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parental separation

I Hyun Ruisch, Jan K Buitelaar, Jeffrey C Glennon, Pieter J Hoekstra, Andrea Dietrich
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy factors have been implicated in offspring oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms. Literature still holds notable limitations, such as studying only a restricted set of pregnancy factors, use of screening questionnaires which assess broadly defined outcome measures, and lack of control for disruptive behavior comorbidity and genetic confounds. We aimed to address these gaps by prospectively studying a broad range of pregnancy factors in relation to both offspring ODD and CD symptomatology in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parent and Children...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Jianfang Lv, Hongying Yang, Zhenan Jin, Minglei Zhao
In this study, a novel process was developed for extracting lead from the hazardous waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass and simultaneously producing glass-ceramics. CRT funnel glass was mixed with coal fly ash and subjected to carbon thermal reduction with the addition of CaO. The homogeneous glass melt and reduced metallic lead were quenched in water. Glass-ceramics were produced from the parent glass through an appropriate heat treatment. The optimum carbon loading amount (calculated as the molar ratio of C/PbO), CaO/SiO2 ratio, smelting temperature and holding time for lead recovery were 1...
March 14, 2018: Waste Management
Daniel S Magnus, Margrid B Schindler, Robin D Marlow, James I Fraser
OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel approach to hospital mortality meetings to elucidate understanding of contributory factors to child death and inform practice in the National Health Service. DESIGN: All child deaths were separately reviewed at a meeting attended by professionals across the healthcare pathway, and an assessment was made of contributory factors to death across domains intrinsic to the child, family and environment, parenting capacity and service delivery...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Joseph D Tobias
The preoperative evaluation is the first step in ensuring the safe conduct of anesthetic care in pediatric patients of all ages. Over time, this process has changed significantly from a time when patients were admitted to the hospital the night before surgery to a time when the majority of patients, including those scheduled for major surgical procedures, arrive the day of surgery. For most patients, the preoperative examiantion can be conducted over the phone by a trained nurse or on-line via a survey thereby eliminating the need for a separate visit merely for the preoperative evaluation...
April 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Honor Young, Lorraine Burke, Saoirse Nic Gabhainn
BACKGROUND: The need to tackle sexual health problems and promote positive sexual health has been acknowledged in Irish health policy. Young people's sexual behaviour however remains under-researched with limited national data available. METHODS: This study presents the first nationally representative and internationally comparable data on young people's sexual health behaviours in Ireland. Self-complete questionnaire data were collected from 4494 schoolchildren aged 15-18 years as part of a broader examination of health behaviour and their context...
March 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
Patrick Ip, Winnie Tso, Nirmala Rao, Frederick Ka Wing Ho, Ko Ling Chan, King Wa Fu, Sophia Ling Li, Winnie Goh, Wilfred Hing-Sang Wong, Chun Bong Chow
BACKGROUND: Proper parent-child interaction is crucial for child development, but an assessment tool in Chinese is currently lacking. This study aimed to develop and validate a parent-reported parent-child interaction scale for Chinese preschool children. METHODS: The Chinese parent-child interaction scale (CPCIS) was designed by an expert panel based on the literature and clinical observations in the Chinese context. The initial CPCIS had 14 parent-child interactive activity items...
March 15, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Vicki Bitsika, Christopher F Sharpley
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that higher cognitive functioning based in the pre-frontal cortex is implicated in the ability of people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to understand and communicate in social situations. Low motivation to engage in social interaction may also be influential in this process. Although both of these factors have been argued to influence the levels of comorbid anxiety in young people with ASD, no detailed examination of those relationships has been reported to date...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Winnie Wing Yan Yuen, Albert Lee, Paul K S Chan, Lynn Tran, Erica Sayko
The present study is aimed at assessing the feasibility of delivering the HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccine to girls through a school-based program in Hong Kong, as well as to examine the facilitators and barriers associated with their participation. We approached 1,229 eligible girls aged 9 to 14 at eight schools in Hong Kong to join the program and then delivered the bivalent HPV vaccine at 0 and 6 months over the course of one school year. The students and their parents completed separate questionnaires to indicate their decision on whether or not to participate, and to assess their knowledge of cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine...
2018: PloS One
Nancy L Segal
This article begins with the story of a 51-year-old Los Angeles, California man, Justin Goldberg, whose daughter caught a glimpse of his striking look-alike at a popular market. Many people have so-called doppelgängers, but this occurrence is especially intriguing - the individual in question, born in New York City in the mid-1960s to an unwed mother, was an adoptee placed by the Louise Wise Adoption Agency. This agency, under the guidance of a prominent psychiatrist, decided to place twins in separate homes...
March 15, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Raquel Maria Ramos, Vanessa Medeiros da Nóbrega, Leiliane Teixeira Bento Fernandes, Amanda Narciso Machado, Neusa Collet
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the maternal perception about the paternal care and to understand how this care Is made effective In practical actions in the care of the child/adolescent with chronic disease in the family routine. METHODS: Exploratory-descriptive, qualitative study, carried out at the pediatric outpatient clinic of a public hospital in the state of Paraíba, between November/2013 and April/2014, with 10 mothers whose children had more than six months of diagnosis...
March 12, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Samantha B Boots, Marika Tiggemann, Nadia Corsini
The aim of this study was to investigate maternal feeding strategies as prospective predictors of young children's snack intake. Participants were 252 mothers of children aged 3-11 years old who completed questionnaire measures of parent feeding strategies (Restriction and Covert Control) and reported on their child's healthy and unhealthy snack intake at two time points separated by three years. Longitudinal regression models showed no prediction of healthy snack food intake. However, Time 1 parental restrictive feeding predicted greater unhealthy snack intake at Time 2, while Time 1 covert feeding strategies predicted lower unhealthy snack intake at Time 2...
March 10, 2018: Appetite
Simone Accordini, Lucia Calciano, Ane Johannessen, Laura Portas, Bryndis Benediktsdóttir, Randi Jacobsen Bertelsen, Lennart Bråbäck, Anne-Elie Carsin, Shyamali C Dharmage, Julia Dratva, Bertil Forsberg, Francisco Gomez Real, Joachim Heinrich, John W Holloway, Mathias Holm, Christer Janson, Rain Jögi, Bénédicte Leynaert, Andrei Malinovschi, Alessandro Marcon, Jesús Martínez-Moratalla Rovira, Chantal Raherison, José Luis Sánchez-Ramos, Vivi Schlünssen, Roberto Bono, Angelo G Corsico, Pascal Demoly, Sandra Dorado Arenas, Dennis Nowak, Isabelle Pin, Joost Weyler, Deborah Jarvis, Cecilie Svanes
Background: Mothers' smoking during pregnancy increases asthma risk in their offspring. There is some evidence that grandmothers' smoking may have a similar effect, and biological plausibility that fathers' smoking during adolescence may influence offspring's health through transmittable epigenetic changes in sperm precursor cells. We evaluated the three-generation associations of tobacco smoking with asthma. Methods: Between 2010 and 2013, at the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III clinical interview, 2233 mothers and 1964 fathers from 26 centres reported whether their offspring (aged ≤51 years) had ever had asthma and whether it had coexisted with nasal allergies or not...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Ehsan Abadi, William P Segars, Gregory M Sturgeon, Justus E Roos, Carl E Ravin, Ehsan Samei
The purpose of this paper was to extend the extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) series of computational phantoms to include a detailed lung architecture including airways and pulmonary vasculature. Eleven XCAT phantoms of varying anatomy were used in this paper. The lung lobes and initial branches of the airways, pulmonary arteries, and veins were previously defined in each XCAT model. These models were extended from the initial branches of the airways and vessels to the level of terminal branches using an anatomically-based volume-filling branching algorithm...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Matthew Witman, Sanliang Ling, Peter Boyd, Senja Barthel, Maciej Haranczyk, Ben Slater, Berend Smit
Scientific interest in two-dimensional (2D) materials, ranging from graphene and other single layer materials to atomically thin crystals, is quickly increasing for a large variety of technological applications. While in silico design approaches have made a large impact in the study of 3D crystals, algorithms designed to discover atomically thin 2D materials from their parent 3D materials are by comparison more sparse. We hypothesize that determining how to cut a 3D material in half (i.e., which Miller surface is formed) by severing a minimal number of bonds or a minimal amount of total bond energy per unit area can yield insight into preferred crystal faces...
February 28, 2018: ACS Central Science
Francisco R de la Peña, Marcos F Rosetti, Andrés Rodríguez-Delgado, Lino R Villavicencio, Juan D Palacio, Cecilia Montiel, Pablo A Mayer, Fernando J Félix, Marcela Larraguibel, Laura Viola, Silvia Ortiz, Sofía Fernández, Aurora Jaímes, Miriam Feria, Liz Sosa, Lino Palacios-Cruz, Rosa E Ulloa
Changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-5) incorporate the inclusion or modification of six disorders: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder and Binge Eating Disorder. The objectives of this study were to assess the construct validity and parent-child agreement of these six disorders in the Spanish language Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL-5) in a clinical population of children and adolescents from Latin America...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Wojciech Ogieglo, Bader S Ghanem, Xiao-Hua Ma, Matthias Wessling, Ingo Pinnau
Ultra-thin microporous polymer films are pertinent to the development and further spread of nanotechnology with very promising potential applications in molecular separations, sensors, catalysis or batteries. Here, we report high pressure CO2 sorption in ultra-thin films of several chemically different polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs), including the prototypical PIM-1. Films with thicknesses down to 7 nm were studied using interference-enhanced in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. It was found that all PIMs swell much more than non-microporous polystyrene and other high performance glassy polymers reported previously...
March 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dmitrijs Rots, Madara Kreile, Sergejs Nikulshin, Zhanna Kovalova, Linda Gailite
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy. Modern treatment protocols allow achievement of long-term event-free survival rates in up to 85% of cases, although the treatment response varies among different patient groups. It is hypothesized that treatment response is influenced by the IL15 gene variations, although research results are conflicting. To analyze IL15 gene variations influence treatment response, clinical course and the risk of developing ALL we performed a case-control and family-based study...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
J M Sparrow, M T Grzeda, N A Frost, R L Johnston, C S C Liu, L Edwards, A Loose, J L Donovan
PurposeTo develop a short, psychometrically robust and responsive cataract patient reported outcome measure suitable for use in high-volume surgical environments.MethodsA prospective study in which participants completed development versions of questionnaires exploring the quality of their eyesight using items harvested from two existing United Kingdom developed parent questionnaires. Participants were 822 patients awaiting cataract surgery recruited from 4 cataract surgical centres based in the UK. Exclusion criteria were other visually significant comorbidities and age <50 years...
March 9, 2018: Eye
A J P Bloemen, A J Oldehinkel, O M Laceulle, J Ormel, N N J Rommelse, C A Hartman
BACKGROUND: We modeled both psychopathology and executive function (EF) as bi-factor models to study if EF impairments are transdiagnostic or relate to individual syndromes, and concurrently, if such associations are with general EF or specific EF impairments. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS; N = 2230). Psychopathology was assessed with parent-report questionnaires at ages 11, 14, 16, and 19, and EF with tasks from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks program at ages 11 and 19...
March 9, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Anna McKinnon, Robert Keers, Jonathan R I Coleman, Kathryn J Lester, Susanna Roberts, Kristian Arendt, Susan M Bögels, Peter Cooper, Cathy Creswell, Catharina A Hartman, Krister W Fjermestad, Tina In-Albon, Kristen Lavallee, Heidi J Lyneham, Patrick Smith, Richard Meiser-Stedman, Maaike H Nauta, Ronald M Rapee, Yasmin Rey, Silvia Schneider, Wendy K Silverman, Mikael Thastum, Kerstin Thirlwall, Gro Janne Wergeland, Thalia C Eley, Jennifer L Hudson
BACKGROUND: Several delivery formats of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for child anxiety have been proposed, however, there is little consensus on the optimal delivery format. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the impact of the child's primary anxiety diagnosis on changes in clinical severity (of the primary problem) during individual CBT, group CBT and guided parent-led CBT. The secondary goal was to investigate the impact of the child's primary anxiety diagnosis on rates of remission for the three treatment formats...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
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