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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435687/an-evaluation-of-low-volume-high-intensity-intermittent-training-hiit-for-health-risk-reduction-in-overweight-and-obese-men
#1
Benjamin M Kelly, Soteris Xenophontos, James A King, Myra A Nimmo
ᅟ: Both sprint interval training (SIT) and high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) have been described as time-efficient strategies for inducing favourable metabolic and cardiorespiratory adaptations in healthy and diseased participants. BACKGROUND: To date, little attention has been given to profiling the potential health benefits of HIIT or modified HIIT training within overweight and obese cohorts with particular focus on inflammation. Within this pilot trial, we tested the hypothesis that 6 sessions of HIIT performed over 2 weeks with 1-2 days' rest would improve aerobic capacity, glucose metabolism and inflammatory profile in an overweight and obese male cohort...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426516/physical-profiles-of-female-academy-netball-players-by-position
#2
Christopher Thomas, Kemal Thomas Ismail, Robert Simpson, Paul Comfort, Paul A Jones, Thomas Dos'Santos
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the height, body mass and physical characteristics of female academy netball players by position (centers, defenders and shooters). Data were collected on 43 regional academy players during the preseason period and comprised of height and body mass, and physical characteristics (single-leg hop [SLH], squat jump [SJ], countermovement jump [CMJ], 5- and 10-m sprint, 505 and cardiorespiratory fitness). Defenders and shooters demonstrated significantly (p = < 0.05; d ≥ 1...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419027/athletes-intending-to-use-sports-supplements-are-more-likely-to-respond-to-a-placebo
#3
Philip Hurst, Abby Foad, Damian Coleman, Chris Beedie
PURPOSE: We investigated associations between athletes' use of sport supplements and their responsiveness to placebo and nocebo interventions. METHODS: Participants (n=627) reported their intention to use, and actual use of, sport supplements. They then completed a 5x20m repeat sprint protocol in the baseline condition, prior to being randomized to one of three treatments. Participants in the positive-belief treatment were administered an inert capsule described as a potent supplement which would improve sprint performance...
April 18, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417082/improving-glucose-tolerance-by-muscle-damaging-exercise
#4
Chien-Te Ho, Machiko Otaka, Chia-Hua Kuo
Tissue damage is regarded as an unwanted medical condition to be avoided. However, introducing tolerable tissue damages has been used as a therapeutic intervention in traditional and complementary medicine to cure discomfort and illness. Eccentric exercise is known to cause significant necrosis and insulin resistance of skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of muscle damage and blood glucose responses during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after eccentric training in 21 young participants...
April 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416896/actn3-r577x-genotype-and-performance-of-elite-middle-long-distance-swimmers-in-china
#5
Y C Li, L Q Wang, L Y Yi, J H Liu, Y Hu, Y F Lu, M Wang
The ACTN3 gene is one of the genes that have a potential influence on physical performance. Studies have shown that the 577R genotype of ACTN3 is more prevalent in sprint athletes, while the 577X genotype is more prevalent in endurance athletes. In swimming, both power and endurance related phenotypes are equally needed for swimmers to excel at the elite level. Therefore, the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism may become a genetic marker for swimmers. The study aimed to examine the association of the ACTN3 R577X genotype with the performance of elite middle-long distance (MLD) swimmers...
March 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410999/impact-of-time-and-work-rest-ratio-matched-sprint-interval-training-programmes-on-performance-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Molly C Lloyd Jones, Martyn G Morris, John R Jakeman
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a short training intervention using two repeated sprint protocols matched for total sprint duration and work:rest ratio. DESIGN: Randomised-controlled trial. METHODS: Thirty physically active males were randomly allocated to one of two sprint training groups: a 6s group, a 30s group or a non-exercising control. The training groups were matched for work:rest ratio and total sprint time per session, and completed 6 training sessions over a 2-week period...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410998/a-retrospective-longitudinal-analysis-of-anthropometric-and-physical-qualities-that-associate-with-adult-career-attainment-in-junior-rugby-league-players
#7
Kevin Till, David Morley, John O'Hara, Ben L Jones, Chris Chapman, Clive B Beggs, Carlton Cooke, Stephen Cobley
OBJECTIVES: To retrospectively compare the longitudinal physical development of junior rugby league players between the Under 13 and 15 age categories in relation to their adult career attainment outcome. DESIGN: Retrospective longitudinal design. METHODS: Fifty-one former junior rugby league players were retrospectively grouped according to their career attainment outcome as adults (i.e., amateur, academy or professional). As juniors, players undertook a physical testing battery on three consecutive annual occasions (Under 13s, 14s, 15s) including height, body mass, sum of four skinfolds, maturation, vertical jump, medicine ball chest throw, 10-60m sprint, agility 505 and estimated V˙O2max ...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409516/relationships-between-fitness-test-and-kicking-velocity-in-young-soccer-players
#8
Víctor Torreblanca-Martínez, José A González-Jurado, Fernando M Otero-Saborido
BACKGROUND: To study the relation between fitness test and kicking velocity in young soccer players, which has not been previously studied in this group of age. METHODS: Ninety eight Under-11 soccer players who belonged to two professional Spanish clubs and two amateur clubs were subjected to sprint test (15 and 30 meters), CMJ (Countermovement Jump), estimation of maximal oxygen intake (VO2max), kicking velocity test, fatigue index of jump height and anthropometrical measures...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409503/food-restriction-affects-maternal-investment-but-not-neonate-phenotypes-in-a-viviparous-lizard
#9
Yang Wang, Zhi-Gao Zeng, Liang Ma, Shu-Ran Li, Wei-Guo Du
Food availability significantly affects an animal's energy metabolism, and thus its phenotype, survival, and reproduction. Maternal and offspring responses to food conditions are critical for understanding population dynamics and life-history evolution of a species. In this study, we conducted food manipulation experiments in field enclosures to identify the effect of food restriction on female reproductive traits and postpartum body condition, as well as on hatchling phenotypes, in a lacertid viviparous lizard from the Inner Mongolian desert steppe of China...
March 18, 2017: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409397/the-effect-of-high-intensity-aerobic-interval-training-on-markers-of-systemic-inflammation-in-sedentary-populations
#10
Nicholas G Allen, Samuel M Higham, Amy E Mendham, Tegan E Kastelein, Penelope S Larsen, Rob Duffield
PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 30 s sprint, 4-5 min passive recovery) and prolonged intermittent sprint training (PIST; 10 s sprint, 2-3 min moderate exercise) on the systemic inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), aerobic capacity, and anthropometry in a middle-aged, sedentary population. METHODS: Fifty-five sedentary adults (age 49.2 ± 6.1 years) were randomised into HIIT (n = 20), PIST (n = 21), or a sedentary control group (CTRL n = 14)...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406356/the-association-between-fundamental-athletic-movements-and-physical-fitness-in-elite-junior-australian-footballers
#11
Carl T Woods, Ian McKeown, Justin Keogh, Sam Robertson
This study investigated the associations between fundamental athletic movement and physical fitness in junior Australian football (AF). Forty-four under 18 players performed a fundamental athletic movement assessment consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge, single leg Romanian deadlift and a push up. Movements were scored on three assessment criterions using a three-point scale. Additionally, participants performed five physical fitness tests commonly used for talent identification in AF. A Spearman's nonparametric correlation matrix was built, with correlation coefficients being visualised using a circularly rendered correlogram...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406104/institutionalized-physical-activity-curriculum-benefits-of-medical-students-in-colombia
#12
Gustavo Tovar, Gabriel López, Milcíades Ibáñez, Ricardo Alvarado, Felipe Lobelo, John Duperly
BACKGROUND: Health authorities internationally have recommended implementing physical activity and exercise for health training programs within the curriculum of medical schools. The purpose of this evaluation was to determine the changes in physical fitness and health (Fitnessgram criteria) of a sports medicine and physical activity course implemented for 3rd year students in a private medical school in Bogotá, Colombia. METHODS: Intervention was targeted to 13 medical student cohorts...
September 2016: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405396/multimodal-communication-in-courting-fiddler-crabs-reveals-male-performance-capacities
#13
Sophie L Mowles, Michael Jennions, Patricia R Y Backwell
Courting males often perform different behavioural displays that demonstrate aspects of their quality. Male fiddler crabs, Uca sp., are well known for their repetitive claw-waving display during courtship. However, in some species, males produce an additional signal by rapidly stridulating their claw, creating a 'drumming' vibrational signal through the substrate as a female approaches, and even continue to drum once inside their burrow. Here, we show that the switch from waving to drumming might provide additional information to the female about the quality of a male, and the properties of his burrow (multiple message hypothesis)...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404582/histone-deacetylase-activity-modulates-exercise-induced-skeletal-muscle-plasticity-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#14
Alec Izaac Marcus Simmonds, Frank Seebacher
Aerobic exercise has a positive impact on animals by enhancing skeletal muscle function and locomotor performance. Responses of skeletal muscle to exercise involve changes in energy metabolism, calcium handling, and the composition of contractile protein isoforms, which together influence contractile properties. Histone deacetylases (HDAC) can cause short-term changes in gene expression, and may thereby mediate plasticity in contractile properties of skeletal muscle in response to exercise. The aim of this project was to determine (in zebrafish, Danio rerio) the traits that mediate inter-individual differences in sustained and sprint performance, and to determine whether inhibiting class I and II HDACs mediates exercise-induced changes in these traits...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396485/alteration-of-swing-leg-work-and-power-during-human-accelerated-sprinting
#15
Ryu Nagahara, Takeo Matsubayashi, Akifumi Matsuo, Koji Zushi
This study investigated changes in lower-extremity joint work and power during the swing phase in a maximal accelerated sprinting. Twelve male sprinters performed 60-m maximal sprints while motion data was recorded. Lower-extremity joint work and power during the swing phase of each stride for both legs were calculated. Positive hip and negative knee work (≈4.3 and ≈-2.9 J·kg(-1)) and mean power (≈13.4 and ≈-8.7 W·kg(-1)) during the entire swing phase stabilized or decreased after the 26.2±1.1 (9...
April 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394831/progression-in-youth-soccer-selection-and-identification-in-youth-soccer-players-aged-13-15-years
#16
Iraia Bidaurrazaga-Letona, José Antonio Lekue, Markos Amado, Susana Maria Gil
The aim of this study was to identify the factors which are important for the identification and selection of young soccer players. Ninety four adolescent soccer players from the Under-13 (U13; age=12.3 ± 0.3 years; n=50) and Under-15 (U15; age=14.0 ± 0.2 years; n=44) categories belonging to a professional club participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements, physical tests (sprint, agility, endurance and jump) and maturity status (age at peak height velocity) were recorded over four seasons. Comparisons were performed amongst new players joining the club (Enter players, n=15), players progressing to the next age category (Club players, n=54) and players leaving the club (Deselected players, n=25)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393541/racial-differences-in-hemoglobin-and-plasma-volume-variation-implications-for-muscle-performance-and-recovery
#17
Maha Sellami, Karim Chamari, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Wiem Kebsi, Anis Chaouachi, Hassane Zouhal
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of race differences on sprint performance, Hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (Ht) and plasma volume (PV) variation in response to repeated sprint exercise. DESIGN: Thirty-six healthy, moderately trained men and women (20.8 ± 0.2 year-old) volunteered to participate in this study. They were allocated to one of the four groups according to their gender and race: Black men's group (BM, n = 9), White men's group (WM, n = 9), Black women's group (BW, n = 9) and White women's group (WW, n = 9)...
April 10, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391721/validity-and-usefulness-of-the-line-drill-test-for-adolescent-basketball-players-a-bayesian-multilevel-analysis
#18
Humberto M Carvalho, Carlos E Gonçalves, Bernard Grosgeorge, Roberto R Paes
The study examined the validity of the Line Drill test (LD) in male adolescent basketball players (10-15 years). Sensitiveness of the LD to changes in performance across a training and competition season (4 months) was also considered. Age, maturation, body size and LD were measured (n = 57). Sensitiveness of the LD was examined pre- and post-competitive season in a sub-sample (n = 44). The time at each of the four shuttle sprints of the LD (i.e. four stages) was modelled with Bayesian multilevel models...
April 10, 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391489/research-into-the-health-benefits-of-sprint-interval-training-should-focus-on-protocols-with-fewer-and-shorter-sprints
#19
Niels B J Vollaard, Richard S Metcalfe
Over the past decade, it has been convincingly shown that regularly performing repeated brief supramaximal cycle sprints (sprint interval training [SIT]) is associated with aerobic adaptations and health benefits similar to or greater than with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). SIT is often promoted as a time-efficient exercise strategy, but the most commonly studied SIT protocol (4-6 repeated 30-s Wingate sprints with 4 min recovery, here referred to as 'classic' SIT) takes up to approximately 30 min per session...
April 8, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389216/effects-of-cooling-before-and-during-simulated-match-play-on-thermoregulatory-responses-of-athletes-with-tetraplegia
#20
Katy E Griggs, George Havenith, Thomas A W Paulson, Michael J Price, Victoria L Goosey-Tolfrey
OBJECTIVES: Athletes with high level spinal cord injuries (tetraplegia) are under greater thermal strain during exercise than the able-bodied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of pre-cooling using an ice vest and the combination of pre-cooling and cooling during play using water sprays in athletes with tetraplegia. DESIGN: Counter-balanced, cross-over design. METHODS: Eight wheelchair rugby players with tetraplegia completed a 60min intermittent sprint protocol (ISP) on a wheelchair ergometer in 20...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
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