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Sense of coherence theory

A Biedermann, S Bozza, F Taroni
There is ongoing discussion in forensic science and the law about the nature of the conclusions reached based on scientific evidence, and on how such conclusions - and conclusion criteria - may be justified by rational argument. Examples, among others, are encountered in fields such as fingermarks (e.g., 'this fingermark comes from Mr. A's left thumb'), handwriting examinations (e.g., 'the questioned signature is that of Mr. A'), kinship analyses (e.g., 'Mr. A is the father of child C') or anthropology (e.g...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Oleg A Godin
Interferometry of underwater noise provides a way to estimate physical parameters of the water column and the seafloor without employing any controlled sound sources. In applications of acoustic noise interferometry to coastal oceans, the propagation environment changes appreciably during the averaging times that are necessary for the Green's functions to emerge from noise cross-correlations. Here, a theory is developed to quantify the effects of nonstationarity of the propagation environment on two-point correlation functions of diffuse noise...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Maria Karekla, Evangelos C Karademas, Andrew T Gloster
Most health behavior intervention efforts are adapted from the typical psychological treatment experience and may not take into serious consideration theories specifically developed to describe the process of adaptation to illness. This paper presents a proposal for the combination of a theory about the experience of and adaptation to illness, that is the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation (CSM), and an efficient psychological theory and therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Past combinations of CSM with cognitive or cognitive-behavioral interventions have focused almost only on specific aspects of this model (mostly, illness representations and action plans) and left out other, equally important for a fruitful adaptation to illness, recommendations of the model (e...
February 5, 2018: Health Psychology Review
Vilayanur S Ramachandran, Chaipat Chunharas, Rachel Croft, Nader Batal
We report some new observations on what could be regarded as the world's simplest visual illusion-the autokinetic effect. When a single dim spot of light is viewed in a completely dark room, it moves vividly in random directions. During steady fixation, perhaps subtle eye movements cause the image to move and a failure to correct for this using eye movement command signals leads to motion perception. This is especially true because eye muscle fatigue can lead to miscalibration. However, if two dots are shown, they often move independently in different directions, which negate the eye movement theory...
January 2018: I-Perception
Viola Burau, Kathrine Carstensen, Mia Fredens, Marius Brostrøm Kousgaard
BACKGROUND: There is an increased interest in improving the physical health of people with mental illness. Little is known about implementing health promotion interventions in adult mental health organisations where many users also have physical health problems. The literature suggests that contextual factors are important for implementation in community settings. This study focused on the change process and analysed the implementation of a structural health promotion intervention in community mental health organisations in different contexts in Denmark...
January 24, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Ravinder Jerath, Shannon M Cearley, Vernon A Barnes, Mike Jensen
A fundamental function of the visual system is detecting motion, yet visual perception is poorly understood. Current research has determined that the retina and ganglion cells elicit responses for motion detection; however, the underlying mechanism for this is incompletely understood. Previously we proposed that retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations and photoreceptors work in parallel to process vision. Here we propose that motion could also be processed within the retina, and not in the brain as current theory suggests...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Michael O Vertolli, Matthew A Kelly, Jim Davies
An incoherent visualization is when aspects of different senses of a word (e.g., the biological "mouse" vs. the computer "mouse") are present in the same visualization (e.g., a visualization of a biological mouse in the same image with a computer tower). We describe and implement a new model of creating contextual coherence in the visual imagination called Coherencer, based on the SOILIE model of imagination. We show that Coherencer is able to generate scene descriptions that are more coherent than SOILIE's original approach as well as a parallel connectionist algorithm that is considered competitive in the literature on general coherence...
November 10, 2017: Cognitive Science
Jasmijn Slootjes, Saskia Keuzenkamp, Sawitri Saharso
Considering how much we know about the impact of the Sense of Coherence (SOC) on different health-related outcomes, we know surprisingly little about how a strong SOC actually develops. In this study we examine the mechanisms behind the formation of a strong SOC and study the role of migration, integration and general resistance resources (GRRs) in this process. We held 46 life-story interviews with women of Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese descent. We divided the respondents in a relatively strong and weak SOC group in order to discern patterns of life experiences associated with SOC development...
December 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Randi Sviland, Kari Martinsen, Målfrid Råheim
This narrative case study, created from several qualitative sources, portrays a young woman's life experiences and an eight yearlong therapy process with Norwegian Psychomotor Physiotherapy (NPMP). It is analyzed retrospectively from an analytical angle, where NPMP theory is expanded with Løgstrup's phenomenology of sensation and Ricoeur's narrative philosophy. Understanding Rita's narrative through this window displayed some foundational phenomena in a singular way, illuminating embodied experiences in inter-subjective relationships in movement, sensation and time entwined...
November 2, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Emily Harrop, Simon Noble, Michelle Edwards, Stephanie Sivell, Barbara Moore, Annmarie Nelson
Coping plays an essential role in maintaining the wellbeing of patients with cancer. A number of different coping responses and strategies have been identified in the literature. The value and relevance of meaning based coping theory has also been emphasised, including Antonovosky's Sense of Coherence (SoC) theory. Ten patients with advanced lung cancer were interviewed up to three times. A total of twenty in depth interviews were carried out, fully transcribed and data were analysed following a methodology of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis...
November 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
Elijah X M Wee, M Susan Taylor
Increasingly, continuous organizational change is viewed as the new reality for organizations and their members. However, this model of organizational change, which is usually characterized by ongoing, cumulative, and substantive change from the bottom up, remains underexplored in the literature. Taking a multilevel approach, the authors develop a theoretical model to explain the mechanisms behind the amplification and accumulation of valuable, ongoing work-unit level changes over time, which then become substantial changes at the organizational level...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
Ruca Maass, Bengt Lindström, Monica Lillefjell
BACKGROUND: Providing individuals with psychosocial resources such as sense of coherence (SOC) seems a beneficial strategy for health promotion in the neighborhood. In order to become a supporting theory for health promotion, Salutogenesis should renew its focus on resources for health, and explore how the development of a strong SOC can be facilitated. METHODS: Relevant issues were explored using a Grounded Theory- approach. Three focus-group-sessions and three in-depth interviews were conducted with strategically sampled participants...
September 12, 2017: BMC Public Health
Unni K Moksnes, Gørill Haugan
AIM: Resilience is seen as a vital resource for coping and mental health in adolescents. However, there is no universally accepted theory or definition of resilience, leading to considerable challenges regarding how to operationalise and measure this construct. The study aimed at providing further knowledge of the psychometric properties (dimensionality, construct validity and internal consistency) of the 28-item version of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) in N = 1183 Norwegian adolescents, 13-18 years old...
August 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
Lin Zhao, Jian Xu, Jicheng Ding, Aimeng Liu, Liang Li
Multipath signal is often considered an interference that must be removed. The coherence between multipath and direct component makes it difficult to use conventional direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation methods in a smart antenna system. This study demonstrates a new multipath signal DOA estimation technique. Unlike the common methods, without decoherence preprocessing, the proposed algorithm first apply a complex fast independent component analysis (cFastICA) algorithm to obtain the steering vectors with multipath information that corresponds to each source signal...
2017: PloS One
Ede Nagy, Rolf Verres, Dennis Grevenstein
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a critical phase for the development substance use patterns. We propose that individual competence in dealing with psychoactive substances is crucial for the development of healthy substance use behavior and prevention of substance misuse or addiction. OBJECTIVES: We present a new concept of health related skills in dealing with alcohol and other drugs in adolescence, its operationalization and validation. Our conception of risk competence (RICO) consists of the four major factors being Reflective, Informed, Self-Controlled and Life-Oriented, and their sub-facets...
December 6, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Dana Hag Hamed, Marguerite Daniel
Although there are many studies assessing the influence of religious beliefs on health they do not agree on whether the impact is positive or negative. More so, there is no consensus in the available literature on the definition of fatalism and what it means to individuals. In this phenomenological study we attempt to define what religious fatalism means to people living with diabetes in Khartoum, and how it affects their health beliefs, and how those beliefs affect their sense of coherence and generalized resistance resources, since salutogenesis is the guiding theory in this study...
July 1, 2017: Global Health Promotion
İbrahim Ölçer, Ahmet Öncü
Distributed vibration sensing based on phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry ( ϕ -OTDR) is being widely used in several applications. However, one of the main challenges in coherent detection-based ϕ -OTDR systems is the fading noise, which impacts the detection performance. In addition, typical signal averaging and differentiating techniques are not suitable for detecting high frequency events. This paper presents a new approach for reducing the effect of fading noise in fiber optic distributed acoustic vibration sensing systems without any impact on the frequency response of the detection system...
June 5, 2017: Sensors
Suchitra Nelson, Mary Beth Slusar, Jeffrey M Albert, Christine A Riedy
INTRODUCTION: Parent/caregivers' inability to recognize the importance of baby teeth has been associated with inadequate self-management of children's oral health (i.e. lower likelihood of preventive dental visits) which may result in dental caries and the need for more expensive caries-related restorative treatment under general anesthesia. Health behavior theories aid researchers in understanding the impact and effectiveness of interventions on changing health behaviors and health outcomes...
August 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Hua-Zhou Chen, Jia-Qi Hu, Suo Wang, Bo Li, Xing-Yuan Wang, Yi-Lun Wang, Lun Dai, Ren-Min Ma
Spasers are a new class of laser devices with cavity sizes free from optical diffraction limit. They are an emergent tool for various applications, including biochemical sensing, superresolution imaging, and on-chip optical communication. According to its original definition, a spaser is a coherent surface plasmon amplifier that does not necessarily generate a radiative photon output. However, to date, spasers have only been studied with scattered photons, and their intrinsic surface plasmon emission is a "dark" emission that is yet to be revealed because of its evanescent nature...
April 2017: Science Advances
P A Nelson, K Kane, C J Pearce, C Bundy, A Chisholm, R Hilton, R Thorneloe, H Young, C E M Griffiths, L Cordingley
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is an inflammatory long-term condition involving comorbidities, unhealthy lifestyle and significant life impact. Patients' understanding of psoriasis is limited and support lacking. The Common-Sense Model of Self-Regulation of Health and Illness emphasizes the role of illness and treatment beliefs on coping and self-management. New 'Pso Well® ' patient materials informed by the model, addressed psoriasis as a long-term condition, medication management and lifestyle behaviours...
September 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
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