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Athlete Monitoring

Mája Polakovičová, Peter Musil, Eugen Laczo, Dušan Hamar, Ján Kyselovič
Systematic physical activity increases physical fitness and exercise capacity that lead to the improvement of health status and athletic performance. Considerable effort is devoted to identifying new biomarkers capable of evaluating exercise performance capacity and progress in training, early detection of overtraining, and monitoring health-related adaptation changes. Recent advances in OMICS technologies have opened new opportunities in the detection of genetic, epigenetic and transcriptomic biomarkers. Very promising are mainly small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs)...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Paul J Tofari, Stuart J Cormack, Tammie R Ebert, A Scott Gardner, Justin G Kemp
Talent identification (TID) and talent development (TDE) programmes in track sprint cycling use ergometer- and track-based tests to select junior athletes and assess their development. The purpose of this study was to assess which tests are best at monitoring TID and TDE. Ten male participants (16.2 ± 1.1 year; 178.5 ± 6.0 cm and 73.6 ± 7.6 kg) were selected into the national TID squad based on initial testing. These tests consisted of two 6-s maximal sprints on a custom-built ergometer and 4 maximal track-based tests (2 rolling and 2 standing starts) using 2 gear ratios...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
David Herzig, Moreno Testorelli, Daniela Schäfer Olstad, Daniel Erlacher, Peter Achermann, Prisca Eser, Matthias Wilhelm
BACKGROUND/AIM: There is increasing popularity for athletes to use heart rate variability (HRV) to tailor training. A time-efficient method is HRV assessment during deep sleep. The aim was to validate the selection of deep sleep segments identified by RR-intervals with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) recordings and to compare HRV parameters of these segments with those of standard morning supine measurements. METHODS: In 11 world class alpine- skiers, RR-intervals were monitored during ten nights and simultaneous EEGs were recorded in 2-4 nights...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Jenny E Mullen, John-Olof Thörngren, Jenny J Schulze, Magnus Ericsson, Nina Gårevik, Mikael Lehtihet, Lena Ekström
Today's doping tests involving longitudinal monitoring of steroid profiles are difficult in women. Women have more complex hormonal fluctuations than men and commonly take drugs such as hormonal contraceptives that are shown to affect biomarkers used in these doping tests. In this study we followed six women's urinary steroid profile during one menstrual cycle, including both glucuronides and sulfate conjugated fractions. Additionally, we studied what happens to the steroidal module of the athlete biological passport (ABP) after administration of an emergency contraceptive (levonorgestrel, NorLevo®)...
October 18, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Nicolas Leuenberger, Emanuele Bulla, Olivier Salamin, Raul Nicoli, Neil Robinson, Norbert Baume, Martial Saugy
The concentration of hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism, is suppressed during periods of increased erythropoietic activity. The present study obtained blood samples from 109 elite athletes and examined the correlations between hepcidin and markers of erythropoiesis and iron metabolism (i.e., hemoglobin, erythropoietin (EPO), ferritin, erythroferrone (ERFE), and iron concentration). Furthermore, an administration study was undertaken to examine the effect of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) delta (Dynepo™) on hepcidin concentrations in healthy male volunteers...
October 18, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Ahmed Radwan, Matthew Wyland, Lee Applequist, Erin Bolowsky, Heather Klingensmith, Isaac Virag
BACKGROUND: Plantar fasciitis (PF) is the most common cause of heel pain that affects 10% of the general population, whether living an athletic or sedentary lifestyle. The most frequent mechanism of injury is an inflammatory response that is caused by repetitive micro trauma. Many techniques are available to diagnose PF, including the use of ultrasonography (US). PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to systematically review and appraise previously published articles published between the years 2000 and 2015 that evaluated the effectiveness of using US in the process of diagnosing PF, as compared to alternative diagnostic methods...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Courtney N Gleason, Deanna L Kerkhof, Elizabeth A Cilia, Maria A Lanyi, Jonathan Finnoff, Dai Sugimoto, Gianmichel D Corrado
OBJECTIVE: The traditional history and physical (H&P) is a poor screening modality to identify athletes at risk for sudden cardiac death. Although better than H&P alone, electrocardiograms (ECG) have also been found to have high false-positive rates. A limited portable ECG by a frontline physician (PEFP) performed during preparticipation physical examination (PPE) allows for direct measurements of the heart to more accurately identify athletes with structural abnormalities. Therefore, it is worthwhile to assess the feasibility of incorporating limited PEFP as part of PPEs...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
David A Shearer, William Sparkes, Jonny Northeast, Daniel J Cunningham, Christian J Cook, Liam P Kilduff
OBJECTIVES: Biochemical (e.g. creatine kinase (CK)) and neuromuscular (e.g. peak power output (PPO)) markers of recovery are expensive and require specialist equipment. Perceptual measures are an effective alternative, yet most validated scales are too long for daily use. DESIGN: This study utilises a longitudinal multi-level design to test an adapted Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM+), with four extra items and a 100mm visual analogue scale to measure recovery. METHODS: Elite under-21 academy soccer players (N=11) were monitored across five games with data (BAM+, CK and PPO) collected for each game at 24h pre, 24h and 48h post-match...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Daniel J Owens, Jonathan C Y Tang, Warren J Bradley, S Andy Sparks, William D Fraser, James P Morton, Graeme L Close
PURPOSE: Supplementation with dietary forms of vitamin D is commonplace in clinical medicine, elite athletic cohorts and the general population, yet the response of all major vitamin D metabolites to high doses of vitamin D is poorly characterized. We aimed to identify the responses of all major vitamin D metabolites to moderate and high dose supplemental vitamin D3. METHODS: A repeated measures design was implemented in which 46 elite professional European athletes were block randomized based on their basal 25[OH]D concentration into two treatment groups...
October 13, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Daniel J Plews, Paul B Laursen, Martin Buchheit
PURPOSE: Heart rate variability (HRV) is a popular tool for monitoring autonomic nervous system status and training adaptation in athletes. It is believed that increases in HRV indicate effective training adaptation, but these are not always apparent in elite athletes. METHODS: Resting HRV was recorded in 4 elite rowers (Rower A, B, C and D) over the 7-week period prior to 2015 World Rowing Championship success. The natural logarithm of the square root of the mean sum of the squared differences between R-R intervals (Ln rMSSD), Ln rMSSD:R-R ratio trends, and the Ln rMSSD to R-R interval relationship were assessed for each champion-winning rower...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Stephen Crowcroft, Erin McCleave, Katie Slattery, Aaron J Coutts
PURPOSE: To assess measurement sensitivity and diagnostic characteristics of athlete monitoring tools to identify performance change. METHODS: Fourteen nationally competitive swimmers (11 males, 3 females, age: 21.2 ± 3.2 y) recorded daily monitoring over 15 months. The "Self-report" group (n=7) reported general health, energy levels, motivation, stress, recovery, soreness and wellness. The "Combined" group (n=7) recorded sleep quality, perceived fatigue, total quality recovery (TQR) and heart rate variability measures...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Daniel Jardines, Francesco Botrè, Cristiana Colamonici, Davide Curcio, Gemma Procida, Xavier de la Torre
The detection of the abuse of pseudo-endogenous steroids (testosterone and/or its precursors) is currently based on the application of the steroid module of the World Antidoping Agency (WADA), Athletes' Biological Passport (ABP), implemented through ADAMS. Diagnostic metabolites are monitored for every athlete and statistically evaluated with a predictive Bayesian approach. In the case of suspicious samples, the data of the ABP are confirmed and the isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) test is activated. We have previously demonstrated that IRMS enables confirmation of the non-endogenous origin of pseudo-endogenous steroids in otherwise non-suspicious samples, after a longitudinal evaluation of the ABP, even after the inclusion of additional long term diagnostic hydroxylated metabolites, and that the delta values of the parameters obtained during the IRMS confirmation process presented a much lesser variability compared to the parameters of the ABP...
October 12, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
E E Koenders, C P G Franken, J D Cotter, S N Thornton, N J Rehrer
Exercise-associated hyponatremia can be life-threatening. Excessive hypotonic fluid ingestion is the primary etiological factor but does not explain all variability. Possible effects of chronic sodium intake are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary sodium affects plasma sodium concentration [Na(+) ] during exercise in the heat, when water intake nearly matches mass loss. Endurance-trained men (n = 9) participated in this crossover experiment. Each followed a low-sodium (lowNa) or high-sodium (highNa) diet for 9 days with 24-h fluid intakes and urine outputs measured before experimental trials (day 10)...
October 7, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Nicola Relph, Lee Herrington
BACKGROUND: Following an ACL injury, reconstruction (ACL-R) and rehabilitation, athletes may return to play with a proprioceptive deficit. However, literature is lacking to support this hypothesis in elite athletic groups who have returned to international levels of performance. It is possible the potentially heightened proprioceptive ability evidenced in athletes may negate a deficit following injury. The purpose of this study was to consider the effects of ACL injury, reconstruction and rehabilitation on knee joint position sense (JPS) on a group of elite athletes who had returned to international performance...
October 3, 2016: Knee
Evelien Backx, Cindy van der Avoort, Michael Tieland, Kamiel Maase, Arie Kies, Luc van Loon, Lisette de Groot, Marco Mensink
Studies monitoring vitamin D status in athletes are seldom conducted for a period of 12 months or longer, thereby lacking insight into seasonal fluctuations. The objective of the cur-rent study was to identify seasonal changes in total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concen-tration throughout the year. Fifty-two, mainly Caucasian athletes with a sufficient 25(OH)D concentration (>75 nmol/L) in June were included in this study. Serum 25(OH)D concentra-tion was measured every three months (June, September, December, March, June)...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Hideyuki Nukaga, Tomotaka Takeda, Kazunori Nakajima, Keishiro Narimatsu, Takamitsu Ozawa, Keiichi Ishigami, Kazuo Funato
Teeth clenching has been shown to improve remote muscle activity (by augmentation of the Hoffmann reflex), and joint fixation (by decreased reciprocal inhibition) in the entire body. Clenching could help maintain balance, improve systemic function, and enhance safety. Teeth clenching from a sports dentistry viewpoint was thought to be important and challenging. Therefore, it is quite important to investigate mastication muscles' activity and function during sports events for clarifying a physiological role of the mastication muscle itself and involvement of mastication muscle function in whole body movement...
2016: Open Dentistry Journal
Timo Hänninen, Jari Parkkari, Markku Tuominen, Grant L Iverson, Juha Öhman, Matti Vartiainen, Teemu M Luoto
OBJECTIVES: To examine test-retest reliability of the SCAT3 for two consecutive seasons using a large sample of professional male ice hockey players, and to make recommendations for interpreting change on the test. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study. METHODS: Preseason baseline testing was administered in the beginning of the seasons 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 to 179 professional male hockey players in rink side settings. RESULTS: The test-retest reliabilities of the SCAT3 components were uniformly low...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Tracey J Smith, Marques A Wilson, James P Karl, Krista Austin, Asma Bukhari, Stefan M Pasiakos, Kristie L O'Connor, Harris R Lieberman
: Military personnel and some athlete populations endure short-term energy deficits from reduced energy intake and/or increased energy expenditure (EE) that may degrade physical and cognitive performance due to severe hypoglycemia (<3.1 mmol/L). The extent to which energy deficits alter normoglycemia (3.9-7.8 mmol/L) in healthy individuals is not known since prior studies measured glucose infrequently, not continuously. PURPOSE: To characterize the glycemic response to acute, severe energy deficit compared to fully fed control condition, using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
P Á Latorre-Román, F García Pinillos, P Bujalance-Moreno, V M Soto-Hermoso
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate running kinematic characteristics and foot strike patterns (FSP) during early and late stages of actual and common high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT): 5 × 2000 m with 120-s recovery between runs. Thirteen healthy, elite, highly trained male endurance runners participated in this study. They each had a personal record in the half-marathon of 70 ± 2.24 min, and each had a minimum experience of 4 years of training and competition. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored during HIIT...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Imen Fekhfekh, Abdelmoneem Yahia, Mokhtar Chaabene, Salma Jribi, Nizar Suissi, Mohamed Habib Elleuch, Sameh Ghroubi
OBJECTIVE: To study the acute effect of static and dynamic stretching on the knee muscle strength and postural capacity in athletes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen judokas performed 2 stretching protocols (static and dynamic) on the muscles of both lower limbs with an interval of 48hours in a random order. An evaluation of the dominant knee muscle strength with an isokinetic dynamometer CybexNormII was performed before and after each stretching protocol in a concentric mode at a speed of 60 and 180°/s...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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