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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407234/mediterranean-diet-decreases-adolescent-waist-circumference
#1
Flora Bacopoulou, Georgios Landis, Anastasios Rentoumis, Artemis Tsitsika, Vasiliki Efthymiou
BACKGROUND: To explore the effects of a multicomponent-multilevel school-based educational intervention on the nutritional habits and abdominal obesity indices of a representative adolescent sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A representative sample of 1,610 adolescents aged 12-17 years in 23 public high schools of three municipalities in the Attica region in Greece, participated in a program funded by the European Union (August 2013-August 2014). Participants underwent dietary assessment with the use of the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index in children and adolescents (KIDMED), blood pressure assessment and screening for general and abdominal obesity by measuring body mass index, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), at baseline and following a six-month school-based intervention...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401836/insensitive-parenting-may-accelerate-the-development-of-the-amygdala-medial-prefrontal-cortex-circuit
#2
Sandra Thijssen, Ryan L Muetzel, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Henning Tiemeier, Frank C Verhulst, Tonya White, Marinus H Van Ijzendoorn
This study examined whether the association between age and amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) connectivity in typically developing 6- to 10-year-old children is correlated with parental care. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 124 children of the Generation R Study who at 4 years old had been observed interacting with their parents to assess maternal and paternal sensitivity. Amygdala functional connectivity was assessed using a general linear model with the amygdalae time series as explanatory variables...
May 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394407/novel-case-of-paternal-paracentric-inversion-causing-partial-trisomy-13-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Chad Douglas, Stephen A Smith, Luis Rohena
Partial trisomies have often been reported secondary to inversion mutations. These occurrences are most frequently associated with pericentric inversions. In this report, we describe the first documented case of partial trisomy 13 secondary to a parental paracentric inversion, in this case a paternal paracentric 13q inversion. Our Patient exhibits a variety of clinical findings including global developmental delay with intellectual disability, sensorineural hearing loss, bilateral congenital polar cataracts with associated foveal and optic nerve hypoplasia, right retinal detachment, atrial septal defect, absence of corpus callosum, celiac disease, microcephaly, as well as other dysmorphic features...
April 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387056/effects-of-ovarian-fluid-and-genetic-differences-on-sperm-performance-and-fertilization-success-of-alternative-reproductive-tactics-in-chinook-salmon
#4
Sarah J Lehnert, Ian A E ButtS, Erin W Flannery, Kia M Peters, Daniel D Heath, Trevor E Pitcher
In many species, sperm velocity affects variation in the outcome of male competitive fertilization success. In fishes, ovarian fluid (OF) released with the eggs can increase male sperm velocity and potentially facilitate cryptic female choice for males of specific phenotypes and/or genotypes. Therefore, to investigate the role of OF on fertilization success, we measured sperm velocity and conducted in vitro competitive fertilizations with paired Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) males representing two alternative reproductive tactics, jacks (small sneaker males) and hooknoses (large guarding males), in the presence of river water alone and OF mixed with river water...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386961/adult-dietary-protein-has-age-and-context-dependent-effects-on-male-post-copulatory-performance
#5
Erin L Macartney, Angela J Crean, Russell Bonduriansky
The highly-conserved effect of dietary protein restriction on life-span and ageing is observed in both sexes and across a vast range of taxa. This extension of life-span is frequently accompanied by a reduction in female fecundity and it has been hypothesised that individuals may reallocate resources away from reproduction and into somatic maintenance. However, effects of dietary protein restriction on male reproduction are less consistent, suggesting that these effects may depend on other environmental parameters...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371365/a-memory-b-cell-crossmatch-assay-for-quantification-of-donor-specific-memory-b-cells-in-the-peripheral-blood-of-hla-immunized-individuals
#6
G E Karahan, Y J H de Vaal, J Krop, C Wehmeier, D L Roelen, F H J Claas, S Heidt
Humoral responses against mismatched donor HLA are routinely measured as serum HLA antibodies, which are mainly produced by bone-marrow residing plasma cells. Individuals with a history of alloimmunization but lacking serum antibodies may harbor circulating dormant memory B cells, which may rapidly become plasma cells upon antigen re-encounter. Currently available methods to detect HLA-specific memory B cells are scarce and insufficient in quantifying the complete donor-specific memory B cell response due to their dependence on synthetic HLA molecules...
March 30, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370951/multivariate-genetic-architecture-of-the-anolis-dewlap-reveals-both-shared-and-sex-specific-features-of-a-sexually-dimorphic-ornament
#7
Robert M Cox, Robin A Costello, Benjamin E Camber, Joel W McGlothlin
Darwin viewed the ornamentation of females as an indirect consequence of sexual selection on males and the transmission of male phenotypes to females via the "laws of inheritance." Although a number of studies have supported this view by demonstrating substantial between-sex genetic covariance for ornament expression, the majority of this work has focused on avian plumage. Moreover, few studies have considered the genetic basis of ornaments from a multivariate perspective, which may be crucial for understanding the evolution of sex differences in general, and of complex ornaments in particular...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370606/sports-activities-in-preschool-children-differed-between-those-born-to-immigrants-and-native-italians
#8
Luciana Zaccagni, Stefania Toselli, Francesca Celenza, Augusta Albertini, Emanuela Gualdi-Russo
AIM: Despite the health benefits of physical activity in early childhood, little is known about sports practices in preschool children with different ethnic origins. The aim of this study was to investigate the sport activity patterns in native and immigrant children in northern Italy. The influence of some child and family determinants on the child's practice of club-organised sport was analysed to plan interventions. METHODS: The study group comprised 2,682 preschool children (49...
March 31, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370584/benefits-of-polyandry-molecular-evidence-from-field-caught-dung-beetles
#9
Erin L McCullough, Bruno A Buzatto, Leigh W Simmons
When females mate with multiple males, they set the stage for post-copulatory sexual selection via sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice. Surprisingly little is known about the rates of multiple mating by females in the wild, despite the importance of this information in understanding the potential for post-copulatory sexual selection to drive the evolution of reproductive behavior, morphology, and physiology. Dung beetles in the genus Onthophagus have become a laboratory model for studying pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection, yet we still lack information about the reproductive behavior of female dung beetles in natural populations...
March 30, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369868/pre-and-postcopulatory-sexual-selection-favor-aggressive-young-males-in-polyandrous-groups-of-red-junglefowl
#10
Grant C McDonald, Lewis G Spurgin, Eleanor A Fairfield, David S Richardson, Tommaso Pizzari
A challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the operation of sexual selection on males in polyandrous groups, where sexual selection occurs before and after mating. Here, we combine fine-grained behavioural information (>41,000 interactions) with molecular parentage data to study sexual selection in replicated, age-structured groups of polyandrous red junglefowl, Gallus gallus. Male reproductive success was determined by the number of females mated (precopulatory sexual selection) and his paternity share, which was driven by the polyandry of his female partners (postcopulatory sexual selection)...
March 28, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334485/pollinator-identity-and-spatial-isolation-influence-multiple-paternity-in-an-annual-plant
#11
Matthew K Rhodes, Jeremie B Fant, Krissa A Skogen
The occurrence and extent of multiple paternity is an important component of variation in plant mating dynamics. However, links between pollinator activity and multiple paternity are generally lacking, especially for plant species that attract functionally diverse floral visitors. In this study, we separated the influence of two functionally distinct floral visitors (hawkmoths and solitary bees) and characterized their impacts on multiple paternity in a self-incompatible, annual forb, Oenothera harringtonii (Onagraceae)...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295819/variants-in-bak1-spry4-and-gab2-are-associated-with-pediatric-germ-cell-tumors-a-report-from-the-children-s-oncology-group
#12
Erin L Marcotte, Nathan Pankratz, James F Amatruda, A Lindsay Frazier, Mark Krailo, Stella Davies, Jacqueline R Starr, Ching C Lau, Michelle Roesler, Erica Langer, Caroline Hallstrom, Anthony J Hooten, Jenny N Poynter
Germ cell tumors (GCT) are a rare form of childhood cancer that originate from the primordial germ cell. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified susceptibility alleles for adult testicular GCT (TGCT). We test whether these SNPs are associated with GCT in pediatric and adolescent populations. This case-parent triad study includes individuals with GCT diagnosed between ages 0 and 19. We evaluated 26 SNPs from GWAS of adult TGCT and estimated main effects for pediatric GCT within complete trios (N = 366) using the transmission disequilibrium test...
March 13, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278357/factors-associated-with-the-health-and-cognition-of-6-year-old-to-8-year-old-children-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#13
Oluwakemi R Ajayi, Glenda Matthews, Myra Taylor, Jane Kvalsvig, Leslie L Davidson, Shuaib Kauchali, Claude A Mellins
OBJECTIVE: To investigate 6-year-old to 8-year-old children's health, nutritional status and cognitive development in a predominantly rural area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS: Cohort study of 1383 children investigating the association of demographic variables (area of residence, sex, pre-school education, HIV status, height for age and haemoglobin level) and family variables (socioeconomic status, maternal and paternal level of education), with children's cognitive performance...
March 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257590/advanced-paternal-age-and-childhood-cancer-in-offspring-a-nationwide-register-based-cohort-study
#14
Stine Kjaer Urhoj, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Anne Vinkel Hansen, Laust Hvas Mortensen, Per Kragh Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen
Cancer initiation is presumed to occur in utero for many childhood cancers and it has been hypothesized that advanced paternal age may have an impact due to the increasing number of mutations in the sperm DNA with increasing paternal age. We examined the association between paternal age and specific types of childhood cancer in offspring in a large nationwide cohort of 1,904,363 children born in Denmark from 1978 through 2010. The children were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry and were linked to information from other national registers, including the Danish Cancer Registry...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256262/-muir-torre-syndrome-and-turcot-syndrome
#15
C Velter, P Caussade, J-P Fricker, B Cribier
INTRODUCTION: Lynch syndrome (LS) is a syndrome that carries a genetic predisposition to certain cancers associating, either in a single individual or in a family, a visceral tumour, mainly colorectal, with a high risk of other synchronous or metachronous cancers. LS is linked with mutations in the genes coding for proteins in the DNA repair system. Phenotypic variants of SL exist, including Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) and Turcot syndrome (TS), both of which predispose to colorectal cancer...
February 27, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186371/gene-expression-and-epigenetic-aberrations-in-f1-placentas-fathered-by-obese-males
#16
Megan Mitchell, Reiner Strick, Pamela L Strissel, Ralf Dittrich, Nicole O McPherson, Michelle Lane, Galyna Pliushch, Ramya Potabattula, Thomas Haaf, Nady El Hajj
Gene expression and/or epigenetic deregulation may have consequences for sperm and blastocysts, as well as for the placenta, together potentially contributing to problems observed in offspring. We previously demonstrated specific perturbations of fertilization, blastocyst formation, implantation, as well as aberrant glucose metabolism and adiposity in offspring using a mouse model of paternal obesity. The current investigation analyzed gene expression and methylation of specific CpG residues in F1 placentas of pregnancies fathered by obese and normal-weight male mice, using real-time PCR and bisulfite pyrosequencing...
February 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155248/mutants-in-the-imprinted-pickle-related-2-gene-suppress-seed-abortion-of-fertilization-independent-seed-class-mutants-and-paternal-excess-interploidy-crosses-in-arabidopsis
#17
Fang Huang, Qian-Hao Zhu, Anyu Zhu, Xiaoba Wu, Liqiong Xie, Xianjun Wu, Chris Helliwell, Abed Chaudhury, E Jean Finnegan, Ming Luo
Endosperm cellularization is essential for embryo development and viable seed formation. Loss of function of the FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED (FIS) class Polycomb genes, which mediate trimethylation of histone H3 lysine27 (H3K27me3), as well as imbalanced contributions of parental genomes interrupt this process. The causes of the failure of cellularization are poorly understood. In this study we identified PICKLE RELATED 2 (PKR2) mutations which suppress seed abortion in fis1/mea by restoring endosperm cellularization...
February 3, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150460/the-amount-of-television-that-infants-and-their-parents-watched-influenced-children-s-viewing-habits-when-they-got-older
#18
Yu-Chan Chiu, Yi-Fan Li, Wen-Chi Wu, Tung-Liang Chiang
AIM: Excessive television (TV) exposure has negative impacts on a child's development, health and behaviour. This study examined the under-researched area of what impact infant and parental TV viewing during a child's infancy had on the child's later viewing habits. METHODS: Data on 18 577 babies born in 2005 were collected from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study, a prospective longitudinal study of a nationally representative cohort. Group-based trajectory analysis was conducted to identify childhood TV viewing trajectories at 18, 36 and 66 months of age...
February 1, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109169/maternal-psychiatric-symptoms-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-childhood-atopic-diseases
#19
N J Elbert, L Duijts, H T den Dekker, N W de Jong, T E C Nijsten, V W V Jaddoe, J C de Jongste, R Gerth van Wijk, H Tiemeier, S G M A Pasmans
BACKGROUND: Maternal psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy might affect the developing immune system and subsequent risk of childhood atopic diseases. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine the associations of maternal psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy with allergic sensitization, allergy and eczema in children until age 10 years. METHODS: This study among 5205 children was performed in a population-based prospective cohort from foetal life onwards...
April 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075545/fetal-growth-and-parental-cardiovascular-risk-preterm-birth-matters
#20
J M Catov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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