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Bokka Yellamanda, Muvva Vijayalakshmi, Alapati Kavitha, Dorigondla Kumar Reddy, Yenamandra Venkateswarlu
A potent actinobacterial strain isolated from the marine samples of Bheemunipatnam beach, Visakhapatnam, India, was identified as Rhodococcus sp. VLD-10 using the conventional and genomic (16S rRNA) approaches. Bioactive compounds responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the strain were elucidated by cultivating the strain VLD-10 in a modified yeast extract-malt extract-lactose broth followed by subsequent chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses. Extraction, purification, and structural confirmation of five compounds, viz...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
Debasree Kundu, Chinmay Hazra, Ambalal Chaudhari
To improve biodegradability (% biodegradation) and specific growth rate of Rhodococcus pyridinivorans NT2, culture medium and environmental parameters were screened and optimized using the statistical design techniques of Plackett-Burman and response surface methodology. Of the process variables screened, DNTs (2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT), MgSO4·7H2O, temperature and inoculum size (O.D.) were selected as the most important (P value <0.05) factors. In multiresponse analysis of central composite design, medium formulation consisting of 474/470 mg l(-1) 2,4-DNT/2,6-DNT, 0...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
Ismailsab Mukram, Masarbo Ramesh, T R Monisha, Anand S Nayak, T B Karegoudar
A nitrile utilizing bacterium Rhodococcus sp. MTB5 was previously isolated in our laboratory by the enrichment culture technique. It is able to utilize butyronitrile as sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. Maximum butyronitrile degrading property of this strain has been investigated. Results reveal that 100, 98, and 88 % degradation was achieved for 2, 2.5, and 3 % butyronitrile, respectively. The strain is capable of growing in as high as 5 % butyronitrile concentration. A two-step pathway involving nitrile hydratase (NHase) and amidase was observed for the biodegradation of butyronitrile...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
S Berlin, T Randow, E Scheuch, M Grube, M Venner, W Siegmund
The long-acting azalide antibiotic gamithromycin is marketed for intramuscular treatment of bovine and swine infections. Off-label use in foals leads to severe local lesions likely caused by hyperosmolality of the injected solution. We provide evidence from a pharmacokinetic study in 10 warm-blooded healthy foals for intravenous bolus injection of gamithromycin diluted in distilled water to be a safe and well tolerated alternative. By intravenous dosing, markedly higher plasma exposure and better penetration into bronchoalveolar lavage cells but lower distribution into epithelial lining fluid are achieved as after intramuscular or subcutaneous administration...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Silvia Rinaldi, Alessandro Gori, Celeste Annovazzi, Erica Elisa Ferrandi, Daniela Monti, Giorgio Colombo
The balance between structural stability and functional plasticity in proteins that share common three-dimensional folds is the key factor that drives protein evolvability. The ability to distinguish the parts of homologous proteins that underlie common structural organization patterns from the parts acting as regulatory modules that can sustain modifications in response to evolutionary pressure may provide fundamental insights for understanding sequence-structure-dynamics relationships. In applicative terms, this would help develop rational protein design methods...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Govinda Guevara, Laura Fernández de Las Heras, Julián Perera, Juana María Navarro Llorens
BACKGROUND: The Rhodococcus ruber strain Chol-4 genome contains at least three putative 3-ketosteroid Δ(1)-dehydrogenase ORFs (kstD1, kstD2 and kstD3) that code for flavoenzymes involved in the steroid ring degradation. The aim of this work is the functional characterization of these enzymes prior to the developing of different biotechnological applications. RESULTS: The three R. ruber KstD enzymes have different substrate profiles. KstD1 shows preference for 9OHAD and testosterone, followed by progesterone, deoxy corticosterone AD and, finally, 4-BNC, corticosterone and 19OHAD...
March 14, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Jingxian Qi, Caroline E Paul, Frank Hollmann, Dirk Tischler
The oxygen-insensitive azoreductase AzoRo originating from Rhodococcus opacus 1CP was found to be most active at low pH (ca. 4) and high temperature (ca. 50°C). AzoRo is not an efficient biocatalyst when used at low pH due to stability problems. To overcome this issue, we discovered that AzoRo accepts an alternative electron donor, 1-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide (BNAH), which allows fast turnover at neutral pH. In order to screen this nicotinamide coenzyme mimic as a source of electrons, AzoRo-catalysed reactions were run under neutral conditions, under which typically slow rates are observed with NADH...
May 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Naling Bai, Sheng Wang, Rexiding Abuduaini, Meinan Zhang, Xufen Zhu, Yuhua Zhao
We successfully isolated Rhodococcus sp. D-1, an efficient carbendazim-degrading bacterium that degraded 98.20% carbendazim (200ppm) within 5days. Carbendazim was first processed into 2-aminobenzimidazole, converted to 2-hydroxybenzimidazole, and then further mineralized by subsequent processing. After genomic analysis, we hypothesized that D-1 may express a new kind of enzyme capable of hydrolyzing carbendazim. In addition, the effect of the biodegradable biosurfactant rhamnolipid on the rate and extent of carbendazim degradation was assessed in batch analyses...
March 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Tiejuan Shao, Li Shao, Haichang Li, Zhijun Xie, Zhixing He, Chengping Wen
This study employed microbiome and metabolome analysis to explore the fecal signatures of gout patients. Fecal samples from 52 male individuals (26 healthy controls and 26 gout patients) were analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and Illumina Miseq sequencing. The signatures of microbiome showed being up-regulation of opportunistic pathogens, such as Bacteroides, Porphyromonadaceae Rhodococcus, Erysipelatoclostridium and Anaerolineaceae. The signatures of metabolome were some altered metabolites which may involve uric acid excretion, purine metabolism, and inflammatory responses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ali Fatahi, Soroor Sadeghi
A new biodesulphurization (BDS) method has been considered using Rhodococcus erythropolis supported on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for BDS of thiophene as gasoline sulphur model compound in n-hexane as the solvent, subsequently this biocatalyst has been applied to BDS of gasoline samples. The obtaining results according to UV-Spectrophotometer analysis at 240 nm showed that 97.41% of thiophene at the optimum condition of primary concentration 80 mg/L, pH= 7, by 0.1 g of biocatalyst in 30 °C and after 20 h of contact time has been degraded...
March 7, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Albert Soler, Jorge García-Hernández, Andrés Zornoza, José Luis Alonso
Currently, municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are mainly focusing on reduction of biological oxygen demand and on the removal of nutrients. However, there are microorganisms that interfere with the process. In this environment, there is a large diversity of microorganisms that have not been studied in detail and that could provide real and practical solutions to the foaming problems. Among such microorganisms, Gram-positive actinomycete bacteria are of special interest because they are known for producing secondary metabolites as well as chemically diverse compounds and for their capacity to degrade recalcitrant pollutants...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Technology
Shashi Kant Bhatia, Junyoung Kim, Hun-Seok Song, Hyun Joong Kim, Jong-Min Jeon, Ganesan Sathiyanarayanan, Jeong-Jun Yoon, Kyungmoon Park, Yun-Gon Kim, Yung-Hun Yang
The effect of various biomass derived inhibitors (i.e. furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde (4-HB) and acetate) was investigated for fatty acid accumulation in Rhodococcus sp. YHY 01. Rhodococcus sp. YHY01 was able to utilize acetate, vanillin, and 4-HB for biomass production and fatty acid accumulation. The IC50 value for furfural (3.1mM), HMF (3.2mM), vanillin (2.0mM), 4-HB (2.7mM) and acetate (3.7mM) was calculated. HMF and vanillin affect fatty acid composition and increase saturated fatty acid content...
February 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Avraham Dayan, Gilad Babin, Assaf Ganoth, Nivin Samir Kayouf, Neta Nitoker Eliaz, Srijana Mukkala, Yossi Tsfadia, Gideon Fleminger
Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are widely used in orthodontic and orthopedic implants by virtue to their high biocompatibility, mechanical strength, and high resistance to corrosion. Biointegration of the implants with the tissue requires strong interactions, which involve biological molecules, proteins in particular, with metal oxide surfaces. An exocellular high-affinity titanium dioxide (TiO2 )-binding protein (TiBP), purified from Rhodococcus ruber, has been previously studied in our lab. This protein was shown to be homologous with the orthologous cytoplasmic rhodococcal dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (rhDLDH)...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
Rabyia Javed, A K Taku, R K Sharma, Gulzaar Ahmed Badroo
AIM: The aim was to determine the occurrence of Rhodococcus equi in equines and their environment in Jammu (R.S. Pura, Katra), molecular characterization and to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of R. equi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 96 nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from equines. The organism was isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and was later confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests...
January 2017: Veterinary World
Kano Kasuga, Akira Sasaki, Takashi Matsuo, Chika Yamamoto, Yuiko Minato, Naoya Kuwahara, Chikako Fujii, Masayuki Kobayashi, Hitosi Agematu, Tomohiro Tamura, Mamoru Komatsu, Jun Ishikawa, Haruo Ikeda, Ikuo Kojima
Kasugamycin (KSM), an aminoglycoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces kasugaensis cultures, has been used against rice blast disease for more than 50 years. We cloned the KSM biosynthetic gene (KBG) cluster from S. kasugaensis MB273-C4 and constructed three KBG cassettes (i.e., cassettes I-III) to enable heterologous production of KSM in many actinomycetes by constitutive expression of KBGs. Cassette I comprised all putative transcriptional units in the cluster, but it was placed under the control of the P neo promoter from Tn5...
February 27, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Antonio Juarez, Juan A Villa, Val F Lanza, Beatriz Lázaro, Fernando de la Cruz, Héctor M Alvarez, Gabriel Moncalián
BACKGROUND: Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and other actinobacteria accumulate triglycerides (TAG) under nutrient starvation. This property has an important biotechnological potential in the production of sustainable oils. RESULTS: To gain insight into the metabolic pathways involved in TAG accumulation, we analysed the transcriptome of R jostii RHA1 under nutrient-limiting conditions. We correlate these physiological conditions with significant changes in cell physiology...
February 27, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
A L Stieler Stewart, L C Sanchez, M F Mallicote, A L Muniz, M S Westerterp, J A Burrow, R J MacKay
BACKGROUND: Erythromycin (ERY) induces anhidrosis in foals. Azithromycin (AZI) and clarithromycin (CLA), often combined with rifampicin (RIF), are commonly used to treat Rhodococcus equi infections, but effects on sweating have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of AZI, CLA and RIF on sweat responses in normal foals. STUDY DESIGN: Each experiment was a blinded, duplicated, 6-foal × 3-period counterbalanced within-subjects design (12 foals/experiment)...
February 26, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
Yongrui Pi, Bing Chen, Mutai Bao, Fuqiang Fan, Qinhong Cai, Lv Ze, Baiyu Zhang
Rhodococcus erythropolis M-25, one of the representative biosurfactant producers, performed effectively during the biodegradation of four crude oil. The microbial degradation efficiency is positively relevant to the API of the crude oil. The chemical dispersant Corexit 9500A did not enhance the biodegradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons during the experimental period. 70.7% of the N-4 oil was degraded after 30days, while in the Corexit 9500A plus sample the biodegradation removal was 42.8%. The Corexit-derived compounds were metabolized by M-25 at the same time of the petroleum hydrocarbons biodegrading...
February 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Inna P Solyanikova, Oksana V Borzova, Elena V Emelyanova
Benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase (BDO) of Rhodococcus opacus 1CP, which carried out the initial attack on benzoate, was earlier shown to be the enzyme with a narrow substrate specificity. A kinetics of interaction between benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase and substituted benzoates was assessed taking into account the enlarged list of the type of inhibition and using whole cells grown on benzoate. The type of inhibition was determined and the constants of a reaction of BDO with benzoate in the presence of 2-chlorobenzoate (2CBA), 3,5-dichlorobenzoate (3,5DCBA), and 3-methylbenzoate (3MBA) were calculated...
February 24, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Thomas S Peat, Sahil Balotra, Matthew Wilding, Carol J Hartley, Janet Newman, Colin Scott
The Toblerone-fold was discovered recently when the first structure of the cyclic amide hydrolase, AtzD (a cyanuric acid hydrolase), was elucidated. We surveyed the cyclic amide hydrolase family finding a strong correlation between phylogenetic distribution and specificity for either cyanuric acid or barbituric acid; albeit, one of six classes (IV) could not be tested due to lack of expression of the proteins from it, and another class (V) had neither cyanuric acid nor barbituric acid hydrolase activity. High resolution X-ray structures were obtained for a class VI barbituric acid hydrolase (1...
February 24, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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