keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Alpha cell

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324008/vessel-network-architecture-of-adult-human-islets-promotes-distinct-cell-cell-interactions-in-situ-and-is-altered-after-transplantation
#1
Christian M Cohrs, Chunguang Chen, Stephan R Jahn, Julia Stertmann, Helena Chmelova, Jürgen Weitz, Andrea Bähr, Nikolai Klymiuk, Anja Steffen, Barbara Ludwig, Virginia Kamvissi, Eckhard Wolf, Stefan R Bornstein, Michele Solimena, Stephan Speier
Islet cell hormone release is modulated by signals from endothelial and endocrine cells within the islet. However, models of intra-islet vascularization and paracrine cell signaling are mostly based on rodent pancreas. We here assessed for the first time the architecture and endocrine cell interaction of the vascular network in unperturbed human islets in situ and their potential to re-establish their endogenous vascular network after transplantation in vivo. We prepared pancreas tissue slices of fresh tissue obtained from non-diabetic patients undergoing partial pancreatectomy...
January 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323943/growth-development-and-intestinal-remodeling-occurs-in-the-absence-of-thyroid-hormone-receptor-alpha-in-tadpoles-of-xenopus-tropicalis
#2
Jinyoung Choi, Atsuko Ishizuya-Oka, Daniel R Buchholz
During development in all vertebrates, thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are expressed before as well as during and after the peak in plasma thyroid hormone (TH) levels. Previously, we established a role for unliganded TRα in gene repression and developmental timing using tadpoles of TRα knockout (TRαKO) frogs. Here, we examined the role of liganded TRα on growth, development, and intestinal remodeling during natural and TH-induced metamorphosis. Disrupted TRα had little effect on growth during the larval period, but after metamorphosis TRαKO juveniles grew more slowly than wild-type (WT) juveniles...
March 2, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323882/mir-181-interacts-with-signaling-adaptor-molecule-denn-madd-and-enhances-tnf-induced-cell-death
#3
Samira Ghorbani, Farideh Talebi, Sedigheh Ghasemi, Ali Jahanbazi Jahan Abad, Mohammed Vojgani, Farshid Noorbakhsh
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs, which regulate the expression of protein coding transcripts through mRNA degradation or translational inhibition. Numerous reports have highlighted the role of miRNAs in regulating cell death pathways including the expression of genes involved in the induction of apoptosis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine which can send pro-death signals through its receptor TNFR1. Diverse adaptor molecules including DENN/MADD adaptor protein have been shown to modulate TNF-α pro-death signaling via recruitment of MAP kinases to TNFR1 and activation of pro-survival NFκB signaling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323513/transmembrane-tnf-dependent-uptake-of-anti-tnf-antibodies
#4
Arun Deora, Subramanya Hegde, Jacqueline Lee, Chee-Ho Choi, Qing Chang, Cheryl Lee, Lucia Eaton, Hua Tang, Dongdong Wang, David Lee, Mark Michalak, Medha Tomlinson, Qingfeng Tao, Nidhi Gaur, Bohdan Harvey, Shaun McLoughlin, Boris Labkovsky, Tariq Ghayur
TNF-alpha (TNF), a pro-inflammatory cytokine is synthesized as a 26 kDa protein, anchors in the plasma membrane as transmembrane TNF (TmTNF), and is subjected to proteolysis by the TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) to release the 15 kDa form of soluble TNF (sTNF). TmTNF and sTNF interact with two distinct receptors, TNF-R1 (p55) and TNF-R2 (p75), to mediate the multiple biological effects of TNF described to date. Several anti-TNF biologics that bind to both forms of TNF and block their interactions with the TNF receptors are now approved for the treatment of a variety of immune-mediated diseases...
March 21, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320105/anti-fibrotic-potential-of-human-umbilical-cord-mononuclear-cells-and-mouse-bone-marrow-cells-in-ccl4-induced-liver-fibrosis-in-mice
#5
Nageh Ahmed Elmahdy, Samia Salem Sokar, Mohamed Labib Salem, Naglaa Ibrahim Sarhan, Sherin Hamed Abou-Elela
Liver fibrosis is the consequence of hepatocyte injury that leads to the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). The treatment of choice is Liver transplantation; however, it has many problems such as surgery-related complications, immunological rejection and high costs associated with the procedure. Stem cell-based therapy would be a potential alternative, so the aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord mononuclear cells (MNC) and mouse bone marrow cells (BMC) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver fibrosis in mice and compare it with that of silymarin...
March 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319850/methylation-of-hpa-axis-related-genes-in-men-with-hypersexual-disorder
#6
Jussi Jokinen, Adrian E Boström, Andreas Chatzittofis, Diana M Ciuculete, Katarina Görts Öberg, John N Flanagan, Stefan Arver, Helgi B Schiöth
Hypersexual Disorder (HD) defined as non-paraphilic sexual desire disorder with components of compulsivity, impulsivity and behavioral addiction, and proposed as a diagnosis in the DSM 5, shares some overlapping features with substance use disorder including common neurotransmitter systems and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. In this study, comprising 67 HD male patients and 39 male healthy volunteers, we aimed to identify HPA-axis coupled CpG-sites, in which modifications of the epigenetic profile are associated with hypersexuality...
March 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319104/diabetes-consequences-in-the-fetus-liver-of-the-non-obese-diabetic-mice
#7
M B Aires, A C V Dos Santos, M S Kubrusly, A C de Lima Luna, L A C D'Albuquerque, D A Maria
DM type 1 (T1D) incidence is increasing around 3% every year and represents risks for maternal and fetal health. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of diabetes on fetus liver cells in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Hyperglycemic NOD (HNOD), normoglycemic NOD (NNOD) and BALB/c females were used for mating, and the fetus livers were collected at 19.5 gestation day (gd). HNOD group had reduced fetal weight (989.5±68.32 vs 1290±57.39 mg BALB/c, P<0.05) at 19.5 gd and higher glycemia (516...
March 20, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318628/b-and-t-cell-subpopulations-in-patients-with-severe-idiopathic-membranous-nephropathy-may-predict-an-early-response-to-rituximab
#8
Michelle Rosenzwajg, Eva Languille, Hanna Debiec, Joana Hygino, Karine Dahan, Tabassome Simon, David Klatzmann, Pierre Ronco
Primary membranous nephropathy (PMN) is characterized by antibodies to the podocyte, but little is known about B- and T-cell populations and their response to rituximab is controversial. To help resolve this we compared 33 lymphocyte subpopulations and 27 cytokines/chemokines in 25 patients with severe PMN and 27 age-matched healthy individuals. At baseline, patients had a significantly increased percentage of naive B-cells with significantly decreased switched and non-switched memory B-cells. There was a significantly decreased percentage of natural killer (NK) cells with an increase in the CD56(bright)CD16(-/lo) NK subset...
March 15, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317877/transcription-factor-nf-kappa-b-represses-ant1-transcription-and-leads-to-mitochondrial-dysfunctions
#9
Chen Zhang, Hui Jiang, Pin Wang, Heng Liu, Xiulian Sun
Mitochondria are intracellular organelles involved in cell survival and death, and dysfunctions of mitochondria are related to neurodegenerative diseases. As the most abundant protein in the mitochondrial inner membrane, adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT1) plays a critical role in mitochondrial function, including the exchange of adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (ATP/ADP) in mitochondria, basal proton leak and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Here, we show that ANT1 transcription is regulated by transcription factor NF-kappa B (NF-κB)...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317386/hepatoprotective-effect-of-blocking-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-in-male-albino-rats-exposed-to-acute-and-repeated-restraint-stress
#10
Shaimaa Nasr Amin, Ahmed Amro El-Aidi, Maha Zickri, Laila Ahmed Rashed, Sherif Sabry Hassan
Stress affects multiple organs in the body in addition to the brain including the liver. We aimed to assess the effects of blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors by memantine on the liver in acute and repeated restraint stress. Forty two male albino rats divided into seven groups; control, Acute restraint stress (ARS), ARS+memantine, repeated restraint stress, repeated restraint +memantine and positive control groups. We measured serum iron, zinc, alanine transferase and Aspartame transferase, hepatic malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), glutathione peroxidase, Superoxide dismutase, metallothionein content, zinc transporter ZRT/IRT-like Protein 14 mRNA expression, hepcidin expression...
March 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316975/role-of-estrogens-in-the-size-of-neuronal-somata-of-paravaginal-ganglia-in-ovariectomized-rabbits
#11
Laura G Hernández-Aragón, Verónica García-Villamar, María de Los Ángeles Carrasco-Ruiz, Leticia Nicolás-Toledo, Arturo Ortega, Estela Cuevas-Romero, Margarita Martínez-Gómez, Francisco Castelán
We aimed to determine the role of estrogens in modulating the size of neuronal somata of paravaginal ganglia. Rabbits were allocated into control (C), ovariectomized (OVX), and OVX treated with estradiol benzoate (OVX + EB) groups to evaluate the neuronal soma area; total serum estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) levels; the percentage of immunoreactive (ir) neurons anti-aromatase, anti-estrogen receptor (ERα, ERβ) and anti-androgen receptor (AR); the intensity of the immunostaining anti-glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and the GDNF family receptor alpha type 1 (GFRα1); and the number of satellite glial cells (SGCs) per neuron...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316163/-effects-of-silencing-smad-ubiquitination-regulatory-factor-2-on-the-function-of-human-hypertrophic-scar-derived-fibroblasts
#12
Z Zhang, F Kuang, C L Liu, B Chen, W B Tang, X J Li
Objective: To explore the effects of silencing Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2) on the secretion of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β(1)), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen type Ⅰ by human hypertrophic scar-derived fibroblasts. Methods: The human normal skin-derived fibroblasts and hypertrophic scar-derived fibroblasts were cultured with explant culture technique from the normal skin and hypertrophic scar tissue, which was obtained from 9 patients with hypertrophic scars after burn...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315398/hepatic-expressions-of-cannabinoid-receptors-cb1-and-cb2-correlate-with-the-fibrogenesis-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#13
Erhei Dai, Lianshan Zhang, Lihong Ye, Shiqing Wan, Lulu Feng, Qi Qi, Fang Yao, Zhen Li
AIM: The endocannabinoid system is involved in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. However, most of the findings come from experiment researches on animal model or clinical trial on chronic hepatitis C. The roles of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) in hepatofibrosis on patients with chronic hepatitis B(CHB) have not been studied universally. This study aimed to explore the relationship between liver fibrosis and expressions of CB1 and CB2 on patients with CHB...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314844/abituzumab-targeting-of-alphav-class-integrins-inhibits-prostate-cancer-progression
#14
Yuan Jiang, Jinlu Dai, Zhi Yao, Greg Shelley, Evan T Keller
Integrins that contain an integrin alpha V subunit contribute to multiple functions that promote cancer progression. The goal of this study was to determine if abituzumab (DI17E6, EMD 525797), a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) against integrin alpha V impacts, prostate cancer (PCa) progression. To evaluate this, PCa cells were treated with DI17E6 and its effects on proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, adhesion, detachment, migration, invasion and phosphorylation of downstream targets, including FAK, Akt and ERK were determined...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314562/intermittent-vibration-protects-aged-muscle-from-mechanical-and-oxidative-damage-under-prolonged-compression
#15
Sing Wan Wong, Brian Chun Ho Cheung, Bruce Tak Keung Pang, Ateline Kwong, Anna Chung, Kenneth Ka Ho Lee, Arthur Fut Tak Mak
Deep tissue pressure ulcers, a serious clinical challenge originating in the muscle layer, are hardly detectable at the beginning. The challenge apparently occurs in aged subjects more frequently. As the ulcer propagates to the skin surface, it becomes very difficult to manage and can lead to fatal complications. Preventive measures are thus highly desirable. Although the complex pathological mechanisms have not been fully understood, prolonged and excessive physical challenges and oxidative stress are believed to be involved in the ulcer development...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314212/gene-delivery-of-tipe2-inhibits-breast-cancer-development-and-metastasis-via-cd8-t-and-nk-cell-mediated-antitumor-responses
#16
Zhenhua Zhang, Li Liu, Shousong Cao, Yizhun Zhu, Qibing Mei
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the female patients which was mainly caused by metastasis. Development of target gene therapy for breast cancer to suppress tumor progress and metastasis will improve the therapeutic options and be of great benefit to the patients. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8-like 2 is a novel molecule for maintaining immune homeostasis and is involved in cancer development. In the present study, we overexpressed TIPE2 in breast cancer cells to investigate the role of TIPE2 in the development of breast cancer...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306627/novel-microspheres-reduce-the-formation-of-deep-venous-thrombosis-and-repair-the-vascular-wall-in-a-rat-model
#17
Bingyang Dai, Lan Li, Qiangqiang Li, Xiaoxiao Song, Dongyang Chen, Jin Dai, Yao Yao, Wenjin Yan, Huajian Teng, Fang Yang, Zhihong Xu, Qing Jiang
L-Arginine (L-arg), widely known as a substrate for endogenous nitric oxide synthesis, can improve endothelial function associated with the vasculature, inhibit platelet aggregation, and alter the activity of vascular smooth muscle cells. P-selectin is a membrane component of the platelet alpha-granule and the endothelial cell-specific Wiebel-Palade body that plays a central role in mediating interactions between platelets and both leukocytes and the endothelium. The experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of novel microspheres with L-arg targeting P-selectin on the formation of deep vein thrombosis and repair of vascular wall in a rat model...
March 16, 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306215/primary-mediastinal-and-retroperitoneal-malignant-germ-cell-tumors-in-children-and-adolescents-results-of-the-tgm95-trial-a-study-of-the-french-society-of-pediatric-oncology-soci%C3%A3-t%C3%A3-fran%C3%A3-aise-des-cancers-de-l-enfant
#18
Hélène Sudour-Bonnange, Cécile Faure-Conter, Hélène Martelli, Frederic Hameury, Brice Fresneau, Daniel Orbach, Cécile Vérité
PURPOSE: To examine the clinical presentation, treatment and results in children and adolescents with primary mediastinal (PM) and retroperitoneal (RP) germ cell tumors (GCTs). METHODS: The TGM95 trial for malignant GCTs was conducted in France between 1995 and 2005 to evaluate a strategy adapted to prognostic factors with cisplatin-based chemotherapy and surgical management. We reviewed patients with TGCTs at PM and RP sites. RESULTS: Among 239 patients, there were 16 patients with PM and 5 with RP tumors, which represent 9% of all patients, highlighting the rarity of these extragonadal locations...
March 17, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303903/a-novel-toolbox-to-investigate-tissue-spatial-organization-applied-to-the-study-of-the-islets-of-langerhans
#19
Hoa Tran Thi Nhu, Rafael Arrojo E Drigo, Per-Olof Berggren, Thomas Boudier
Thanks to the development of new 3D Imaging techniques, volumetric data of thick samples, especially tissues, are commonly available. Several algorithms were proposed to analyze cells or nuclei in tissues, however these tools are limited to two dimensions. Within any given tissue, cells are not likely to be organized randomly and as such have specific patterns of cell-cell interaction forming complex communication networks. In this paper, we propose a new set of tools as an approach to segment and analyze tissues in 3D with single cell resolution...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303727/enhancement-of-nk-cells-proliferation-and-function-by-shikonin
#20
Yan Li, Hailin Lu, Yongchun Gu, Zhiqiang Ning, Tinghua Cao, Chao Chen, Chengru Hu, Min Tao
CONTEXT: Shikonin is a kind of naphthoquinone compound found mainly in Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb,et Zucc. Previous studies have shown that Shikonin has anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and extensive pharmacological effects. According to new studies, Shikonin could also modulate the immune system function, but the effect to NK (nature killer) cells is yet unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and mechanism of Shikonin on NK cells proliferation and cytotoxicity to colon cancer cell line (Caco-2)...
March 17, 2017: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
keyword
keyword
86949
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"