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paternal rights

Daniela Quintanilla, Cynthia Chelius, Sirasa Iambamrung, Sidney Nelson, Donnel Thomas, Krist V Gernaey, Mark R Marten
Fungal hyphal strength is an important phenotype which can have a profound impact on bioprocess behavior. Until now, there is not an efficient method which allows its characterization. Currently available methods are very time consuming; thus, compromising their applicability in strain selection and process development. To overcome this issue, a method for fast and easy, statistically-verified quantification of relative hyphal tensile strength was developed. It involves off-line fragmentation in a high shear mixer followed by quantification of fragment size using laser diffraction...
November 14, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Lyanne Brouwer, Martijn van de Pol, Nataly Hidalgo Aranzamendi, Glen Bain, Daniel T Baldassarre, Lesley C Brooker, Michael G Brooker, Diane Colombelli-Négrel, Erik Enbody, Kurt Gielow, Michelle L Hall, Allison E Johnson, Jordan Karubian, Sjouke A Kingma, Sonia Kleindorfer, Marina Louter, Raoul A Mulder, Anne Peters, Stephen Pruett-Jones, Keith A Tarvin, Derrick J Thrasher, Claire W Varian-Ramos, Michael S Webster, Andrew Cockburn
Extra-pair paternity (EPP), where offspring are sired by a male other than the social male, varies enormously both within and among species. Trying to explain this variation has proved difficult because the majority of the interspecific variation is phylogenetically-based. Ideally, variation in EPP should be investigated in closely related species, but clades with sufficient variation are rare. We present a comprehensive multifactorial test to explain variation in EPP among individuals in 20 populations of nine species over 89 years from a single bird family (Maluridae)...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Gabriela Gleiser, Igor J Chybicki, Santiago C González-Martínez, Marcelo A Aizen
Variation in flowering phenology is common in natural populations, and is expected to be, together with inter-mate distance, an important driver of effective pollen dispersal. In populations composed by plants with temporally separated sexual phases (i.e. dichogamous or heterodichogamous populations), pollen-mediated gene flow is assumed to reflect phenological overlap between complementary sexual phases. In this study, we conducted paternity analyses to test this hypothesis in the temporally dimorphic tree Acer opalus...
October 24, 2017: Plant Biology
Mary Waldron, Nicole K Watkins, Kathleen K Bucholz, Pamela A F Madden, Andrew C Heath
BACKGROUND: Few studies examine risk to offspring who experience both parental alcohol problems and parental separation, and still fewer consider gender of the affected parent. We examined interactive effects of maternal versus paternal alcohol problems and parental separation on timing of first alcoholic drink in daughters. METHODS: Data were drawn from a sample of 3539 European (or other) ancestry (EA) and 611 African ancestry (AA) female twins born between 1975 and 1985, median age 15 at first assessment...
October 23, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Bai Li, Chong Shi, Bo Li, Jing-Ming Zhao, Lei Wang
Paternally expressed gene-10 (PEG10) could participate in several carcinomas and might be regulated by miR-491. To now, miR-491 was found to play an important role in the sensitivity and mechanism of drug usage in the treatment of colorectal cancer, and drug resistance is a key factor to affect the disease healing. In this study, miR-491, PEG10, Wnt1 and β-catenin expression levels and their correlation with colorectal cancer were assessed in cancer tissues and adjacent parts. And the target relationship between PEG10 and miR-491 was verified...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
B Y Cao, C X Gong, D Wu, X Q Li
BACKGROUND: Methylation defects at chromosome 6q24 usually induce transient neonatal diabetes mellitus. There are few reports of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus caused by abnormalities of 6q24. We report the first case of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus to be associated with confirmed methylation defects at chromosome 6q24. CASE REPORT: A baby girl, small for her gestational age, was found to have high blood glucose 1 day after birth, with no systematic congenital anomalies...
October 19, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Annie Varrault, Sigrid Eckardt, Benoît Girard, Anne Le Digarcher, Isabelle Sassetti, Céline Meusnier, Chantal Ripoll, Armen Badalyan, Federica Bertaso, K John McLaughlin, Laurent Journot, Tristan Bouschet
One strategy for stem cell-based therapy of the cerebral cortex involves the generation and transplantation of functional, histocompatible cortical-like neurons from embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Diploid parthenogenetic Pg-ESCs have recently emerged as a promising source of histocompatible ESC derivatives for organ regeneration but their utility for cerebral cortex therapy is unknown. A major concern with Pg-ESCs is genomic imprinting. In contrast with biparental Bp-ESCs derived from fertilized oocytes, Pg-ESCs harbor two maternal genomes but no sperm-derived genome...
October 16, 2017: Stem Cells
Terezie Mandáková, Milan Pouch, Klára Harmanová, Shing Hei Zhan, Itay Mayrose, Martin A Lysak
Hybridization and genome doubling (allopolyploidy) have led to evolutionary novelties as well as to the origin of new clades and species. Despite the importance of allopolyploidization, the dynamics of post-polyploid diploidization (PPD) at the genome level has been only sparsely studied. The Microlepidieae (MICR) is a crucifer tribe of 17 genera and c. 56 species endemic to Australia and New Zealand. Our phylogenetic and cytogenomic analyses revealed that MICR originated via an inter-tribal hybridization between ancestors of Crucihimalayeae (n = 8; maternal genome) and Smelowskieae (n = 7; paternal genome), both native to the Northern Hemisphere...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Reza O Samani, Mohammad A Mansournia, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Mahdi Sepidarkish, Saeid Safiri, Esmaeil K Morasae, Mostafa A Rarani
OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between economic inequality in preterm delivery. METHODS: The present secondary analysis included cross-sectional data collected in interviews with patients following delivery at 103 hospitals in Tehran, Iran, between July 6 and 21, 2015. Principal component analysis was used to measure the socioeconomic status of participants and the concentration index was used to measure inequalities in preterm delivery among patients of different socioeconomic status...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Cemal Alper Kemaloğlu, Hakan Özocak
INTRODUCTION: Although multiple pedicle and skin excision techniques exist for gigantomastic breast reduction, no consensus exists as to which method is most effective in providing an aesthetically pleasing breast, especially in the long-term period. This study aimed to compare the aesthetic and surgical outcomes between inferior pedicle and superomedial pedicle reductions, which both use Wise pattern skin excision in gigantomastic patients. METHODS: A prospective study was planned, and the number of patients was determined before the beginning of the study...
October 3, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
M A Rodrigues, L F Morgade, L F A Dias, R V Moreira, P D Maia, A F H Sales, P D Ribeiro
Double aneuploidy is considered a rare phenomenon. Herein, we describe a case of double aneuploidy 48,XXY,+21 in a neonate with congenital heart defects. The 28-day-old neonate male (23-year-old mother and 24-year-old father) was admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit owing to congenital heart disease. Echocardiography showed a complete atrioventricular septal defect with Rastelli type B and significant left ventricular failure, moderate atrioventricular valve regurgitation, right-sided heart failure, and preserved systolic function...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Asma Deeb, Faisal Al-Zidgali, Bibian N Ofoegbu
Wolcott-Rallison syndrome (WRS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations in the EIF2AK3 gene. It is characterized by permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus, skeletal dysplasia, liver impairment, neutropenia and renal dysfunction. Liver is the most commonly affected organ and liver failure is the commonest cause of death in this syndrome. The EIF2AK3 gene encodes a transmembrane protein PERK, which is important for the cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The absence of PERK activity reduces the ER's abilities to deal with stress, leading to cell death by apoptosis...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Kim Joergensen, Jeanette Praestegaard
Patient participation is one of the most prevalent focus areas in the Danish healthcare debate. Patient participation is generally presented as a fundamental democratic right, and is stated in an objective language with legal requirements for healthcare professionals to ensure that patients systematically participate in their own courses of care and treatment. In the research literature, it is not clear what is meant by 'patient participation', and several discourses on patient participation exist side by side...
September 21, 2017: Nursing Inquiry
Greta Bocedi, Jane M Reid
Ongoing ambitions are to understand the evolution of costly polyandry and its consequences for species ecology and evolution. Emerging patterns could stem from feed-back dynamics between the evolving mating system and its genetic environment, defined by interactions among kin including inbreeding. However, such feed-backs are rarely considered in non-selfing systems. We use a genetically-explicit model to demonstrate a mechanism by which inbreeding depression can select for polyandry to mitigate the negative consequences of mating with inbred males rather than avoiding inbreeding...
September 12, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
K Lei, Y Liu, A S Smith, J S Lonstein, Z Wang
Male parental care is a vital behavior for the development as well as the physical and mental well-being of the young. However, little is known about the neurochemical regulation of male parental behavior, mainly due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In this study, we used the socially monogamous male prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) to investigate the effect of pair-bonding experience on paternal behavior and dopamine (DA) signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in the brain. We compared sexually naïve males with males that were pair bonded with a female for two weeks...
October 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Lynn A Jansen, Steven Wall
The ethical standards that regulate clinical research have multiple rationales. Among them is the need to protect potential subjects from making imprudent decisions, which extends beyond the soft paternalistic concern to protect people from making uninformed decisions to participate in trials. This article argues that a plausible risk/benefit restriction on clinical trials is presumptively justified by hard paternalism, which in turn is supported by a deeper fairness-based rationale. This presumptive case for hard paternalism in research is not defeated by the alleged right to participate in clinical trials, by concerns about insult or status, by the need to conduct early phase trials that promise little to no benefit to participants, or by the recognition that some potential subjects are altruistically motivated...
August 30, 2017: Bioethics
Jason N Marsh, Regina Vega-Trejo, Michael D Jennions, Megan L Head
Mating with relatives has often been shown to negatively affect offspring fitness (inbreeding depression). There is considerable evidence for inbreeding depression due to effects on naturally selected traits, particularly those expressed early in life, but there is less evidence of it for sexually selected traits. This is surprising because sexually selected traits are expected to exhibit strong inbreeding depression. Here, we experimentally created inbred and outbred male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)...
November 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
N Soto-Ramírez, S Kar, H Zhang, W Karmaus
BACKGROUND: Modes of infant feeding such as direct and indirect breastfeeding, and formula feeding, and their combinations may play a role in child health. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate which feeding patterns in the first 6 months pose risks of eczema/skin allergy in children up to 6 years compared to direct breastfeeding for at least 3 months. METHODS: The Infant Feeding Practices Study II in the United States and its 6-year follow-up provided data on feeding modes in infancy and doctor's diagnosed eczema/skin allergy in the first 6 years of life (1387 infants), based on parental reports...
August 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Megan L Head, Andrew T Kahn, Jonathan M Henshaw, J Scott Keogh, Michael D Jennions
Spatial and temporal variation in environmental factors and the social setting can help to maintain genetic variation in sexually selected traits if it affects the strength of directional selection. A key social parameter which affects the intensity of, and sometimes predicts the response to, mating competition is the operational sex ratio (OSR; ratio of receptive males to females). How the OSR affects selection for specific male traits is poorly understood. It is also unclear how sexual selection is affected by interactions between the OSR and environmental factors, such as habitat complexity, that alter key male-female interactions such as mate encounter rates...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Kady Lyons, Chris L Chabot, Christopher G Mull, Corinne N Paterson Holder, Christopher G Lowe
Polyandry resulting in multiply-sired litters has been documented in the majority of elasmobranch species examined to date. Although commonly observed, reasons for this mating system remain relatively obscure, especially in batoids. The round stingray (Urobatis halleri) is an abundant, well-studied elasmobranch distributed throughout the northeastern Pacific that we used to explore hypotheses regarding multiple paternity in elasmobranchs. Twenty mid- to late-term pregnant females were sampled off the coast of southern California and their litters analyzed for the occurrence of multiple paternity using five nuclear microsatellite loci...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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