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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788886/novel-pharmacotherapeutic-approaches-in-treatment-of-alcohol-addiction
#1
Rashidi Mohamed Pakri Mohamad, Jaya Kumar, Shihab Udin Ahmad, Isa Naina Mohamed
In the past two decades, the search for novel pharmacotherapies to treat alcohol addiction been a global endeavour. This has resulted in several drugs that have been approved and successfully marketed for public use while some are still in the testing phase. These pharmacological agents, though effective for the treatment of alcoholism, are not without shortcomings; such as abuse potential, serious mental and physical adverse effects, interaction with alcohol and also poor metabolism and excretion. As more is being understood about the neurobiology of alcohol addiction as well as the unique pharmacological action of these drugs, new agents are evaluated for potential benefits when used as a adjunct in combination therapy...
May 22, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787620/intact-goal-directed-control-in-treatment-seeking-drug-users-indexed-by-outcome-devaluation-and-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer-critique-of-habit-theory
#2
Lee Hogarth, Christa Lam-Cassettari, Helena Pacitti, Tara Currah, Justin Mahlberg, Lucie Hartley, Ahmed Moustafa
Animal studies have demonstrated that chronic exposure to drugs of abuse impairs goal-directed control over action selection indexed by the outcome-devaluation and specific Pavlovian to instrumental transfer procedures, suggesting this impairment might underpin addiction. However, there is currently only weak evidence for impaired goal-directed control in human drug users. Two experiments were undertaken in which treatment-seeking drug users and non-matched normative reference samples (controls) completed outcome-devaluation and specific Pavlovian to instrumental transfer procedures notionally translatable to animal procedures (Experiment 2 used a more challenging biconditional schedule)...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782623/astrocytic-hypertrophy-in-the-rat-ventral-tegmental-area-following-chronic-morphine-differs-with-age
#3
Emily C Goins, Dusica Bajic
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is the origin of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system known to play an integral role in mediating reward and development of drug addiction. Although the differences in neuronal plasticity of VTA at various ages remain to be understood, age is known to influence the effects of chronic opioids. In addition, adaptations associated with exposure to opioids within glial populations located in the VTA are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to determine if there are changes in astrocytic immunofluorescent labeling in the VTA following chronic morphine administration in a rat model at different ages: newborn at postnatal day (PD)7 and adult (estimated PD57)...
2018: Journal of neurology and neurorehabilitation research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782404/evaluating-patient-centered-outcomes-in-clinical-trials-of-procedural-sedation-part-2-safety-sedation-consortium-on-endpoints-and-procedures-for-treatment-education-and-research-recommendations
#4
Denham S Ward, Mark R Williams, John W Berkenbosch, Maala Bhatt, Douglas Carlson, Phillip Chappell, Randall M Clark, Isabelle Constant, Aaron Conway, Joseph Cravero, Albert Dahan, Franklin Dexter, Raymond Dionne, Robert H Dworkin, Tong J Gan, David Gozal, Steven Green, Michael G Irwin, Suzanne Karan, Michael Kochman, Jerrold Lerman, Jenifer R Lightdale, Ronald S Litman, Keira P Mason, James Miner, Robert E O'Connor, Pratik Pandharipande, Richard R Riker, Mark G Roback, Daniel I Sessler, Anne Sexton, Joseph R Tobin, Dennis C Turk, Rebecca S Twersky, Richard D Urman, Mark Weiss, Hannah Wunsch, Anna Zhao-Wong
The Sedation Consortium on Endpoints and Procedures for Treatment, Education, and Research, established by the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks, a public-private partnership with the US Food and Drug Administration, convened a second meeting of sedation experts from a variety of clinical specialties and research backgrounds to develop recommendations for procedural sedation research. The previous meeting addressed efficacy and patient- and/or family-centered outcomes...
May 17, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778626/factors-underlying-risk-taking-in-heroin-dependent-individuals-feedback-processing-and-environmental-contingencies
#5
Daniella M Saleme, Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon, Abdrabo Soliman, Błażej Misiak, Dorota Frydecka, Ahmed A Moustafa
Evidence suggests that factors influencing risk-taking include whether decisions are made based on emotions (affective systems) or cognitions (deliberative systems), the processing of feedback (e.g., deciding to attend a rehabilitation facility for opioid addiction treatment after an intervention held by a family member), and attention to environmental contingencies (e.g., considering the probability of an outcome such as the likelihood of contracting tetanus from a shared needle; or the gains and losses associated with a decision, such as the benefits and costs of taking drugs)...
May 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778010/exposure-to-cannabinoid-agonist-win-55-212-2-during-early-adolescence-increases-alcohol-preference-and-anxiety-in-cd1-mice
#6
Jimena Laura Frontera, Victoria María Gonzalez Pini, Fernando Luis Messore, Alicia Brusco
The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is involved in the modulation of the reward system and participates in the reinforcing effects of different drugs of abuse, including alcohol. The most abundant receptor of the eCB system in the central nervous system is the CB1 receptor (CB1R), which is predominantly expressed in areas involved in drug addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens, the ventral tegmental area, the substantia nigra and the raphe nucleus. CB1R is expressed in early stages during development, and reaches maximum levels during early adolescence...
May 16, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777783/accelerated-lipid-catabolism-and-autophagy-are-cancer-survival-mechanisms-under-inhibited-glutaminolysis
#7
Anna Halama, Michal Kulinski, Shaima S Dib, Shaza B Zaghlool, Kodappully S Siveen, Ahmad Iskandarani, Jonas Zierer, Kirti S Prabhu, Noothan J Satheesh, Aditya M Bhagwat, Shahab Uddin, Gabi Kastenmüller, Olivier Elemento, Steven S Gross, Karsten Suhre
Suppressing glutaminolysis does not always induce cancer cell death in glutamine dependent tumors because cells may switch to alternative energy sources. To reveal compensatory metabolic pathways, we investigated the metabolome-wide cellular response to inhibited glutaminolysis in cancer cells. Glutaminolysis inhibition with C.968 suppressed cell proliferation but was insufficient to induce cancer cell death. We found that lipid catabolism was activated as a compensation for glutaminolysis inhibition. Accelerated lipid catabolism, together with oxidative stress induced by glutaminolysis inhibition, triggered autophagy...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776789/transdiagnostic-effects-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-cue-reactivity
#8
Tonisha E Kearney-Ramos, Logan T Dowdle, Daniel H Lench, Oliver J Mithoefer, William H Devries, Mark S George, Raymond F Anton, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Elevated frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues is a transdiagnostic hallmark of substance use disorders. The goal of these experiments was to determine if it is possible to decrease frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues in both cocaine users and heavy alcohol users through continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). METHODS: Two single-blinded, within-subject, active sham-controlled experiments were performed wherein neural reactivity to drug/alcohol cues versus neutral cues was evaluated immediately before and after receiving real or sham cTBS (110% resting motor threshold, 3600 pulses, Fp1 location; N = 49: 25 cocaine users [experiment 1], 24 alcohol users [experiment 2]; 196 total functional magnetic resonance imaging scans)...
April 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771745/national-institute-on-drug-abuse-international-program-improving-opioid-use-disorder-treatment-through-international-research-training
#9
Steven W Gust, Judy McCormally
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: For more than 25 years, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has supported research-training programs, establishing a global research network and expanding the knowledge base on substance use disorders. International research to inform approaches to opioid addiction is particularly important and relevant to the United States, where opioid misuse, addiction, and overdose constitute an emerging public health crisis. This article summarizes the NIDA International Program and illustrates its impact by reviewing recent articles about treatment approaches for opioid use disorders (OUD)...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768070/web-based-intervention-to-reduce-substance-abuse-and-depression-a-three-arm-randomized-trial-in-mexico
#10
Marcela Tiburcio, Ma Asunción Lara, Nora Martínez, Morise Fernández, Araceli Aguilar
BACKGROUND: Web-based cognitive-behavioral interventions to reduce substance use can be a useful low-cost treatment for a large number of people, and an attractive option in countries where a greater availability of treatment is needed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and initial effectiveness of a web-based cognitive-behavioral intervention for the reduction of substance use and depression compared with treatment as usual, with and without a printed self-help manual...
May 16, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762767/concerns-and-help-seeking-among-patients-using-opioids-for-management-of-chronic-noncancer-pain
#11
Briony Larance, Gabrielle Campbell, Teleri Moore, Suzanne Nielsen, Raimondo Bruno, Nicholas Lintzeris, Milton Cohen, Wayne Hall, Richard Mattick, Courtney O'Donnell, Louisa Degenhardt
Background: The safety and efficacy of long-term opioid treatment for chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) remains controversial. This study examined whether patients who report problematic opioid use sought help and/or perceived barriers to help-seeking. Methods: Data were collected from 1,086 people prescribed opioids for CNCP via a large prospective cohort called the Pain and Opioids IN Treatment (POINT) study. Patients' characteristics and help-seeking were examined according to scores on the Prescribed Opioids Difficulties Scale (PODS)...
May 11, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762153/increased-mortality-and-reoperation-rates-after-treatment-for-septic-arthritis-of-the-knee-in-people-who-inject-drugs-nationwide-inpatient-sample-2000-2013
#12
David Hyung Won Oh, Alysse Gail Wurcel, David Joseph Tybor, Deirdre Burke, Mariano E Menendez, Matthew Joseph Salzler
BACKGROUND: The United States has a growing opioid epidemic impacting all aspects of health care including orthopaedic surgery. Septic arthritis of the knee is a condition commonly encountered by orthopaedic surgeons related to opioid and injection drug use (IDU). Changes in the frequency of hospitalizations for IDU-related septic arthritis and differences in septic arthritis patient outcomes according to IDU status in the setting of the burgeoning opioid epidemic are unknown. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What proportion of patients with septic arthritis of the knee use injection drugs? (2) Are there any differences in complications, reoperations, length of stay, and leaving against medical advice among patients with septic arthritis of the knee with and without IDU? (3) What are the age and racial trends in IDU-related septic arthritis of the knee from 2000 to 2013? METHODS: The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Inpatient Sample database of years 2000 to 2013 was utilized for patients between ages 15 and 64 years with a principal discharge diagnosis of native septic arthritis of the lower leg, the vast majority of which represents the knee...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755349/ibogaine-acute-administration-in-rats-promotes-wakefulness-long-lasting-rem-sleep-suppression-and-a-distinctive-motor-profile
#13
Joaquín González, José P Prieto, Paola Rodríguez, Matías Cavelli, Luciana Benedetto, Alejandra Mondino, Mariana Pazos, Gustavo Seoane, Ignacio Carrera, Cecilia Scorza, Pablo Torterolo
Ibogaine is a potent psychedelic alkaloid that has been the focus of intense research because of its intriguing anti-addictive properties. According to anecdotic reports, ibogaine has been originally classified as an oneirogenic psychedelic; i.e., induces a dream-like cognitive activity while awake. However, the effects of ibogaine administration on wakefulness (W) and sleep have not been thoroughly assessed. The main aim of our study was to characterize the acute effects of ibogaine administration on W and sleep...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754729/-femoral-pseudoaneurysms-in-drug-addicts-about-4-cases
#14
M Ben Hammamia, M Fourati, J Ziadi, F Ghedira, M Ben Mrad, R Denguir
PURPOSE: To describe the therapeutic management of false aneurysms of the femoral artery in drug addicts. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report the cases of four drug addicts with pseudoaneurysms of the femoral artery. RESULTS: All patients were male with a mean age of 36 years. Emergency surgical treatment involved removal of the pseudoaneurysm followed by a venous graft (n=3) or patch (n=1). The post-operative period was uneventful for three patients...
May 2018: Journal de Médecine Vasculaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749316/the-effectiveness-of-group-spiritual-intervention-on-self-esteem-and-happiness-among-men-undergoing-methadone-maintenance-treatment
#15
Mahmoud Rahmati, Amir Jalali, Mohammad-Rafi Bazrafshan, Nader Salari, Mahvash Kashkouli Behrouzi
BACKGROUND: Drug dependence or substance use disorder not only affects a person's life but also brings a lot of challenges for families and communities and imposes heavy burdens on them. There are various therapies in the domain of addiction whose main purposes are to reduce or to cut down substance abuse. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of group spiritual intervention on self-esteem and happiness among male clients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment...
May 10, 2018: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748445/grp94-rewires-and-buffers-the-flt3-itd-signaling-network-and-promotes-survival-of-acute-myeloid-leukemic-stem-cells
#16
Beibei Zhang, Pilar Ayuda Durán, Laure Piechaczyk, Yngvar Fløisand, Mireia Mayoral Safont Safont, Ida Tveit Karlsen, Zina Fandalyuk, Dagim Tadele, Pepijn van Mierlo, Alexander D Rowe, Joseph M Robertson, Bjørn Tore Gjertsen, Emmet McCormack, Jorrit M Enserink
Internal tandem duplications in the tyrosine kinase receptor FLT3 (FLT3-ITD) are among the most common lesions in acute myeloid leukemia and there exists a need for new forms of treatment. Using ex vivo drug sensitivity screening, we found that FLT3-ITD+ patient cells are particularly sensitive to HSP90 inhibitors. While it is well known that HSP90 is important for FLT3-ITD stability, we found that HSP90 family members play a much more complex role in FLT3-ITD signaling than previously appreciated. First, we found that FLT3-ITD activates the unfolded protein response, leading to increased expression of GRP94/HSP90B1...
May 10, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746453/access-to-syringe-services-programs-kentucky-north-carolina-and-west-virginia-2013-2017
#17
Danae Bixler, Greg Corby-Lee, Scott Proescholdbell, Tina Ramirez, Michael E Kilkenny, Matt LaRocco, Robert Childs, Michael R Brumage, Angela D Settle, Eyasu H Teshale, Alice Asher
The Appalachian region of the United States is experiencing a large increase in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections related to injection drug use (IDU) (1). Syringe services programs (SSPs) providing sufficient access to safe injection equipment can reduce hepatitis C transmission by 56%; combined SSPs and medication-assisted treatment can reduce transmission by 74% (2). However, access to SSPs has been limited in the United States, especially in rural areas and southern and midwestern states (3). This report describes the expansion of SSPs in Kentucky, North Carolina, and West Virginia during 2013-August 1, 2017...
May 11, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740351/pain-therapy-guided-by-purpose-and-perspective-in-light-of-the-opioid-epidemic
#18
REVIEW
Amie L Severino, Arash Shadfar, Joshua K Hakimian, Oliver Crane, Ganeev Singh, Keith Heinzerling, Wendy M Walwyn
Prescription opioid misuse is an ongoing and escalating epidemic. Although these pharmacological agents are highly effective analgesics prescribed for different types of pain, opioids also induce euphoria, leading to increasing diversion and misuse. Opioid use and related mortalities have developed in spite of initial claims that OxyContin, one of the first opioids prescribed in the USA, was not addictive in the presence of pain. These claims allayed the fears of clinicians and contributed to an increase in the number of prescriptions, quantity of drugs manufactured, and the unforeseen diversion of these drugs for non-medical uses...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737410/executive-summary-of-the-clinical-guidelines-of-pharmacotherapy-for-neuropathic-pain-second-edition-by-the-japanese-society-of-pain-clinicians
#19
REVIEW
Masahiko Sumitani, Tetsuya Sakai, Yoichi Matsuda, Hiroaki Abe, Shigeki Yamaguchi, Toyoshi Hosokawa, Sei Fukui
Neuropathic pain has a substantial effect on quality of life (QOL). The Japanese Society of Pain Clinicians (JSPC) has developed clinical guidelines of pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain. These guidelines offer clarity on recommendations based on both the most recent scientific evidence and expert opinions. Understanding the concept, disease entity, and burden of neuropathic pain, as well as its screening and diagnosis are important steps before starting pharmacotherapy. As well as other guidelines, the guidelines propose several lines of pharmacotherapies in a step-wise manner...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736657/association-between-oral-mucosal-lesions-and-crack-and-cocaine-addiction-in-men-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Patricia Ramos Cury, Nara Santos Araujo, Maria das Graças Alonso Oliveira, Jean Nunes Dos Santos
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) and their association with crack/cocaine addiction in men. Clinical oral examination was performed in 161 adult male patients at the School of Dentistry of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. Crack/cocaine addiction was determined from the medical records, and all drug-addicted individuals used both crack and cocaine. All participants (40 crack/cocaine-addicted men and 121 non-addicted men) underwent a systematic evaluation of the lips, labial mucosa, commissures, buccal mucosa and sulcus, gingiva and alveolar ridge, tongue, floor of the mouth, and soft and hard palate by a single examiner...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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