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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446531/mining-exosomal-genes-for-pancreatic-cancer-targets
#1
Amy Makler, Ramaswamy Narayanan
BACKGROUND: Exosomes, cell-derived vesicles encompassing lipids, DNA, proteins coding genes and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are present in diverse body fluids. They offer novel biomarker and drug therapy potential for diverse diseases, including cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using gene ontology, exosomal genes database and GeneCards metadata analysis tools, a database of cancer-associated protein coding genes and ncRNAs (n=2,777) was established. Variant analysis, expression profiling and pathway mapping were used to identify putative pancreatic cancer exosomal gene candidates...
May 2017: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445609/exosomes-derived-from-mesenchymal-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-promote-chemoresistance
#2
Richard J Lobb, Rosa van Amerongen, Adrian Wiegmans, Sunyoung Ham, Jill E Larsen, Andreas Möller
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common lung cancer type and the most common cause of mortality in lung cancer patients. NSCLC is often associated with resistance to chemotherapeutics and together with rapid metastatic spread, results in limited, mostly palliative, treatment options and poor patient survival. NSCLC are heterogeneous, and consist of epithelial and mesenchymal NSCLC cells. Mesenchymal NSCLC cells are thought to be responsible for the chemoresistance phenotype, but if and how this phenotype can be transferred to other NSCLC cells is currently not known...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441721/pathogenic-or-therapeutic-extracellular-vesicles-in-rheumatic-diseases-role-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-vesicles
#3
REVIEW
Stella Cosenza, Maxime Ruiz, Marie Maumus, Christian Jorgensen, Danièle Noël
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important mediators of cell-to-cell communication pathways via the transport of proteins, mRNA, miRNA and lipids. There are three main types of EVs, exosomes, microparticles and apoptotic bodies, which are classified according to their size and biogenesis. EVs are secreted by all cell types and their function reproduces that of the parental cell. They are involved in many biological processes that regulate tissue homeostasis and physiopathology of diseases. In rheumatic diseases, namely osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), EVs have been isolated from synovial fluid and shown to play pathogenic roles contributing to progression of both diseases...
April 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440066/elevated-glypican-1-expression-is-associated-with-an-unfavorable-prognosis-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#4
Haizhen Lu, Fangfei Niu, Fang Liu, Jiajia Gao, Yulin Sun, Xiaohang Zhao
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most lethal cancer in humans, with a 5-year survival rate of <5%. Recently, glypican-1 (GPC1)-expressing circulating exosomes were found to be a promising diagnostic tool for PDAC. However, the aberrant expression of GPC1 has not been systematically evaluated in large-scale clinical samples of PDAC. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of GPC1 mRNA and protein expression features. Included in this study were 178 PDAC patients from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) and 186 subjects whose tissues were used in immunohistochemical staining assays...
April 24, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439826/surface-acoustic-wave-lysis-and-ion-exchange-membrane-quantification-of-exosomal-microrna
#5
Katherine E Richards, David B Go, Reginald Hill
MicroRNA detection and quantification are commonly explored techniques for diagnostic and prognostic predictions. Typically, microRNAs are extracted and purified from a biological source, converted into complementary DNA (cDNA), and amplified using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The number of RT-PCR cycles required to reach the threshold of detection provides a relative quantification of the target microRNA when this data is normalized to the quantity of a control microRNA. This methodology has several drawbacks, including the need to artificially amplify the target microRNA for detection as well as quantification errors that can occur due to expression level differences of the control microRNAs for normalization in various sample sources...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439044/correction-to-microrna-17-92-cluster-in-exosomes-enhance-neuroplasticity-and-functional-recovery-after-stroke-in-rats
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438694/predictive-role-of-gstp1-containing-exosomes-in-chemotherapy-resistant-breast-cancer
#7
Su-Jin Yang, Dan-Dan Wang, Jian Li, Han-Zi Xu, Hong-Yu Shen, Xiu Chen, Si-Ying Zhou, Shan-Liang Zhong, Jian-Hua Zhao, Jin-Hai Tang
Anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy regimens are usually used as neoadjuvant chemotherapies to decrease tumour size and prevent metastasis of advanced breast cancer. However, patients have a high risk of developing chemo-resistance during treatment through still unknown mechanisms. Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), which belongs to the family of phase II metabolic enzymes, has been reported to function in detoxifying several anti-cancer drugs by conjugating them with glutathione. Previous studies have identified GSTP1 as a predictor of prognosis and chemo-resistance in breast cancer patients, but the mechanisms governing GSTP1-dependent drug resistance are still unclear...
April 21, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438662/never-let-it-go-stopping-key-mechanisms-underlying-metastasis-to-fight-pancreatic-cancer
#8
REVIEW
E Giovannetti, C L van der Borden, A E Frampton, A Ali, O Firuzi, G J Peters
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an extremely aggressive neoplasm, predicted to become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths before 2030. This dismal trend is mainly due to lack of effective treatments against its metastatic behavior. Therefore, a better understanding of the key mechanisms underlying metastasis should provide new opportunities for therapeutic purposes. Genomic analyses revealed that aberrations that fuel PDAC tumorigenesis and progression, such as SMAD4 loss, are also implicated in metastasis...
April 21, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437377/microrna-21-is-required-for-local-and-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-in-multiple-organ-protection-against-sepsis
#9
Ping Jia, Xiaoli Wu, Yan Dai, Jie Teng, Yi Fang, Jiachang Hu, Jianzhou Zou, Mingyu Liang, Xiaoqiang Ding
OBJECTIVE: Sepsis, triggered by microbial infection, is a common and life-threatening systemic illness, often leads to impaired function of vital organs. Ischemic preconditioning induced by transient brief episodes of ischemia is a powerful innate mechanism of organ protection. We have reported that a 15-minute renal ischemic preconditioning substantially attenuated subsequent renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Here, we investigate whether a brief ischemia and reperfusion in kidney can provide protection at local and remote sites against sepsis-induced organ injury, and whether this protection is microRNA-21 dependent...
April 21, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436951/hypoxic-lung-cancer-secreted-exosomal-mir-23a-increased-angiogenesis-and-vascular-permeability-by-targeting-prolyl-hydroxylase-and-tight-junction-protein-zo-1
#10
Y-L Hsu, J-Y Hung, W-A Chang, Y-S Lin, Y-C Pan, P-H Tsai, C-Y Wu, P-L Kuo
Hypoxia plays a critical role during the evolution of malignant cells and tumour microenvironment (TME).Tumour-derived exosomes contain informative microRNAs involved in the interaction of cancer and stromal cells, thus contributing to tissue remodelling of tumour microenvironment. This study aims to clarify how hypoxia affects tumour angiogenesis through exosomes shed from lung cancer cells. Lung cancer cells produce more exosomes under hypoxic conditions than do parental cells under normoxic conditions. miR-23a was significantly upregulated in exosomes from lung cancer under hypoxic conditions...
April 24, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436447/an-integrated-double-filtration-microfluidic-device-for-isolation-enrichment-and-quantification-of-urinary-extracellular-vesicles-for-detection-of-bladder-cancer
#11
Li-Guo Liang, Meng-Qi Kong, Sherry Zhou, Ye-Feng Sheng, Ping Wang, Tao Yu, Fatih Inci, Winston Patrick Kuo, Lan-Juan Li, Utkan Demirci, ShuQi Wang
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, are present in a variety of bodily fluids, and the concentration of these sub-cellular vesicles and their associated biomarkers (proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids) can be used to aid clinical diagnosis. Although ultracentrifugation is commonly used for isolation of EVs, it is highly time-consuming, labor-intensive and instrument-dependent for both research laboratories and clinical settings. Here, we developed an integrated double-filtration microfluidic device that isolated and enriched EVs with a size range of 30-200 nm from urine, and subsequently quantified the EVs via a microchip ELISA...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436002/characterization-of-the-chondrocyte-secretome-in-photoclickable-poly-ethylene-glycol-hydrogels
#12
Margaret C Schneider, Christopher A Barnes, Stephanie J Bryant
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels are highly tunable platforms that are promising cell delivery vehicles for chondrocytes and cartilage tissue engineering. In addition to characterizing the type of extracellular matrix (ECM) that forms, understanding the types of proteins that are secreted by encapsulated cells may be important. Thus, the objectives for this study were to characterize the secretome of chondrocytes encapsulated in PEG hydrogels and determine whether the secretome varies as a function of hydrogel stiffness and culture condition...
April 24, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435469/interleukin-3-receptor-targeted-exosomes-inhibit-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia-cell-growth
#13
Daniele Bellavia, Stefania Raimondo, Giovanna Calabrese, Stefano Forte, Marta Cristaldi, Agostina Patinella, Lorenzo Memeo, Mauro Manno, Samuele Raccosta, Patrizia Diana, Girolamo Cirrincione, Gianluca Giavaresi, Francesca Monteleone, Simona Fontana, Giacomo De Leo, Riccardo Alessandro
Despite Imatinib (IM), a selective inhibitor of Bcr-Abl, having led to improved prognosis in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) patients, acquired resistance and long-term adverse effects is still being encountered. There is, therefore, urgent need to develop alternative strategies to overcome drug resistance. According to the molecules expressed on their surface, exosomes can target specific cells. Exosomes can also be loaded with a variety of molecules, thereby acting as a vehicle for the delivery of therapeutic agents...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433939/enhanced-proangiogenic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-stimulated-by-a-nitric-oxide-releasing-polymer
#14
Wei Du, Kaiyue Zhang, Shuaiqiang Zhang, Ran Wang, Yan Nie, Hongyan Tao, Zhibo Han, Lu Liang, Di Wang, Jianfeng Liu, Na Liu, Zhongchao Han, Deling Kong, Qiang Zhao, Zongjin Li
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes have been recognized as new candidates for the treatment of degenerative diseases or injury and may provide an alternative to cell-based therapy. However, the compositions in MSC-derived exosomes are highly influenced by the microenvironment in which their original cells reside. Here, we hypothesized that a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing polymer can boost the proangiogenic compositions of exosomes and enhance their proangiogenic capacity. Our results demonstrated that exosomes, released from human placenta-derived MSCs (hP-MSCs) by NO stimulation, augment the angiogenic effects of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro...
April 17, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433888/plasma-derived-exosomes-contribute-to-inflammation-via-the-tlr9-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-chronic-heart-failure-patients
#15
Wei Ye, Xiaojun Tang, Zhengquan Yang, Chu Liu, Xin Zhang, Jing Jin, Jianxin Lyu
Exosomes are small vesicles that contain proteins, DNA and RNA, and play an important role in inflammation; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we found increased plasma-derived exosomes in chronic heart failure patients compared with healthy controls. Further, our data demonstrated that plasma-derived exosomes carried mtDNA, and triggered an inflammatory response via the TLR9-NF-κB pathway, as well, the inflammatory effect was closely related to exosomal mtDNA copy number...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433698/adipose-crosstalk-with-other-cell-types-in-health-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Chan Hee J Choi, Paul Cohen
In addition to storing and mobilizing energy, adipocytes secrete circulating factors to signal to other tissues and coordinate energy metabolism. These functions can become disrupted in the setting of obesity, contributing to the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Since the discovery of leptin and adiponectin, an increasing number of adipokines have been identified and their functions elucidated. More recent studies have highlighted other modes by which adipose tissue can participate in crosstalk with other cell types and tissues...
April 19, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433632/role-of-microrna-130b-in-placental-pgc-1%C3%AE-tfam-mitochondrial-biogenesis-pathway
#17
Shaoning Jiang, April M Teague, Jeanie B Tryggestad, Steven D Chernausek
Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with abnormal placenta mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress, which affect fetal development and offspring long-term health. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism. The molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of PGC-1α in placenta in the context of diabetes remain unclear. The present study examined the role of microRNA 130b (miR-130b-3p) in regulating PGC-1α expression and oxidative stress in a placental trophoblastic cell line (BeWo)...
April 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432594/microrna-transfer-between-bone-marrow-adipose-and-multiple-myeloma-cells
#18
REVIEW
Luna Soley, Carolyne Falank, Michaela R Reagan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease, largely due to the tumor-supportive role of the bone marrow microenvironment. Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is one component of the fertile microenvironment which is believed to contribute to myeloma progression and drug resistance, as well as participate in a vicious cycle of osteolysis and tumor growth. RECENT FINDINGS: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as instrumental regulators of cellular processes that enable the development and dissemination of cancer...
April 21, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432329/affinity-biosensors-using-recombinant-native-membrane-proteins-displayed-on-exosomes-application-to-botulinum-neurotoxin-b-receptor
#19
Richard Desplantes, Christian Lévêque, Benjamin Muller, Manuela Lotierzo, Géraldine Ferracci, Michel Popoff, Michael Seagar, Robert Mamoun, Oussama El Far
The development of simple molecular assays with membrane protein receptors in a native conformation still represents a challenging task. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles which, due to their stability and small size, are suited for analysis in various assay formats. Here, we describe a novel approach to sort recombinant fully native and functional membrane proteins to exosomes using a targeting peptide. Specific binding of high affinity ligands to the potassium channel Kv1.2, the G-protein coupled receptor CXCR4, and the botulinum neurotoxin type B (BoNT/B) receptor, indicated their correct assembly and outside out orientation in exosomes...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431250/nuclear-proximity-of-mtr4-to-rna-exosome-restricts-dna-mutational-asymmetry
#20
Junghyun Lim, Pankaj Kumar Giri, David Kazadi, Brice Laffleur, Wanwei Zhang, Veronika Grinstein, Evangelos Pefanis, Lewis M Brown, Erik Ladewig, Ophélie Martin, Yuling Chen, Raul Rabadan, François Boyer, Gerson Rothschild, Michel Cogné, Eric Pinaud, Haiteng Deng, Uttiya Basu
The distribution of sense and antisense strand DNA mutations on transcribed duplex DNA contributes to the development of immune and neural systems along with the progression of cancer. Because developmentally matured B cells undergo biologically programmed strand-specific DNA mutagenesis at focal DNA/RNA hybrid structures, they make a convenient system to investigate strand-specific mutagenesis mechanisms. We demonstrate that the sense and antisense strand DNA mutagenesis at the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus and some other regions of the B cell genome depends upon localized RNA processing protein complex formation in the nucleus...
April 20, 2017: Cell
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