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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315635/association-between-paternal-alcohol-consumption-before-conception-and-anogenital-distance-of-offspring
#1
Ruilan Xia, Longmei Jin, Dekun Li, Hong Liang, Fen Yang, Jianping Chen, Wei Yuan, Maohua Miao
BACKGROUND: There are limited studies on the effects of paternal alcohol consumption, before conception, on the reproductive development of offspring. Anogenital distance (AGD), the distance from the center of the anus to the genitals, is a sensitive biomarker of reproductive hormone abnormalities during the critical developmental window. The relationship between paternal alcohol consumption and AGD of human offspring has not been studied yet. METHODS: This cohort study included 1,292 pregnant women recruited in Shanghai...
January 6, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310657/-right-to-recommend-wrong-to-require-an-empirical-and-philosophical-study-of-the-views-among-physicians-and-the-general-public-on-smoking-cessation-as-a-condition-for-surgery
#2
Joar Björk, Niklas Juth, Niels Lynøe
BACKGROUND: In many countries, there are health care initiatives to make smokers give up smoking in the peri-operative setting. There is empirical evidence that this may improve some, but not all, operative outcomes. However, it may be feared that some support for such policies stems from ethically questionable opinions, such as paternalism or anti-smoker sentiments. This study aimed at investigating the support for a policy of smoking cessation prior to surgery among Swedish physicians and members of the general public, as well as the reasons provided for this...
January 8, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290095/parental-alexithymia-depression-and-anxiety-levels-of-children-with-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-comparative-study-with-pervasive-developmental-disorders-and-adhd
#3
Ibrahim Durukan, Koray Kara, Mahmoud Almbaideen, Dursun Karaman, Hesna Gül
BACKGROUND: Recent studies showed that individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and their relatives have problems to express and recognize emotions but there is a lack of studies concerning alexithymia levels and relationships between parental alexithymia and depression-anxiety symptoms in these groups. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine alexithymia, depression, anxiety levels of parents in children with pervasive developmental disorders and ADHD, also examine if there is a positive correlation between child's neurodevelopmental problem's severity and parental scores...
December 31, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290005/autonomy-competence-and-non-interference
#4
Joseph T F Roberts
In light of the variety of uses of the term autonomy in recent bioethics literature, in this paper, I suggest that competence, not being as contested, is better placed to play the anti-paternalistic role currently assigned to autonomy. The demonstration of competence, I will argue, can provide individuals with robust spheres of non-interference in which they can pursue their lives in accordance with their own values. This protection from paternalism is achieved by granting individuals rights to non-interference upon demonstration of competence...
December 30, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274177/links-between-parental-life-histories-of-wild-salmon-and-the-telomere-lengths-of-their-offspring
#5
D McLennan, J D Armstrong, D C Stewart, S Mckelvey, W Boner, P Monaghan, N B Metcalfe
The importance of parental contributions to offspring development and subsequent performance is self-evident at a genomic level; however, parents can also affect offspring fitness by indirect genetic and environmental routes. The life history strategy that an individual adopts will be influenced by both genes and environment; and this may have important consequences for offspring. Recent research has linked telomere dynamics (i.e. telomere length and loss) in early life to future viability and longevity. Moreover, a number of studies have reported a heritable component to telomere length across a range of vertebrates, though the effects of other parental contribution pathways have been far less studied...
December 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232016/characterization-of-h3-3-and-hira-expression-and-function-in-bovine-early-embryos
#6
Kun Zhang, Han Wang, Sandeep K Rajput, Joseph K Folger, George W Smith
Histone variant H3.3 is encoded by two distinct genes, H3F3A and H3F3B, that are closely associated with actively transcribed genes. H3.3 replacement is continuous and essential for maintaining correct chromatin structure during mouse oogenesis. Upon fertilization, H3.3 is incorporated to parental chromatin, and is required for blastocyst formation in mice. The H3.3 exchange process is facilitated by the chaperone HIRA, particularly during zygote development. We previously demonstrated that H3.3 is required for bovine early embryonic development; here, we explored the mechanisms of its functional requirement...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211324/non-invasive-prenatal-testing-for-fetal-inheritance-of-maternal-%C3%AE-thalassaemia-mutations-using-targeted-sequencing-and-relative-mutation-dosage-a-feasibility-study
#7
Li Xiong, Angela N Barrett, Rui Hua, Sherry S Y Ho, Li Jun, K C Allen Chan, Zhong Mei, Mahesh Choolani
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether targeted sequencing and relative mutation dosage can be used to correctly diagnose inheritance of maternal β-thalassaemia mutations in cell-free DNA. DESIGN: Feasibility study using samples collected in a prenatal clinic. SETTING: South East Asia. POPULATION: Couples where both partners were known to be carriers of one of four common β-thalassaemia mutations or an HbE mutation, and therefore at risk of carrying a fetus affected with β-thalassaemia...
December 6, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160913/bigger-testes-increase-paternity-in-a-simultaneous-hermaphrodite-independently-of-the-sperm-competition-level
#8
Nikolas Vellnow, Lucas Marie-Orleach, Kira S Zadesenets, Lukas Schärer
All sexually reproducing organisms face the evolutionary optimization problem of how much of their limited resources they should invest into male versus female reproduction, i.e., the problem of sex allocation (Charnov, 1982). Consider, for example, producing the optimal offspring sex ratio in gonochoristic (separate-sexed) animals. Since during sexual reproduction both parents contribute the same amount of nuclear genetic material to the zygote, the total fitness of males and females-on the population level-has to be equal (Düsing, 1884; Fisher, 1930; Houston & McNamara, 2006; Queller, 2006)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154412/the-impact-of-mating-systems-and-dispersal-on-fine-scale-genetic-structure-at-maternally-paternally-and-biparentally-inherited-markers
#9
Robyn E Shaw, Sam C Banks, Rod Peakall
For decades, studies have focused on how dispersal and mating systems influence genetic structure across populations or social-groups. However, we still lack a thorough understanding of how these processes and their interaction, shape spatial genetic patterns over a finer-scale (tens - hundreds of metres). Using uniparentally inherited markers may help answer these questions, yet their potential has not been fully explored. Here, we use individual-level simulations to investigate the effects of dispersal and mating system on fine-scale genetic structure at autosomal, mitochondrial and Y chromosome markers...
November 20, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135022/a-fast-and-simple-method-to-estimate-relative-hyphal-tensile-strength-of-filamentous-fungi-used-to-assess-the-effect-of-autophagy
#10
Daniela Quintanilla, Cynthia Chelius, Sirasa Iambamrung, Sidney Nelson, Donnel Thomas, Krist V Gernaey, Mark R Marten
Fungal hyphal strength is an important phenotype which can have a profound impact on bioprocess behavior. Until now, there is not an efficient method which allows its characterization. Currently available methods are very time consuming; thus, compromising their applicability in strain selection and process development. To overcome this issue, a method for fast and easy, statistically-verified quantification of relative hyphal tensile strength was developed. It involves off-line fragmentation in a high shear mixer followed by quantification of fragment size using laser diffraction...
November 14, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068511/multiple-hypotheses-explain-variation-in-extra-pair-paternity-at-different-levels-in-a-single-bird-family
#11
Lyanne Brouwer, Martijn van de Pol, Nataly Hidalgo Aranzamendi, Glen Bain, Daniel T Baldassarre, Lesley C Brooker, Michael G Brooker, Diane Colombelli-Négrel, Erik Enbody, Kurt Gielow, Michelle L Hall, Allison E Johnson, Jordan Karubian, Sjouke A Kingma, Sonia Kleindorfer, Marina Louter, Raoul A Mulder, Anne Peters, Stephen Pruett-Jones, Keith A Tarvin, Derrick J Thrasher, Claire W Varian-Ramos, Michael S Webster, Andrew Cockburn
Extra-pair paternity (EPP), where offspring are sired by a male other than the social male, varies enormously both within and among species. Trying to explain this variation has proved difficult because the majority of the interspecific variation is phylogenetically-based. Ideally, variation in EPP should be investigated in closely related species, but clades with sufficient variation are rare. We present a comprehensive multifactorial test to explain variation in EPP among individuals in 20 populations of nine species over 89 years from a single bird family (Maluridae)...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063726/phenological-match-drives-pollen-mediated-gene-flow-in-a-temporally-dimorphic-tree
#12
Gabriela Gleiser, Igor J Chybicki, Santiago C González-Martínez, Marcelo A Aizen
Variation in flowering phenology is common in natural populations, and is expected to be, together with inter-mate distance, an important driver of effective pollen dispersal. In populations composed by plants with temporally separated sexual phases (i.e. dichogamous or heterodichogamous populations), pollen-mediated gene flow is assumed to reflect phenological overlap between complementary sexual phases. In this study, we conducted paternity analyses to test this hypothesis in the temporally dimorphic tree Acer opalus...
October 24, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063613/interactive-effects-of-maternal-alcohol-problems-and-parental-separation-on-timing-of-daughter-s-first-drink
#13
Mary Waldron, Nicole K Watkins, Kathleen K Bucholz, Pamela A F Madden, Andrew C Heath
BACKGROUND: Few studies examine risk to offspring who experience both parental alcohol problems and parental separation, and still fewer consider gender of the affected parent. We examined interactive effects of maternal versus paternal alcohol problems and parental separation on timing of first alcoholic drink in daughters. METHODS: Data were drawn from a sample of 3539 European (or other) ancestry (EA) and 611 African ancestry (AA) female twins born between 1975 and 1985, median age 15 at first assessment...
October 23, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058812/the-effects-of-curcumin-on-hct-116-cells-proliferation-and-apoptosis-via-the-mir-491-peg10-pathway
#14
Bai Li, Chong Shi, Bo Li, Jing-Ming Zhao, Lei Wang
Paternally expressed gene-10 (PEG10) could participate in several carcinomas and might be regulated by miR-491. To now, miR-491 was found to play an important role in the sensitivity and mechanism of drug usage in the treatment of colorectal cancer, and drug resistance is a key factor to affect the disease healing. In this study, miR-491, PEG10, Wnt1 and β-catenin expression levels and their correlation with colorectal cancer were assessed in cancer tissues and adjacent parts. And the target relationship between PEG10 and miR-491 was verified...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048742/permanent-neonatal-diabetes-caused-by-abnormalities%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-chromosome%C3%A2-6q24
#15
B Y Cao, C X Gong, D Wu, X Q Li
BACKGROUND: Methylation defects at chromosome 6q24 usually induce transient neonatal diabetes mellitus. There are few reports of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus caused by abnormalities of 6q24. We report the first case of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus to be associated with confirmed methylation defects at chromosome 6q24. CASE REPORT: A baby girl, small for her gestational age, was found to have high blood glucose 1 day after birth, with no systematic congenital anomalies...
October 19, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044892/mouse-parthenogenetic-embryonic-stem-cells-with-biparental-like-expression-of-imprinted-genes-generate-cortical-like-neurons-that-integrate-into-the-injured-adult-cerebral-cortex
#16
Annie Varrault, Sigrid Eckardt, Benoît Girard, Anne Le Digarcher, Isabelle Sassetti, Céline Meusnier, Chantal Ripoll, Armen Badalyan, Federica Bertaso, K John McLaughlin, Laurent Journot, Tristan Bouschet
One strategy for stem cell-based therapy of the cerebral cortex involves the generation and transplantation of functional, histocompatible cortical-like neurons from embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Diploid parthenogenetic Pg-ESCs have recently emerged as a promising source of histocompatible ESC derivatives for organ regeneration but their utility for cerebral cortex therapy is unknown. A major concern with Pg-ESCs is genomic imprinting. In contrast with biparental Bp-ESCs derived from fertilized oocytes, Pg-ESCs harbor two maternal genomes but no sperm-derived genome...
October 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024107/multi-speed-genome-diploidization-and-diversification-after-an-ancient-allopolyploidization
#17
Terezie Mandáková, Milan Pouch, Klára Harmanová, Shing Hei Zhan, Itay Mayrose, Martin A Lysak
Hybridization and genome doubling (allopolyploidy) have led to evolutionary novelties as well as to the origin of new clades and species. Despite the importance of allopolyploidization, the dynamics of post-polyploid diploidization (PPD) at the genome level has been only sparsely studied. The Microlepidieae (MICR) is a crucifer tribe of 17 genera and c. 56 species endemic to Australia and New Zealand. Our phylogenetic and cytogenomic analyses revealed that MICR originated via an inter-tribal hybridization between ancestors of Crucihimalayeae (n = 8; maternal genome) and Smelowskieae (n = 7; paternal genome), both native to the Northern Hemisphere...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023698/decomposition-of-socioeconomic-inequalities-in-preterm-deliveries-in-tehran-iran
#18
Reza O Samani, Mohammad A Mansournia, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Mahdi Sepidarkish, Saeid Safiri, Esmaeil K Morasae, Mostafa A Rarani
OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between economic inequality in preterm delivery. METHODS: The present secondary analysis included cross-sectional data collected in interviews with patients following delivery at 103 hospitals in Tehran, Iran, between July 6 and 21, 2015. Principal component analysis was used to measure the socioeconomic status of participants and the concentration index was used to measure inequalities in preterm delivery among patients of different socioeconomic status...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984653/comparative-outcomes-of-inferior-pedicle-and-superomedial-pedicle-technique-with-wise-pattern-reduction-in-gigantomastic-patients
#19
Cemal Alper Kemaloğlu, Hakan Özocak
INTRODUCTION: Although multiple pedicle and skin excision techniques exist for gigantomastic breast reduction, no consensus exists as to which method is most effective in providing an aesthetically pleasing breast, especially in the long-term period. This study aimed to compare the aesthetic and surgical outcomes between inferior pedicle and superomedial pedicle reductions, which both use Wise pattern skin excision in gigantomastic patients. METHODS: A prospective study was planned, and the number of patients was determined before the beginning of the study...
October 3, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973759/down-klinefelter-syndrome-48-xxy-21-in-a-neonate-associated-with-congenital-heart-disease
#20
M A Rodrigues, L F Morgade, L F A Dias, R V Moreira, P D Maia, A F H Sales, P D Ribeiro
Double aneuploidy is considered a rare phenomenon. Herein, we describe a case of double aneuploidy 48,XXY,+21 in a neonate with congenital heart defects. The 28-day-old neonate male (23-year-old mother and 24-year-old father) was admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit owing to congenital heart disease. Echocardiography showed a complete atrioventricular septal defect with Rastelli type B and significant left ventricular failure, moderate atrioventricular valve regurgitation, right-sided heart failure, and preserved systolic function...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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