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Chi Zhang, Huaigao Liu, Shangwu Chen, Yongkang Luo
Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) is a serine exo-peptidase that can inactivate incretins by removing N-terminal dipeptides. Currently, inhibiting the DPP-IV activity is a common treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2D). The goal of this study is to investigate whether IADHFL, a novel DPP-IV inhibitory peptide identified from bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), has the potential to modulate T2D. IADHFL remained stable after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and significantly decreased the activity and expression of both soluble and membrane-bound DPP-IV after 24 h and 48 h of treatment...
March 19, 2018: Food & Function
Zai Wang, Liang Peng, Yu-Li Song, Shiqing Xu, Zhan Hua, Ni Fang, Min Zhai, Honglin Liu, Qing Fang, Tingting Deng, Wenjian Zhang, Yuan-Jia Chen, Jinning Lou
Aberrant blood vessel formation and hemorrhage may contribute to tumor progression and are potential targets in the treatment of several types of cancer. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are highly vascularized, particularly when they are well-differentiated. However, the process of vascularization and endothelial cell detachment in PNETs is poorly understood. In the present study, 132 PNET clinical samples were examined and a special type of hemorrhagic region was observed in ~30% of the samples regardless of tumor subtype...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Aramsri Meeprom, Catherine B Chan, Weerachat Sompong, Sirichai Adisakwattana
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive precursor to advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which exert deleterious effects on cells and tissues. MG also causes pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis. Isoferulic acid (IFA), a naturally occurring cinnamic acid derivative, is considered to be an antiglycating agent. However, the effect of IFA on MG-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction remains unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the protective effect of IFA against MG-induced mitochrondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in INS-1 pancreatic β-cells...
March 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Xiao-Dan Mo, Li-Ping Gao, Qing-Jun Wang, Jie Yin, Yu-Hong Jing
BACKGROUND: The fibrillation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) triggered the amyloid deposition, then enhanced the loss of the pancreatic islet mass. However, it is not clear what factor is the determinant in development of the fibril formation. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of lipid on IAPP fibril and its injury on pancreatic islet. METHODS: The fibril form of human IAPP (hIAPP) was tested using thioflavin-T fluorescence assay and transmission electron microscope technology after incubated with palmitate for 5 h at 25 °C...
March 9, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Igor Cestari, Atashi Anupama, Kenneth Stuart
Many cellular processes change during the Trypanosoma brucei life cycle as this parasite alternates between the mammalian host and tsetse fly vector. We show that the inositol phosphate pathway helps regulate these developmental changes. Knockdown of inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK), which phosphorylates Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, resulted in changes in bloodstream forms that are characteristic of insect stage procyclic forms. These changes include expression of the procyclic surface coat, upregulation of RNA-binding proteins that we show to regulate stage-specific transcripts, and activation of oxidative phosphorylation with increased ATP production in bloodstream forms...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Qingjuan Hu, Yuping Li, Chao Liu, Li-Ping Huang, Lvming Zeng, Songhua Wang, Hao Song, Hailong Peng, Jianhua Huang, Chong Chen, Li-Hua Yao
Our previous work showed that polysaccharide isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. (POP) has an insulinotropic effect. The voltage-gated Na+ channel (VGSC) in the excitement phase plays an important role. This work aims to study the effect of POP on the voltage-gated Na+ channel current (INa ) and its channel dynamic characteristics in insulin-secreting β-cell line (INS-1) cells of rat. Our results revealed that POP can inhibit the amplitude of INa and improve cell survival in a concentration-dependent manner...
March 4, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Tsukasa Nakamura, Kazunori D Yamada, Kentaro Tomii, Kazutaka Katoh
Summary: We report an update for the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program to enable parallel calculation of large numbers of sequences. The G-INS-1 option of MAFFT was recently reported to have higher accuracy than other methods for large data, but this method has been impractical for most largescale analyses, due to the requirement of large computational resources. We introduce a scalable variant, G-large-INS-1, that has equivalent accuracy to G-INS-1 and is applicable to 50,000 or more sequences...
March 1, 2018: Bioinformatics
Gong Deuk Bae, Eun-Young Park, Dong Jae Baek, Hee-Sook Jun, Oh Yoon Sin
Liquiritigenin (LQ) is a major active component of licorice root, which is a flavone used for treating many diseases, including diabetes. LQ has been shown to exhibit a glucose-lowering effect in diabetic mice. Therefore, we investigated the potential of LQ to protect against lipotoxicity-induced beta-cell apoptosis and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Exposure of INS-1 rat insulinoma cells to LQ significantly increased cell viability and blocked palmitate (PA)-induced apoptosis, as evidenced by the reduction of Annexin-V-stained cells, cleaved caspase-3 levels, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity, as well as upregulation of Bcl-2 expression...
February 27, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Rajesh Guruswamy Damodaran, Patrick Vermette
Diabetes Mellitus involves the loss of function and/or absolute numbers of insulin-producing β-cells in pancreatic islets. Islet transplantation is currently being investigated as a potential cure, and advances in tissue engineering methods can be used to improve pancreatic islets survival and functionality. Transplanted islets experience anoikis, hypoxia and inflammation-mediated immune response, leading to early damage and subsequent failure of the graft. Recent development in tissue engineering enables the use of decellularized organs as scaffolds for cell therapies...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
A Karatug Kacar, S Gezginci-Oktayoglu, S Bolkent
Insulinoma INS-1 cell line is a pancreatic beta cell tumor which is characterized with high insulin content and secretion in response to increasing glucose levels. 4-Methylcatechol (4-MC) is a metabolite of quercetin, which is known as a potential drug for inhibition of tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the applying doses of 4-methylcatechol (4-MC) for triggening cell death and decreasing the cell function of rat insulinoma INS-1 beta cells. The rate of apoptosis and the amount of insulin in the cell and the secretions were determined by the ELISA method...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Juliane Zibolka, Ivonne Bazwinsky-Wutschke, Eckhard Mühlbauer, Elmar Peschke
Recent investigations of our group established that melatonin modulates hormone secretion of pancreatic islets via melatonin receptor types MT1 and MT2. Expression of MT1 and MT2 has been shown in mouse, rat and human pancreatic islets as well as in the β-, α- and δ-cell lines INS-1, αTC1.9 and QGP-1. In view of these earlier investigations, the present study was performed to analyze in detail the distribution and density of melatonin receptors on the main islet cell types in human pancreatic tissue obtained from non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic patients...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
C-J Ingelmann, M Witzig, J Möhring, M Schollenberger, I Kühn, M Rodehutscord
This study aimed to investigate the effect of phytase and a combination of phytase and xylanase on the prececal phosphorus digestibility (pcdP) of wheat-based diets in turkeys. A low-P basal diet (BD) based on cornstarch and soybean meal, and 2 diets containing 43% of different wheat genotypes (genotype diets GD6 or GD7) were fed to turkeys from 20 to 27 d of age. Diets were fed either without enzyme supplementation or supplemented with phytase (500 FTU/kg) or a combination of phytase and xylanase (16,000 BXU/kg)...
February 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Kyle B Kener, Devin J Munk, Chad R Hancock, Jeffery S Tessem
High-resolution respirometry allows for the measurement of oxygen consumption of isolated mitochondria, cells and tissues. Beta cells play a critical role in the body by controlling blood glucose levels through insulin secretion in response to elevated glucose concentrations. Insulin secretion is controlled by glucose metabolism and mitochondrial respiration. Therefore, measuring intact beta cell respiration is essential to be able to improve beta cell function as a treatment for diabetes. Using intact 832/13 INS-1 derived beta cells we can measure the effect of increasing glucose concentration on cellular respiration...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ji Hoon Song, Dahae Lee, Seoung Rak Lee, Jae Sik Yu, Tae Su Jang, Joo-Won Nam, Ki Hyun Kim, Ki Sung Kang
A phytochemical investigation of the MeOH extracts from mulberries (the fruit of Morus alba L.) led to the identification of six heterocyclic compounds (1‑6). These compounds were screened to detect whether they protected pancreatic INS‑1 cells from streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced cytotoxicity. Compound 3 was the most effective at preventing STZ‑induced cytotoxicity and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in INS‑1 cells. In addition, compound 3 effectively prevented apoptosis induced by STZ in INS‑1 cells...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Liang Zhang, Yuyan Zhao, Lei Guo
17β-estradiol (17β-E2) is a steroid hormone that is known to exert effects on blood glucose homeostasis. The G protein‑coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has been identified as a non-genomic estrogenic receptor, and is involved in numerous physiological processes, including cell survival, energy provision and metabolism. 17β-E2 may decrease apoptosis by binding to the GPER. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway is involved in physiological and pathological functions such as autophagy...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Atef G Hussein, Randa H Mohamed, Sally M Shalaby, Dalia M Abd El Motteleb
OBJECTIVES: The biological mechanisms behind the association between vitamin K (Vit K) and glucose metabolism are uncertain. We aimed to analyze the expression of insulin 1 (Ins 1), insulin 2 (Ins 2) and cyclin D2, the expression of adiponectin and UCP-1 . In addition, we aimed to estimate the doses of Vit K2 able to affect various aspects of glucose and energy metabolism in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Thirty adult male rats were allocated equally into five groups: control group, diabetes mellitus group, and groups 3, 4, and 5, which received Vit K2 at three daily dose levels (10, 15, and 30 mg/kg, respectively) for 8 wk...
March 2018: Nutrition
Kaiyuan Yang, Catherine B Chan
Epicatechin (EC) is a monomeric flavan-3-ol. We have previously demonstrated that glucose-intolerant rats fed flavan-3-ols exhibit improved pancreatic islet function corresponding with an increase in circulating EC-derived metabolites. Thus, we speculate that EC may act as a cellular signaling molecule in vivo to modulate insulin secretion. In this study we further examined the effects of different concentrations of EC on H2O2 or hyperglycemia-induced ROS production, as well as on saturated fatty acid (SFA)-impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in INS-1 cell line in vitro...
February 8, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Chong Chen, Songhua Wang, Qingjuan Hu, Lvming Zeng, Hailong Peng, Chao Liu, Li-Ping Huang, Hao Song, Yuping Li, Li-Hua Yao, Wei Meng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Islet beta cells (β-cells) are unique cells that play a critical role in glucose homeostasis by secreting insulin in response to increased glucose levels. Voltage-gated ion channels in β-cells, such as K+ and Ca2+ channels, contribute to insulin secretion. The response of voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) in β-cells to the changes in glucose levels remains unknown. This work aims to determine the role of extracellular glucose on the regulation of VGSC. METHODS: The effect of glucose on VGSC currents (INa) was investigated in insulin-secreting β-cell line (INS-1) cells of rats using whole-cell patch clamp techniques, and the effects of glucose on insulin content and cell viability were determined using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay methods respectively...
January 24, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jingya Lyu, Hitomi Imachi, Takuo Yoshimoto, Kensaku Fukunaga, Seisuke Sato, Tomohiro Ibata, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Tao Dong, Kazuko Yonezaki, Nao Yamaji, Fumi Kikuchi, Hisakazu Iwama, Ryou Ishikawa, Reiji Haba, Yasunori Sugiyama, Huanxiang Zhang, Koji Murao
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulates the secretion of thyroid hormones by binding the TSH receptor (TSHR). TSHR is well-known to be expressed in thyroid tissue, excepting it, TSHR has also been expressed in many other tissues. In this study, we have examined the expression of TSHR in rat pancreatic islets and evaluated the role of TSH in regulating pancreas-specific gene expression. TSHR was confirmed to be expressed in rodent pancreatic islets and its cell line, INS-1 cells. TSH directly affected the glucose uptake in INS cells by up-regulating the expression of GLUT2, and furthermore this process was blocked by SB203580, the specific inhibitor of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Luiza C S Erthal, Luana Jotha-Mattos, Flávio Alves Lara, Sabrina Alves Dos Reis, Bernardo Miguel de Oliveira Pascarelli, Cinthia Melo Costa, Kleber L A Souza, Luís Maurício T R Lima
The human amylin is a pancreatic peptide hormone found in hyperhormonemic state along with insulin in subclinical diabetes. Amylin has been associated with the pathology of type 2 diabetes, particularly due to its ability to assembly into toxic oligomers and amyloid specimens. On the other hand, some variants such as murine amylin has been described as non-amyloidogenic, either in vitro or in vivo. Recent data have demonstrated the amyloid propensity of murine amylin and the therapeutic analogue pramlintide, suggesting a universality for amylin amyloidosis...
January 25, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
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