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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150919/a-focus-on-the-beneficial-effects-of-alpha-synuclein-and-a-re-appraisal-of-synucleinopathies
#1
Larisa Ryskalin, Carla L Busceti, Fiona Limanaqi, Francesca Biagioni, Stefano Gambardella, Francesco Fornai
Alpha synuclein (α-syn) belongs to a class of proteins which are commonly considered to play a detrimental role in neuronal survival. This assumption is based on the occurrence of a severe neuronal degeneration in patients carrying a multiplication of the α-syn gene (SNCA) and in a variety of experimental models, where overexpression of α-syn leads to cell death and neurological impairment. In these conditions, a higher amount of normally structured α-syn produces a damage, which is even worse compared with that produced by α-syn owing an abnormal structure (as occurring following point gene mutations)...
November 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150843/liver-fibrosis-is-associated-with-cutaneous-inflammation-in-the-imiquimod-induced-murine-model-of-psoriasiform-dermatitis
#2
P Vasseur, M Pohin, J F Jégou, L Favot, N Venisse, J Mcheik, F Morel, J C Lecron, C Silvain
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis associates several extra-cutaneous manifestations. Little is known about hepatic parameters specifically associated with psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: To study whether psoriasiform dermatitis is associated with liver injury. METHODS: We studied liver parameters of inflammation and fibrosis in a murine model of psoriasiform dermatitis induced by topical application of imiquimod for nine weeks. RESULTS: Topical treatment with imiquimod induced a form of psoriasiform dermatitis reminiscent of the human disorder, characterized by thickened and scaly skin, psoriasiform epidermal hyperplasia, altered keratinocyte differentiation, and cutaneous overexpression of interleukin-17A...
November 18, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150481/identification-of-pleiotropic-cancer-susceptibility-variants-from-genome-wide-association-studies-reveals-functional-characteristics
#3
Yi-Hsuan Wu, Rebecca E Graff, Michael N Passarelli, Joshua D Hoffman, Elad Ziv, Thomas J Hoffmann, John S Witte
BACKGROUND: There exists compelling evidence that some genetic variants are associated with the risk of multiple cancer sites (i.e., pleiotropy). However, the biological mechanisms through which the pleiotropic variants operate are unclear. METHODS: We obtained all cancer risk associations from the National Human Genome Research Institute-European Bioinformatics Institute GWAS Catalog, and correlated cancer risk variants were clustered into groups. Pleiotropic variant groups and genes were functionally annotated...
November 17, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150436/microvesicles-derived-from-human-wharton-s-jellymesenchymal-stem-cells-ameliorate-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-renal-fibrosis-by-releasing-from-g2-m-cell-cycle-arrest
#4
Wenxia Chen, Yongbin Yan, Chundong Song, Ying Ding, Tao Du
Studies have demonstrated that microvesicles (MVs) derived from human Wharton's Jelly mesenchymal stromal cells (hWJMSCs) could ameliorate renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), however, the underlying mechanisms were not clear yet. Here, MVs were isolated and injected intravenously into rats immediately after ischemia of the left kidney, and Erk1/2 activator HGF or inhibitor U0126 was administrated, respectively. Tubular cell proliferation and apoptosis were identified by Ki67 or TUNEL immunostaining. Masson's tri-chrome straining and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α -SMA) staining were used for assessing renal fibrosis...
November 17, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150334/a-routinely-used-protein-staining-dye-acts-as-an-inhibitor-of-wild-type-and-mutant-alpha-synuclein-aggregation-and-modulator-of-neurotoxicity
#5
Nuzhat Ahsan, Ibrar Ahmed Siddique, Sarika Gupta, Avadhesha Surolia
Inhibition of amyloid formation along with modulation of toxicity employing small molecules is emerging as a potential therapeutic approach for protein misfolding disorders which includes Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Multiple System Atrophy etc. Countless current interventional strategies for treating α-synucleinopathies consider using peptidic and non-peptidic inhibitors for arresting fibrillisation, disrupting existing fibrils and reducing associated toxicity. One group of molecules less exploited in this regard are triphenylmethane dyes...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149744/bacterial-community-structure-along-the-subtidal-sandy-sediment-belt-of-a-high-arctic-fjord-kongsfjorden-svalbard-islands
#6
Conte Antonella, Papale Maria, Amalfitano Stefano, Mikkonen Anu, Rizzo Carmen, De Domenico Emilio, Michaud Luigi, Lo Giudice Angelina
Open fjords are subject to contrasting environmental conditions, owing to meltwater glacial inputs, terrestrial runoff, and marine water mass exchanges, which are exacerbated by anthropogenic and climate perturbations. Following a slope-dependent water circulation, the subtidal sandy sediment belt regulates the convergent transport of nutrients downward the fjord depths, and the effective entrapment of suspended particles and microorganisms. In this study, we aimed at testing how glacial and seawater inputs may influence the bacterial community structure of subtidal sand deposits in the Kongsfjorden...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149648/dried-plum-alleviates-symptoms-of-inflammatory-arthritis-in-tnf-transgenic-mice
#7
Faryal Mirza, Joseph Lorenzo, Hicham Drissi, Francis Y Lee, Do Y Soung
Dried plum (DP), a rich source of polyphenols has been shown to have bone-preserving properties in both animal models of osteoporosis and postmenopausal women. We evaluated if DP alleviated the destruction of joints in transgenic mice (TG) that overexpress human tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a genetic model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A four-week treatment of 20% DP diet in TG slowed the onset of arthritis and reduced bone erosions in the joints compared to TG on a regular diet. This was associated with fewer tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive cells, suggesting decreased osteoclastogenesis...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149457/hmgb1-controls-liver-cancer-initiation-through-yap-dependent-aerobic-glycolysis
#8
Ruochan Chen, Shan Zhu, Xue-Gong Fan, Haichao Wang, Michael T Lotze, Herbert J Zeh, Timothy R Billiar, Rui Kang, Daolin Tang
Emerging studies have suggested that the Hippo pathway is involved in the tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the key regulator of the Hippo pathway in liver tumor metabolic reprogramming remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence to support that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a chromosomal protein, plays a role in the regulation of the Hippo pathway during liver tumorigenesis. Cre/loxP recombination-mediated HMGB1 depletion in hepatocytes blocks diethylnitrosamine-induced liver cancer initiation in mice, whereas shRNA-mediated gene silencing of HMGB1 inhibits HCC cell proliferation...
November 17, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147967/association-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-with-arthritis-evidence-from-in-silico-gene-expression-patterns-and-network-topological-analysis
#9
Anukriti Verma, Pallavi Somvanshi, Shafiul Haque, Bhawna Rathi, Shivani Sharda
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic prolonged ailment accountable for inflammatory conditions of the intestine. Moreover, arthritis is responsible for joints' stiffness and painful inflammation. IBD shows certain articular extra-intestinal manifestations associating IBD with arthritis. IBD associated arthritis is found to be linked with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The present study insights for the potential and putative drug targets and biomarkers of IBD associated with arthritis using in silico approaches...
November 17, 2017: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147131/transcriptional-activity-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-gene-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-patients-with-coronary-slow-flow
#10
Yousef Rasmi, Morteza Bagheri, Sanaz Faramarz-Gaznagh, Mohadeseh Nemati, Mohammad Hasan Khadem-Ansari, Ehsan Saboory, Mir Hossein Seyed-Mohamadzad, Alireza Shirpoor
BACKGROUND: Coronary slow flow (CSF), an angiographic phenomenon that is characterized by a delayed coronary blood flow in the absence of obstructive coronary artery stenosis, is known as a disorder of the coronary microcirculation. Inflammation has an important role in the vascular hemostasis and endothelial dysfunction especially regarding monocyte adhesion and infiltration. Pro-inflammatory cytokines released by inflammatory cells result in endothelial cell dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases...
July 2017: ARYA Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147013/integrin-alpha-11-in-the-regulation-of-the-myofibroblast-phenotype-implications-for-fibrotic-diseases
#11
Ruchi Bansal, Shigeki Nakagawa, Saleh Yazdani, Joop van Baarlen, Anu Venkatesh, Anna P Koh, Won-Min Song, Nicolas Goossens, Hideo Watanabe, Mary B Beasley, Charles A Powell, Gert Storm, Naftali Kaminski, Harry van Goor, Scott L Friedman, Yujin Hoshida, Jai Prakash
Tissue fibrosis, characterized by excessive accumulation of aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by myofibroblasts, is a growing cause of mortality worldwide. Understanding the factors that induce myofibroblastic differentiation is paramount to prevent or reverse the fibrogenic process. Integrin-mediated interaction between the ECM and cytoskeleton promotes myofibroblast differentiation. In the present study, we explored the significance of integrin alpha 11 (ITGA11), the integrin alpha subunit that selectively binds to type I collagen during tissue fibrosis in the liver, lungs and kidneys...
November 17, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146461/resveratrol-supports-and-alpha-naphthoflavone-disrupts-growth-of-human-ovarian-follicles-in-an-in-vitro-tissue-culture-model
#12
Jie Hao, Astrud R Tuck, Marcus O D Sjödin, Johan Lindberg, Anna Sand, Boel Niklasson, Maria Argyraki, Outi Hovatta, Pauliina Damdimopoulou
Infertility is a global health problem with an estimated incidence of 15%. Exposure to chemicals is a potential causal factor, and there is a lack of studies examining the effects on female germ cells. Here, we have studied the impact of different aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) modulators on human ovarian follicles using a human ovarian tissue culture model. Expression of AHR was analyzed in tissue samples, and effects of the selected ligands resveratrol (RSVL), 6-formylindolo(3,2-b)carbazole (FICZ), and alpha-naphthoflavone (aNF) on AHR transactivation studied in a granulosa cell tumor line...
November 13, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146302/mechanisms-involved-in-bone-resorption-regulated-by-vitamin-d
#13
REVIEW
Yuko Nakamichi, Nobuyuki Udagawa, Tatsuo Suda, Naoyuki Takahashi
Active forms of vitamin D enhance osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo through the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in osteoblast-lineage cells consisting of osteoblasts and osteocytes. This pro-resorptive activity was evident basically with higher concentrations of active vitamin D than those expected in physiological conditions. Nevertheless, vitamin D compounds have been used in Japan for treating osteoporosis to increase bone mineral density (BMD). Of note, the increase in BMD by long-term treatment with pharmacological (=near-physiological) doses of vitamin D compounds was caused by the suppression of bone resorption...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146180/chlorogenic-acid-attenuates-diabetic-retinopathy-by-reducing-vegf-expression-and-inhibiting-vegf-mediated-retinal-neoangiogenesis
#14
Xiyu Mei, Lingyu Zhou, Tianyu Zhang, Bin Lu, Yuchen Sheng, Lili Ji
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common and serious complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aims to investigate the amelioration of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on proliferative DR (PDR) via focusing on inhibiting retinal neoangiogenesis. CGA reduced the increased cell proliferation, migration and tube formation induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human retinal endothelial cells (HREC) and choroid-retinal endothelial RF/6A cells. CGA abrogated VEGF-induced the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream mitogen-activated extracellular regulated kinase (MEK1/2), extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) and p38 kinase...
November 13, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145524/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-signaling-in-trigeminal-ganglion-contributes-to-mechanical-hypersensitivity-in-masseter-muscle-during-temporomandibular-joint-inflammation
#15
Reio Ito, Masamichi Shinoda, Kuniya Honda, Kentaro Urata, Jun Lee, Mitsuru Maruno, Kumi Soma, Shinji Okada, Nobuhito Gionhaku, Koichi Iwata
AIMS: To determine the involvement of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) signaling in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter muscle during temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. METHODS: A total of 55 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Following injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant into the TMJ, the mechanical sensitivities of the masseter muscle and the overlying facial skin were measured. Satellite glial cell (SGC) activation and TNFα expression in the TG were investigated immunohistochemically, and the effects of their inhibition on the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter muscle were also examined...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144820/pheochromocytoma-a-genetic-and-diagnostic-update
#16
Leilani B Mercado-Asis, Katherine I Wolf, Ivana Jochmanova, David Taïeb
OBJECTIVE: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors derived from adrenal or extra-adrenal locations, respectively. Upon suspicion of PPGL, specific metabolomic, molecular, biochemical, imaging, and histopathological studies are performed to prove, localize, treat, and monitor disease progression. Recently, improved diagnostic tools allow physicians to accurately diagnose PPGL, even in patients presenting with small (less than 1 cm) or biochemically silent tumors, which previously delayed proper detection and treatment...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143358/melatonin-improves-survival-and-respiratory-activity-of-yeast-cells-challenged-by-alpha-synuclein-and-menadione
#17
Mariana A Zampol, Mario H Barros
One of the hallmarks of Parkinson disease is α-synuclein aggregate deposition that leads to ER stress, Golgi fragmentation, and impaired energy metabolism with consequent redox imbalance. In the last decade, many studies have used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model in order to explore the intracellular consequences of α-synuclein overexpression. In this study we propose to evaluate the respiratory outcome of yeast cells expressing α-synuclein. Cell viability, or growth on selective media for respiratory activity was mainly affected in the α-synuclein expressing cells if they were also treated with menadione, which stimulates ROS production...
November 16, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142973/renal-amyloidosis-associated-with-5-novel%C3%A2-variants-in-the-fibrinogen-a-alpha-chain-protein
#18
Dorota Rowczenio, Maria Stensland, Gustavo A de Souza, Erik H Strøm, Janet A Gilbertson, Graham Taylor, Nigel Rendell, Shane Minogue, Yvonne A Efebera, Helen J Lachmann, Ashutosh D Wechalekar, Philip N Hawkins, Ketil R Heimdal, Kristian Selvig, Inger K Lægreid, Nathalie Demoulin, Selda Aydin, Julian D Gillmore, Tale N Wien
Introduction: Fibrinogen A alpha chain amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant disease associated with mutations in the fibrinogen A alpha chain (FGA) gene, and it is the most common cause of hereditary renal amyloidosis in the UK. Patients typically present with kidney impairment and progress to end-stage renal disease over a median time of 4.6 years. Methods: Six patients presented with proteinuria, hypertension, and/or lower limb edema and underwent detailed clinical and laboratory investigations...
May 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142509/using-an-nmr-metabolomics-approach-to-investigate-the-pathogenicity-of-amyloid-beta-and-alpha-synuclein
#19
M M Phelan, E Caamaño-Gutiérrez, M S Gant, R X Grosman, J Madine
Introduction: The pathogenicity at differing points along the aggregation pathway of many fibril-forming proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases is unclear. Understanding the effect of different aggregation states of these proteins on cellular processes is essential to enhance understanding of diseases and provide future options for diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Objectives: To establish a robust method to probe the metabolic changes of neuronal cells and use it to monitor cellular response to challenge with three amyloidogenic proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases in different aggregation states...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142497/expression-of-ccl2-and-its-receptor-in-activation-and-migration-of-microglia-and-monocytes-induced-by-photoreceptor-apoptosis
#20
ChaoYi Feng, Xin Wang, TianJin Liu, Meng Zhang, GeZhi Xu, YingQin Ni
Purpose: To explore the effect of the CCL2 and CCR2 system on the activation and migration of microglia and monocytes in light-induced photoreceptor apoptosis. Methods: At 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, and 14 days after light exposure, OX42 and ED1 immunostaining were used to label the activation and migration of microglia and monocytes. Double immunostaining of CCL2 with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), OX42, or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was applied to explore the relationships among CCL2, apoptotic photoreceptors, activated microglia and monocytes, and macroglial cells (Müller cells and astrocytes)...
2017: Molecular Vision
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