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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346819/parametric-overdispersed-frailty-models-for-current-status-data
#1
Steven Abrams, Marc Aerts, Geert Molenberghs, Niel Hens
Frailty models have a prominent place in survival analysis to model univariate and multivariate time-to-event data, often complicated by the presence of different types of censoring. In recent years, frailty modeling gained popularity in infectious disease epidemiology to quantify unobserved heterogeneity using Type I interval-censored serological data or current status data. In a multivariate setting, frailty models prove useful to assess the association between infection times related to multiple distinct infections acquired by the same individual...
March 27, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346810/an-automated-multiplexed-hepatotoxicity-and-cyp-induction-assay-using-heparg-cells-in-2d-and-3d
#2
Lindsey M Ott, Karthik Ramachandran, Lisa Stehno-Bittel
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are concerns when developing safe and efficacious compounds. We have developed an automated multiplex assay to detect hepatotoxicity (i.e., ATP depletion) and metabolism (i.e., cytochrome P450 1A [CYP1A] and cytochrome P450 3A4 [CYP3A4] enzyme activity) in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures. HepaRG cells were cultured in our proprietary micromold plates and produced spheroids. HepaRG cells, in 2D or 3D, expressed liver-specific proteins throughout the culture period, although 3D cultures consistently exhibited higher albumin secretion and CYP1A/CYP3A4 enzyme activity than 2D cultures...
March 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346804/hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infections-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-people-who-inject-drugs-in-lahore-pakistan
#3
Sana Mansha, Muhammad Imran, Amir Miraj Ul Hussain Shah, Muhsin Jamal, Fayyaz Ahmed, Muhammad Atif, Muhammmad Saleem, Sher Zaman Safi, Zareen Fatima, Ahmed Bilal Waqar
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the major cause of the global burden of hepatitis. One of the main routes of transmission for both viruses is through exposure to infected blood, which includes sharing blood-contaminated syringes and needles. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system and results in acquired immune deficiency syndrome and opportunistic infections. The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology of HBV and HCV infections among HIV-infected people who inject drugs (PWID)...
March 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346733/the-ontogeny-and-population-variability-of-human-hepatic-dihydronicotinamide-riboside-quinone-oxidoreductase-nqo2
#4
Zoe Riches, Yuejian Liu, Jacob M Berman, Gurinder Walia, Abby C Collier
Dihydronicotinamide riboside:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO2) is an enzyme that performs reduction reactions involved in antioxidant defense. We hypothesized that NQO2 hepatic drug clearance would develop in children over time, similar to NQO1. Using human liver cytosol (n = 117), the effects of age, sex, ethnicity, and weight on NQO2 expression and activity were probed. No significant correlations were observed. Biochemical activity of NQO2 was as high at birth as in adults (0.23 ± 0.04 nmol/min/mg protein, mean ± SEM, range 0-1...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346483/effect-of-mir-146-targeted-hdmcp-up-regulation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#5
Xi Jin, Jiang Liu, Yi-Peng Chen, Zun Xiang, Jie-Xia Ding, You-Ming Li
BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role inthe pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), where uncoupling protein (UCP) is actively involved. We previously reported the uncoupling activity of HDMCP and its role in liver steatosis. We now aim to investigate the degree and therapeutic effect of HDMCP in NASH and the regulatory role of miR-146 on HDMCP. METHODS: NASH animal model was established by feeding BALB/c mice with MCD diet while L02 cell was cultured with high concentration of fatty acid (HFFA) for 72h to mimic the steatosis and inflammation of NASH in-vitro appearance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346471/effect-of-functional-sympathetic-nervous-system-impairment-of-the-liver-and-abdominal-visceral-adipose-tissue-on-circulating-triglyceride-rich-lipoproteins
#6
Michael F La Fountaine, Christopher M Cirnigliaro, Steven C Kirshblum, Cristin McKenna, William A Bauman
BACKGROUND: Interruption of sympathetic innervation to the liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in animal models has been reported to reduce VAT lipolysis and hepatic secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Whether functional impairment of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation to tissues of the abdominal cavity reduce circulating concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and VLDL particles (VLDL-P) was tested in men with spinal cord injury (SCI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346420/hepatic-cyclooxygenase-2-overexpression-induced-spontaneous-hepatocellular-carcinoma-formation-in-mice
#7
H Chen, W Cai, E S H Chu, J Tang, C-C Wong, S H Wong, W Sun, Q Liang, J Fang, Z Sun, J Yu
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the direct causative effect of COX-2 in spontaneous HCC formation remains unknown. We thus investigate the role and molecular pathogenesis of COX-2 in HCC by using liver-specific COX-2 transgenic (TG) mice. We found spontaneous HCC formation with elevated inflammatory infiltrates and neovessels in male TG mice (3/21, 14.3%), but not in any of male WT mice (0/19). Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and gene expression microarrays were performed in the HCC tumor and non-HCC liver tissues to investigate the molecular mechanisms of COX-2-driven HCC...
March 27, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346409/the-metabolic-er-stress-sensor-ire1%C3%AE-suppresses-alternative-activation-of-macrophages-and-impairs-energy-expenditure-in-obesity
#8
Bo Shan, Xiaoxia Wang, Ying Wu, Chi Xu, Zhixiong Xia, Jianli Dai, Mengle Shao, Feng Zhao, Shengqi He, Liu Yang, Mingliang Zhang, Fajun Nan, Jia Li, Jianmiao Liu, Jianfeng Liu, Weiping Jia, Yifu Qiu, Baoliang Song, Jing-Dong J Han, Liangyou Rui, Sheng-Zhong Duan, Yong Liu
Obesity is associated with metabolic inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, both of which promote metabolic disease progression. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are key players orchestrating metabolic inflammation, and ER stress enhances macrophage activation. However, whether ER stress pathways underlie ATM regulation of energy homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we identified inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) as a critical switch governing M1-M2 macrophage polarization and energy balance...
March 27, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346343/lifetime-exposure-to-a-constant-environment-amplifies-the-impact-of-a-fructose-rich-diet-on-glucose-homeostasis-during-pregnancy
#9
Aleida Song, Stuart Astbury, Abha Hoedl, Brent Nielsen, Michael E Symonds, Rhonda C Bell
The need to refine rodent models of human-related disease is now being recognized, in particular the rearing environment that can profoundly modulate metabolic regulation. Most studies on pregnancy and fetal development purchase and transport young females into the research facility, which after a short period of acclimation are investigated (Gen0). We demonstrate that female offspring (Gen1) show an exaggerated hyperinsulinemic response to pregnancy when fed a standard diet and with high fructose intake, which continues throughout pregnancy...
March 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346236/current-concepts-in-ischemic-hepatitis
#10
Joseph M Lightsey, Don C Rockey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review seeks to define ischemic hepatitis and its associated comorbidities. It means to review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, clinical course, outcomes, and any potential therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Ischemic hepatitis has long been associated with cardiovascular disease; recent reports have found a substantial link between preexisting cardiovascular disease and the risk for developing ischemic hepatitis. A proposed mechanism by which hepatic congestion predisposes the liver to hemodynamic injury further defines this link...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346233/clinical-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-direct-acting-antivirals-in-elderly-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#11
Jagannath M Sherigar, Vijay Gayam, Arifa Khan, Osama Mukhtar, Yavgeniy Arefiev, Mazin Khalid, Imran Siddiqui, Ayyappa M Rangaraju, Nibash Budhathoki, Mohammed Mansour, Debra Guss, Smruti R Mohanty
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence-based data on aged patients with newer direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and with shorter duration of treatment regimens involving DAAs with or without ribavirin (RBV) and pegylated interferon (Peg IFN). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical records of 240 patients treated with DAAs with or without Peg IFN and RBV between January 2013 and July 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups: patients aged 65 years and older (N=84) and patients aged younger than 65 years (N=156)...
March 24, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346188/seroprevalance-of-hepatitis-b-and-c-infections-in-turkey
#12
Suna Yapalı
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346187/re-the-role-of-th1-th2-cells-and-associated-cytokines-in-autoimmune-hepatitis
#13
Tunç Akkoç
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346001/assessment-of-contrast-enhanced-ultrasonography-of-the-hepatic-vein-for-detection-of-hemodynamic-changes-associated-with-experimentally-induced-portal-hypertension-in-dogs
#14
Keitaro Morishita, Akira Hiramoto, Asuka Michishita, Satoshi Takagi, Yuki Hoshino, Takaharu Itami, Sue Yee Lim, Tatsuyuki Osuga, Sayuri Nakamura, Kenji Ochiai, Kensuke Nakamura, Hiroshi Ohta, Masahiro Yamasaki, Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi
OBJECTIVE To assess the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) of the hepatic vein for the detection of hemodynamic changes associated with experimentally induced portal hypertension in dogs. ANIMALS 6 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES A prospective study was conducted. A catheter was surgically placed in the portal vein of each dog. Hypertension was induced by intraportal injection of microspheres (10 to 15 mg/kg) at 5-day intervals via the catheter. Microsphere injections were continued until multiple acquired portosystemic shunts were created...
April 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345790/metabolic-responses-to-exogenous-ghrelin-in-obesity-and-early-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-in-humans
#15
Robyn A Tamboli, Joseph Antoun, Reem M Sidani, B Austin Clements, Emily A Eckert, Pam Marks-Shulman, Bruce D Gaylinn, D Brandon Williams, Ronald H Clements, Vance L Albaugh, Naji N Abumrad
AIMS: Ghrelin is a gastric-derived hormone that stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion and has a multi-faceted role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, including glucose metabolism. Circulating ghrelin concentrations are modulated in response to nutritional status, but responses to ghrelin in altered metabolic states are poorly understood. We investigated the metabolic effects of ghrelin in obesity and early after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed central and peripheral metabolic responses to acyl ghrelin infusion (1 pmol kg(-1) min(-1) ) in healthy, lean subjects (n = 9) and non-diabetic, obese subjects (n = 9) before and two weeks after RYGB...
March 27, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345673/sex-dependent-effects-on-gut-microbiota-regulate-hepatic-carcinogenic-outcomes
#16
Guoxiang Xie, Xiaoning Wang, Aihua Zhao, Jingyu Yan, Wenlian Chen, Runqiu Jiang, Junfang Ji, Fengjie Huang, Yunjing Zhang, Sha Lei, Kun Ge, Xiaojiao Zheng, Cynthia Rajani, Rosanna A Alegado, Jiajian Liu, Ping Liu, Jeremy Nicholson, Wei Jia
Emerging evidence points to a strong association between sex and gut microbiota, bile acids (BAs), and gastrointestinal cancers. Here, we investigated the mechanistic link between microbiota and hepatocellular carcinogenesis using a streptozotocin-high fat diet (STZ-HFD) induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-hepatocellular carcinoma (NASH-HCC) murine model and compared results for both sexes. STZ-HFD feeding induced a much higher incidence of HCC in male mice with substantially increased intrahepatic retention of hydrophobic BAs and decreased hepatic expression of tumor-suppressive microRNAs...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345656/structure-and-function-of-the-zika-virus-full-length-ns5-protein
#17
Baoyu Zhao, Guanghui Yi, Fenglei Du, Yin-Chih Chuang, Robert C Vaughan, Banumathi Sankaran, C Cheng Kao, Pingwei Li
The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) has infected over 1 million people in over 30 countries. ZIKV replicates its RNA genome using virally encoded replication proteins. Nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) contains a methyltransferase for RNA capping and a polymerase for viral RNA synthesis. Here we report the crystal structures of full-length NS5 and its polymerase domain at 3.0 Å resolution. The NS5 structure has striking similarities to the NS5 protein of the related Japanese encephalitis virus. The methyltransferase contains in-line pockets for substrate binding and the active site...
March 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345636/viral-infections-reinvigorating-exhausted-t-cells-in-hepatitis-b-infection
#18
Megan Cully
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345552/relationship-between-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-iron-overload
#19
REVIEW
Dong-Mei Zou, Wan-Ling Sun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to summarize the interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and iron overload, and to understand the mechanisms of iron overload in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and the role iron plays in HCV life cycle. DATA SOURCES: This review was based on data in articles published in the PubMed databases up to January 28, 2017, with the keywords "hepatitis C virus", "iron overload", "iron metabolism", "hepcidin", "translation", and "replication"...
April 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345499/synbiotic-supplementation-in-lean-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-pilot-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#20
Fatemeh Mofidi, Hossein Poustchi, Zahra Yari, Babak Nourinayyer, Shahin Merat, Maryam Sharafkhah, Reza Malekzadeh, Azita Hekmatdoost
Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading aetiology of liver disorders in the world, there is no proven treatment for NAFLD patients with normal or low BMI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of synbiotics supplementation in NAFLD patients with normal or low BMI. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial, fifty patients with NAFLD were assigned to take either a synbiotic supplement or a placebo capsule for 28 weeks. Both groups were advised to follow a healthy lifestyle...
March 27, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
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