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Global burden of disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330178/emergence-of-mixed-infection-of-beijing-non-beijing-strains-among-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-pakistan
#1
Samar Mustafa, Hasnain Javed, Jawairia Hashmi, Nazia Jamil, Zarfishan Tahir, Abdul Majeed Akhtar
Tuberculosis (TB) remains as one of the deadliest diseases after HIV globally with 95 % of deaths confined to low-and-middle income countries. Pakistan is fifth among the 22 high-burden TB countries with the incidence rate of 230/100,000 persons, however, studies related to prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and their spread, drug resistance pattern and evolutionary genetics are inadequate. The present study was undertaken to highlight the circulation of M. tuberculosis strains causing drug resistant TB in our community by targeting the molecular marker IS6110 and then characterization of these strains as Beijing and Non-Beijing genotypes...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328615/patient-reported-experience-of-diagnosis-management-and-burden-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-results-from-a-large-patient-survey-in-the-united-states
#2
Edward M Wolin, John Leyden, Grace Goldstein, Teodora Kolarova, Ron Hollander, Richard R P Warner
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this survey was to examine the experience of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) to raise awareness of the NET-related burden and identify unmet needs. Here, we report data from patients in the United States. METHODS: Patients with NETs participated in a 25-minute anonymous survey, conducted primarily online from February to May 2014. Survey questions captured information on sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, NET diagnostic experience, disease impact/management, interaction with medical teams, and NETs knowledge/awareness...
March 21, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327791/a-tale-of-two-neglected-tropical-infections-using-gis-to-assess-the-spatial-and-temporal-overlap-of-schistosomiasis-and-leprosy-in-a-region-of-minas-gerais-brazil
#3
David Alexander Phillips, José Antonio Ferreira, Deidra Ansah, Herica Sa Teixeira, Uriel Kitron, Thelma de Filippis, Marcelo H de Alcântara, Jessica K Fairley
BACKGROUND: Despite public health efforts to reduce the global burden of leprosy, gaps remain in the knowledge surrounding transmission of infection. Helminth co-infections have been associated with a shift towards the lepromatous end of the disease spectrum, potentially increasing transmission in co-endemic areas. OBJECTIVES: Using this biologically plausible association, we conducted a geographic information systems (GIS) study to investigate the spatial associations of schistosomiasis and leprosy in an endemic area of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327686/thyroid-hormone-profile-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-single-centre-study
#4
S Singh, A Verma, G Aryal, S Thapa, S Khakurel, K Shrestha
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global burden and now recognized as a major public health problem worldwide. Patients with CKD have alteration in thyroid hormone metabolism. This study aims to evaluate the status of thyroid hormone profile in different stages of CKD. METHODS: The cross-sectional study included 103 CKD patients attending Nephrology and Dialysis unit of KIST Medical College Teaching Hospital, Lalitpur, Nepal. Serum creatinine, free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured...
September 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326768/air-pollution-and-climate-change-effects-on-allergies-in-the-anthropocene-abundance-interaction-and-modification-of-allergens-and-adjuvants
#5
Kathrin Reinmuth-Selzle, Christopher J Kampf, Kurt Lucas, Naama Lang-Yona, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Manabu Shiraiwa, Pascale Sylvie Jeanne Lakey, Senchao Lai, Fobang Liu, Anna Theresa Kunert, Kira Ziegler, Fangxia Shen, Rossella Sgarbanti, Bettina Weber, Iris Bellinghausen, Joachim Saloga, Michael G Weller, Albert Duschl, Detlef Schuppan, Ulrich Pöschl
Air pollution and climate change are potential drivers for the increasing burden of allergic diseases. The molecular mechanisms by which air pollutants and climate parameters may influence allergic diseases, however, are complex and elusive. This article provides an overview of physical, chemical and biological interactions between air pollution, climate change, allergens, adjuvants and the immune system, addressing how these interactions may promote the development of allergies. We reviewed and synthesized key findings from atmospheric, climate, and biomedical research...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326304/hiv-diagnosis-and-treatment-through-advanced-technologies
#6
REVIEW
Hafiza Fizzah Zulfiqar, Aneeqa Javed, Sumbal, Bakht Afroze, Qurban Ali, Khadija Akbar, Tariq Nadeem, Muhammad Adeel Rana, Zaheer Ahmad Nazar, Idrees Ahmad Nasir, Tayyab Husnain
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the chief contributor to global burden of disease. In 2010, HIV was the fifth leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in people of all ages and leading cause for people aged 30-44 years. It is classified as a member of the family Retroviridae and genus Lentivirus based on the biological, morphological, and genetic properties. It infects different cells of the immune system, such as CD4+ T cells (T-helper cells), dendritic cells, and macrophages. HIV has two subtypes: HIV-1 and HIV-2...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325543/consensus-recommendations-on-exploring-effective-solutions-for-the-rising-cost-of-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
Shaukat M Sadikot, Ashok Kumar Das, John Wilding, Ali Siyan, Abdul Hamid Zargar, Banshi Saboo, S R Aravind, Bhavana Sosale, Sanjay Kalra, G Vijayakumar, K K Manojan, Anuj Maheshwari, Jayant K Panda, Samar Banerjee, Rajeev Chawla, Sambu Potty Vasudevan, O S Syam Sundar, Jothydev Kesavadev
Diabetes remains asymptomatic for a long period of time and its real burden gets noticed only once the complications set in. The number of individuals affected with the disease is also on the rise and more so in the low income countries. This scenario calls for urgent precautionary measures that need to be undertaken to equip ourselves to fight against this chronic disease. Individuals with financial constraints cannot afford to access even the basic treatment facilities and thus stands the most burdened. The International Diabetes Federation calls for 'Eyes on Diabetes' for the society to focus on early screening and early intervention...
March 7, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325118/is-asthma-associated-with-cognitive-impairments-a-meta-analytic-review
#8
Farzin Irani, Jordan Mark Barbone, Janet Beausoleil, Lynn Gerald
INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a chronic disease with significant health burden and socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities related to diagnosis and treatment. Asthma primarily affects the lungs, but can impact brain function through direct and indirect mechanisms. Some studies have suggested that asthma negatively impacts cognition, while others have failed to identify asthma-related cognitive compromise. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of cognition in individuals with asthma compared to that in healthy controls...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323825/association-between-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-the-brain-and-alzheimer-disease-neuropathology-and-cognitive-performance-a-nontargeted-metabolomic-study
#9
Stuart G Snowden, Amera A Ebshiana, Abdul Hye, Yang An, Olga Pletnikova, Richard O'Brien, John Troncoso, Cristina Legido-Quigley, Madhav Thambisetty
BACKGROUND: The metabolic basis of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology and expression of AD symptoms is poorly understood. Omega-3 and -6 fatty acids have previously been linked to both protective and pathogenic effects in AD. However, to date little is known about how the abundance of these species is affected by differing levels of disease pathology in the brain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed metabolic profiling on brain tissue samples from 43 individuals ranging in age from 57 to 95 y old who were stratified into three groups: AD (N = 14), controls (N = 14) and "asymptomatic Alzheimer's disease" (ASYMAD), i...
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322530/-stima-dei-decessi-per-tumori-attribuibili-a-fattori-di-rischio-comportamentali-in-italia-nel-2013
#10
Francesca Battisti, Giulia Carreras, Tommaso Grassi, Elisabetta Chellini, Giuseppe Gorini
"Non-communicable diseases cause more than 80% of deaths in europe and, among these, 20% are caused by cancer. Modifiable lifestyle factors considered in the italian national programme "Guadagnare salute" (Gaining health), such as tobacco smoking, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, overweight, and excessive alcohol use, are amongst the major causes of cancer deaths. The aims of this study was to estimate the number of deaths attributable to lifestyle factors for italy and for italian regions in 2013 and to describe its variation in relation to the regional prevalence of risk factors exposure...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320174/etiological-agents-of-viral-meningitis-in-children-from-a-dengue-endemic-area-southeast-region-of-brazil
#11
Danilo B de Oliveira, Talitah M Candiani, Ana Paula M Franco-Luiz, Gabriel M F Almeida, Jônatas S Abrahão, Maria Rios, Roney S Coimbra, Erna G Kroon
Meningitis is a disease with a global distribution that constitutes a worldwide burden, with viruses as the primary etiologic agents. The range of viral meningitis severity depends mainly on age, immune status and etiological agent. The aim of this work was to investigate the suspected cases of viral meningitis using molecular techniques to confirm the viral infection. The diagnosed virus was correlated with clinical findings and cytochemical parameters in cerebrospinal liquid (CSF) of patients. CSF of 70 children with the presumptive diagnosis of viral meningitis was analyzed by real time PCR (qPCR)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319732/an-antigen-to-remember-regulation-of-b-cell-memory-in-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Aleta Pupovac, Kim L Good-Jacobson
Vaccine success relies on the formation of immunity. Humoral immunity is critical and is mediated by long-lived antibody-secreting cells and memory B cells (MBCs). Chronic infectious diseases cause a significant global burden of disease; pathogens that evade the immune system can cause phenotypical and functional changes to immune memory populations. Thus, recent studies have focused on MBC subset function. IgM(+) MBCs have emerged as important early responders in malaria. Atypical MBCs have functional qualities associated with exhaustion in chronic infectious diseases, but the requirements for their formation and where they localize remains unknown...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318858/the-global-burden-of-disease-an-information-resource-for-policy-making-and-evaluation-of-health-interventions
#13
Evangelista Rocha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318768/clinical-development-strategy-for-a-candidate-group-a-streptococcal-vaccine
#14
REVIEW
Florian Schödel, Nicole J Moreland, Janet T Wittes, Kim Mulholland, Ian Frazer, Andrew C Steer, John D Fraser, Jonathan Carapetis
GroupA streptococci (GAS) cause a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from benign pharyngitis and skin infections to severe invasive disease and the immune sequelae rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. Pharyngitis, one of the most frequent diseases caused by GAS, is highly prevalent in school-age children in temperate climates and a major cause of antibiotic use. An efficacious vaccine would reduce disease burden associated with pharyngitis and the need of care for sick children. Importantly, GAS pharyngitis is recognised as the main precursor for acute rheumatic fever so a vaccine that is efficacious against GAS pharyngitis should also prevent acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease...
March 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318392/the-global-burden-of-oral-disease-research-and-public-health-significance
#15
B A Dye
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316905/the-global-burden-of-child-burn-injuries-in-light-of-country-level-economic-development-and-income-inequality
#16
Mathilde Sengoelge, Ziad El-Khatib, Lucie Laflamme
Child burn mortality differs widely between regions and is closely related to material deprivation, but reports on their global distribution are few. Investigating their country level distribution in light of economic level and income inequality will help assess the potential for macro-level improvements. We extracted data for child burn mortality from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013 and combined data into 1-14 years to calculate rates at country, region and income levels. We also compiled potential lives saved...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306637/may-measurement-month-a-new-joint-global-initiative-by-the-international-society-of-hypertension-and-the-world-hypertension-league-to-raise-awareness-of-raised-blood-pressure
#17
Neil R Poulter, Aletta E Schutte, Maciej Tomaszewski, Daniel T Lackland
Raised blood pressure is the biggest single contributing risk factor worldwide to death and the burden of disease. However, international data suggest that fewer than half of those with hypertension are aware of their condition. In May 2017, the International Society of Hypertension and the World Hypertension League are leading a global initiative - May Measurement Month (MMM) - to raise awareness of the importance of screening. MMM will be a cross-sectional survey of up to 25 million men and women aged 18+ who have not had their BP measured since 30 April 2016...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306597/diagnosis-of-viral-hepatitis
#18
Philippa J Easterbrook, Teri Roberts, Anita Sands, Rosanna Peeling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and HIV-HBV and HCV coinfection are major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Testing and diagnosis is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, but there remains a large burden of undiagnosed infection globally. We review the global epidemiology, key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, new tools to support the hepatitis global response (2016-2020 Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy, and 2017 WHO guidelines on hepatitis testing and their key recommendations) and future directions and innovations in hepatitis diagnostics...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306563/antimicrobial-resistant-gram-negative-infections-in-neonates-burden-of-disease-and-challenges-in-treatment
#19
Laura Folgori, Julia Bielicki, Paul T Heath, Mike Sharland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the main challenges of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the neonatal population with a special focus on multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: MDR-Gram-negative bacteria are a great concern in the neonatal population, with a worldwide rise in the reported incidence and with very limited therapeutic options. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have been reported as responsible for neonatal ICU outbreaks...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303238/feasibility-of-a-peer-led-asthma-and-smoking-prevention-project-in-australian-schools-with-high-indigenous-youth
#20
Gabrielle B McCallum, Anne B Chang, Cate A Wilson, Helen L Petsky, Jan Saunders, Susan J Pizzutto, Siew Choo Su, Smita Shah
BACKGROUND: The high global burden of asthma and tobacco smoking among Indigenous people may potentially be reduced by appropriate interventions that target prevention of tobacco smoke uptake and improved asthma management. The latter includes targeted treatment based on airway inflammation. We undertook a feasibility study in two Darwin schools with a high proportion of Indigenous youth to determine the feasibility of an innovative, peer-led, school-based education program called the Asthma and Smoking Prevention Project (ASPP)...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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