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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786671/mechanisms-of-action-and-cell-death-associated-with-clostridium-perfringens-toxins
#1
REVIEW
Mauricio A Navarro, Bruce A McClane, Francisco A Uzal
Clostridium perfringens uses its large arsenal of protein toxins to produce histotoxic, neurologic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. The major toxins involved in diseases are alpha (CPA), beta (CPB), epsilon (ETX), iota (ITX), enterotoxin (CPE), and necrotic B-like (NetB) toxins. CPA is the main virulence factor involved in gas gangrene in humans, whereas its role in animal diseases is limited and controversial. CPB is responsible for necrotizing enteritis and enterotoxemia, mostly in neonatal individuals of many animal species, including humans...
May 22, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786649/kudzu-leaf-extract-suppresses-the-production-of-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-cyclooxygenase-2-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-and-interleukin-6-via-inhibition-of-jnk-tbk1-and-stat1-in-inflammatory-macrophages
#2
Seok Hyun Eom, So-Jung Jin, Hee-Yeong Jeong, Youngju Song, You Jin Lim, Jong-In Kim, Youn-Hyung Lee, Hee Kang
Kudzu ( Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Sanjappa & Pradeep) is a perennial leguminous vine, and its root and flower have been used for herbal medicine in Asia for a long time. Most dietary flavonoids are reported to be concentrated in its root, not in its aerial parts including leaves. In this study, we investigated whether kudzu leaf and its major constituent, robinin (kaempferol-3- O -robinoside-7- O -rhanmoside) possessed anti-inflammatory activity. To test this hypothesis, we used peritoneal macrophages isolated from BALB/c mice and stimulated the cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or LPS plus interferon (IFN)-γ...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786555/innate-immunity-in-stem-cell-derived-hepatocytes
#3
REVIEW
Lena Fischer, David C Hay, Cliona O'Farrelly
Stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) offer great opportunities for studies of host-pathogen interactions and tissue regeneration, as well as hepatotoxicity. To reliably predict the outcome of infection or to enhance graft survival, a finely tuned innate immune system is essential. Hepatocytes have long been considered solely metabolic and their critical innate immune potential is only recently gaining attention. Viral infection studies show that pathogen detection by cytosolic receptors leads to interferon (IFN) induction in primary hepatocytes and HLCs...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786075/tp53-gain-of-function-mutation-promotes-inflammation-in-glioblastoma
#4
Seok Won Ham, Hee-Young Jeon, Xiong Jin, Eun-Jung Kim, Jun-Kyum Kim, Yong Jae Shin, Yeri Lee, Se Hoon Kim, Seon Yong Lee, Sunyoung Seo, Min Gi Park, Hye-Mi Kim, Do-Hyun Nam, Hyunggee Kim
Glioblastoma (GBM), the most severe and common brain tumor in adults, is characterized by multiple somatic mutations and aberrant activation of inflammatory responses. Immune cell infiltration and subsequent inflammation cause tumor growth and resistance to therapy. Somatic loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding tumor suppressor protein p53 (TP53) are frequently observed in various cancers. However, numerous studies suggest that TP53 regulates malignant phenotypes by gain-of-function (GOF) mutations...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785351/genetic-inactivation-of-alpha-synuclein-affects-embryonic-development-of-dopaminergic-neurons-of-the-substantia-nigra-but-not-the-ventral-tegmental-area-in-mouse-brain
#5
Tatiana V Tarasova, Olga A Lytkina, Valeria V Goloborshcheva, Larisa N Skuratovskaya, Alexandr I Antohin, Ruslan K Ovchinnikov, Michail S Kukharsky
Lesion of the dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal system is a key feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Alpha-synuclein is a protein that is a major component of Lewy bodies, histopathological hallmarks of PD, and is involved in regulation of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. Previous studies of knockout mice have shown that inactivation of alpha-synuclein gene can lead to the reduction in number of DA neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). DA neurons of the SN are known to be the most affected in PD patients whereas DA neurons of neighboring ventral tegmental area (VTA) are much less susceptible to degeneration...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785186/platelets-activated-by-the-anti-%C3%AE-2gpi-%C3%AE-2gpi-complex-release-micrornas-to-inhibit-migration-and-tube-formation-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#6
Yanfen Zhang, Wenjing Zhang, Caijun Zha, Yanhong Liu
Background: Patients with anti-β2GPI antibodies display significantly higher platelet activation/aggregation and vascular endothelial cell damage. The mechanism underlying the correlation between platelet activation, vascular endothelial cell dysfunctions and anti-β2GPI antibodies remains unknown. Methods: In this study, we derived miR-96 and -26a from platelets activated by the anti-β2GPI/β2GPI complex and explored their role in modulating human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration and tube formation...
2018: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785123/leucine-rich-alpha-2-glycoprotein-1-is-up-regulated-in-colorectal-cancer-and-is-a-tumor-promoter
#7
Qian Zhang, Rui Huang, Qingchao Tang, Yang Yu, Quanlong Huang, Yinggang Chen, Guiyu Wang, Xishan Wang
Background: Leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein-1 (LRG1) is differentially expressed in many kinds of diseases including cancer, however, it has not been thoroughly studied yet. Purpose: The objective of this study was to detect the expression and potential mechanism of LRG1 in colorectal cancer (CRC). In our study, we examined LRG1 levels in CRC tissue and plasma with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785027/targeting-g-quadruplex-dna-as-cognitive-function-therapy-for-atr-x-syndrome
#8
Norifumi Shioda, Yasushi Yabuki, Kouya Yamaguchi, Misaki Onozato, Yue Li, Kenji Kurosawa, Hideyuki Tanabe, Nobuhiko Okamoto, Takumi Era, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Takahito Wada, Kohji Fukunaga
Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATR-X) syndrome is caused by mutations in ATRX, which encodes a chromatin-remodeling protein. Genome-wide analyses in mouse and human cells indicate that ATRX tends to bind to G-rich sequences with a high potential to form G-quadruplexes. Here, we report that Atrx mutation induces aberrant upregulation of Xlr3b expression in the mouse brain, an outcome associated with neuronal pathogenesis displayed by ATR-X model mice. We show that ATRX normally binds to G-quadruplexes in CpG islands of the imprinted Xlr3b gene, regulating its expression by recruiting DNA methyltransferases...
May 21, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785025/an-immune-beige-adipocyte-communication-via-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-signaling
#9
Heejin Jun, Hui Yu, Jianke Gong, Juan Jiang, Xiaona Qiao, Eric Perkey, Dong-Il Kim, Margo P Emont, Alexander G Zestos, Jung-Sun Cho, Jianfeng Liu, Robert T Kennedy, Ivan Maillard, X Z Shawn Xu, Jun Wu
Beige adipocytes have recently been shown to regulate energy dissipation when activated and help organisms defend against hypothermia and obesity. Prior reports indicate that beige-like adipocytes exist in adult humans and that they may present novel opportunities to curb the global epidemic in obesity and metabolic illnesses. In an effort to identify unique features of activated beige adipocytes, we found that expression of the cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 2 subunit (Chrna2) was induced in subcutaneous fat during the activation of these cells and that acetylcholine-producing immune cells within this tissue regulated this signaling pathway via paracrine mechanisms...
May 21, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784879/er-resident-protein-46-erp46-triggers-the-mannose-trimming-activity-of-er-degradation-enhancing-%C3%AE-mannosidase-like-protein-3-edem3
#10
Shangyu Yu, Shinji Ito, Ikuo Wada, Nobuko Hosokawa
Protein folding in the cell is regulated by several quality-control mechanisms. Correct folding of glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is tightly monitored by the recognition of glycan signals by lectins in the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. In mammals, mannose trimming from N-glycans is crucial for disposal of misfolded glycoproteins. The mannosidases responsible for this process are ER mannosidase I and ER degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase-like proteins (EDEMs). However, the molecular mechanism of mannose removal by EDEMs remains unclear, partly owing to the difficulty of reconstituting mannosidase activity in vitro Here, our analysis of EDEM3-mediated mannose-trimming activity on a misfolded glycoprotein revealed that ERp46, an ER-resident oxidoreductase, associates stably with EDEM3...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784731/transformed-follicular-lymphoma-tfl-predicts-outcome-in-advanced-endometrial-cancer
#11
Senn Wakahashi, Fumi Kawakami, Kanako Wakahashi, Kentaro Minagawa, Keitaro Matsuo, Yoshio Katayama, Hideto Yamada, Toshimitsu Matsui, Tamotsu Sudo
BACKGROUND: Transformed follicular lymphoma (TFL, ZC3H12D) was identified, as a candidate tumor suppressor gene that contributes to cell-cycle arrest through regulation of Rb phosphorylation, but the clinical impact of TFL is unknown. The goal of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of TFL expression in advanced endometrial cancer. METHODS: Tissue samples were obtained from 103 patients with FIGO stage III-IV endometrial cancer. Associations between TFL expression and outcomes were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression models...
May 21, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784372/fast-and-reliable-bia-amperometric-quantification-of-acetylcysteine-using-a-nanostructured-double-hydroxide-sensor
#12
Anabel Laza Correa, Josué M Gonçalves, Pamela O Rossini, Juliana S Bernardes, Carlos A Neves, Koiti Araki, Lucio Angnes
This study reports the preparation and characterization of nickel/lead hydroxide nanoparticles used to construct electrochemical sensors, which were investigated for amperometric quantification of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The newly synthesised material presents good uniformity, with the lead (II) ions homogenously incorporated into the alpha nickel hydroxide crystal structure, confirmed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. Films of nanoparticles (3 nm in size) were prepared on conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass slides and used connected to a specially built batch injection analysis (BIA) cell with a capacity of only 4 mL and the electrode positioned in the bottom...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783696/jatrorrhizine-hydrochloride-suppresses-proliferation-migration-and-secretion-of-synoviocytes-in-vitro-and-ameliorates-rat-models-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-vivo
#13
Haiwen Qiu, Shengnan Sun, Xuemei Ma, Congcong Cui, Gang Chen, Zhenzhou Liu, Hui Li, Mei Liu
Jatrorrhizine hydrochloride (JH), an active component isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Coptis chinensis , has been reported to have antimicrobial, antitumor, antihypercholesterolemic, and neuroprotective activities. However, its antirheumatoid arthritis (RA) property remains unknown. In this study, a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model was used to evaluate the therapeutic effects of JH on RA by using arthritis score, radiological evaluation, and histopathological assessment. The in vitro effects of JH on proliferation, migration, and production of inflammatory mediators in RA-derived fibroblast-like synoviocyte MH7A cells were determined by the EdU incorporation assay, wound healing assay, real-time PCR, and ELISA, respectively...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782854/combined-treatment-with-sorafenib-and-silibinin-synergistically-targets-both-hcc-cells-and-cancer-stem-cells-by-enhanced-inhibition-of-the-phosphorylation-of-stat3-erk-akt
#14
Jie Mao, Hongbao Yang, Tingting Cui, Pan Pan, Nadia Kabir, Duo Chen, Jinyan Ma, Xingyi Chen, Yijun Chen, Yong Yang
Silibinin, a nontoxic bioactive component in milk thistle, is used as a liver-protective drug in the clinic mainly because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. In this study, we studied the cytotoxic effects of silibinin combined with sorafenib on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The results indicated that silibinin combined with sorafenib potently inhibited the proliferation of various HCC cells and induced significant apoptosis. In an HCC subcutaneous transplantation tumor model, the combination of silibinin and sorafenib significantly suppressed tumor growth compared with monotherapy...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782494/ubiquitin-dependent-proteolysis-of-cxcl7-leads-to-posterior-longitudinal-ligament-ossification
#15
Michiyo Tsuru, Atsushi Ono, Hideaki Umeyama, Masahiro Takeuchi, Kensei Nagata
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), a spinal ligament, reduces the range of motion in limbs. No treatment is currently available for OPLL, which is why therapies are urgently needed. OPLL occurs in obesity, is more common in men, and has an onset after 40 years of age. The mechanisms underlying OPLL remain unclear. In this study, we performed a serum proteomic analysis in both OPLL patients and healthy subjects to identify factors potentially involved in the development of OPLL, and found reduced levels of a protein that might underlie the pathology of OPLL...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782010/isolation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-human-alveolar-periosteum-and-effects-of-vitamin-d-on-osteogenic-activity-of-periosteum-derived-cells
#16
Yen-Li Wang, Adrienne Hong, Tzung-Hai Yen, Hsiang-Hsi Hong
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are present in a variety of tissues and can be differentiated into numerous cell types, including osteoblasts. Among the dental sources of MSCs, the periosteum is an easily accessible tissue, which has been identified to contain MSCs in the cambium layer. However, this source has not yet been widely studied. Vitamin D3 and 1,25-(OH)2D3 have been demonstrated to stimulate in vitro differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts. In addition, vitamin C facilitates collagen formation and bone cell growth...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781763/new-insights-into-the-nucleolar-localization-of-a-plant-rna-virus-encoded-protein-that-acts-in-both-rna-packaging-and-rna-silencing-suppression-involvement-of-importins-alpha-and-relevance-for-viral-infection
#17
Miryam Pérez-Cañamás, Carmen Hernández
Despite replication of plus strand RNA viruses takes place in the cytoplasm of host cells, different proteins encoded by these infectious agents have been shown to localize in the nucleus, with high accumulation at the nucleolus. In most cases, the molecular determinants and/or biological significance of such subcellular localization remain elusive. Recently, we reported that protein p37 encoded by Pelargonium line pattern virus (family Tombusviridae) acts in both RNA packaging and RNA silencing suppression...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781387/estrogen-related-receptor-alpha-triggers-the-migration-and-invasion-of-endometrial-cancer-cells-via-up-regulation-of-tgfb1
#18
Xiumin Huang, Xuelian Wang, Jing Shang, Zhiqin Zhaang, Binbin Cui, Yanzhen Lin, Ying Yang, Youyi Song, Shengnan Yu, Junjie Xia
Estrogenic signals have been suggested to be important for the tumorigenesis and progression of endometrial cancer (EC) cells. Our present data showed that estrogen related receptor alpha (ERRα), while not ERRβ or ERRγ, was significantly elevated in EC cells and tissues when compared to their controls. Targeted inhibition of ERRα by siRNA or its inverse agonist XCT-790 can suppress the migration and invasion of EC cells. Both si-ERRα and XCT-790 decreased the expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)...
May 21, 2018: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781105/nonmuscle-myosin-ii-in-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-cells
#19
Jushuo Wang, Yingli Fan, Jean M Sanger, Joseph W Sanger
De novo assembly of contractile myofibrils begins with the formation of premyofibrils where filaments of non-muscle myosin (NM II), and actin organize in sarcomeric patterns with Z-Bodies containing muscle-specific alpha-actinin. Interactions of muscle specific myosin (MM II) with NM II occur in a nascent myofibril stage that precedes the assembly of mature myofibrils. By the final stage of myofibrillogenesis, the only myosin II present in the mature myofibrils is MM II. In this current study of myofibril assembly, the three vertebrate isoforms of NM II (A, B, and C) and sarcomeric alpha-actinin, ligated to GFP family proteins, were coexpressed in avian embryonic skeletal and cardiac muscle cells...
May 21, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780828/effect-of-formaldehyde-on-human-middle-ear-epithelial-cells
#20
Shin Hye Kim, Ji-Woong Choi, Myung-Whan Suh, Jun Ho Lee, Seung-Ha Oh, Jae-Jun Song, Moo Kyun Park
Formaldehyde (FA) is a familiar indoor air pollutant found in everything from cosmetics to clothing, but its impact on the middle ear is unknown. This study investigated whether FA causes cytotoxicity, inflammation, or induction of apoptosis in human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs). Cell viability was investigated using the trypan blue assay and a cell counting kit (CCK-8) in HMEECs treated with FA for 4 or 24 h. The expression of genes encoding the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α ) and mucin (MUC5AC) was analyzed using RT-PCR...
2018: BioMed Research International
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