETs are heterogeneous malignancies with nonspecific symptomology, leading to extensive health care use and diagnostic delays that affect survival. A large, international patient survey was conducted to increase understanding of the experience of the patient with a NET and identify unmet needs, with the aim of improving disease awareness and care worldwide...
February 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716585/ascertainment-of-alaska-native-stroke-incidence-2005-2009-lessons-for-assessing-the-global-burden-of-stroke
#5
Bernadette Boden-Albala, James Allen, Eric T Roberts, Lisa Bulkow, Brian Trimble
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a critical public health issue in the United States and globally. System models to optimally capture stroke incidence in rural and culturally diverse communities are needed. The epidemiological transition to a western lifestyle has been associated with an increased burden of vascular risk factors among Alaska Native (AN) people. The burden of stroke in AN communities remains understudied. METHODS: The Alaska Native Stroke Registry (ANSR) was designed to screen and capture all stroke cases between 2005 and 2009 through its integration into the existing single-payer Alaska Tribal Health System infrastructure...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716157/advances-and-challenges-in-barcoding-pathogenic-and-environmental-leptospira
#6
Vanina Guernier, Kathryn J Allan, Cyrille Goarant
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease of global importance. A large spectrum of asymptomatic animal hosts can carry the infection and contribute to the burden of human disease. Environmental sources of human contamination also point to the importance of a hydrotelluric reservoir. Leptospirosis can be caused by as many as 15 different pathogenic or intermediate Leptospira species. However, classification of these bacteria remains complicated through the use of both serological and genetic classification systems that show poor correlation...
July 18, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713444/smoking-behaviors-in-kosova-results-of-steps-survey
#7
Sanije Gashi, Merita Berisha, Naser Ramadani, Musli Gashi, Josipa Kern, Aleksandar Dzakula, Silvije Vuletic
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco use continues to be the leading global cause of preventable death. Most of these deaths occur in low and middle-income countries, and this trend is expected to widen further over the next several decades. The overall objective of the study is to describe and analyse the smoking behaviours of adults in Kosova. METHODS: According to the STEPs methodology, 6,400 respondents, aged 15 - 64 years, are selected randomly within each sex and 10-year age-group...
September 2017: Zdravstveno Varstvo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711886/contribution-of-mortality-from-cardiovascular-disease-to-overall-mortality
#8
Grigory A Oksak, Irina A Golovanova
INTRODUCTION: The most significant chronic non-infectious diseases (CVD) are cardiovascular diseases (CVD), oncological, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, which together account for 59% of 57 million deaths each year in the world and constitute 46% of the global burden of the disease. AIM: To study the contribution of cardiovascular diseases to the overall mortality of the population of the Poltava region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the study, the mortality data of the population of Ukraine and the Poltava region for 2005-2015 were used...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711069/preterm-birth-and-its-impact-on-renal-health
#9
Valerie A Luyckx
Preterm birth occurs in approximately 10% of all births worldwide. Preterm infants have reduced nephron numbers at birth in proportion to gestational age, and are at increased risk of neonatal acute kidney injury as well as higher blood pressure, proteinuria, and chronic kidney disease later in life. Rapid catch-up growth in preterm infants, especially if resulting in obesity, is a risk factor for end-stage kidney disease among children with proteinuric renal disease. Preterm birth, however, is a risk factor not only for the infant because mothers who deliver preterm have an increased risk of having subsequent preterm deliveries as well as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease later in life...
July 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708953/trends-of-influenza-b-during-the-2010-2016-seasons-in-two-regions-of-north-and-south-italy-the-impact-of-the-vaccine-mismatch-on-influenza-immunisation-strategy
#10
Andrea Orsi, Giuseppina Maria Elena Colomba, Fanny Pojero, Giuseppe Calamusa, Cristiano Alicino, Cecilia Trucchi, Paola Canepa, Filippo Ansaldi, Francesco Vitale, Fabio Tramuto
Influenza A and B viruses are responsible for respiratory infections, representing globally seasonal threats to human health. The two viral types often co-circulate and influenza B plays an important role in the spread of infection. A 6-year retrospective surveillance study was conducted between 2010 and 2016 in two large administrative regions of Italy, located in the north (Liguria) and in the south (Sicily) of the country, in order to describe the burden and epidemiology of both B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages in different healthcare settings...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708456/mosquito-borne-diseases-and-omics-tissue-restricted-expression-and-alternative-splicing-revealed-by-transcriptome-profiling-of-anopheles-stephensi
#11
Sreelakshmi K Sreenivasamurthy, Anil K Madugundu, Arun H Patil, Gourav Dey, Ajeet Kumar Mohanty, Manish Kumar, Krishna Patel, Charles Wang, Ashwani Kumar, Akhilesh Pandey, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava Prasad
Malaria is one of the most debilitating mosquito-borne diseases with high global health burdens. While much of the research on malaria and mosquito-borne diseases is focused on Africa, Southeast Asia accounts for a sizable portion of the global burden of malaria. Moreover, about 50% of the Asian malaria incidence and deaths have been from India. A promising development in this context is that the completion of genome sequence of Anopheles stephensi, a major malaria vector in Asia, offers new opportunities for global health innovation, including the progress in deciphering the vectorial ability of this mosquito species at a molecular level...
July 14, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707609/the-role-of-diet-and-nutrition-on-mental-health-and-wellbeing
#12
Lauren Owen, Bernard Corfe
Mental, neurological and substance-use disorders presently represent the greatest global burden of disease. Likewise, depression and other psychopathologies are elevated risk comorbidities of other health hazards, such as obesity. Nutrition has been implicated in behaviour, mood and in the pathology and treatment of mental illness. In this brief editorial, we aim to set the scale of the problem in context and overview advances and recent evidence linking nutrition to psychological outcomes. The purpose of the 2016 Nutrition Society Winter Meeting, 'Diet, nutrition and mental health and wellbeing' was to review where the evidence is strong, where there are unmet needs for research and to draw together the communities working in this area to share their findings...
July 14, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707263/delivery-of-viral-vectors-for-gene-therapy-in-intimal-hyperplasia-and-restenosis-in-atherosclerotic-swine
#13
REVIEW
Sannette Hall, Devendra K Agrawal
Cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis are a major financial and health burden globally. Inflammation associated with atherosclerosis results in the development of plaques that can rupture causing thrombosis, stroke, or death. The most widely used treatment for the removal of atherosclerotic plaques is percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with or without stenting. Although this is a safer and minimally invasive method, restenosis and intimal hyperplasia after interventional procedure remains a major hurdle and more refined approaches are needed...
July 13, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706734/brca1-and-brca2-mutations-and-treatment-strategies-for-breast-cancer
#14
Inês Godet, Daniele M Gilkes
Breast cancer is a global burden with a woman's lifetime risk of developing breast cancer at 1 in 8. Although breast cancer is a disease that affects mostly women, the lifetime risk in men is about 1 in 1000. Most cases of breast cancer are associated with somatic mutations in breast cells that are acquired during a person's lifetime. In this scenario, the mutations are not inherited and they do not cluster in families. In hereditary breast cancer, the specific genetic factors involved will determine the inherited cancer risk...
February 2017: Integrative Cancer Science and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706466/modeling-the-potential-impact-of-emerging-innovations-on-achievement-of-sustainable-development-goals-related-to-maternal-newborn-and-child-health
#15
Tara Herrick, Claudia Harner-Jay, Craig Shaffer, Greg Zwisler, Peder Digre, Amie Batson
BACKGROUND: Innovations that improve the affordability, accessibility, or effectiveness of health care played a major role in the Millennium Development Goal achievements and will be critical for reaching the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) health targets. Mechanisms to identify and prioritize innovations are essential to inform future investment decisions. METHODS: Innovation Countdown 2030 crowdsourced health innovations from around the world and engaged recognized experts to systematically assess their lifesaving potential by 2030...
2017: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706104/use-of-a-mobile-social-networking-intervention-for-weight-management-a-mixed-methods-study-protocol
#16
Liliana Laranjo, Annie Y S Lau, Paige Martin, Huong Ly Tong, Enrico Coiera
INTRODUCTION: Obesity and physical inactivity are major societal challenges and significant contributors to the global burden of disease and healthcare costs. Information and communication technologies are increasingly being used in interventions to promote behaviour change in diet and physical activity. In particular, social networking platforms seem promising for the delivery of weight control interventions.We intend to pilot test an intervention involving the use of a social networking mobile application and tracking devices (Fitbit Flex 2 and Fitbit Aria scale) to promote the social comparison of weight and physical activity, in order to evaluate whether mechanisms of social influence lead to changes in those outcomes over the course of the study...
July 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706036/driving-improvements-in-emerging-disease-surveillance-through-locally-relevant-capacity-strengthening
#17
REVIEW
Jo E B Halliday, Katie Hampson, Nick Hanley, Tiziana Lembo, Joanne P Sharp, Daniel T Haydon, Sarah Cleaveland
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) threaten the health of people, animals, and crops globally, but our ability to predict their occurrence is limited. Current public health capacity and ability to detect and respond to EIDs is typically weakest in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many known drivers of EID emergence also converge in LMICs. Strengthening capacity for surveillance of diseases of relevance to local populations can provide a mechanism for building the cross-cutting and flexible capacities needed to tackle both the burden of existing diseases and EID threats...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705945/alcohol-consumption-as-a-risk-factor-for-tuberculosis-meta-analyses-and-burden-of-disease
#18
Sameer Imtiaz, Kevin D Shield, Michael Roerecke, Andriy V Samokhvalov, Knut Lönnroth, Jürgen Rehm
Meta-analyses of alcohol use, alcohol dosage and alcohol-related problems as risk factors for tuberculosis incidence were undertaken. The global alcohol-attributable tuberculosis burden of disease was also re-estimated.Systematic searches were conducted, reference lists were reviewed and expert consultations were held to identify studies. Cohort and case-control studies were included if there were no temporal violations of exposure and outcome. Risk relations (RRs) were pooled by using categorical and dose-response meta-analyses...
July 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705310/subclinical-atherosclerosis-burden-by-3d%C3%A2-ultrasound-in-mid-life-the-pesa-study
#19
Beatriz López-Melgar, Leticia Fernández-Friera, Belén Oliva, José Manuel García-Ruiz, José Luis Peñalvo, Sandra Gómez-Talavera, Javier Sánchez-González, José María Mendiguren, Borja Ibáñez, Antonio Fernández-Ortiz, Javier Sanz, Valentín Fuster
BACKGROUND: Detection of subclinical atherosclerosis improves risk prediction beyond cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and risk scores, but quantification of plaque burden may improve it further. Novel 3-dimensional vascular ultrasound (3DVUS) provides accurate volumetric quantification of plaque burden. OBJECTIVES: The authors evaluated associations between 3DVUS-based plaque burden and CVRFs and explored potential added value over simple plaque detection. METHODS: The authors included 3,860 (92...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702309/encouraging-rational-antibiotic-use-in-childhood-pneumonia-a-focus-on-vietnam-and-the-western-pacific-region
#20
REVIEW
Nguyen T K Phuong, Tran T Hoang, Pham H Van, Lolyta Tu, Stephen M Graham, Ben J Marais
Globally, pneumonia is considered to be the biggest killer of infants and young children (aged <5 years) outside the neonatal period, with the greatest disease burden in low- and middle-income countries. Optimal management of childhood pneumonia is challenging in settings where clinicians have limited information regarding the local pathogen and drug resistance profiles. This frequently results in unnecessary and poorly targeted antibiotic use. Restricting antibiotic use is a global priority, particularly in Asia and the Western Pacific Region where excessive use is driving high rates of antimicrobial resistance...
2017: Pneumonia
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