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Exosomes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646700/increased-serum-mir-7-is-a-promising-biomarker-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-its-microvascular-complications
#1
Shujun Wan, Jun Wang, Jing Wang, Jia Wu, Jiaxi Song, Chen-Yu Zhang, Chunni Zhang, Cheng Wang, Jun-Jun Wang
AIMS: To investigate the alteration pattern and physiologic state of islet-specific miR-7 in the serum of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and T2DM-associated microvascular complications (T2DMC) and to evaluate its clinical significance. METHODS: The levels of serum miR-7 were firstly examined and compared in 76 T2DM patients, 76 T2DMC patients and 74 age-gender matched controls using RT-qPCR. Subsequently, the physiologic state of serum miR-7 was characterized by determining its concentrations in isolated exosomes and corresponding exosome-free samples from the same three cohorts' samples...
June 11, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646161/circulating-exosomal-mir-125a-3p-as-a-novel-biomarker-for-early-stage-colon-cancer
#2
Jing Wang, Feihu Yan, Qi Zhao, Fei Zhan, Ruitao Wang, Liang Wang, Yanqiao Zhang, Xiaoyi Huang
Circulating exosome holds great potentials as biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of human cancers. Previously, we have applied small RNA sequencing to identify aberrantly expressed exosomal miRNAs as candidates for diagnostic markers in colon cancer patients. In this validation cohort, plasma derived exosomal miRNA was isolated from 50 early-stage colon cancer patients and 50 matched healthy volunteers. Real-time qRT-PCR revealed that miR-125a-3p, miR-320c were significantly up-regulated in plasma exosomes of the patients with early stage colon cancer...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646026/exosomes-promising-sacks-for-treating-ischemic-heart-disease
#3
Gui-Hao Chen, Jun Xu, Yue-Jin Yang
Ischemic heart disease(IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite development of continuously improving therapeutic strategies, morbidity and mortality of patients with IHD remains relatively high. Exosomes are a subpopulation of vesicles that are universally recognized as major mediators in intercellular communication. Numerous preclinical studies showed that these tiny vesicles were protective in IHD, through such actions as alleviating myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, promoting angiogenesis, inhibiting fibrosis and facilitating cardiac regeneration...
June 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643940/proteomic-profiling-of-extracellular-vesicles-secreted-from-toxoplasma-gondii
#4
Pryscilla Fanini Wowk, Maria Luisa Zardo, Halisson Tesseroli Miot, Samuel Goldenberg, Paulo Costa Carvalho, Patricia Alves Mörking
Toxoplasma gondii infects a wide range of hosts worldwide, including humans and domesticated animals causing toxoplasmosis disease. Recently, exosomes, small extracellular vesicles (EV) that contain nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids derived from their original cells were linked with disease protection. The effect of EVs derived from T. gondii on the immune response and its relevance in a physiological context is unknown. Here we disclose the first proteomic profiling of T. gondii EVs compared to EVs isolated from a human foreskin fibroblast infected cell line cultured in a vesicle- free medium...
June 23, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643924/exosomes-novel-regulators-of-bone-remodelling-and-potential-therapeutic-agents-for-orthodontics
#5
REVIEW
L S Holliday, K P McHugh, J Zuo, J I Aguirre, J K Neubert, W J Rody
Recent studies suggest that exosomes are involved in intercellular communication required for the maintenance of healthy bone. Exosomes are small (30-150 nm in diameter) extracellular vesicles that are formed in multivesicular bodies and are released from cells as the multivesicular bodies fuse with the plasma membrane. Regulatory exosomes have the capacity to exert profound control over target cells. They can stimulate plasma membrane receptors and are also internalized by the target cell delivering proteins, lipids, small molecules and functional RNAs from the cell of origin...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643914/the-use-of-cell-culture-platforms-to-identify-novel-markers-of-bone-and-dentin-resorption
#6
W J Rody, O Krokhin, V Spicer, C A Chamberlain, M Chamberlain, K P McHugh, S M Wallet, A K Emory, J D Crull, L S Holliday
OBJECTIVES: 1) To test the hypothesis that there would be proteomic differences in the composition of exosomes isolated from osteoclasts and odontoclasts and 2) to determine the clinical usefulness of these in vitro biomarker candidates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mouse bone marrow-derived precursors were cultured on either dentin or bone slices and allowed to mature and begin resorption. Exosomes were isolated from cell culture media and characterized by mass spectrometry...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643872/circulating-microrna-as-candidates-for-early-embryonic-viability-in-cattle
#7
K G Pohler, J A Green, L A Moley, S Gunewardena, W T Hung, R R Payton, X Hong, L K Christenson, T W Geary, M F Smith
Blood-borne extracellular vesicles (i.e. exosomes and microvesicles) carrying microRNAs (miRNAs) could make excellent biomarkers of disease and different physiologic states, including pregnancy status. We tested the hypothesis that circulating extracellular vesicle-derived miRNAs might differentiate the pregnancy status of cows that had maintained pregnancy to Day 30 from non-pregnant cows or from those that exhibited embryonic mortality between Days 17-30 of gestation. Cows were randomly assigned for artificial insemination with fertile semen (n= 36) or dead semen (n = 8; control group) on Day 0 (day of estrus)...
June 23, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643865/characterization-and-biological-function-of-milk-derived-mirnas
#8
Regina Golan-Gerstl, Yaffa Elbaum Shiff, Vardit Lavi-Moshayoff, Daniel Schecter Dena Leshkowitz, Shimon Reif
SCOPE: Breastfeeding is associated with reduced risk of infection, immune mediated disorders, obesity and even cancer. Recently it was found that breast milk contains a variety of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the skim and fat layer that can be transferred to infants, and appear to play important roles in those biological functions. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study applied Next Generation Sequencing and quantitative real time PCR analysis to determine the miRNA expression profile of the skim and fat fraction of human, goat, and bovine milk as well as infant formulas...
June 23, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642882/tumor-related-exosomes-contribute-to-tumor-promoting-microenvironment-an-immunological-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Wuzhen Chen, Jingxin Jiang, Wenjie Xia, Jian Huang
Exosomes are a kind of cell-released membrane-form structures which contain proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. These vesicular organelles play a key role in intercellular communication. Numerous experiments demonstrated that tumor-related exosomes (TEXs) can induce immune surveillance in the microenvironment in vivo and in vitro. They can interfere with the maturation of DC cells, impair NK cell activation, induce myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and educate macrophages into protumor phenotype. They can also selectively induce effector T cell apoptosis via Fas/FasL interaction and enhance regulatory T cell proliferation and function by releasing TGF-β...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642780/rrp42-a-subunit-of-exosome-plays-an-important-role-in-female-gametophytes-development-and-mesophyll-cell-morphogenesis-in-arabidopsis
#10
Xiaoyuan Yan, Zongyun Yan, Yuzhen Han
The exosome complex plays a central and essential role in RNA metabolism. However, current research on functions of exosome subunit in plants is limited. Here, we used an egg cell-specific promoter-controlled CRISPR/Cas9 system to knock out RRP42 which encodes a core subunit of the Arabidopsis exosome and presented evidence that RRP42 is essential for the development of female gametophytes. Next, we designed three different amiRNAs targeting RRP42. The rrp42 knock-down mutants mainly displayed variegated and serrated leaves, especially in cauline leaves...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642743/hiv-1-nef-signaling-in-intestinal-mucosa-epithelium-suggests-the-existence-of-an-active-inter-kingdom-crosstalk-mediated-by-exosomes
#11
REVIEW
Cristina Felli, Olimpia Vincentini, Marco Silano, Andrea Masotti
The human intestinal mucosal surface represents the first defense against pathogens and regulates the immune response through the combination of epithelial cell (EC) functions and immunological factors. ECs act as sensors of luminal stimuli and interact with the immune cells through signal-transduction pathways, thus representing the first barrier that HIV-1 virus encounters during infection. In particular, the HIV-1 Nef protein plays a crucial role in viral invasion and replication. Nef is expressed early during viral infection and interacts with numerous cellular proteins as a scaffold/adaptor...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642329/experimental-and-computational-insight-into-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-paracrine-signaling-and-heterocellular-coupling-effects-on-cardiac-contractility-and-arrhythmogenicity
#12
Joshua Mayourian, Timothy J Cashman, Delaine K Ceholski, Bryce V Johnson, David Sachs, Deepak A Kaji, Susmita Sahoo, Joshua M Hare, Roger J Hajjar, Eric A Sobie, Kevin D Costa
Rationale: Myocardial delivery of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is an emerging therapy for treating the failing heart. However, the relative effects of hMSC-mediated heterocellular coupling (HC) and paracrine signaling (PS) on human cardiac contractility and arrhythmogenicity remain unresolved. Objective: To better understand hMSC PS and HC effects on human cardiac contractility and arrhythmogenicity by integrating experimental and computational approaches. Methods and Results: : Extending our previous hMSC-cardiomyocyte HC computational model, we incorporated experimentally calibrated hMSC PS effects on cardiomyocyte L-type calcium channel/SERCA activity and cardiac tissue fibrosis...
June 22, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641311/characterisation-of-blood-derived-exosomal-htert-mrna-secretion-in-cancer-patients-a-potential-pan-cancer-marker
#13
Hadar Goldvaser, Anna Gutkin, Einat Beery, Yonatan Edel, Jardena Nordenberg, Ofir Wolach, Ester Rabizadeh, Orit Uziel, Meir Lahav
BACKGROUND: Telomerase (human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)) is considered a hallmark of cancer. The aim of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of the detection of hTERT transcripts in serum as a 'pan-cancer' diagnostic method. METHODS: Human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA levels were determined in serum and serum-derived exosomes from 133 patients with different malignancies and 45 healthy controls. In four patients hTERT mRNA levels were measured in different clinical stages...
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641308/detection-of-phosphatidylserine-positive-exosomes-for-the-diagnosis-of-early-stage-malignancies
#14
Raghava Sharma, Xianming Huang, Rolf A Brekken, Alan J Schroit
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing interest in the detection of tumour exosomes in blood for cancer diagnostics. Most studies have focussed on miRNA and protein signatures that are surrogate markers for specific tumour types. Because tumour cells and tumour-derived exosomes display phosphatidylserine (PS) in their outer membrane leaflet, we developed a highly sensitive ELISA-based system that detects picogram amounts of exosomal phospholipid in plasma as a cancer biomarker. METHODS: This report describes the development of a highly specific and sensitive ELISA for the capture of PS-expressing tumour exosomes in the blood of tumour-bearing mice...
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641008/hypoxia-induced-changes-in-the-fibroblast-secretome-exosome-and-whole-cell-proteome-using-cultured-cardiac-derived-cells-isolated-from-neonatal-mice
#15
Jake Cosme, Hongbo Guo, Sina Hadipour-Lakmehsari, Andrew Emili, Anthony O Gramolini
Cardiac fibroblasts (CF) represent a major subpopulation of cells in the developing and adult heart. Cardiomyocyte (CM) and CF intercellular communication occurs through paracrine interactions and modulate myocyte development and stress response. Detailed proteomic analysis of the CF secretome in normal and stressed conditions may offer insights into the role of CF in heart development and disease. Primary neonatal mouse CF were isolated and cultured for 24h in 21% (normoxic) or 2% (hypoxic) O2. Conditioned media was separated to obtain EXO and EXO-depleted secretome fractions...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640069/exosomes-from-cell-debris-to-potential-biomarkers-in-transplantation
#16
Adrian E Morelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639207/the-cell-biology-of-the-thyroid-disrupting-mechanism-of-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane-ddt
#17
REVIEW
M Rossi, A R Taddei, I Fasciani, R Maggio, F Giorgi
OBJECTIVE: Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine known for its pesticide properties and for its negative effects on human health. It was banned in most countries for its toxicity to the endocrine system, but due to its persistence at clinically relevant concentrations in both soil and animal tissues, DDT is still linked to several health and social problems. METHODS: We have previously shown that DDT exposure is causally related to the extracellular release of vesicular organelles such as microvesicles and/or exosomes by using immunocytochemistry with gold-tagged antibodies and various fluorescent membrane markers...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638822/extracellular-vesicles-in-renal-pathophysiology
#18
REVIEW
Margherita A C Pomatto, Chiara Gai, Benedetta Bussolati, Giovanni Camussi
Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous population of microparticles released by virtually all living cells which have been recently widely investigated in different biological fields. They are typically composed of two primary types (exosomes and microvesicles) and are recently commanding increasing attention as mediators of cellular signaling. Indeed, these vesicles can affect recipient cells by carrying and delivering complex cargos of biomolecules (including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids), protected from enzymatic degradation in the environment...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637233/identification-of-exosomal-muscle-specific-mirnas-in-serum-of-myotonic-dystrophy-patients-relating-to-muscle-disease-progress
#19
Andrie Koutsoulidou, Marinos Photiades, Tassos C Kyriakides, Kristia Georgiou, Marianna Prokopi, Konstantinos Kapnisis, Anna Lusakowska, Marianna Nearchou, Yiolanda Christou, George K Papadimas, Andreas Anayiotos, Kyriakos Kyriakou, Evangelia Kararizou, Eleni Zamba Papanicolaou, Leonidas A Phylactou
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common form of adult-onset muscular dystrophy, which is characterised by progressive muscle wasting and the discovery of reliable blood-based biomarkers could be useful for the disease progress monitoring. There have been some reports showing that the presence of specific miRNAs in blood correlate with DM1. In one of these, our group identified four muscle-specific miRNAs, miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b and miR-206, which correlated with the progression of muscle wasting observed in DM1 patients...
June 16, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636979/exosomes-in-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-prostate-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Jun Pan, Meng Ding, Kai Xu, Chunhua Yang, Li-Jun Mao
Exosomes are small vesicular bodies released by a variety of cells. Exosomes contain miRNAs, mRNAs and proteins with the potential to regulate signaling pathways in recipient cells. Exosomes deliver nucleic acids and proteins to mediate the communication between cancer cells and stroma cells. In this review, we summarize recent progress in our understanding of the role of exosomes in prostate cancer. The tumorigenesis, metastasis and drug resistance of prostate cancer are associated with the cargos of exosomes such as miRNAs, lncRNAs and proteins...
June 17, 2017: Oncotarget
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