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Nikita Woodhead, Kelly M Hare, Alison Cree
The existence of sex differences in digit-length ratio (especially between the second and fourth digits, 2D:4D) is well established for humans from fetal life onwards, and has been linked with later performance. In rodents, the ratio is affected prenatally by exposure to androgens and estrogens, with some research suggesting an influence from sex of the neighbouring intrauterine fetus. However, the ubiquity and ontogenetic development of sexual dimorphism in digit ratios is not well established among wild amniotes...
March 15, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Christian Møller Madsen, Benjamin Badault, Lars Nybo
Badminton-specific speed and endurance performance was evaluated in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of elite youth players and compared to the physiological capacities of world top-50 singles players.The cross-sectional study involved ten males in the category U15 (<15 years), ten U17, nine U19 and four senior elite players. They performed 30-m sprint, counter-movement jump (CMJ) and badminton-specific speed (B-SPEED) and endurance (B-ENDURANCE) tests. The longitudinal data were collected for ten U15 players with 1- and 2-year follow-up measures...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Esther Morencos, Blanca Romero-Moraleda, Carlo Castagna, David Casamichana
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of match period on the movement patterns of hockey players according to their playing position under the introduction of quarters. METHODS: Sixteen sub-elite level Spanish National League male hockey players participated in the study (age: 25.5 ± 2.9 years; body mass: 74.6 ± 5.5 kg). Global Positioning Systems (GPS) devices were used to monitor players running performance during 17 competitive matches (113 match-play profiles)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Thomas A Haugen, Paul A Solberg, Carl Foster, Ricardo Morán-Navarro, Felix Breitschädel, Will G Hopkins
The aim of this study was to quantify peak age and improvements over the preceding years to peak age in elite athletic contestants according to athlete performance level, sex and discipline. Individual season bests for world-ranked top 100 athletes from 2002 to 2016 (14937 athletes and 57049 individual results) were downloaded from the International Association of Athletics Federations' web site. Individual performance trends were generated by fitting a quadratic curve separately to each athlete's performance and age data using a linear modeling procedure...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Marcus J Colby, Brian Dawson, Peter Peeling, Jarryd Heasman, Brent Rogalski, Michael K Drew, Jordan Stares
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of multiple high risk scenario (HRS) exposures on non-contact injury prediction in elite Australian footballers. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Sessional workload data (session-rating of perceived exertion; GPS-derived distance, sprint distance, maximum velocity) from one club (n= 60 players) over 3 seasons were collated; several established HRS were also defined. Accumulated HRS sessional exposures were calculated retrospectively (previous 1-8 weeks)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Naser Naser, Ajmol Ali, Paul Macadam
Futsal, the 5-a-side version of soccer (i.e. 1 goalkeeper and 4 outfield players), was introduced in 1930 and continues to grow in popularity around the world. Competitive games comprise of two 20-min periods of high-intensity and intermittent activities requiring substantial physical, tactical, and technical efforts from the players. A greater understanding of the physical and skill requirements will aid the development of futsal and enable practitioners to undertake appropriate training regimes for the demands of the sport...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Dayanne S Lima-Borges, Paula F Martinez, Luiz Carlos M Vanderlei, Fernando S S Barbosa, Silvio A Oliveira-Junior
OBJECTIVES: Young athletes' participation in competitive sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of overtraining and sports injuries. Since these issues are poorly understood, this study analyzed heart rate variability, stress/recovery relationship, and sports injury incidence during a training macrocycle of young sprint and endurance swimmers. METHODS: Thirty teenage swimmers (aged 12 to 17 years) were divided into two groups as follows: Sprint (n=17) and Endurance (n=13)...
March 14, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Jason McGahan, Con Burns, Seán Lacey, Tim Gabbett, Cian O' Neill
PURPOSE: This study investigated the positional running demands of elite Gaelic football players during match-play and compared these demands with typical training activities used to prepare players for competition. METHODS: Global positioning system (GPS) data was obtained from thirty elite Gaelic football players (26.9 ± 3.5 years, 182.8 ± 6.1 cm, 84.6 ± 8.1 kg) across a full season (13 competitive games and 78 training sessions). Only players who completed the full match and respective training sessions were included (n = 107 match files and n = 1,603 training files)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Liam Bagley, Nasser Al-Shanti, Steven Bradburn, Osamah Baig, Mark Slevin, Jamie S McPhee
BACKGROUND: Regular sprint interval training (SIT) improves whole-body aerobic capacity and muscle oxidative potential, but very little is known about knee extensor anabolic or fatigue resistance adaptations, or whether effects are similar for males and females. The purpose of this study was to compare sex-related differences in knee extensor size, torque-velocity relationship and fatigability adaptations to 12 weeks SIT. METHODS: Sixteen males and fifteen females (mean (SEM) age: 41 (±2...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Curtis L Tomasevicz, Jack W Ransone, Christopher W Bach
The requisite combination of speed, power, and strength necessary for a bobsled push athlete coupled with the difficulty in directly measuring pushing ability makes selecting effective push crews challenging. Current practices by USA Bobsled and Skeleton (USABS) utilize field combine testing to assess and identify specifically selected performance variables in an attempt to best predict push performance abilities. Combine data consisting of 11 physical performance variables were collected from 75 subjects across two winter Olympic qualification years (2009 and 2013)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Yan Gong, Steven M Smith, Eileen M Handberg, Carl J Pepine, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff
The objective of this analysis is to determine the effect of intensive (<120 mm Hg) versus standard (<140 mm Hg) systolic blood pressure (SBP) targets on cardiovascular (CV) outcomes among SPRINT participants with low-normal or high-normal fasting glucose (FG). We categorized the 5425 SPRINT participants with FG <100 mg/dL into 2 groups: <85 mg/dL (low-normal) and 85 to <100 mg/dL (high-normal). Among participants with low-normal glucose, there was no significant difference in the primary outcome (PO) between the 2 treatment arms (adjusted hazard ratio, HR: 1...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Karen C Johnson, Paul K Whelton, William C Cushman, Jeffrey A Cutler, Gregory W Evans, Joni K Snyder, Walter T Ambrosius, Srinivasan Beddhu, Alfred K Cheung, Lawrence J Fine, Cora E Lewis, Mahboob Rahman, David M Reboussin, Michael V Rocco, Suzanne Oparil, Jackson T Wright
Recent publications have stated that the blood pressure (BP) measurement technique used in SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) was unattended. However, the SPRINT protocol does not address the issue of attendance. A survey was conducted immediately after SPRINT closeout visits were completed to inquire whether BP measurements were usually attended or unattended by staff. There were 4082 participants at 38 sites that measured BP after leaving the participant alone the entire time (always alone), 2247 at 25 sites that had personnel in the room the entire time (never alone), 1746 at 19 sites that left the participant alone only during the rest period (alone for rest), and 570 at 6 sites that left the participant alone only during the BP readings (alone for BP measurement)...
March 12, 2018: Hypertension
Simon P Lailvaux, Andrew Z Wang, Jerry F Husak
The energetic costs of performance constitute a non-trivial component of animals' daily energetic budgets. However, we currently lack an understanding of how those costs are partitioned among the various stages of performance development, maintenance, and production. We manipulated individual investment in performance by training Anolis carolinensis lizards for endurance or sprinting ability. We then measured energetic expenditure both at rest and immediately following exercise to test whether such training alters the maintenance and production costs of performance...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Akanksha Bhatnagar, Ulrich Pein, Silke Markau, Karl Weigand, Paolo Fornara, Matthias Girndt, Eric Seibert
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We compare conventional office blood pressure measurements with automated SPRINT-study type readings in kidney transplant recipients in order to determine the impact of the white coat effect in a prospective observational study. METHODS: Adult patients with a functional renal transplant not dependent on dialysis were eligible. Readings were taken in the office in presence of the physician with an oscillometric method. Afterwards, readings were repeated with the patients resting alone in a quiet examination room with an automated blood pressure monitor...
March 6, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
A Delextrat, M Gruet, F Bieuzen
The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of 6 weeks of small-sided game (SSG) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on aerobic fitness and muscle oxygenation during a repeated sprint (RS) sequence in elite male junior basketball players. Twenty participants (14.3 ± 0.5 years; 176.8 ± 12.5 cm; 74.5 ± 9.8 kg) performed pre- and post-tests interspersed by 6-weeks of SSG or HIIT training. Testing sessions consisted of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test and a RS sequence (two bouts of 15-s)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
David Bender, Jeremy R Townsend, William Vantrease, Autumn C Marshall, Ruth N Henry, Stephen Heffington, Kent D Johnson
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute beetroot juice (BR) administration on repeated sprint performance and isometric force production in adolescent males. Twelve male adolescents (16.8 ± 1.0 yrs; 178.8 ± 9.2 cm; 74.8 ± 12.5 kg; peak height velocity: 2.53 ± 1.2 yrs) participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover designed study. Participants consumed 2 x 70 mL of BR (~12.9 mmol NO3¯; Beet It Sport®) or a nitrate-depleted placebo (PL) 2.5 hours prior to performing isometric mid-thigh pulls (IMTP) and four repeated 20-second Wingate sprints (S1-S4) interspersed with 4 minutes of rest...
March 10, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Steven H Doeven, Michel S Brink, Silke J Kosse, Koen A P M Lemmink
Background: Insufficient postmatch recovery in elite players may cause an increased risk of injuries, illnesses and non-functional over-reaching. Objective: To evaluate postmatch recovery time courses of physical performance and biochemical markers in team ball sport players. Study design: Systematic review. Data sources: PubMed and Web of Science. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: This systematic review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Robert A Phillips, Jiaqiong Xu, Leif E Peterson, Ryan M Arnold, Joseph A Diamond, Adam E Schussheim
BACKGROUND: The lower rate of primary outcome events in the intensive treatment group in SPRINT (Systolic Pressure Intervention Trial) was associated with increased clinically significant serious adverse events (SAEs). In 2017, the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association issued risk-based blood pressure treatment guidelines. The authors hypothesized that stratification of the SPRINT population by degree of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk might identify a group which could benefit the most from intensive treatment...
March 2, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Ross D Pollock, Katie A O'Brien, Lorna J Daniels, Kathrine B Nielsen, Anthea Rowlerson, Niharika A Duggal, Norman R Lazarus, Janet M Lord, Andrew Philp, Stephen D R Harridge
In this study, results are reported from the analyses of vastus lateralis muscle biopsy samples obtained from a subset (n = 90) of 125 previously phenotyped, highly active male and female cyclists aged 55-79 years in regard to age. We then subsequently attempted to uncover associations between the findings in muscle and in vivo physiological functions. Muscle fibre type and composition (ATPase histochemistry), size (morphometry), capillary density (immunohistochemistry) and mitochondrial protein content (Western blot) in relation to age were determined in the biopsy specimens...
March 8, 2018: Aging Cell
Øyvind Stople Sivertsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
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