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Drug addiction treatment

Kenneth Silverman, August F Holtyn, Reed Morrison
Research on a model Therapeutic Workplace has allowed for evaluation of the use of employment in the treatment of drug addiction. Under the Therapeutic Workplace intervention, adults with histories of drug addiction are hired and paid to work. To promote drug abstinence or adherence to addiction medications, participants are required to provide drug-free urine samples or take prescribed addiction medications, respectively, to gain access to the workplace and/or to maintain their maximum rate of pay. Research has shown that the Therapeutic Workplace intervention is effective in promoting and maintaining abstinence from heroin, cocaine and alcohol and in promoting adherence to naltrexone...
June 2016: Translational Issues in Psychological Science
P Noufi, E Khoury, E Ayoub, N Naccache, S Richa
OBJECTIVES: Use of chronic opioid therapy has increased substantially over the past few years, even though opioid therapy is associated with potentially serious harms, including opioid-related adverse effects and outcomes. Prescription of opioids for chronic pain, particularly nonmalignant chronic pain, remains controversial. In the midst of this controversy, patterns of actual prescription and influences on these patterns are not well understood. This study aims to describe the frequency of prescription of opioid analgesics in a university hospital, the attitudes of doctors towards this category of drugs, and the follow-up modalities of patients taking these drugs...
October 21, 2016: L'Encéphale
Martin T Hall, Jordan Wilfong, Ruth A Huebner, Lynn Posze, Tina Willauer
Parents who use opioids and are involved in the child welfare system are less likely to retain custody of their children than parents who use other drugs. No previous studies have described medication-assisted treatment (MAT) utilization and child permanency outcomes for this population. The Sobriety Treatment and Recovery Team (START) model is a child welfare-based intervention focused on families with co-occurring substance use and child abuse / neglect issues. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of MAT utilization among parents in the START program with a history of opioid use, and compared child outcomes for families who received MAT services to those who did not...
December 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Annie Lévesque, Aimee N C Campbell, Martina Pavlicova, Mei-Chen Hu, Robrina Walker, Erin A McClure, Udi E Ghitza, Genie Bailey, Maxine Stitzer, Edward V Nunes
OBJECTIVE: Coping strategies are a predictor of abstinence among patients with substance use disorders. However, little is known regarding the role of coping strategies in the effectiveness of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). Using data from a 12week randomized control trial assessing the effectiveness of the Therapeutic Education System (TES), an internet-delivered version of the CRA combined with contingency management, we tested the role of coping strategies as a mediator of treatment effectiveness...
September 30, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Trond Erik Grønnestad, Hildegunn Sagvaag
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to gain insight into how individuals who frequent open illicit drug scenes experience opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) and investigate how this appears to affect their recovery processes. METHOD: By means of the ethnographic method, one of the researchers spent time in an open illicit drug scene over a 1-year span, and gathered data on individuals who frequent the scene on a regular basis, and their experiences with OMT...
2016: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Susan E Luczak, Rubin Khoddam, Sheila Yu, Tamara L Wall, Anna Schwartz, Steve Sussman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of the prevalence and co-occurrence of 12 types of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups and discuss the implications of the results for genetic research on addictions. METHODS: We utilized MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases to review the literature on alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping. We present results for each addiction based on total US prevalence, prevalence within ethnic groups, and co-occurrence of addictions among ethnic groups when available...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Daniel V Mogford, Rebecca J Lawrence
Aims and method To investigate the burden of medical comorbidity in a population receiving in-patient treatment for drug and alcohol problems. All patients admitted over a 6-month period were included in the data-set. We recorded diagnostic information on admission that allowed the calculation of predicted 10-year survival using a previously validated comorbidity index. Results Despite the majority of the sample having a predicted 10-year survival chance of greater than 75%, a sizeable minority (16.7%) are carrying a high burden of medical comorbidity, with a predicted 10-year survival chance of less than 50%...
October 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
María Carou, Estrella Romero, Mª Ángeles Luengo
In recent decades, research has identified a set of impulsive/disinhibited personality variables closely associated with drug addiction. As well as this, disorders linked with these variables, such as ADHD and personality disorders, are being closely studied in the field of drug addiction. Although much knowledge has been accumulated about the relation of these variables and disorders taken separately, less is known about how these constructs allow identify-specific profiles within the drug dependent population to be identified...
October 7, 2016: Adicciones
Miguel Garrido-Fernández, Juan A Marcos-Sierra, Ana López-Jiménez, Iñigo Ochoa de Alda
In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of multi-family therapy at reducing the addiction severity and at improving the psychological and family dynamics of opiate addicts receiving methadone treatment at a public treatment center. The study compares multi-family therapy with a reflecting team (MFT-RT) and a standard treatment following a methadone maintenance treatment program. The results show that multi-family therapy with a reflecting team effectively reduces the addiction severity in several of the areas evaluated and noted that this effect is superior to standard treatment...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
Vincenzo De Iuliis, Raimondo Gelormini, Mariarosaria Flacco, Giuseppe Moriello, Marika Caruso, Eugenia Barone, Maria Golato, Elena Toniato, Pio Conti, Stefano Martinotti
BACKGROUND: Valproate is a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant that is effective in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic and absence seizures as well as in partial seizures as a second-line drug. It has been widely demonstrated in the literature that the effect of valproate on type-A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors may reduce relapse to ethanol abuse. This retrospective study evaluated a 3-year period in which 42 patients from the Department of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse (DASA) were treated with valproate...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Tyra Dark, Heather A Flynn, George Rust, Heidi Kinsell, Jeffrey S Harman
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of anxiety-related emergency department (ED) visits in the United States and assess the care provided during those visits. METHODS: Data from the 2009-2011 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were used to identify all ED visits in which the patient received a primary anxiety diagnosis or declared anxiety as the reason for the visit (N=1,029). Patient characteristics, treatment provided, and dispositions of these nationally representative visits were assessed...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Hanne Mette Hoffmann, Nadine Crouzin, Estefanía Moreno, Noora Raivio, Silvia Fuentes, Peter J McCormick, Jordi Ortiz, Michel Vignes
BACKGROUND: Cocaine addiction continues to be a major heath concern, and despite public health intervention there is a lack of efficient pharmacological treatment options. A newly identified potential target are the group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1/5), with allosteric modulators showing particular promise. METHODS: We evaluated the capacity of mGluR1/5 receptors to induce functional responses in ex vivo striatal slices from rats with 1) acute cocaine self-administration (CSA), 2) chronic CSA and 3) 60 days CSA withdrawal by westernblot and extracellular recordings of synaptic transmission...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Roman Gabrhelík, Blanka Nechanská, Viktor Mravčík, Svetlana Skurtveit, Ingunn Olea Lund, Marte Handal
Licit and illicit drug use in pregnant women constitutes a long lasting and serious problem worldwide. Information on long-term effects of maternal drug use on the child is limited. Nationwide registers provide a great potential to study short and long-term consequences for children exposed to licit and illicit drugs during pregnancy. We discuss this potential, with a special emphasis on exposure to methamphetamine, heroin and prescription drugs used for opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). We also discuss the advantages of register data and of merging such data from different regions...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem, Shazia Nawaz
: Morphine and other opioids are amongst most effective prescription medications for the treatment of pain. Addiction and hyperalgesia associated with their long-term use, limits the clinical utility of these drugs. In view of a role of somatodendritic serotonin-1A receptors in addiction and analgesic effects of morphine, the present study concerns effects of co-use of buspirone, a partial agonist at serotonin-1A receptor, on reinforcing, hyperalgesic and motor effects of morphine in rats...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Zhengxin Cai, Song Ye Li, Richard Pracitto, Antonio Navarro, Anupama Shirali, Jim Ropchan, Yiyun Henry Huang
Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) antagonists are potential drug candidates for diseases such as treatment-refractory depression, anxiety, and addictive disorders. PET imaging radiotracers for KOR can be used in occupancy study to facilitate drug development, and to investigate the roles of KOR in health and diseases. We have previously developed two 11C-labeled antagonist radiotracers with high affinity and selectivity toward KOR. What is limiting their wide applications is the short half-life of 11C. Herein, we report the synthesis of a first 18F-labeled KOR antagonist radiotracer and the initial PET imaging study in a non-human primate...
October 14, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Inge Mick, Anna C Ramos, Jim Myers, Paul R Stokes, Samantha Chandrasekera, David Erritzoe, Maria A Mendez, Roger N Gunn, Eugenii A Rabiner, Graham E Searle, José C F Galduróz, Adam D Waldman, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Luke Clark, David J Nutt, Anne R Lingford-Hughes
As a behavioural addiction, gambling disorder (GD) provides an opportunity to characterize addictive processes without the potentially confounding effects of chronic excessive drug and alcohol exposure. Impulsivity is an established precursor to such addictive behaviours, and GD is associated with greater impulsivity. There is also evidence of GABAergic dysregulation in substance addiction and in impulsivity. This study therefore investigated GABAA receptor availability in 15 individuals with GD and 19 healthy volunteers (HV) using [(11) C]Ro15-4513, a relatively selective α5 benzodiazepine receptor PET tracer and its relationship with impulsivity...
October 13, 2016: Addiction Biology
Daniel García-Pérez, Szilamer Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, M Luisa Laorden, M Victoria Milanés, Cristina Núñez
Drug-withdrawal-associated aversive memories might trigger relapse to drug-seeking behavior. However, changes in structural and synaptic plasticity, as well as epigenetic mechanisms, which may be critical for long-term aversive memory, have yet to be elucidated. We used male Wistar rats and performed conditioned-place aversion (CPA) paradigm to uncover the role of glucocorticoids (GCs) on plasticity-related processes that occur within the dentate gyrus (DG) during opiate-withdrawal conditioning (memory formation-consolidation) and after reactivation by re-exposure to the conditioned environment (memory retrieval)...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Kathlene Tracy, Samantha P Wallace
OBJECTIVE: Peer support can be defined as the process of giving and receiving nonprofessional, nonclinical assistance from individuals with similar conditions or circumstances to achieve long-term recovery from psychiatric, alcohol, and/or other drug-related problems. Recently, there has been a dramatic rise in the adoption of alternative forms of peer support services to assist recovery from substance use disorders; however, often peer support has not been separated out as a formalized intervention component and rigorously empirically tested, making it difficult to determine its effects...
2016: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
S Cuesta, J Batuecas, M J Severin, A Funes, S B Rosso, A M Pacchioni
Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by the loss of control over drug-seeking and taking, and continued drug use regardless of adverse consequences. Despite years of research, effective treatments for psychostimulant addiction have not been identified. Persistent vulnerability to relapse arises from a number of long lasting adaptations in the reward circuitry that mediate the enduring response to the drug. Recently, we reported that the activity of the canonical or Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) is very important in the early stages of cocaine-induced neuroadaptations...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Sohita Dhillon
Hydrocodone bitartrate extended-release (Hysingla(®) ER; referred to hereafter as hydrocodone ER) was the first single-entity hydrocodone formulation recognized by the US FDA as having abuse-deterrent properties. It is indicated for the management of pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment and for which alternative treatment options are inadequate. Once-daily oral hydrocodone ER provides consistent plasma hydrocodone concentrations and sustained analgesia over the 24-h dosing interval...
November 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
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