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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895138/feed-backs-among-inbreeding-inbreeding-depression-in-sperm-traits-and-sperm-competition-can-drive-evolution-of-costly-polyandry
#1
Greta Bocedi, Jane M Reid
Ongoing ambitions are to understand the evolution of costly polyandry and its consequences for species ecology and evolution. Emerging patterns could stem from feed-back dynamics between the evolving mating system and its genetic environment, defined by interactions among kin including inbreeding. However, such feed-backs are rarely considered in non-selfing systems. We use a genetically-explicit model to demonstrate a mechanism by which inbreeding depression can select for polyandry to mitigate the negative consequences of mating with inbred males rather than avoiding inbreeding...
September 12, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858415/effects-of-pair-bonding-on-parental-behavior-and-dopamine-activity-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-male-prairie-voles
#2
K Lei, Y Liu, A S Smith, J S Lonstein, Z Wang
Male parental care is a vital behavior for the development as well as the physical and mental well-being of the young. However, little is known about the neurochemical regulation of male parental behavior, mainly due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In the present study, we used the socially monogamous male prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) to investigate the effect of pair bonding experience on paternal behavior and dopamine (DA) signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in the brain. We compared sexually naïve males with males that were pair-bonded with a female for two weeks...
August 31, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857225/reconsidering-paternalism-in-clinical-research
#3
Lynn A Jansen, Steven Wall
The ethical standards that regulate clinical research have multiple rationales. Among them is the need to protect potential subjects from making imprudent decisions, which extends beyond the soft paternalistic concern to protect people from making uninformed decisions to participate in trials. This article argues that a plausible risk/benefit restriction on clinical trials is presumptively justified by hard paternalism, which in turn is supported by a deeper fairness-based rationale. This presumptive case for hard paternalism in research is not defeated by the alleged right to participate in clinical trials, by concerns about insult or status, by the need to conduct early phase trials that promise little to no benefit to participants, or by the recognition that some potential subjects are altruistically motivated...
August 30, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857148/why-does-inbreeding-reduce-male-paternity-effects-on-sexually-selected-traits
#4
Jason N Marsh, Regina Vega-Trejo, Michael D Jennions, Megan L Head
Mating with relatives has often been shown to negatively affect offspring fitness ('inbreeding depression'). There is considerable evidence for inbreeding depression due to effects on naturally selected traits, particularly those expressed early in life, but there is less evidence of it for sexually selected traits. This is surprising because sexually selected traits are expected to exhibit strong inbreeding depression. Here we experimentally created inbred and outbred male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)...
August 31, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815821/infant-feeding-patterns-and-eczema-in-children-in-the-first-6%C3%A2-years-of-life
#5
N Soto-Ramírez, S Kar, H Zhang, W Karmaus
BACKGROUND: Modes of infant feeding such as direct and indirect breastfeeding, and formula feeding, and their combinations may play a role in child health. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate which feeding patterns in the first 6 months pose risks of eczema/skin allergy in children up to 6 years compared to direct breastfeeding for at least 3 months. METHODS: The Infant Feeding Practices Study II in the United States and its 6-year follow-up provided data on feeding modes in infancy and doctor's diagnosed eczema/skin allergy in the first 6 years of life (1387 infants), based on parental reports...
August 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815592/sexual-selection-on-male-body-size-genital-length-and-heterozygosity-consistency-across-habitats-and-social-settings
#6
Megan L Head, Andrew T Kahn, Jonathan M Henshaw, J Scott Keogh, Michael D Jennions
1. Spatial and temporal variation in environmental factors and the social setting can help to maintain genetic variation in sexually selected traits if it affects the strength of directional selection. A key social parameter which affects the intensity of, and sometimes predicts the response to, mating competition is the operational sex ratio (OSR; ratio of receptive males to females). 2. How the OSR affects selection for specific male traits is poorly understood. It is also unclear how sexual selection is affected by interactions between the OSR and environmental factors, such as habitat complexity, that alter key male-female interactions such as mate encounter rates...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808540/who-s-my-daddy-considerations-for-the-influence-of-sexual-selection-on-multiple-paternity-in-elasmobranch-mating-systems
#7
Kady Lyons, Chris L Chabot, Christopher G Mull, Corinne N Paterson Holder, Christopher G Lowe
Polyandry resulting in multiply-sired litters has been documented in the majority of elasmobranch species examined to date. Although commonly observed, reasons for this mating system remain relatively obscure, especially in batoids. The round stingray (Urobatis halleri) is an abundant, well-studied elasmobranch distributed throughout the northeastern Pacific that we used to explore hypotheses regarding multiple paternity in elasmobranchs. Twenty mid- to late-term pregnant females were sampled off the coast of southern California and their litters analyzed for the occurrence of multiple paternity using five nuclear microsatellite loci...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804964/birth-outcomes-of-children-fathered-by-men-treated-with-systemic-corticosteroids-during-the-conception-period-a-cohort-study-based-on-nationwide-data
#8
M D Larsen, S Friedman, B Magnussen, B M Nørgård
Information on the safety of paternal use of medications prior to the time of conception is limited, and there is little available evidence regarding possible adverse effects of paternal use of systemic corticosteroids (SCS). In this cohort study, based on nationwide data, we examined the association between paternal use of SCS prior to conception and adverse birth outcomes. The study includes data from all singletons born in Denmark from 1January 1997 through 2013 (N=1,013,994). Children fathered by men who redeemed a prescription of SCS within 3 months before conception (N=2,380) constituted the exposed groups...
August 14, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802016/involvement-of-sperm-acetylated-histones-and-the-nuclear-isoform-of-glutathione-peroxidase-4-in-fertilization
#9
Simona Pipolo, Rossella Puglisi, Valentina Mularoni, Valentina Esposito, Andrea Fuso, Marco Lucarelli, Maria Teresa Fiorenza, Franco Mangia, Carla Boitani
We previously demonstrated that the nuclear form of Glutathione Peroxidase 4 (nGPx4) has a peculiar distribution in sperm head, being localized to nuclear matrix and acrosome and that sperm lacking nGPx4 are more prone to decondensation in vitro. In this study we have hypothesized that sperm retained acetylated histones and nGPx4 are implicated in paternal chromatin decondensation and male pronucleus formation at fertilization. Indeed, significant higher amounts of acetylated histone H4 and acetylated histone H3 were observed by both immunofluorescence and western blotting in nGPx4-KO sperm vs WT ones...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792638/transmission-of-type-2-diabetes-to-sons-and-daughters-the-d-e-s-i-r-cohort
#10
B Balkau, R Roussel, S Wagner, J Tichet, P Froguel, G Fagherazzi, F Bonnet
AIMS: To document the family transmission of Type 2 diabetes to men and women. METHOD: The French D.E.S.I.R. cohort followed men and women over 9 years, with 3-yearly testing for incident Type 2 diabetes. First- and/or second-degree family histories of diabetes were available for 2187 men and 2282 women. Age-adjusted hazard ratios were estimated for various family members and groupings of family members, as well as for a genetic diabetes risk score, based on 65 diabetes-associated loci...
August 9, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792614/mutation-rates-in-21-autosomal-short-tandem-repeat-loci-in-a-population-from-goi%C3%A3-s-brazil
#11
Thaís Cidália Vieira, Marc Alexandre Duarte Gigonzac, Ricardo Goulart Rodovalho, Luana Morais Cavalcanti, Lysa Bernardes Minasi, Flávia Melo Rodrigues, Aparecido Divino da Cruz
The appearance of new mutations in polymorphic markers plays a central role in a range of genetic applications, including dating phylogenetic events, informing disease studies, and evaluating forensic evidence. The present study estimated the mutation rates of 21 autosomal STR loci in a population from Central Brazil. We studied 15 046 paternity cases from Goiás, Brazil from August 2012 to February 2015. We identified 262 mutations in the 21 loci. The loci that presented more mutations were FGA and D18S51, with a total of 46 and 28 mutations, respectively...
August 9, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791680/immigrant-reproductive-dysfunction-facilitates-ecological-speciation
#12
Ola Svensson, Johanna Gräns, Malin C Celander, Jonathan Havenhand, Erica H Leder, Kai Lindström, Sofie Schöld, Cock van Oosterhout, Charlotta Kvarnemo
The distributions of species are not only determined by where they can survive - they must also be able to reproduce. Although immigrant inviability is a well-established concept, the fact that immigrants also need to be able to effectively reproduce in foreign environments has not been fully appreciated in the study of adaptive divergence and speciation. Fertilization and reproduction are sensitive life history stages that could be detrimentally affected for immigrants in non-native habitats. We propose that 'immigrant reproductive dysfunction' is a hitherto overlooked aspect of reproductive isolation caused by natural selection on immigrants...
August 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783242/re-conceptualising-stillbirth-and-revisiting-birth-surveillance
#13
K S Joseph, Melanie Basso, Cheryl Davies, Lily Lee
The increased focus on stillbirth related issues in recent years has brought several previously neglected issues 'out of the shadows' [1] and highlighted the need for greater preventive efforts and better care for bereaved mothers and families. Some issues (such as the option of cesarean delivery for fetal death at late gestation [2], viewing the fetus following pregnancy termination for a fetal anomaly [3,4] and acknowledgement of paternal grief and anxiety [5]) reflect a substantial shift from previous traditions in clinical practice...
August 7, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755463/placental-abruption-in-parents-who-were-born-small-registry-based-cohort-study
#14
S Rasmussen, C Ebbing, L E Linde, E Baghestan
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether parents who were born small for gestational age (below the 10th birthweight centile, SGA) have increased risk of severe or mild placental abruption. To assess whether a history of SGA in other family members modifies this intergenerational effect. DESIGN: Prospective population-based observational study. SETTING: The Medical Birth Registry of Norway. POPULATION: From 1967 to 2013, 785 333 mother-offspring pairs, 643 066 father-offspring pairs, 272 941 maternal tetrads (i...
July 29, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734064/extensive-seed-and-pollen-dispersal-and-assortative-mating-in-the-rain-forest-tree-entandrophragma-cylindricum-meliaceae-inferred-from-indirect-and-direct-analyses
#15
F K Monthe, O J Hardy, J L Doucet, J Loo, J Duminil
Pollen and seed dispersal are key processes affecting the demographic and evolutionary dynamics of plant species, and are also important considerations for the sustainable management of timber trees. Through direct and indirect genetic analyses we studied the mating system and the extent of pollen and seed dispersal in an economically-important timber species, Entandrophragma cylindricum (Meliaceae). We genotyped adult trees, seeds and saplings from a 400-ha study plot in a natural forest from East Cameroon using eight nuclear microsatellite markers...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731581/the-inherited-risk-of-retained-placenta-a-population-based-cohort-study
#16
Margit Endler, Sven Cnattingius, Michaela Granfors, Anna-Karin Wikström
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether retained placenta in the first generation is associated with an increased risk of retained placenta in the second generation. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Sweden. POPULATION: Using linked generational data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register 1973-2012, we identified 494,000 second generation births with information on the birth of the mother (first generation index birth)...
July 21, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728581/a-gestational-choriocarcinoma-of-the-ovary-diagnosed-by-dna-polymorphic-analysis-a-case-report-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#17
Nan Jia, Yan Chen, Xiang Tao, Enzhi Ou, Xin Lu, Weiwei Feng
BACKGROUND: Choriocarcinoma of the ovary is rare. This tumor can arise from gestational tissue or pure germ cells of the ovary, the former results in gestational choriocarcinoma. The clinical characteristics and histology of both tumor types are identical, differentiation of these tumors is necessary for effective treatment. One strategy for the differentiation of these tumors types is to identify the presence of paternal DNA by DNA polymorphic analysis. CASE PRESENTATION: In the present case, a 27-year-old patient with a history of amenorrhea, lower abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding received a laparoscopic dissection of cystic mass of the right ovary according to an initial diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722759/lifetime-reproductive-success-selection-on-lifespan-and-multiple-sexual-ornaments-in-male-european-barn-swallows
#18
Alessandra Costanzo, Roberto Ambrosini, Manuela Caprioli, Emanuele Gatti, Marco Parolini, Luca Canova, Diego Rubolini, Andrea Romano, Luca Gianfranceschi, Nicola Saino
Natural and sexual selection arise when individual fitness varies according to focal traits. Extra-pair paternities (EPPs) can affect the intensity of selection by influencing variance in fitness among individuals. Studies of selection require that individual fitness is estimated using proxies of lifetime reproductive success (LRS). However, estimating LRS is difficult in large, open populations where EPPs cause reallocation of biological paternity. Here, we used extensive field sampling to estimate LRS in a population of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) to estimate selection on lifespan and ornamental traits of males...
July 19, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707712/acne-prevalence-and-associations-with-lifestyle-a-cross-sectional-online-survey-of-adolescents-young-adults-in-7-european-countries
#19
P Wolkenstein, A Machovcová, J C Szepietowski, D Tennstedt, S Veraldi, A Delarue
BACKGROUND: Although acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder, limited epidemiological data exist specifically for European populations. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of self-reported acne among young people in Europe and evaluate the effect of lifestyle on acne. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional population-based online survey in representative samples of individuals aged 15-24 years in Belgium, Czech and Slovak Republics, France, Italy, Poland and Spain (n=10,521), identified by a quota sampling method based on age, geographic location, and socio-professional category...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702506/prenatal-depression-risk-factors-developmental-effects-and-interventions-a-review
#20
Tiffany Field
This narrative review based on a literature search in PubMed and PsycInfo on the two terms prenatal and antenatal depression includes empirical studies, reviews and meta-analyses that have been published during the last 5 years on risk factors, developmental effects and interventions for prenatal depression. Risk factor studies that met criteria feature demographic measures (lower socioeconomic status, less education, non-marital status, non-employment, less social support and health locus of control, unintended pregnancy, partner violence and history of child abuse) and physiological variables (cortisol, amylase, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and intrauterine artery resistance)...
February 2017: Journal of Pregnancy and Child Health
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