Read by QxMD icon Read

paternal rights

Peri E Bolton, Lee Ann Rollins, James Brazill-Boast, Kang-Wook Kim, Terry Burke, Simon C Griffith
In socially monogamous species, individuals can use extra-pair paternity and offspring sex allocation as adaptive strategies to ameliorate costs of genetic incompatibility with their partner. Previous studies on domesticated Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) demonstrated a genetic incompatibility between head colour morphs, the effects of which are more severe in female offspring. Domesticated females use differential sex allocation, and extra-pair paternity with males of compatible head colour, to reduce fitness costs associated with incompatibility in mixed-morph pairings...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Louise M Alissa, Danilo G Muniz, Glauco Machado
When there is a temporal trade-off between mating effort and parental care, theoretical models predict that intense sexual selection on males leads to reduced paternal care. Thus, high-quality males should invest more in mating effort because they have higher chances of acquiring mates, whereas low-quality males should bias their investment toward parental care. Once paternal care has evolved, offspring value should also influence males' decisions to invest in offspring attendance. Here we performed a manipulation under field conditions to investigate the factors that influence male allocation in either mating effort or parental care...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Shota Nishitani, Kazuya Ikematsu, Tsunehiko Takamura, Sumihisa Honda, Koh-Ichiro Yoshiura, Kazuyuki Shinohara
There is extensive evidence in animal studies, particularly in vole species (Microtus), that oxytocin (OT) receptor and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) receptor 1a is critical for the regulation of maternal and paternal behavior, respectively. Human studies have gained insight into the relationship between both hormone receptor gene variants and behavior, but not between the variants and the underlying brain activity. To study this, we investigated the association between neural activation of the anterior prefrontal cortex (APFC) in mothers and fathers in response to their child smiling video stimuli to induce the positive affect related to attachment with their child, and genetic variants of OT receptor (OXTR) and AVP receptor 1A (AVPR1A)...
October 12, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Visalini Nair-Shalliker, Sarsha Yap, Carlos Nunez, Sam Egger, Jennifer Rodger, Manish I Patel, Dianne L O'Connell, Freddy Sitas, Bruce K Armstrong, David P Smith
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men worldwide. The relationships between PC and possible risk factors for PC cases (n=1181) and male controls (n=875) from the New South Wales (NSW) Cancer, Lifestyle and Evaluation of Risk Study (CLEAR) were examined in this study. The associations between PC risk and paternal history of PC, body mass index (BMI), medical conditions, sexual behaviour, balding pattern and puberty, after adjusting for age, income, region of birth, place of residence, and PSA testing, were examined...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
E Taschen, F Rousset, M Sauve, L Benoit, M-P Dubois, F Richard, M-A Selosse
The life cycles and dispersal of edible fungi are still poorly known, thus limiting our understanding of their evolution and domestication. The prized Tuber melanosporum produces fruitbodies (fleshy organs where meiospores mature) gathered in natural, spontaneously inoculated forests or harvested in plantations of nursery-inoculated trees. Yet, how fruitbodies are formed remains unclear, thus limiting yields, and how current domestication attempts affect population genetic structure is overlooked. Fruitbodies result from mating between two haploid individuals: the maternal parent forms the flesh and the meiospores, while the paternal parent only contributes to the meiospores...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Thomas D Brekke, Lindy A Henry, Jeffrey M Good
The importance of regulatory incompatibilities to the early stages of speciation remains unclear. Hybrid mammals often show extreme parent-of-origin growth effects that are thought to be a consequence of disrupted genetic imprinting (parent-specific epigenetic gene silencing) during early development. Here we test the long-standing hypothesis that abnormal hybrid growth reflects disrupted gene expression due to loss of imprinting (LOI) in hybrid placentas, resulting in dosage imbalances between paternal growth factors and maternal growth repressors...
October 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Anna M F Harts, Isobel Booksmythe, Michael D Jennions
In many birds males are presumed to protect their paternity by closely guarding their mate or copulating frequently with her. Both these costly behaviours are assumed to reduce the risk and/or intensity of sperm competition. However, despite many studies on avian extra-pair paternity, it remains unclear how strongly these behaviours are related to fitness and other key life-history traits. Here we conduct meta-analyses to address two questions. First, are mate guarding and/or frequent copulation positively correlated with a male's share of paternity at his nest? We find a significant positive correlation between both presumed paternity protection behaviours and paternity share...
October 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Walid Abi Habib, Frederic Brioude, Salah Azzi, Jennifer Salem, Cristina Das Neves, Claire Personnier, Sandra Chantot-Bastaraud, Boris Keren, Yves Le Bouc, Madeleine Harbison, Irene Netchine
The 11p15 region harbors the IGF2/H19 imprinted domain, implicated in fetal and postnatal growth. Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is characterized by fetal and postnatal growth failure, and is caused principally by hypomethylation of the 11p15 imprinting control region 1 (ICR1). However, the mechanisms leading to ICR1 hypomethylation remain unknown. Maternally inherited genetic defects affecting the ICR1 domain have been associated with ICR1 hypermethylation and Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (an overgrowth syndrome, the clinical and molecular mirror of SRS), and paternal deletions of IGF2 enhancers have been detected in four SRS patients...
October 4, 2016: Human Mutation
Rosiane Maciel Scandiuzzi, Caio Antonio de Campos Prado, Edward Araujo Júnior, Geraldo Duarte, Silvana Maria Quintana, Fabrício da Silva Costa, Gabriele Tonni, Ricardo de Carvalho Cavalli, Alessandra Cristina Marcolin
OBJECTIVE: To assess the maternal demographic characteristics and uterine artery (UA) Doppler parameters at first and second trimesters of pregnancy as predictors for hypertensive disorders (HDs) and adverse perinatal outcomes. METHODS: This prospective cohort study comprised 162 singleton low-risk women undergoing routine antenatal care. The left and right UA were assessed by color and pulsed Doppler and the mean pulsatility and resistance indices as well as the presence of a bilateral protodiastolic notch were recorded at 11 to 14 and 20 to 24 weeks' gestation...
September 2016: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
Yanying Fan, Yi-Lin Yang, Che-Chung Yeh, Michael J Mann
Alteration of mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling in transgenic mice can ameliorate post-myocardial infarction (MI) remodeling. However, pre-existing changes in transgenic hearts and clinically unrealistic transgene expression likely affect the response to injury; it is unknown whether clinically relevant induction of transgene expression in an otherwise normal heart can yield similar benefits. Constitutively active MEK1 (aMEK1) or LacZ adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) vectors were injected into the left ventricular (LV) chambers of mice either just before or after coronary ligation...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Lucia Nacci, Roberto Valli, Rita Maria Pinto, Marco Zecca, Marco Cipolli, Jacopo Morini, Simone Cesaro, Emanuela Boveri, Vittorio Rosti, Paola Corti, Maura Ambroni, Francesco Pasquali, Cesare Danesino, Emanuela Maserati, Antonella Minelli
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) (OMIM 260400) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, skeletal and haematological abnormalities and bone marrow (BM) dysfunction. Mutations in the SBDS gene cause SDS. Clonal chromosome anomalies are often present in BM, i(7)(q10) and del(20)(q) being the most frequent ones. We collected 6 SDS cases with del(20)(q): a cluster of imprinted genes, including L3MBTL1 and SGK2 is present in the deleted region. Only the paternal allele is expressed for these genes...
August 24, 2016: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
Giuseppe Chiossi, Maged M Costantine, Esther Tamayo, Gary Dv Hankins, George R Saade, Monica Longo
Nitric oxide is involved in the vascular adaptation to pregnancy. Using transgenic animals, we previously showed that adverse intrauterine environment alters vascular reactivity in adult offspring. The aim of our study was to determine if altered vascular programming is associated with abnormal blood pressure (BP) profiles in vivo. Mice lacking a functional endothelial nitric oxide synthase (KO, NOS3(-/-) ) and wild-type mice (WT, NOS3(+/+) ) were crossbred to generate homozygous NOS3(-/-) (KO), maternally derived heterozygous NOS3(+/-) , (KOM: mother with adverse intrauterine environment from NOS3 deficiency), paternally derived heterozygous NOS3(+/-) (KOP: mother with normal in utero milieu), and NOS3(+/+) (WT) litters...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Adriana Puentes, Gustaf Granath, Jon Ågren
Understanding the stability of the G matrix in natural populations is fundamental for predicting evolutionary trajectories; yet, the extent of its spatial variation and how this impacts responses to selection remain open questions. With a nested paternal half-sib crossing design and plants grown in a field experiment, we examined differences in the genetic architecture of flowering time, floral display, and plant size among four Scandinavian populations of Arabidopsis lyrata. Using a multivariate Bayesian framework, we compared the size, shape, and orientation of G matrices and assessed their potential to facilitate or constrain trait evolution...
October 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Sara A Kaiser, Scott A Taylor, Nancy Chen, T Scott Sillett, Eliana R Bondra, Michael S Webster
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are preferred over microsatellite markers in many evolutionary studies, but have only recently been applied to studies of parentage. Evaluations of SNPs and microsatellites for assigning parentage have mostly focused on special cases that require a relatively large number of heterozygous loci, such as species with low genetic diversity or with complex social structures. We developed 120 SNP markers from a transcriptome assembled using RNA-sequencing of a songbird with the most common avian mating system - social monogamy...
August 4, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Rachel Mangels, Kathleen Tsung, Kelly Kwan, Matthew D Dean
Ejaculated proteins play important roles in reproductive fitness. In many species, seminal fluid coagulates and forms what has been referred to as a copulatory plug in the female's reproductive tract. In mice, previous work demonstrated that knockout males missing a key seminal fluid protein were unable to form a plug and less successful at siring litters in non-competitive matings (one female, one male), probably the result of reduced sperm transport or insufficient stimulation of the female. Here we extend these previous studies to competitive matings (one female, two males), and make two key insights...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Jennifer L Woolard, Kristin Henning, Erika Fountain
The juvenile court was created in 1899 in part to remedy the unfairness of trying youth in the adult criminal justice system, but its success at rectifying those problems is unclear. One concern is that the vast majority of youth who are adjudicated delinquent are adjudicated after waiving their right to trial and entering a guilty plea. Fairness and equity in the plea bargaining process are premised on the assumption that youth have the capacity to understand and elect between available options and will be given a meaningful opportunity to choose without coercion and deception...
2016: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
Yimen G Araya-Ajoy, Sylvia Kuhn, Kimberley J Mathot, Alexia Mouchet, Ariane Mutzel, Marion Nicolaus, Jan J Wijmenga, Bart Kempenaers, Niels J Dingemanse
Males of socially monogamous species can increase their siring success via within-pair and extra-pair fertilizations. In this study, we focused on the different sources of (co)variation between these siring routes, and asked how each contributes to total siring success. We quantified the fertilization routes to siring success, as well as behaviors that have been hypothesized to affect siring success, over a five-year period for a wild population of great tits Parus major. We considered siring success and its fertilization routes as "interactive phenotypes" arising from phenotypic contributions of both members of the social pair...
October 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Rebecca J Safran, Yoni Vortman, Brittany R Jenkins, Joanna K Hubbard, Matthew R Wilkins, Rachel J Bradley, Arnon Lotem
Previous studies have shown that sexual signals can rapidly diverge among closely related species. However, we lack experimental studies to demonstrate that differences in trait-associated reproductive performance maintain sexual trait differences between closely related populations, in support for a role of sexual selection in speciation. Populations of Northern Hemisphere distributed barn swallows Hirundo rustica are closely related, yet differ in two plumage-based traits: ventral color and length of the outermost tail feathers (streamers)...
September 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Ane L Rom, Chun S Wu, Jørn Olsen, Damini Jawaheer, Merete L Hetland, Bent Ottesen, Lina S Mørch
OBJECTIVE: We have reported increased long term morbidity in children of parents with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we assess child mortality and case fatality in the same cohort. METHODS: All singletons born in Denmark from 1977 to 2008 were identified through linkage of Danish National registries. Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR's) of death from all causes among children exposed to parental RA, compared to unexposed children...
July 7, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
S Thorsteinsdottir, J P Thyssen, J Stokholm, N H Vissing, J Waage, H Bisgaard
BACKGROUND: While the etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis is complex and poorly understood, neonatal exposures are important for disease occurrence. However, the effect of dog exposure on the risk of atopic dermatitis is unresolved. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether domestic dog exposure affected the risk of atopic dermatitis in children during the first 3 years of life. METHODS: Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) are ongoing prospective clinical birth cohort studies...
July 6, 2016: Allergy
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"