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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334485/pollinator-identity-and-spatial-isolation-influence-multiple-paternity-in-an-annual-plant
#1
Matthew K Rhodes, Jeremie B Fant, Krissa A Skogen
The occurrence and extent of multiple paternity is an important component of variation in plant mating dynamics. However, links between pollinator activity and multiple paternity are generally lacking, especially for plant species that attract functionally diverse floral visitors. In this study, we separated the influence of two functionally distinct floral visitors (hawkmoths and solitary bees) and characterized their impacts on multiple paternity in a self-incompatible, annual forb, Oenothera harringtonii (Onagraceae)...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295819/variants-in-bak1-spry4-and-gab2-are-associated-with-pediatric-germ-cell-tumors-a-report-from-the-children-s-oncology-group
#2
Erin L Marcotte, Nathan Pankratz, James F Amatruda, A Lindsay Frazier, Mark Krailo, Stella Davies, Jacqueline R Starr, C Lau Ching, Michelle Roesler, Erica Langer, Caroline Hallstrom, Anthony J Hooten, Jenny N Poynter
Germ cell tumors (GCT) are a rare form of childhood cancer that originate from the primordial germ cell. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified susceptibility alleles for adult testicular GCT (TGCT). We test whether these SNPs are associated with GCT in pediatric and adolescent populations. This case-parent triad study includes individuals with GCT diagnosed between ages 0-19. We evaluated 26 SNPs from GWAS of adult TGCT and estimated main effects for pediatric GCT within complete trios (N=366) using the transmission disequilibrium test...
March 13, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278357/factors-associated-with-the-health-and-cognition-of-6-8-year-old-children-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#3
Oluwakemi R Ajayi, Glenda Matthews, Myra Taylor, Jane Kvalsvig, Leslie L Davidson, Shuaib Kauchali, Claude A Mellins
OBJECTIVE: To investigate 6-8 year-old children's health, nutritional status and cognitive development in a predominantly rural area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS: Cohort study of 1383 children investigating the association of demographic variables (area of residence, sex, pre- school education, HIV status, height for age and haemoglobin level) and family variables (socioeconomic status, maternal and paternal level of education), with children's cognitive performance...
March 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257590/advanced-paternal-age-and-childhood-cancer-in-offspring-a-nationwide-register-based-cohort-study
#4
Stine Kjaer Urhoj, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Anne Vinkel Hansen, Laust Hvas Mortensen, Per Kragh Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen
Cancer initiation is presumed to occur in utero for many childhood cancers and it has been hypothesized that advanced paternal age may have an impact due to the increasing number of mutations in the sperm DNA with increasing paternal age. We examined the association between paternal age and specific types of childhood cancer in offspring in a large nationwide cohort of 1,904,363 children born in Denmark from 1978 through 2010. The children were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry and were linked to information from other national registers, including the Danish Cancer Registry...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256262/-muir-torre-syndrome-and-turcot-syndrome
#5
C Velter, P Caussade, J-P Fricker, B Cribier
INTRODUCTION: Lynch syndrome (LS) is a syndrome that carries a genetic predisposition to certain cancers associating, either in a single individual or in a family, a visceral tumour, mainly colorectal, with a high risk of other synchronous or metachronous cancers. LS is linked with mutations in the genes coding for proteins in the DNA repair system. Phenotypic variants of SL exist, including Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) and Turcot syndrome (TS), both of which predispose to colorectal cancer...
February 27, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186371/gene-expression-and-epigenetic-aberrations-in-f1-placentas-fathered-by-obese-males
#6
Megan Mitchell, Reiner Strick, Pamela L Strissel, Ralf Dittrich, Nicole O McPherson, Michelle Lane, Galyna Pliushch, Ramya Potabattula, Thomas Haaf, Nady El Hajj
Gene expression and/or epigenetic deregulation may have consequences for sperm and blastocysts, as well as for the placenta, together potentially contributing to problems observed in offspring. We previously demonstrated specific perturbations of fertilization, blastocyst formation, implantation, as well as aberrant glucose metabolism and adiposity in offspring using a mouse model of paternal obesity. The current investigation analysed gene expression and methylation of specific CpG residues in F1 placentas of pregnancies fathered by obese and normal-weight male mice, using real-time PCR and bisulfite pyrosequencing...
February 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155248/mutants-in-the-imprinted-pickle-related-2-gene-suppress-seed-abortion-of-fertilization-independent-seed-class-mutants-and-paternal-excess-interploidy-crosses-in-arabidopsis
#7
Fang Huang, Qian-Hao Zhu, Anyu Zhu, Xiaoba Wu, Liqiong Xie, Xianjun Wu, Chris Helliwell, Abed Chaudhury, E Jean Finnegan, Ming Luo
Endosperm cellularization is essential for embryo development and viable seed formation. Loss of function of the FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED (FIS) class Polycomb genes, which mediate histone H3 lysine27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), as well as imbalanced contributions of parental genomes interrupt this process. What causes the failure of cellularization is poorly understood. In this study, we identified PICKLE RELATED 2 (PKR2), mutations which suppress seed abortion in fis1/mea by restoring endosperm cellularization...
February 3, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150460/the-amount-of-television-that-infants-and-their-parents-watched-influenced-children-s-viewing-habits-when-they-got-older
#8
Yu-Chan Chiu, Yi-Fan Li, Wen-Chi Wu, Tung-Liang Chiang
AIM: Excessive television (TV) exposure has negative impacts on a child's development, health and behaviour. This study examined the under-researched area of what impact infant and parental TV viewing during a child's infancy had on the child's later viewing habits. METHODS: Data on 18 577 babies born in 2005 were collected from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study, a prospective longitudinal study of a nationally representative cohort. Group-based trajectory analysis was conducted to identify childhood TV viewing trajectories at 18, 36 and 66 months of age...
February 1, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109169/maternal-psychiatric-symptoms-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-childhood-atopic-diseases
#9
Niels J Elbert, Liesbeth Duijts, Herman T den Dekker, Nicolette W de Jong, Tamar E C Nijsten, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Johan C de Jongste, Roy Gerth van Wijk, Henning Tiemeier, Suzanne G M A Pasmans
BACKGROUND: Maternal psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy might affect the developing immune system and subsequent risk of childhood atopic diseases. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine the associations of maternal psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy with allergic sensitization, allergy and eczema in children until age 10 years. METHODS: This study among 5,205 children was performed in a population-based prospective cohort from fetal life onwards...
January 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075545/fetal-growth-and-parental-cardiovascular-risk-preterm-birth-matters
#10
Janet M Catov
It is now well established, but poorly understood, that preterm birth marks excess cardiovascular risk among mothers. The study by Morken et al. provides new and important insights into these links by integrating preterm birth and fetal growth abnormalities as metrics of long-term parental CVD mortality risk. They report that small and large infants delivered preterm are linked to excess maternal CVD risk, but these features are only weakly associated with paternal CVD. This article is protected by copyright...
January 11, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004416/changeability-of-the-fully-methylated-status-of-the-15q11-2-region-in-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-from-a-patient-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#11
Hironobu Okuno, Kazuhiko Nakabayashi, Kousei Abe, Takayuki Ando, Tsukasa Sanosaka, Jun Kohyama, Wado Akamatsu, Manabu Ohyama, Takao Takahashi, Kenjiro Kosaki, Hideyuki Okano
Prader-Will syndrome (PWS) is characterized by hyperphagia, growth hormone deficiency and central hypogonadism caused by the dysfunction of the hypothalamus. Patients with PWS present with methylation abnormalities of the PWS-imprinting control region in chromosome 15q11.2, subject to parent-of-origin-specific methylation and controlling the parent-of-origin-specific expression of other paternally expressed genes flanking the region. In theory, the reversal of hypermethylation in the hypothalamic cells could be a promising strategy for the treatment of PWS patients, since cardinal symptoms of PWS patients are correlated with dysfunction of the hypothalamus...
December 21, 2016: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001135/a-survey-of-physicians-attitudes-toward-decision-making-authority-for-initiating-and-withdrawing-va-ecmo-results-and-ethical-implications-for-shared-decision-making
#12
Ellen C Meltzer, Natalia S Ivascu, Meredith Stark, Alexander V Orfanos, Cathleen A Acres, Paul J Christos, Thomas Mangione, Joseph J Fins
OBJECTIVE: Although patients exercise greater autonomy than in the past, and shared decision making is promoted as the preferred model for doctor-patient engagement, tensions still exist in clinical practice about the primary locus of decision-making authority for complex, scarce, and resource-intensive medical therapies: patients and their surrogates, or physicians. We assessed physicians' attitudes toward decisional authority for adult venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO), hypothesizing they would favor a medical locus...
2016: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984613/-detection-of-a-fetus-with-paternally-derived-2q37-3-microdeletion-and-20p13p12-2-microduplication-using-whole-genome-microarray-technology
#13
Lin Zhang, Meihong Ren, Guining Song, Xuexia Liu, Jianliu Wang, Xiaohong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To perform prenatal diagnosis for a fetus with multiple malformations. METHODS: The fetus was subjected to routine karyotyping and whole genome microarray analysis. The parents were subjected to high-resolution chromosome analysis. RESULTS: Fetal ultrasound at 28+4 weeks has indicated intrauterine growth restriction, left kidney agenesis, right kidney dysplasia, ventricular septal defect, and polyhydramnios. Chromosomal analysis showed that the fetus has a karyotype of 46,XY,der(2),der(20), t(2;20)(q37...
December 10, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973712/experimental-evidence-for-sexual-selection-against-inbred-males
#14
Regina Vega-Trejo, Megan L Head, J Scott Keogh, Michael D Jennions
The detrimental effects of matings between relatives are well known. However, few studies determine the extent to which inbreeding depression in males is due to natural or sexual selection. Importantly, measuring fitness or key fitness components, rather than phenotypic traits allows more accurate estimation of inbreeding depression. We investigate how differences in inbreeding and juvenile diet (i.e. early stressful environment) influence a key component of male fitness, namely their reproductive success. We experimentally created inbred and outbred male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) by mating full-sibs (f = 0·25)...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911018/sperm-competition-and-the-evolution-of-precopulatory-weapons-testis-size-and-amplexus-position-but-not-arm-strength-affect-fertilization-success-in-a-chorusing-frog
#15
Bruno A Buzatto, Evan M Thyer, J Dale Roberts, Leigh W Simmons
Trade-offs between pre- and postcopulatory traits influence their evolution, and male expenditure on such traits is predicted to depend on the number of competitors, the benefits from investing in weapons, and the risk and intensity of sperm competition. Males of the chorusing frog Crinia georgiana use their arms as weapons in contest competition. Previously, we showed that increased numbers of rivals elevated the risk and intensity of sperm competition due to multimale amplexus, and caused a reversal in the direction of precopulatory selection on arm girth...
December 2, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908942/the-need-for-an-effective-process-to-resolve-conflicts-over-medical-futility-a-case-study-and-analysis
#16
Jocelyn A Olmstead, Michael D Dahnke
The issue of medical futility requires a well-defined process in which both sides of the dispute can be heard and a resolution reached in a fair and ethical manner. Procedural approaches to medical futility cases provide all parties involved with a process-driven framework for resolving these disputes. Medical paternalism or the belief in the absolute rightness of the medical model will not serve to resolve these disputes. Although medical futility is first determined by medicine, in order for the determination to meet legal criteria, it must be subject to review...
December 2016: Critical Care Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862580/correlated-paternity-measures-mate-monopolization-and-scales-with-the-magnitude-of-sexual-selection
#17
M E Dorken, L E Perry
Indirect measures of sexual selection have been criticized because they can overestimate the magnitude of selection. In particular, they do not account for the degree to which mating opportunities can be monopolized by individuals of the sex that compete for mates. We introduce a measure of mate monopolization (m) based on the magnitude of correlated paternity and evaluate its ability to track changes in the magnitude of sexual selection. Simulation models were used to compare how well m tracked changes in the selection differential (s) for a trait regulating mating success...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859860/constrained-evolution-of-the-sex-comb-in-drosophila-simulans
#18
M S Maraqa, R Griffin, M D Sharma, A J Wilson, J Hunt, D J Hosken, C M House
Male fitness is dependent on sexual traits that influence mate acquisition (precopulatory sexual selection) and paternity (post-copulatory sexual selection), and although many studies have documented the form of selection in one or the other of these arenas, fewer have done it for both. Nonetheless, it appears that the dominant form of sexual selection is directional, although theoretically, populations should converge on peaks in the fitness surface, where selection is stabilizing. Many factors, however, can prevent populations from reaching adaptive peaks...
February 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859612/objectively-verified-parental-non-hip-major-osteoporotic-fractures-and-offspring-osteoporotic-fracture-risk-a-population-based-familial-linkage-study
#19
Shuman Yang, William D Leslie, Randy Walld, Leslie L Roos, Suzanne N Morin, Sumit R Majumdar, Lisa M Lix
Parental hip fracture (HF) is associated with increased risk of offspring major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs; comprising hip, forearm, clinical spine or humerus fracture). Whether other sites of parental fracture should be used for fracture risk assessment is uncertain. The current study tested the association between objectively-verified parental non-hip MOF and offspring incident MOF. Using population-based administrative healthcare data for the province of Manitoba, Canada, we identified 255,512 offspring with linkage to at least one parent (238,054 mothers and 209,423 fathers)...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859596/osteosarcoma-in-a-patient-with-pseudohypoparathyroidism-type-1b-due-to-paternal-uniparental-disomy-of-chromosome-20q
#20
Hye-Sun Park, Chang Gon Kim, Namki Hong, Seok Joo Lee, Da Hea Seo, Yumie Rhee
It is assumed that a persistent high level of parathyroid hormone (PTH) might have a relation with bone malignancy. However, there has been no report of osteosarcoma associated with pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1b (PHP1b), which is accompanied by high PTH. PHP1b is the result of resistance to PTH in certain end-organ tissues, especially the kidney; the response in bone is unaffected because it normally expresses stimulatory G protein equally from both parental alleles. A 21-year-old male, presenting with gum swelling at the right mandible, was referred to a dental clinic...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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