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Ke Zhang, Yihao Liu, Qiang Chen, Hongbing Luo, Zhanyuan Zhu, Wei Chen, Jia Chen, You Mo
Two bacterial strains designated as Arthrobacter sp. SLG-4 and Rhodococcus sp. SLG-6, capable of utilizing di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) as sole source of carbon and energy, were isolated from activated sludge. The analysis of DOP degradation intermediates indicated Arthrobacter sp. SLG-4 could completely degrade DOP. Whereas DOP could not be mineralized by Rhodococcus sp. SLG-6 and the final metabolic product was phthalic acid (PA). The proposed DOP degradation pathway by Arthrobacter sp. SLG-4 was that strain SLG-4 initially transformed DOP to PA via de-esterification pathway, and then PA was metabolized to protocatechuate acid and eventually converted to tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle through meta-cleavage pathway...
February 15, 2018: Biodegradation
Chairat Nawong, Kamontam Umsakul, Natthawan Sermwittayawong
An increasing production of natural rubber (NR) products has led to major challenges in waste management. In this study, the degradation of rubber latex gloves in a mineral salt medium (MSM) using a bacterial consortium, a mixed culture of the selected bacteria and a pure culture were studied. The highest 18% weight loss of the rubber gloves were detected after incubated with the mixed culture. The increased viable cell counts over incubation time indicated that cells used rubber gloves as sole carbon source leading to the degradation of the polymer...
February 3, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Andreas Burkovski
Within the Actinobacteria, the genera Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Nocardia and Rhodococcus form the so-called CMNR group, also designated as mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes. Almost all members of this group are characterized by a mycolic acid layer, the mycomembrane, which covers the cell wall and is responsible for a high resistance of these bacteria against chemical and antibiotic stress. Furthermore, components of the mycomembrane are crucial for the interaction of bacteria with host cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge of mycolic acid synthesis and interaction with components of the immune system for the genus Corynebacterium with an emphasis on the pathogenic species Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Corynebacterium ulcerans as well as the biotechnology workhorse Corynebacterium glutamicum...
February 12, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Jun Zheng, Jun-Qiao Feng, Lei Zhou, Serge Maurice Mbadinga, Ji-Dong Gu, Bo-Zhong Mu
Bacterial community and diversity in a long-term petroleum-contaminated soil of an oilfield were characterized using 16S rRNA gene-based Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing. Results indicated that Proteobacteria (49.11%) and Actinobacteria (24.24%) were the most dominant phyla, and the most abundant genera were Pseudoxanthomonas (8.47%), Luteimonas (3.64%), Alkanindiges (9.76%), Acinetobacter (5.26%) and Agromyces (8.56%) in the soil. Meanwhile a series of cultivations were carried out for isolation of alkane degraders from petroleum-contaminated soil with gellan gum and agar as gelling agents...
February 9, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Angela I Bordin, Leticia T Gressler, Ellen Ruth C Alexander, Preeti Sule, Jeffrey D Cirillo, John F Edwards, Noah D Cohen
Rhodococcus equi is an opportunistic, intracellular pathogen that causes pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals and immunocompromised people. Currently, there is no experimental model of R. equi pneumonia other than intra-bronchial experimental infection of foals with R. equi, which is labor-intensive and costly. This study's objective was to develop a guinea pig (GP) model of R. equi pneumonia that would facilitate development of novel approaches for controlling and preventing this disease. Guinea pigs were infected with either 101, 102, 103, or 104 colony forming units (CFUs) of a virulent strain of R...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Zhi-Hua Liu, Shangxian Xie, Furong Lin, Mingjie Jin, Joshua S Yuan
Background: Lignin valorization has recently been considered to be an essential process for sustainable and cost-effective biorefineries. Lignin represents a potential new feedstock for value-added products. Oleaginous bacteria such as Rhodococcus opacus can produce intracellular lipids from biodegradation of aromatic substrates. These lipids can be used for biofuel production, which can potentially replace petroleum-derived chemicals. However, the low reactivity of lignin produced from pretreatment and the underdeveloped fermentation technology hindered lignin bioconversion to lipids...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Fan-Xin Kong, Guang-Dong Sun, Zhi-Pei Liu
In order to study the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an aged and highly contaminated soil, four bioremediation strategies (indigenous microorganisms, microbial bioaugmentation with a PAH-degrading and bioemulsifier-producing strain, Rhodococcus ruber Em1, plant bioaugmentation with Orychophragmus violaceus and their combination) were compared and the enhanced degradation mechanism was investigated in soil mesocosms. Degradation rates over a period of 175 days showed that Em1 combined with Orychophragmus violaceus promoted a significant enhancement of PAHs degradation...
January 30, 2018: Chemosphere
Laura Huber, Steeve Giguère, Londa J Berghaus, Amanda Hanafi, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, Sarah L Czerwinski
Rhodococcus equi is one of the most important causes of disease in foals. Infection is typically characterized by pyogranulomatous pneumonia although extrapulmonary infections occur occasionally. Uveitis and polysynovitis have been reported in foals naturally infected with R. equi and are thought to be the result of an immune-mediated process. However, the pathogenesis of these conditions is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to document the occurrence of uveitis and polysynovitis after experimental infection with R...
2018: PloS One
Shubhrima Ghosh, Razi Ahmad, Vikas Kumar Gautam, Sunil Kumar Khare
Cholesterol oxidase(ChOx) enzyme isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PseA(ChOxP) and Rhodococcus erythropolis MTCC 3951(ChOxR) strains as well as a commercial variant produced by Streptomyces sp.(ChOxS) were immobilized on silane modified iron(II, III)oxide magnetic nanoparticles(MNP) by covalent coupling methods. The nanobiocatalysts in case of ChOxP, ChOxR and ChOxS, retained 71, 91 and 86% of cholesterol oxidase activity respectively, as compared to their soluble counterparts. The catalytic efficiency of the immobilized enzymes on nanoparticles was more than 2...
January 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Van Hong Thi Pham, Dhiraj Kumar Chaudhary, Seung-Woo Jeong, Jaisoo Kim
The aim of this study was to investigate oil-degrading ability of newly isolated strain Rhodococcus Y2-2 at low temperature. Rhodococcus sp. Y2-2 was isolated from oil-contaminated soil sampled at the end of winter using a newly developed transwell plate method. In the liquid phase, the oil-degradation efficiency of strain Rhodococcus sp. Y2-2 was about 84% with an initial concentration of 1500 ppm TPH (500 ppm each of kerosene, gasoline, and diesel) when incubated for 2 weeks under optimal conditions: 10 °C, pH 7, and 0...
February 6, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Miaochun Fan, Xiao Xiao, Yanqing Guo, Jun Zhang, Entao Wang, Weimin Chen, Yanbing Lin, Gehong Wei
Heavy metals can cause serious contamination of soils, especially in mining regions. A detailed understanding of the effects of heavy metals on plants and root-associated microbial communities could help to improve phytoremediation systems. In this study, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) seedlings with or without rhizobial inoculation were planted in soils contaminated with different levels of heavy metals. Bacterial communities in rhizosphere and bulk soil samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform and shotgun metagenome sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq platform...
February 2, 2018: Chemosphere
Lei Zhang, Yanyan Zhang, Mohamed Gamal El-Din
In this study, a fixed-bed biofiltration system (biofilter) that utilized indigenous microorganisms was developed for the reclamation of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). With the assistance of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), indigenous microorganisms from OSPW were able to attach to the surface of sand media and form biofilms. The number of total bacteria on the biofilter media reached a steady state (109/g) after 23 days of operation. Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UPLC/HRMS) analysis showed that 21...
January 5, 2018: Water Research
Chu-Wen Yang, Li-Ling Tsai, Bea-Ven Chang
Mangroves represent a special coastal vegetation along the coastlines of tropical and subtropical regions. Sulfonamide antibiotics (SAs) are the most commonly used antibiotics. The application of white-rot fungi extracellular enzyme-containing microcapsules (MC) for aerobic degradation of SAs in mangrove sediments was investigated in this study. Degradation of three SAs, sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfadimethoxine (SDM), and sulfamethazine (SMZ), was enhanced by adding MC to the sediments. The order of SA degradation in batch experiments was SMX > SDM > SMZ...
January 27, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Somayeh Khosravinia, Mahmood A Mahdavi, Reza Gheshlaghi, Hesam Dehghani
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the caption of Figs. 5 and 6.
January 25, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Yijun Kang, Qing Li, Zhifeng Yin, Min Shen, Haitao Zhao, Yanchao Bai, Lijuan Mei, Jian Hu
By performing a microcosm experiment mimicking fertilization, we assessed the dynamic distribution of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRB) and corresponding tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) from pig manure (PM) to the fertilized soil, by culture-dependent methods and PCR detection. Cultivable TRB were most abundant in PM, followed by fertilized soil and unfertilized soil. By restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, TRB were assigned to 29, 20, and 153 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in PM, unfertilized soil, and fertilized soil, respectively...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Drew M DeLorenzo, Austin G Rottinghaus, William R Henson, Tae Seok Moon
Rhodococcus opacus PD630 is a non-model, gram-positive bacterium that possesses desirable traits for lignocellulosic biomass conversion. In particular, it has a relatively rapid growth rate, exhibits genetic tractability, produces high quantities of lipids, and can tolerate and consume toxic, lignin-derived aromatic compounds. Despite these unique, industrially relevant characteristics, R. opacus has been underutilized due to a lack of reliable genetic parts and engineering tools. In this work, we developed a molecular toolbox for reliable gene expression control and genome modification in R...
January 24, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
L V Perelomov, Binoy Sarkar, O I Sizova, K B Chilachava, A Y Shvikin, I V Perelomova, Y M Atroshchenko
The effect of humic substances (HS) and their different fractions (humic acids (HA) and hymatomelanic acids (HMA)) on the toxicity of zinc and lead to different strains of bacteria was studied. All tested bacteria demonstrated a lower resistance to zinc than lead showing minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.1 - 0.3mM and 0.3-0.5mM, respectively. The highest resistance to lead was characteristic of Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 and Rhodococcus RS67, while Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 showed the greatest resistance to zinc...
January 17, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jason J Gill, Baixin Wang, Emily Sestak, Ryland Young, Kung-Hui Chu
The oleaginous bacterium Rhodococcus opacus PD630 is metabolically diverse and can be cultivated on various renewable resources to serve as a sustainable triacylglycerol (TAG) feedstock for biodiesel production. Current methods for TAG extraction are costly, but infection of cultures by lytic bacteriophages (phages) may be a viable approach for achieving release of intracellular lipid from oleaginous bacteria such as R. opacus. This study reports the novel tectiviral phage Toil capable of releasing intracellular contents including a fluorescent protein marker and TAGs into the supernatant after phage infection of R...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
L T Gressler, G Machado, B P da Silveira, N D Cohen, L G Corbellini, V B Leotti, G N Diehl, L C Dos Santos, A Castagna de Vargas
BACKGROUND: Rhodococcus equi is an important cause of foal pneumonia. While its isolation from different sources has been widely evaluated, there is a need to better understand the R. equi epidemiology from samples of the nasal cavity of healthy horses. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of R. equi from the nasal cavity of healthy horses, along with its virulence profile, antimicrobial susceptibility, and environmental variables associated. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
January 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Rong Liu, Xuandong Wang, Jun Ye, Ximei Xue, Fangrong Zhang, Huicong Zhang, Xuemei Hou, Xiaolong Liu, Yun Zhang
Drug resistance of bacteria has become a global health problem, as it makes the conventional antibiotics less efficient. It is urgently needed to explore novel antibacterial materials and develop effective treatment strategies to overcome the drug resistance of antibiotics. Herein, we successfully synthesized silver decorated sandwich-like mesoporous silica/reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (rGO/MSN/Ag) as novel antibacterial material through facile method. The rGO and Ag nanoparticles can be reduced in the reaction system without adding any other reductants...
January 9, 2018: Nanotechnology
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