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Antonio J Vallecillo, Cristina Parada, Pedro Morales, Clara Espitia
BACKGROUND: Glycosylation is one of the most abundant posttranslational polypeptide chain modification in nature. Although carbohydrate modification of protein antigens from many microbial pathogens constitutes important components of B cell epitopes, the role in T cell immunity is not completely understood. There is growing evidence about the importance of these modifications in host bacteria interactions in tuberculosis. It is known, that the sugars present in some Mycobacterium tuberculosis glycoproteins play an important role in both humoral and cellular immune response against the pathogen...
January 19, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Tomasz Płociniczak, Ewa Fic, Magdalena Pacwa-Płociniczak, Małgorzata Pawlik, Zofia Piotrowska-Seget
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of soil inoculation with the Rhodococcus erythropolis CD 106 strain on the effectiveness of the phytoremediation of an aged hydrocarbon-contaminated (approx. 1% TPH) soil using ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The introduction of CD 106 into the soil significantly increased the biomass of ryegrass and the removal of hydrocarbons in planted soil. The fresh weight of the shoots and roots of plants inoculated with CD 106 increased by 49 and 30%, respectively. After 210 days of the experiment, the concentration of TPH was reduced by 31...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Jan M Klenk, Bernd A Nebel, Joanne L Porter, Justyna K Kulig, Shaneela A Hussain, Sven M Richter, Michele Tavanti, Nicholas J Turner, Martin A Hayes, Bernhard Hauer, Sabine L Flitsch
P450 monooxygenases are able to catalyse the highly regio- and stereoselective oxidations of many organic molecules. However, the scale-up of such bio-oxidations remains challenging due to the often-low activity, level of expression and stability of P450 biocatalysts. Despite these challenges they are increasingly desirable as recombinant biocatalysts, particularly for the production of drug metabolites. Diclofenac is a widely used anti-inflammatory drug that is persistent in the environment along with the 4'- and 5-hydroxy metabolites...
January 18, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
Arezoo Tavakoli, Ainon Hamzah, Amir Rabu
In this study, benzoate dioxygenase from Rhodococcus ruber UKMP-5M was catalyzed by oxidating the benzene ring to catechol and other derivatives. The benzoate dioxygenase (benA gene) from Rhodococcus ruber UKMP-5M was then expressed, purified, characterized, The benA gene was amplified (642 bp), and the product was cloned into a pGEM-T vector. The recombinant plasmid pGEMT-benA was digested by double restriction enzymes BamHI and HindIII to construct plasmid pET28b-benA and was then ligated into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)...
September 2016: Molecular Biology Research Communications
Joseph Kreit
An overview on the microbial sterol catabolism is described with a focus on the catabolic step of the 3β-hydroxy-5-en structure. Cholesterol oxidase transforms this structure into the corresponding 3-keto-4-en feature, and thus initiates the sterol molecule catabolism. The oxidase has been found in a large number of microorganisms, especially in actinobacteria as species of Rhodococcus and Streptomyces Other actinobacteria as species of Mycobacterium and Nocardia possess NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenase for this catabolic step...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Frances P Rodriguez-Rivera, Xiaoxue Zhou, Julie A Theriot, Carolyn R Bertozzi
Mycobacteria are endowed with a highly impermeable mycomembrane that confers intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics. Several unique mycomembrane glycolipids have been isolated and structurally characterized, but the underlying organization and dynamics of glycolipids within the cell envelope remain poorly understood. We report here a study of mycomembrane dynamics that was enabled by trehalose-fluorophore conjugates capable of labeling trehalose glycolipids in live actinomycetes. We identified fluorescein-trehalose analogs that are metabolically incorporated into the trehalose mycolates of representative Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium, Nocardia and Rhodococcus species...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
José S Dávila Costa, Roxana A Silva, Lars Leichert, Héctor M Alvarez
Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 is able to degrade toxic compounds and accumulate high amount of triacylglycerols (TAG) upon nitrogen starvation. These NADPH-dependent processes are essential for the adaptation of rhodococci to fluctuating environmental conditions. In this study, we used a mass spectrometry (MS)-based, label-free, and quantitative proteomic approach to better understand the integral response of R. jostii RHA1 to the presence of methyl viologen (MV) in relation with the synthesis and accumulation of TAG...
January 10, 2017: Microbiology
Mariusz Cycoń, Agnieszka Mrozik, Zofia Piotrowska-Seget
Bioaugmentation, a green technology, is defined as the improvement of the degradative capacity of contaminated areas by introducing specific microorganisms, has emerged as the most advantageous method for cleaning-up soil contaminated with pesticides. The present review discusses the selection of pesticide-utilising microorganisms from various sources, their potential for the degradation of pesticides from different chemical classes in liquid media as well as soil-related case studies in a laboratory, a greenhouse and field conditions...
December 26, 2016: Chemosphere
Jia Wang, Robert R Butler, Fan Wu, Jean-François Pombert, John J Kilbane, Benjamin C Stark
In previous work from our laboratories a synthetic gene encoding a peptide ("Sulpeptide 1" or "S1") with a high proportion of methionine and cysteine residues had been designed to act as a sulfur sink and was inserted into the dsz (desulfurization) operon of Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8. In the work described here this construct (dszAS1BC) and the intact dsz operon (dszABC) cloned into vector pRESX under control of the (Rhodococcus) kstD promoter were transformed into the desulfurization-negative strain CW25 of Rhodococcus qingshengii...
2017: PloS One
Y H Zhang, F Zhou, Z N Jiang, M Jin, J Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2016: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Teagan L Brown, Tereen Thomas, Jessica Odgers, Steve Petrovski, Marion Joy Spark, Joseph Tucci
BACKGROUND: Resistance of bacteria to antimicrobial agents is of grave concern. Further research into the development of bacteriophage as therapeutic agents against bacterial infections may help alleviate this problem. OBJECTIVES: To formulate bacteriophage into a range of semisolid and solid dosage forms and investigate the capacity of these preparations to kill bacteria under laboratory conditions. METHODS: Bacteriophage suspensions were incorporated into dosage forms such as creams, ointments, pastes, pessaries and troches...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Rupesh Kumar Sinha, Kottekkatu Padinchati Krishnan, Ammanamveetil Abdulla Mohamed Hatha, Mujeeb Rahiman, Divya David Thresyamma, Savita Kerkar
The diversity and abundance of retrievable pelagic heterotrophic bacteria in Kongsfjorden, an Arctic fjord, was studied during the summer of 2011 (June, August, and September). Retrievable bacterial load ranged from 10(3) to 10(7)CFUL(-1) in June, while it was 10(4)-10(6)CFUL(-1) in August and September. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, a higher number of phylotypes was observed during August (22 phylotypes) compared to that during June (6 phylotypes) and September (12 phylotypes). The groups were classified into four phyla: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes...
January 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Hui Zhang, Mengya Li, Jie Li, Guangli Wang, Feng Li, Dayong Xu, Yuan Liu, Minghua Xiong
A natural consortium, named L1, of Rhodococcus sp. JT-3 and Brevundimonas sp. JT-9 was obtained from quizalofop-p-ethyl (QE) polluted soil. The consortium was able to use QE as a sole carbon source for growth and degraded 100mgL(-1) of QE in 60h. Strain JT-3 initiated the catabolism of QE to quizalofop acid (QA), which was used by strain JT-9 as carbon source for growth and to simultaneously feed strain JT-3. A novel esterase EstS-JT, which was responsible for the transformation of QE to QA and essential for the mineralization of QE by the consortium, was cloned from strain JT-3...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
I M Guisado, J Purswani, L Catón-Alcubierre, J González-López, C Pozo
Extractive membrane biofilm reactor (EMBFR) technology offers productive solutions for volatile and semi-volatile compound removal from water bodies. In this study, the bacterial strains Paenibacillus etheri SH7(T) (CECT 8558), Agrobacterium sp. MS2 (CECT 8557) and Rhodococcus ruber strains A5 (CECT 8556), EE6 (CECT 8612) and EE1 (CECT 8555), previously isolated from fuel-contaminated sites, were tested for adherence on tubular semipermeable membranes in laboratory-scale systems designed for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) bioremediation...
December 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Paris S Hamm, Nicole A Caimi, Diana E Northup, Ernest W Valdez, Debbie C Buecher, Christopher A Dunlap, David P Labeda, Shiloh Lueschow, Andrea Porras-Alfaro
At least two-thirds of commercial antibiotics today are derived from Actinobacteria, more specifically from the genus Streptomyces Antibiotic resistance and new emerging diseases pose great challenges in the field of microbiology. Cave systems, in which Actinobacteria are ubiquitous and abundant, represent new opportunities for the discovery of novel bacteria species and the study of their interactions with emergent pathogens. White-nose syndrome is an invasive bat disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which has killed more than six million bats in the last seven years...
December 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Naila Bouayed, Nicolas Dietrich, Christine Lafforgue, Chung-Hak Lee, Christelle Guigui
Quorum Quenching (QQ) has been developed over the last few years to overcome practical issues related to membrane biofouling, which is currently the major difficulty thwarting the extensive development of membrane bioreactors (MBRs). QQ is the disruption of Quorum Sensing (QS), cell-to-cell communication enabling the bacteria to harmonize their behavior. The production of biofilm, which is recognized as a major part of the biocake formed on a membrane surface, and which leads to biofouling, has been found to be one of the bacterial behaviors controlled by QS...
December 13, 2016: Membranes
Navid Adnani, Doug R Braun, Bradon R McDonald, Marc G Chevrette, Cameron R Currie, Tim S Bugni
The Rhodococcus strain WMMA185 was isolated from the marine sponge Chondrilla nucula as part of ongoing drug discovery efforts. Analysis of the 4.44-Mb genome provides information regarding interspecies interactions as pertains to regulation of secondary metabolism and natural product biosynthetic potentials.
December 15, 2016: Genome Announcements
Alessandro Presentato, Elena Piacenza, Max Anikovskiy, Martina Cappelletti, Davide Zannoni, Raymond J Turner
BACKGROUND: Tellurite (TeO3(2-)) is recognized as a toxic oxyanion to living organisms. However, mainly anaerobic or facultative-anaerobic microorganisms are able to tolerate and convert TeO3(2-) into the less toxic and available form of elemental Tellurium (Te(0)), producing Te-deposits or Te-nanostructures. The use of TeO3(2-)-reducing bacteria can lead to the decontamination of polluted environments and the development of "green-synthesis" methods for the production of nanomaterials...
December 15, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Jade L L Teng, Ying Tang, Tsz Ho Chiu, Candy L W Cheung, Antonio H Y Ngan, Cheung Ngai, Samson S Y Wong, Tak-Lun Que, Susanna K P Lau, Patrick C Y Woo
Differentiation of Tsukamurella from the other related genera, such as Nocardia, Rhodococcus, and Gordonia; and species identification within these genera has been difficult in most clinical microbiology laboratories, as they share similar phenotypic properties.
December 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Quoc-Thai Nguyen, Gianluca Trinco, Claudia Binda, Andrea Mattevi, Marco W Fraaije
Cofactor F420, a 5-deazaflavin involved in obligatory hydride transfer, is widely distributed among archaeal methanogens and actinomycetes. Owing to the low redox potential of the cofactor, F420-dependent enzymes play a pivotal role in central catabolic pathways and xenobiotic degradation processes in these organisms. A physiologically essential deazaflavoenzyme is the F420-dependent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (FGD), which catalyzes the reaction F420 + glucose-6-phosphate → F420H2 + 6-phospho-gluconolactone...
December 13, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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