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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075545/fetal-growth-and-parental-cardiovascular-risk-preterm-birth-matters
#1
Janet M Catov
It is now well established, but poorly understood, that preterm birth marks excess cardiovascular risk among mothers. The study by Morken et al. provides new and important insights into these links by integrating preterm birth and fetal growth abnormalities as metrics of long-term parental CVD mortality risk. They report that small and large infants delivered preterm are linked to excess maternal CVD risk, but these features are only weakly associated with paternal CVD. This article is protected by copyright...
January 11, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004416/changeability-of-the-fully-methylated-status-of-the-15q11-2-region-in-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-from-a-patient-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#2
Hironobu Okuno, Kazuhiko Nakabayashi, Kousei Abe, Takayuki Ando, Tsukasa Sanosaka, Jun Kohyama, Wado Akamatsu, Manabu Ohyama, Takao Takahashi, Kenjiro Kosaki, Hideyuki Okano
Prader-Will syndrome (PWS) is characterized by hyperphagia, growth hormone deficiency and central hypogonadism caused by the dysfunction of the hypothalamus. Patients with PWS present with methylation abnormalities of the PWS-imprinting control region in chromosome 15q11.2, subject to parent-of-origin-specific methylation and controlling the parent-of-origin-specific expression of other paternally expressed genes flanking the region. In theory, the reversal of hypermethylation in the hypothalamic cells could be a promising strategy for the treatment of PWS patients, since cardinal symptoms of PWS patients are correlated with dysfunction of the hypothalamus...
December 21, 2016: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001135/a-survey-of-physicians-attitudes-toward-decision-making-authority-for-initiating-and-withdrawing-va-ecmo-results-and-ethical-implications-for-shared-decision-making
#3
Ellen C Meltzer, Natalia S Ivascu, Meredith Stark, Alexander V Orfanos, Cathleen A Acres, Paul J Christos, Thomas Mangione, Joseph J Fins
OBJECTIVE: Although patients exercise greater autonomy than in the past, and shared decision making is promoted as the preferred model for doctor-patient engagement, tensions still exist in clinical practice about the primary locus of decision-making authority for complex, scarce, and resource-intensive medical therapies: patients and their surrogates, or physicians. We assessed physicians' attitudes toward decisional authority for adult venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO), hypothesizing they would favor a medical locus...
2016: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984613/-detection-of-a-fetus-with-paternally-derived-2q37-3-microdeletion-and-20p13p12-2-microduplication-using-whole-genome-microarray-technology
#4
Lin Zhang, Meihong Ren, Guining Song, Xuexia Liu, Jianliu Wang, Xiaohong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To perform prenatal diagnosis for a fetus with multiple malformations. METHODS: The fetus was subjected to routine karyotyping and whole genome microarray analysis. The parents were subjected to high-resolution chromosome analysis. RESULTS: Fetal ultrasound at 28+4 weeks has indicated intrauterine growth restriction, left kidney agenesis, right kidney dysplasia, ventricular septal defect, and polyhydramnios. Chromosomal analysis showed that the fetus has a karyotype of 46,XY,der(2),der(20), t(2;20)(q37...
December 10, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973712/experimental-evidence-for-sexual-selection-against-inbred-males
#5
Regina Vega-Trejo, Megan L Head, J Scott Keogh, Michael D Jennions
(1)The detrimental effects of matings between relatives are well known. However, few studies determine the extent to which inbreeding depression in males is due to natural or sexual selection. Importantly, measuring fitness or key fitness components, rather than phenotypic traits allows more accurate estimation of inbreeding depression. (2)We investigate how differences in inbreeding and juvenile diet (i.e. early stressful environment) influence a key component of male fitness, namely their reproductive success...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911018/sperm-competition-and-the-evolution-of-precopulatory-weapons-testis-size-and-amplexus-position-but-not-arm-strength-affect-fertilization-success-in-a-chorusing-frog
#6
Bruno A Buzatto, Evan M Thyer, J Dale Roberts, Leigh W Simmons
Trade-offs between pre- and postcopulatory traits influence their evolution, and male expenditure on such traits is predicted to depend on the number of competitors, the benefits from investing in weapons, and the risk and intensity of sperm competition. Males of the chorusing frog Crinia georgiana use their arms as weapons in contest competition. Previously, we showed that increased numbers of rivals elevated the risk and intensity of sperm competition due to multimale amplexus, and caused a reversal in the direction of precopulatory selection on arm girth...
December 2, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908942/the-need-for-an-effective-process-to-resolve-conflicts-over-medical-futility-a-case-study-and-analysis
#7
Jocelyn A Olmstead, Michael D Dahnke
The issue of medical futility requires a well-defined process in which both sides of the dispute can be heard and a resolution reached in a fair and ethical manner. Procedural approaches to medical futility cases provide all parties involved with a process-driven framework for resolving these disputes. Medical paternalism or the belief in the absolute rightness of the medical model will not serve to resolve these disputes. Although medical futility is first determined by medicine, in order for the determination to meet legal criteria, it must be subject to review...
December 2016: Critical Care Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862580/correlated-paternity-measures-mate-monopolization-and-scales-with-the-magnitude-of-sexual-selection
#8
M E Dorken, L E Perry
Indirect measures of sexual selection have been criticized because they can overestimate the magnitude of selection. In particular, they do not account for the degree to which mating opportunities can be monopolized by individuals of the sex that compete for mates. We introduce a measure of mate monopolization (m) based on the magnitude of correlated paternity and evaluate its ability to track changes in the magnitude of sexual selection. Simulation models were used to compare how well m tracked changes in the selection differential (s) for a trait regulating mating success...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859860/constrained-evolution-of-the-sex-comb-in-drosophila-simulans
#9
M S Maraqa, R Griffin, M D Sharma, A J Wilson, J Hunt, D J Hosken, C M House
Male fitness is dependent on sexual traits that influence mate acquisition (precopulatory sexual selection) and paternity (post-copulatory sexual selection), and although many studies have documented the form of selection in one or the other of these arenas, fewer have done it for both. Nonetheless, it appears that the dominant form of sexual selection is directional, although theoretically, populations should converge on peaks in the fitness surface, where selection is stabilizing. Many factors, however, can prevent populations from reaching adaptive peaks...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859612/objectively-verified-parental-non-hip-major-osteoporotic-fractures-and-offspring-osteoporotic-fracture-risk-a-population-based-familial-linkage-study
#10
Shuman Yang, William D Leslie, Randy Walld, Leslie L Roos, Suzanne N Morin, Sumit R Majumdar, Lisa M Lix
Parental hip fracture (HF) is associated with increased risk of offspring major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs; comprising hip, forearm, clinical spine or humerus fracture). Whether other sites of parental fracture should be used for fracture risk assessment is uncertain. The current study tested the association between objectively-verified parental non-hip MOF and offspring incident MOF. Using population-based administrative healthcare data for the province of Manitoba, Canada, we identified 255,512 offspring with linkage to at least one parent (238,054 mothers and 209,423 fathers)...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859596/osteosarcoma-in-a-patient-with-pseudohypoparathyroidism-type-1b-due-to-paternal-uniparental-disomy-of-chromosome-20q
#11
Hye-Sun Park, Chang Gon Kim, Namki Hong, Seok Joo Lee, Da Hea Seo, Yumie Rhee
It is assumed that a persistent high level of parathyroid hormone (PTH) might have a relation with bone malignancy. However, there has been no report of osteosarcoma associated with pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1b (PHP1b), which is accompanied by high PTH. PHP1b is the result of resistance to PTH in certain end-organ tissues, especially the kidney; the response in bone is unaffected because it normally expresses stimulatory G protein equally from both parental alleles. A 21-year-old male, presenting with gum swelling at the right mandible, was referred to a dental clinic...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805265/impact-of-cryptic-female-choice-on-insemination-success-larger-sized-and-longer-copulating-male-squid-ejaculate-more-but-females-influence-insemination-success-by-removing-spermatangia
#12
Noriyosi Sato, Masa-Aki Yoshida, Takashi Kasugai
In polyandrous mating systems, sperm competition and cryptic female choice (CFC) are well recognised as post-copulatory evolutionary forces. However, it remains challenging to separate CFC from sperm competition and to estimate how much CFC influences insemination success because those processes usually occur inside the female's body. The Japanese pygmy squid, Idiosepius paradoxus, is an ideal species in which to separate CFC from sperm competition because sperm transfer by the male and sperm displacement by the female can be observed directly at an external location on the female's body...
November 2, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797412/prevalence-of-granulocyte-antibodies-in-never-allo-exposed-female-and-male-donors
#13
Rutger A Middelburg, Hans Vrielink, Leendert Porcelijn
BACKGROUND: Fetal/Neonatal alloimmune neutropenia (FNAIN) is a serious condition usually resulting from immunisation of the mother to paternally inherited neutrophil antigens of the foetus. Understanding the biology of female immunisation against neutrophils could help predict or prevent FNAIN. OBJECTIVES: To quantify differences in the prevalence of specific and pan-reactive granulocyte antibodies, between allo-exposed and never allo-exposed male and female blood donors...
October 31, 2016: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758066/the-colour-of-paternity-extra-pair-paternity-in-the-wild-gouldian-finch-does-not-appear-to-be-driven-by-genetic-incompatibility-between-morphs
#14
P E Bolton, L A Rollins, J Brazill-Boast, K-W Kim, T Burke, S C Griffith
In socially monogamous species, individuals can use extra-pair paternity and offspring sex allocation as adaptive strategies to ameliorate costs of genetic incompatibility with their partner. Previous studies on domesticated Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) demonstrated a genetic incompatibility between head colour morphs, the effects of which are more severe in female offspring. Domesticated females use differential sex allocation, and extra-pair paternity with males of compatible head colour, to reduce fitness costs associated with incompatibility in mixed-morph pairings...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758054/devoted-fathers-or-selfish-lovers-conflict-between-mating-effort-and-parental-care-in-a-harem-defending-arachnid
#15
Louise M Alissa, Danilo G Muniz, Glauco Machado
When there is a temporal trade-off between mating effort and parental care, theoretical models predict that intense sexual selection on males leads to reduced paternal care. Thus, high-quality males should invest more in mating effort because they have higher chances of acquiring mates, whereas low-quality males should bias their investment toward parental care. Once paternal care has evolved, offspring value should also influence males' decisions to invest in offspring attendance. Here we performed a manipulation under field conditions to investigate the factors that influence male allocation in either mating effort or parental care...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743766/genetic-variants-in-oxytocin-receptor-and-arginine-vasopressin-receptor-1a-are-associated-with-the-neural-correlates-of-maternal-and-paternal-affection-towards-their-child
#16
Shota Nishitani, Kazuya Ikematsu, Tsunehiko Takamura, Sumihisa Honda, Koh-Ichiro Yoshiura, Kazuyuki Shinohara
There is extensive evidence in animal studies, particularly in vole species (Microtus), that oxytocin (OT) receptor and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) receptor 1a is critical for the regulation of maternal and paternal behavior, respectively. Human studies have gained insight into the relationship between both hormone receptor gene variants and behavior, but not between the variants and the underlying brain activity. To study this, we investigated the association between neural activation of the anterior prefrontal cortex (APFC) in mothers and fathers in response to their child smiling video stimuli to induce the positive affect related to attachment with their child, and genetic variants of OT receptor (OXTR) and AVP receptor 1A (AVPR1A)...
January 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741552/adult-body-size-sexual-history-and-adolescent-sexual-development-may-predict-risk-of-developing-prostate-cancer-results-from-the-new-south-wales-lifestyle-and-evaluation-of-risk-study-clear
#17
Visalini Nair-Shalliker, Sarsha Yap, Carlos Nunez, Sam Egger, Jennifer Rodger, Manish I Patel, Dianne L O'Connell, Freddy Sitas, Bruce K Armstrong, David P Smith
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men worldwide. The relationships between PC and possible risk factors for PC cases (n = 1,181) and male controls (n = 875) from the New South Wales (NSW) Cancer, Lifestyle and Evaluation of Risk Study (CLEAR) were examined in this study. The associations between PC risk and paternal history of PC, body mass index (BMI), medical conditions, sexual behaviour, balding pattern and puberty, after adjusting for age, income, region of birth, place of residence, and PSA testing, were examined...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717090/how-the-truffle-got-its-mate-insights-from-genetic-structure-in-spontaneous-and-planted-mediterranean-populations-of-tuber-melanosporum
#18
E Taschen, F Rousset, M Sauve, L Benoit, M-P Dubois, F Richard, M-A Selosse
The life cycles and dispersal of edible fungi are still poorly known, thus limiting our understanding of their evolution and domestication. The prized Tuber melanosporum produces fruitbodies (fleshy organs where meiospores mature) gathered in natural, spontaneously inoculated forests or harvested in plantations of nursery-inoculated trees. Yet, how fruitbodies are formed remains unclear, thus limiting yields, and how current domestication attempts affect population genetic structure is overlooked. Fruitbodies result from mating between two haploid individuals: the maternal parent forms the flesh and the meiospores, while the paternal parent only contributes to the meiospores...
November 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714796/genomic-imprinting-disrupted-placental-expression-and-speciation
#19
Thomas D Brekke, Lindy A Henry, Jeffrey M Good
The importance of regulatory incompatibilities to the early stages of speciation remains unclear. Hybrid mammals often show extreme parent-of-origin growth effects that are thought to be a consequence of disrupted genetic imprinting (parent-specific epigenetic gene silencing) during early development. Here, we test the long-standing hypothesis that abnormal hybrid growth reflects disrupted gene expression due to loss of imprinting (LOI) in hybrid placentas, resulting in dosage imbalances between paternal growth factors and maternal growth repressors...
December 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714783/mate-guarding-and-frequent-copulation-in-birds-a-meta-analysis-of-their-relationship-to-paternity-and-male-phenotype
#20
Anna M F Harts, Isobel Booksmythe, Michael D Jennions
In many birds, males are presumed to protect their paternity by closely guarding their mate or copulating frequently with her. Both these costly behaviors are assumed to reduce the risk and/or intensity of sperm competition. However, despite many studies on avian extra-pair paternity, it remains unclear how strongly these behaviors are related to fitness and other key life-history traits. Here, we conduct meta-analyses to address two questions. First, are mate guarding and/or frequent copulation positively correlated with a male's share of paternity at his nest? We find a significant positive correlation between both presumed paternity protection behaviors and paternity share...
October 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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