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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938502/-alarming-pregabalin-abuse-in-munich-prevalence-patterns-of-use-and-complications
#1
Nicolas Zellner, Florian Eyer, Tobias Zellner
Background Pregabalin is used e. g. for the treatment of neuropathic pain and anxiety disorder. Recently, its potential for abuse and addiction has become apparent. Methods From 2008 - 2015, we searched our database for the term "Pregabalin", including all patients treated in our department and all calls to the Poison Information Centre (PIC) Munich.From October 2013 to September 2014, all patients were included in a cohort study who either were admitted with a drug intoxication or who presented themselves for a course of detoxification (except ethanol)...
September 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930612/genetic-addiction-risk-score-gars-%C3%A2-a-predictor-of-vulnerability-to-opioid-dependence
#2
Kenneth Blum, Amanda L C Chen, Panayotis K Thanos, Marcelo Febo, Zsolt Demetrovics, Kristina Dushaj, Abraham Kovoor, David Baron, David E Smith, Alphonso Kenison Roy Iii, Lyle Fried, Thomas J H Chen, Edwin Chapman, Edward Modestino, Bruce Steinberg, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
The interaction of neurotransmitters and genes that control the release of dopamine is the Brain Reward Cascade (BRC). Variations within the BRC, whether genetic or epigenetic, may predispose individuals to addictive behaviors and altered pain tolerance. This discussion authored by a group of concerned scientists and clinicians examines the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS), the first test to accurately predict vulnerability to pain, addiction, and other compulsive behaviors, defined as Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923912/exploiting-drug-addiction-mechanisms-to-select-against-mapki-resistant-melanoma
#3
Aayoung Hong, Gatien Moriceau, Lu Sun, Shirley Lomeli, Marco Piva, Robert Damoiseaux, Sheri L Holmen, Norman E Sharpless, Willy Hugo, Roger S Lo
Melanoma resistant to MAPK inhibitor(s) (MAPKi) displays loss-of-fitness upon experimental MAPKi withdrawal and, clinically, may be re-sensitized to MAPKi therapy after a drug holiday. Here, we uncovered and therapeutically exploited the mechanisms of MAPKi-addiction in MAPKi-resistant MUTBRAF or MUTNRAS melanoma. MAPKi-addiction phenotypes evident upon drug-withdrawal spanned transient cell-cycle slow-down to cell-death responses, the latter of which required a robust p-ERK rebound. Generally, drug withdrawal-induced p-ERK rebound up-regulated p38-FRA1-JUNB-CDKN1A and down-regulated proliferation, but only a robust p-ERK rebound resulted in DNA damage and parthanatos-related cell death...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921667/polysubstance-use-among-adolescents-in-a-low-income-rural-community-latent-classes-for-middle-and-high-school-students
#4
Roderick A Rose, Caroline B R Evans, Paul R Smokowski, Matthew O Howard, Katie L Stalker
PURPOSE: Rural communities are currently being impacted by a nationwide epidemic of prescription opioid misuse. Rural adolescent substance users may be at substantial risk for later addiction to these and other drugs. METHODS: This study uses Latent Class Analysis to identify subtypes of polysubstance users among a sample of 7,074 rural adolescents. Separate models were estimated for middle- and high-school youth. Predictive validity was estimated using cumulative ordinal logistic regression of the classes on a set of youth and family characteristics...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920590/incubation-of-accumbal-neuronal-reactivity-to-cocaine-cues-during-abstinence-predicts-individual-vulnerability-to-relapse
#5
Karine Guillem, Serge H Ahmed
An important goal for the treatment of cocaine addiction is to identify neuromarkers that can predict individual vulnerability to relapse after abstinence. There is some evidence that individual reactivity to cue-induced craving may predict subsequent relapse after a period of abstinence. Here we sought to identify the neuronal correlates of this predictive relationship in rats. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (6-h) for 16 days to induce escalation of cocaine intake. Then rats underwent a 1-month period of forced abstinence after which they were re-exposed to cocaine self-administration (6-h) for 8 additional days to induce re-escalation of cocaine intake...
September 18, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919445/cognitive-effects-of-labeled-addictolytic-medications
#6
REVIEW
Camille Noélie Pujol, Cecilia Paasche, Vincent Laprevote, Benoit Trojak, Pierre Vidailhet, Elisabeth Bacon, Laurence Lalanne
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug usage is pervasive throughout the world, and abuse of these substances is a major contributor to the global disease burden. Many pharmacotherapies have been developed over the last 50years to target addictive disorders. While the efficacy of these pharmacotherapies is largely recognized, their cognitive impact is less known. However, all substance abuse disorders are known to promote cognitive disorders like executive dysfunction and memory impairment...
September 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905734/swift-and-certain-proportionate-and-consistent-key-values-of-urine-drug-test-consequences-for-probationers
#7
Amy B Cadwallader
Traditionally, urine drug testing (UDT) in the correctional population (both prison and community corrections) has been infrequent, is scheduled, and has a high possibility of delayed results. Of practical relevance is that scheduled testing is ineffective for identifying drug misuse. Of ethical relevance is that consequences of positive scheduled tests can be unpredictable-in the form of overly severe punishment or a lack of treatment options-and that the scheduled testing paradigm is a poor way to change behaviors...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905733/why-it-s-inappropriate-not-to-treat-incarcerated-patients-with-opioid-agonist-therapy
#8
Sarah E Wakeman
Due to the criminalization of drug use and addiction, opioid use disorder is overrepresented in incarcerated populations. Decades of evidence supports opioid agonist therapy as a highly effective treatment that improves clinical outcomes and reduces illicit opioid use, overdose death, and cost. Opioid agonist therapy has been both studied within correctional facilities and initiated prerelease. It has been found to be beneficial, yet few incarcerated persons receive this evidence-based treatment. In addition to not offering treatment initiation for those who need it, most correctional facilities forcibly withdraw stable patients from opioid agonist therapy upon their entry into the criminal justice system...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903322/evaluation-of-a-community-based-integrated-heroin-addiction-treatment-model-in-chinese-patients
#9
Hong-He Zhang, Lin-Xiang Tan, Wei Hao, Qi-Jian Deng
In this study, we analyzed the efficacy and feasibility of a community-based integrated heroin addiction treatment model in Chinese patients. The 210 heroin addicts belonging to six Chinese communities received an integrated biopsychosocial intervention that included pharmacological treatment, counseling and social assistance. High proportions of study participants were retained at the 12-month (91.9%; 193/210) and 24-month (88.1%; 185/210) follow-up visits. The number of morphine-positive subjects declined from 61...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899796/once-is-too-much-early-development-of-the-opponent-process-in-taste-reactivity-behavior-is-associated-with-later-escalation-of-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#10
Elizabeth M Colechio, Danielle N Alexander, Caesar G Imperio, Kelsey Jackson, Patricia S Grigson
Evidence suggests that the addiction process may begin immediately in some vulnerable subjects. Specifically, some rats have been shown to exhibit aversive taste reactivity (gapes) following the intraoral delivery of a cocaine-predictive taste cue after as few as 1 to 2 taste-drug pairings. After only 3 to 4 trials, the number of gapes becomes a reliable predictor of later cocaine self-administration. Given that escalation of drug-taking behavior over time is recognized as a key feature of substance use disorder (SUD) and addiction, the present study examined the relationship between early aversion to the cocaine-predictive flavor cue and later escalation of cocaine self-administration in an extended-access paradigm...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895615/-methamphetamine-use-in-central-germany-a-qualitative-study-on-consumer-groups-and-motives-from-the-experts-perspective
#11
Laura Hoffmann, Nadine Schumann, Matthias Richter
Background Methamphetamine is one of the most consumed illegal drugs worldwide. In Germany, Methamphetamine shows the highest rates of growth in comparison to other illegal substances in recent years. Particularly Central Germany has been struck by a high rise in consumption. International studies indicate that there is no specific group of people that can be identified as Methamphetamine users. Different consumption patterns in terms of Methamphetamine use can be identified within various social groups. This qualitative study will explore different consumer groups among methamphetamine users, their motives, and how they differ by drug addiction type...
September 11, 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894573/prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-in-people-who-inject-drugs-in-the-cities-of-rawalpindi-and-islamabad-pakistan
#12
Yasir Waheed, Muzammil Hasan Najmi, Hafsa Aziz, Hasnain Waheed, Muhammad Imran, Sher Zaman Safi
Pakistan has the second highest burden of hepatitis C (HCV) in the world. The major route of HCV transmission is contaminated blood or needle sharing. Seventy percent of people who inject drugs (PWIDs) shared needles at some time in their addiction history. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of HCV in PWIDs in cities of Pakistan. We enrolled 100 PWIDs from the Rawalpindi and Islamabad cities of Pakistan. Blood samples were taken in collection tubes and were subjected to HCV screening by using three rapid HCV screening kits including one step anti-HCV test, onsite HCV Ab rapid test and advance quality rapid anti-HCV test...
September 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894547/a-novel-therapy-for-cocaine-dependence-during-abstinence-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Bijan Pirnia, Ali Reza Moradi, Kambiz Pirnia, Parisa Kolahi, Rasool Roshan
BACKGROUND: Topiramate is an anticonvulsant drug and an ideal candidate for reducing the craving in people relying on cocaine. Contingency management is one of the common therapies in the domain of addiction. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate and compare three medication methods of Topiramate (TPM), Contingency Management (CM) and the combined TPM treatment and cash intervention on craving during abstinence. METHODS: This randomized clinical trial was conducted at Bijan Center for Substance Abuse Treatment in Tehran, Iran, from December 15, 2014 to November 20, 2015...
July 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892721/glial-and-neuroinflammatory-targets-for-treating-substance-use-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Ryan K Bachtell, Jermaine D Jones, Keith G Heinzerling, Patrick M Beardsley, Sandra D Comer
BACKGROUND: The plenary session at the 2016 Behavior, Biology and Chemistry: Translational Research in Addiction Conference focused on glia as potential players in the development, persistence and treatment of substance use disorders. Glia partake in various functions that are important for healthy brain activity. Drugs of abuse alter glial cell activity producing several perturbations in brain function that are thought to contribute to behavioral changes associated with substance use disorders...
August 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890714/gut-microbiota-analysis-in-rats-with-methamphetamine-induced-conditioned-place-preference
#15
Tingting Ning, Xiaokang Gong, Lingling Xie, Baomiao Ma
Methamphetamine abuse is a major public health crisis. Because accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that the gut microbiota plays an important role in central nervous system (CNS) function, and research on the roles of the microbiome in CNS disorders holds conceivable promise for developing novel therapeutic avenues for treating CNS disorders, we sought to determine whether administration of methamphetamine leads to alterations in the intestinal microbiota. In this study, the gut microbiota profiles of rats with methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) were analyzed through 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888944/the-novel-dopamine-d3-receptor-antagonists-partial-agonists-cab2-015-and-bak4-54-inhibit-oxycodone-taking-and-oxycodone-seeking-behavior-in-rats
#16
Zhi-Bing You, Jun-Tao Gao, Guo-Hua Bi, Yi He, Comfort Boateng, Jianjing Cao, Eliot L Gardner, Amy Hauck Newman, Zheng-Xiong Xi
The use of prescription opioid analgesics, particularly oxycodone, has dramatically increased, and parallels escalated opioid abuse and drug-related deaths worldwide. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of opioid dependence and expanding treatment options to counter prescription opioid abuse has become a critical public health matter. In the present study, we first evaluated the reinforcing effects of oxycodone in a rat model of self-administration and then explored the potential utility of two novel high affinity dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) antagonists/partial agonists, CAB2-015 and BAK4-54, for treatment of prescription opioid abuse and dependence...
September 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885516/treating-acute-pain-in-the-opiate-dependent-patient
#17
Coleen Dever
Opioid drugs, including prescription as well as heroin, have come to the national spotlight due to the unprecedented rate of overdose and addiction. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has termed this problem as an "epidemic" that has reached record numbers of deaths in 2014. Approximately half of these deaths are the result from prescribed opioids. Also on the rise are the numbers of individuals who are diagnosed with chronic pain and are treated with opioids, methadone and buprenorphine. Individuals currently taking opioids for chronic pain confound the treatment of acute pain after traumatic injury...
September 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882165/successful-treatment-of-acute-renal-failure-secondary-to-complicated-infective-endocarditis-by-peritoneal-dialysis-a-case-report
#18
Aisha M Al-Osail, Ibrahim M Al-Zahrani, Abdullah A Al-Abdulwahab, Sarah M Alhajri, Emad M Al-Osail, Abdullah K Al-Hwiesh, Fahad A Al-Muhanna
BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis is one of the most common infections among intravenous drug addicts. Its complications can affect many systems, and these can include acute renal failure. There is a scarcity of cases in the literature related to acute renal failure secondary to infective endocarditis treated with peritoneal dialysis. In this paper, the case of a 48-year-old Saudi male is reported, who presented with features suggestive of infective endocarditis and who developed acute kidney injury that was treated successfully with high tidal volume automated peritoneal dialysis...
September 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877410/neural-correlates-of-tobacco-cue-reactivity-predict-duration-to-lapse-and-continuous-abstinence-in-smoking-cessation-treatment
#19
Max M Owens, James MacKillop, Joshua C Gray, Steven R H Beach, Michael D Stein, Raymond S Niaura, Lawrence H Sweet
It has been hypothesized that neural reactivity to drug cues in certain limbic/paralimbic regions of the brain is an indicator of addiction severity and a marker for likelihood of success in treatment. To address this question, in the current study, 32 participants (44 percent female) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging cigarette cue exposure paradigm 2 hours after smoking, and then enrolled in a 9-week smoking cessation treatment program. Neural activation to smoking cues was measured in five a priori defined limbic/paralimbic regions previously implicated with cue reactivity across substances...
September 6, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876377/crack-cocaine-users-have-less-family-cohesion-than-alcohol-users
#20
Nino C Marchi, Juliana N Scherer, Mayra P Pachado, Luciano S Guimarães, Gerson Siegmund, Melina N de Castro, Silvia Halpern, Daniela Benzano, Maria L Formigoni, Marcelo Cruz, Flavio Pechansky, Felix H Kessler
Objective: Many studies correlate characteristics of family functioning and the development of drug addiction. This study sought to evaluate and compare the family environment styles of two groups of psychoactive substance users: 1) alcohol-only users and 2) crack-cocaine users. Methods: Three hundred and sixty-four users of alcohol, crack-cocaine, and other drugs, recruited from research centers in four Brazilian capitals participated in this study. Subjects were evaluated through the Family Environment Scale and the Addiction Severity Index, 6th version (ASI-6)...
August 30, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
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