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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904806/dominance-relationships-in-a-family-pack-of-captive-arctic-wolves-canis-lupus-arctos-the-influence-of-competition-for-food-age-and-sex
#1
Simona Cafazzo, Martina Lazzaroni, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
BACKGROUND: Dominance is one of the most pervasive concepts in the study of wolf social behaviour but recently its validity has been questioned. For some authors, the bonds between members of wolf families are better described as parent-offspring relationships and the concept of dominance should be used just to evaluate the social dynamics of non-familial captive pack members (e.g., Mech & Cluff, 2010). However, there is a dearth of studies investigating dominance relationships and its correlates in wolf family packs...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903405/separation-of-44-ti-from-proton-irradiated-scandium-by-using-solid-phase-extraction-chromatography-and-design-of-44-ti-44-sc-generator-system
#2
V Radchenko, C A L Meyer, J W Engle, C M Naranjo, G A Unc, T Mastren, M Brugh, E R Birnbaum, K D John, F M Nortier, M E Fassbender
Scandium-44g (half-life 3.97h [1]) shows promise for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of longer biological processes than that of the current gold standard, (18)F, due to its favorable decay parameters. One source of (44g)Sc is the long-lived parent nuclide (44)Ti (half-life 60.0 a). A (44)Ti/(44g)Sc generator would have the ability to provide radionuclidically pure (44g)Sc on a daily basis. The production of (44)Ti via the (45)Sc(p,2n) reaction requires high proton beam currents and long irradiation times...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903325/the-impact-of-offspring-marital-status-on-depressive-symptoms-of-parents-findings-from-the-korean-longitudinal-study-of-aging
#3
Woorim Kim, Eun-Cheol Park, Kyu-Tae Han, Tae-Hoon Lee, Tae Hyun Kim
BACKGROUND: Noticeable demographic changes have taken place in South Korea, with the general marriage rate decreasing and the average first age at marriage and general divorce rate increasing. The shown trends have contributed to intergenerational discordance in the perception of familial values, which is important in addressing the psychological well-being of parents. This study aimed to investigate the association between the marital status of offspring aged 40 years and over and the depression levels of parents...
December 1, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902793/snp-discovery-and-qtl-mapping-of-sclerotinia-basal-stalk-rot-resistance-in-sunflower-using-genotyping-by-sequencing
#4
Zahirul I Talukder, Gerald J Seiler, Qijian Song, Guojia Ma, Lili Qi
Basal stalk rot (BSR), caused by the ascomycete fungus (Lib.) de Bary, is a serious disease of sunflower ( L.) in the cool and humid production areas of the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BSR resistance were identified in a sunflower recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross HA 441 × RHA 439. A genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach was adapted to discover single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. A genetic linkage map was developed comprised of 1053 SNP markers on 17 linkage groups (LGs) spanning 1401...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902751/exploration-of-a-polygenic-risk-score-for-alcohol-consumption-a-longitudinal-analysis-from-the-alspac-cohort
#5
Michelle Taylor, Andrew J Simpkin, Philip C Haycock, Frank Dudbridge, Luisa Zuccolo
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty remains about the true extent by which alcohol consumption causes a number of health outcomes. Genetic variants, or combinations of variants built into a polygenic risk score (PGRS), can be used in an instrumental variable framework to assess causality between a phenotype and disease outcome of interest, a method known as Mendelian randomisation (MR). We aimed to identify genetic variants involved in the aetiology of alcohol consumption, and develop a PGRS for alcohol...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901440/does-lack-of-genetic-relative-family-health-history-represent-a-potentially-avoidable-health-disparity-for-adoptees
#6
Thomas May, Kimberly A Strong, Kaija L Zusevics, Jessica Jeruzal, Michael H Farrell, Alison LaPean Kirschner, Arthur R Derse, James P Evans, Harold D Grotevant
Many adoptees face a number of challenges relating to separation from biological parents during the adoption process, including issues concerning identity, intimacy, attachment, and trust, as well as (for older adopted children) language and other cultural challenges. One common health challenge faced by adoptees involves lack of access to genetic-relative family health history (GRFHx). Lack of GRFHx represents a disadvantage due to a reduced capacity to identify diseases and recommend appropriate screening for conditions for which the adopted person may be at increased risk...
December 2016: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901269/ability-of-independently-ambulant-children-with-cerebral-palsy-to-ride-a-two-wheel-bicycle-a-case-control-study
#7
Rachel Toovey, Susan M Reid, Barry Rawicki, Adrienne R Harvey, Kerrianne Watt
AIM: Limited information exists on the ability of children with cerebral palsy (CP) to ride a two-wheel bicycle, an activity that may improve health and participation. We aimed to describe bicycle-riding ability and variables associated with ability to ride in children with CP (Gross Motor Functional Classification System [GMFCS] levels I-II) compared with children with typical development. METHOD: This case-control study surveyed parents of 114 children with CP and 87 children with typical development aged 6 to 15 years (115 males, mean age 9y 11mo, standard deviation [SD] 2y 10mo)...
November 30, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889811/bacterial-diversity-patterns-differed-in-two-developing-ecosystems
#8
Shankar G Shanmugam, Zenaida V Magbanua, Mark A Williams, Kamlesh Jangid, William B Whitman, Daniel G Peterson, William L Kingery
Microbial diversity patterns have been surveyed in many different soils and ecosystems, but we are unaware of studies comparing similar soils developing from similar parent materials in contrasting climates. In 2008, developmental chronosequences with ages ranging from 105 to 500,000 years across Georgia (GA) and Michigan (MI) were studied to investigate how bacterial community composition and diversity change as a result of local environmental gradients that develop during pedogenesis. Geographic factors were studied between and within locations spanning two scales: (1) regionally between 0...
November 26, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889633/effects-of-state-contraceptive-insurance-mandates
#9
Angela K Dills, Anca M Grecu
Using U.S. Natality data for 1996 through 2009 and an event analysis specification, we investigate the dynamics of the effects of state insurance contraceptive mandates on births and measures of parental investment: prenatal visits, non-marital childbearing, and risky behaviors during pregnancy. We analyze outcomes separately by age, race, and ethnicity. Among young Hispanic women, we find a 4% decline in the birth rate. There is evidence of a decrease in births to single mothers, consistent with increased wantedness...
November 18, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889496/how-parents-describe-picky-eating-and-its-impact-on-family-meals-a-qualitative-analysis
#10
Amanda C Trofholz, Anna K Schulte, Jerica M Berge
Children are frequently described as being picky eaters. However, this term has been inconsistently defined in prior research. There is limited qualitative research data investigating how parent's define picky eating, how they respond to it, or how they see picky eating impacting their child's dietary intake or the family meal. For this study, parents (n = 88) of siblings (ages 2-18 years old) were interviewed in their homes. The semi-structured interviews focused on parent feeding practices and child eating behaviors...
November 23, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889403/home-food-rules-in-relation-to-youth-eating-behaviors-body-mass-index-waist-circumference-and-percent-body-fat
#11
Lisa Bailey-Davis, Melissa N Poulsen, Annemarie G Hirsch, Jonathan Pollak, Thomas A Glass, Brian S Schwartz
PURPOSE: To investigate agreement and associations between parent and youth acknowledgment of home food rules, youth eating behaviors, and measures of body composition and excess weight. METHODS: Parent-youth dyads (N = 413) completed the "rules for eating at home" scale (Active Where Survey) and reported dietary intake. Trained research staff obtained anthropometric data. Linear regression analyses separately evaluated relationships between youth and parent acknowledgment of rules and youth-reported eating behaviors and anthropometric outcomes...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881747/inbreeding-parents-should-invest-more-resources-in-fewer-offspring
#12
A Bradley Duthie, Aline M Lee, Jane M Reid
Inbreeding increases parent-offspring relatedness and commonly reduces offspring viability, shaping selection on reproductive interactions involving relatives and associated parental investment (PI). Nevertheless, theories predicting selection for inbreeding versus inbreeding avoidance and selection for optimal PI have only been considered separately, precluding prediction of optimal PI and associated reproductive strategy given inbreeding. We unify inbreeding and PI theory, demonstrating that optimal PI increases when a female's inbreeding decreases the viability of her offspring...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880812/quantifying-risk-for-anxiety-disorders-in-preschool-children-a-machine-learning-approach
#13
Kimberly L H Carpenter, Pablo Sprechmann, Robert Calderbank, Guillermo Sapiro, Helen L Egger
Early childhood anxiety disorders are common, impairing, and predictive of anxiety and mood disorders later in childhood. Epidemiological studies over the last decade find that the prevalence of impairing anxiety disorders in preschool children ranges from 0.3% to 6.5%. Yet, less than 15% of young children with an impairing anxiety disorder receive a mental health evaluation or treatment. One possible reason for the low rate of care for anxious preschoolers is the lack of affordable, timely, reliable and valid tools for identifying young children with clinically significant anxiety...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877905/recent-progress-in-the-structure-control-of-pd-ru-bimetallic-nanomaterials
#14
Dongshuang Wu, Kohei Kusada, Hiroshi Kitagawa
Pd and Ru are two key elements of the platinum-group metals that are invaluable to areas such as catalysis and energy storage/transfer. To maximize the potential of the Pd and Ru elements, significant effort has been devoted to synthesizing Pd-Ru bimetallic materials. However, most of the reports dealing with this subject describe phase-separated structures such as near-surface alloys and physical mixtures of monometallic nanoparticles (NPs). Pd-Ru alloys with homogenous structure and arbitrary metallic ratio are highly desired for basic scientific research and commercial material design...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877868/room-temperature-synthesis-of-three-dimensional-porous-zno-cuni-hybrid-magnetic-layers-with-photoluminescent-and-photocatalytic-properties
#15
Miguel Guerrero, Jin Zhang, Ainhoa Altube, Eva García-Lecina, Mònica Roldan, Maria Dolors Baró, Eva Pellicer, Jordi Sort
A facile synthetic approach to prepare porous ZnO@CuNi hybrid films is presented. Initially, magnetic CuNi porous layers (consisting of phase separated CuNi alloys) are successfully grown by electrodeposition at different current densities using H2 bubbles as a dynamic template to generate the porosity. The porous CuNi alloys serve as parent scaffolds to be subsequently filled with a solution containing ZnO nanoparticles previously synthesized by sol-gel. The dispersed nanoparticles are deposited dropwise onto the CuNi frameworks and the solvent is left to evaporate while the nanoparticles impregnate the interior of the pores, rendering ZnO-coated CuNi 3D porous structures...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876383/helmet-use-and-injury-severity-among-pediatric-skiers-and-snowboarders-in-colorado
#16
Melissa Milan, Sandeep Jhajj, Camille Stewart, Laura Pyle, Steven Moulton
INTRODUCTION: Skiing and snowboarding are popular winter recreational activities that are commonly associated with orthopedic type injuries. Unbeknownst to most parents, however, are the significant but poorly described risks for head, cervical spine and solid organ injuries. Although helmet use is not mandated for skiers and snowboarders outside of resort sponsored activities, we hypothesized that helmet use is associated with a lower risk of severe head injury, shorter ICU stay and shorter hospital length of stay...
November 6, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875479/development-and-validation-of-a-short-form-pain-medication-attitudes-questionnaire-pmaq-14
#17
James Elander, Omimah Said, Frances A Maratos, Ada Dys, Hannah Collins, Malcolm B Schofield
Attitudes to pain medication are important aspects of adjustment to chronic pain. They are measured by the 47-item Pain Medication Attitudes Questionnaire (PMAQ). To measure those attitudes more quickly and easily, we developed and evaluated a 14-item PMAQ using data from three separate surveys of people with pain in the general population. In survey 1, participants (n=295) completed the 47-item PMAQ and measures of pain, analgesic use, analgesic dependence and attitudes to self-medication. For each of the seven PMAQ scales, the two items that best preserved the content of the full parent scales were identified using correlation and regression...
November 21, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874175/predictors-of-engagement-in-family-mediation-and-outcomes-for-families-that-fail-to-engage
#18
Megan Morris, W Kim Halford, Jemima Petch, David Hardwick
An important limitation to the effectiveness of family mediation in assisting separated parents is parents failing to engage in the mediation process. In 524 parents who presented to a telephone-based mediation service, 113 (22%) initiating parents withdrew from mediation before the other parent was invited to participate, 241 (46%) initiating parents had respondent parents who declined to participate in mediation, and 170 cases (33%) completed mediation. We tested whether socio-demographic variables, psychological distress, coparental acrimony, parenting problems, or children's behavioral difficulties predicted mediation engagement...
November 22, 2016: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864531/familial-depressive-symptoms-and-delinquency-separate-self-reports-from-mothers-and-their-offspring
#19
Lee Ellis, Anthony Hoskin
Research has documented that both unipolar and bipolar depression are positively correlated with involvement in delinquency and crime. The present study sought to broaden the understanding of these relationships by looking for links between offending and family histories of depressive symptoms in relationship to offspring delinquency. More than 6,000 college students and their mothers provided self-reported information regarding feelings of depression. Students provided self-reports of involvement in various categories of offending and drug use from ages 10 through 18...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863527/the-role-of-social-position-and-depressive-symptoms-in-adolescence-for-life-course-trajectories-of-education-and-work-a-cohort-study
#20
Evelina Landstedt, Anna Brydsten, Anne Hammarström, Pekka Virtanen, Ylva B Almquist
BACKGROUND: While a vast amount of studies confirm the social reproduction of class and status from one generation to the next, less is known about the role of health in the child generation for these processes. Research has shown that particularly mental distress in adolescence is important for future life chances. This study aimed to examine the importance of parental socioeconomic position and depressive symptoms in youth for life-course trajectories of education and labour market attachment among men and women...
November 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
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