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Maegala Nallapan Maniyam, Abdul Latif Ibrahim, Anthony E G Cass
The crude extract of Rhodococcus UKMP-5M demonstrated excellent cyanide-degrading ability as reported previously. In the present study, the capability of the crude extract of the locally isolated bacterium was further enhanced by adopting the technology of immobilization. Among the matrices screened to encapsulate the crude extract, gellan gum emerged as the most suitable immobilization material exhibiting cyanide-degrading activity of 0.475(a) ± 0.003 mM/min/mg protein which exceeded the activity of cyanide-degrading enzyme by 61% and 361% in comparison to alginate carrier and non-immobilized crude extract, respectively...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Technology
Pedro Ferreira, Sérgio F Sousa, Pedro A Fernandes, Maria Joao Ramos
The enhancement of the catalytic power of enzymes is a subject of enormous interest both for science and for industry. The latter, in particular, due to the vast applications enzymes can have in industrial processes, for instance in the desulfurization of crude oil, which is mandatory by law in many developed countries and that is currently achieved by costly chemical processes. In this work we sought to enhance the turnover rate of DszD from Rhodococcus erythropolis, a NADH-FMN oxidoreductase responsible to supply FMNH₂ to DszA and DszC in the biodesulfurization process of crude oil, the 4S pathway...
October 4, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Paul B Hatzinger, Celeste Lewis, Todd S Webster
The ex situ treatment of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrodimethylamine (NTDMA) in groundwater was evaluated in a field-scale fluidized bed bioreactor (FBR). Both of these compounds, which originally entered groundwater at the test site from the use of liquid rocket propellant, are suspected human carcinogens. The objective of this research was to examine the application of a novel field-scale propane-fed fluidized bed bioreactor as an alternative to ultraviolet irradiation (UV) for treating NDMA and NTDMA to low part-per-trillion (ng/L) concentrations...
September 23, 2017: Water Research
Emil Hamnevik, Thilak Reddy Enugala, Dirk Maurer, Siphosethu Ntuku, Ana Oliveira, Doreen Dobritzsch, Mikael Widersten
Alcohol dehydrogenase A (ADH-A) from Rhodococcus ruber DSM 44541 is a promising biocatalyst for redox transformations of arylsubstituted sec-alcohols and ketones. The enzyme is stereoselective in the oxidation of 1-phenylethanol with a 300-fold preference for the (S)-enantiomer. The low catalytic efficiency with (R)-1-phenylethanol has been attributed to nonproductive binding of this substrate at the active site. Aiming to modify the enantioselectivity, to rather favor the (R)-alcohol, and also test the possible involvement of nonproductive substrate binding as a mechanism in substrate discrimination, we performed directed laboratory evolution of ADH-A...
September 30, 2017: FEBS Journal
Rosemary K Le, Parthapratim Das, Kristina M Mahan, Seth A Anderson, Tyrone Wells, Joshua S Yuan, Arthur J Ragauskas
Use of oleaginous microorganisms as "micro-factories" for accumulation of single cell oils for biofuel production has increased significantly to mitigate growing energy demands, resulting in efforts to upgrade industrial waste, such as second-generation lignocellulosic residues, into potential feedstocks. Dilute-acid pretreatment (DAP) is commonly used to alter the physicochemical properties of lignocellulosic materials and is typically coupled with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for conversion of sugars into ethanol...
September 29, 2017: AMB Express
Arezoo Tavakoli, Ainon Hamzah
BACKGROUND: Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BZDH) is encoded by the xylC that catalyzes the conversion of benzaldehyde into benzoate in many pathways such as toluene degradation. OBJECTIVES: In this study, the xylC gene from Rhodococcus ruber UKMP-5M was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The xylC was amplified and cloned in E. coli. The recombinant plasmid pGEMT-xylC was digested by NdeI and HindIII to construct plasmid pET28b-xylC and transformed in E...
March 2017: Iranian journal of biotechnology
Jibing Li, Dayi Zhang, Mengke Song, Longfei Jiang, Yujie Wang, Chunling Luo, Gan Zhang
The indigenous microorganisms responsible for degrading phenanthrene (PHE) in activated biosludge were identified using DNA-based stable isotope probing. Besides the well-known PHE degraders Burkholderia, Ralstonia, Sinobacteraceae and Arthrobacter, we for the first time linked the taxa Paraburkholderia and Kaistobacter with in situ PHE biodegradation. Analysis of PAH-RHDα gene detected in the heavy DNA fraction of (13)C-PHE treatment suggested the mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer or inter-species hybridisation in PAH-RHD gene spread within the microbial community...
September 27, 2017: Biodegradation
Yashu Chen, Bijun Xie, Jifang Yang, Jigang Chen, Zhida Sun
Rhodococcus sp. B7740 is a newfound bacterium which was isolated from 25m deep seawater in the arctic. In this paper, Rhodococcus sp. B7740 was firstly discovered to produce abundant natural isoprenoids, including ubiquinone-4(UQ-4), 13 kinds of menaquinones, three rare aromatic carotenoids and more than one common carotenoid. These compounds were identified by UV-Visible, HPLC-APCI-MS/MS and HRMS spectra. Results demonstrated that Rhodococcus sp. B7740 might be a worthy source of natural isoprenoids especially for scarce aromatic carotenoids...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Alicja Dolzblasz, Alicja Banasiak, Danny Vereecke
Extensive de novo vascularization of leafy galls emerging upon Rhodococcus fascians infection is achieved by fascicular/interfascicular cambium activity and transdifferentiation of parenchyma cells correlated with increased auxin signaling. A leafy gall consisting of fully developed yet growth-inhibited shoots, induced by the actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians, differs in structure compared to the callus-like galls induced by other bacteria. To get insight into the vascular development accompanying the emergence of the leafy gall, the anatomy of infected axillary regions of the inflorescence stem of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0 plants and the auxin response in pDR5:GUS-tagged plants were followed in time...
September 23, 2017: Planta
Purnima Singh, Shiv M Singh, Ram N Singh, Simantini Naik, Utpal Roy, Alok Srivastava, Manfred Bölter
Permafrost soils are unique habitats in polar environment and are of great ecological relevance. The present study focuses on the characterization of bacterial communities from permafrost profiles of Svalbard, Arctic. Counts of culturable bacteria range from 1.50 × 10(3) to 2.22 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) , total bacterial numbers range from 1.14 × 10(5) to 5.52 × 10(5) cells g(-1) soil. Bacterial isolates are identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas are the most dominant genera, and A...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Cui-Wei Chu, Bin Liu, Na Li, Shi-Gang Yao, Dan Cheng, Jia-Dong Zhao, Ji-Guo Qiu, Xin Yan, Qin He, Jian He
Thiobencarb is a thiocarbamate herbicide used in rice paddies worldwide. Microbial degradation plays a crucial role in the dissipation of thiobencarb in the environment. However, the physiological and genetic mechanisms underlying thiobencarb degradation remain unknown. In this study, a novel thiobencarb degradation pathway was proposed in Acidovorax sp. T1. Thiobencarb was oxidized and cleaved at the C-S bond, generating diethylcarbamothioic S-acid and 4-chlorobenzaldehyde (4CDA). 4CDA was then oxidized to 4-chlorobenzoic acid (4CBA) and hydrolytically dechlorinated to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4HBA)...
September 22, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Somayeh Khosravinia, Mahmood A Mahdavi, Reza Gheshlaghi, Hesam Dehghani
Numerous desulfurizing bacteria from the Rhodococcus genus harbor conserved dsz genes responsible for the degradation of sulfur compounds through 4S pathway. This study describes a newly identified desulfurizing bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. FUM94, which unlike previously identified strains encodes a truncated dsz operon. DNA sequencing revealed a frameshift mutation in the dszA gene, which led to an alteration of 66 amino acids and deletion of other C-terminal 66 amino acids. The resulting DszA polypeptide was shorter than DszA in Rhodococcus sp...
September 16, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Mariana P Lanfranconi, Héctor M Alvarez
Rhodococcus opacus PD630 accumulates significant amounts of triacylglycerols (TAG), but is not able to de novo synthesize wax esters (WE) from structural unrelated carbon sources, such as gluconate. In this study, strain PD630 was engineered to produce WE by heterologous expression of maqu_2220 gene, which encodes a fatty acyl-CoA reductase for the production of fatty alcohols in Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. Recombinant cells produced ca. 46% of WE and 54% of TAG (of total WE+TAG) from gluconate compared with the wild type, which produced 100% of TAG...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
Matea Kostric, Katrin Milger, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann, Marion Engel, Gisle Vestergaard, Michael Schloter, Anne Schöler
The lower respiratory tract has been previously considered sterile in a healthy state, but advances in culture-independent techniques for microbial identification and characterization have revealed that the lung harbors a diverse microbiome. Although research on the lung microbiome is increasing and important questions were already addressed, longitudinal studies aiming to describe developmental stages of the microbial communities from the early neonatal period to adulthood are lacking. Thus, little is known about the early-life development of the lung microbiome and the impact of external factors during these stages...
September 13, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Edileusa C M Gerhardt, Vivian R Moure, Andrey W Souza, Fabio O Pedrosa, Emanuel M Souza, Lautaro Diacovich, Hugo Gramajo, Luciano F Huergo
The PII protein family constitutes one of the most conserved and well distributed family of signal transduction proteins in nature. These proteins play key roles in nitrogen and carbon metabolism. PII function has been well documented in Gram-negative bacteria. However, there are very few reports describing the in vitro properties and function of PII derived from Gram-positive bacteria. Here we present the heterologous expression and efficient purification protocols for untagged PII from three Actinobacteria of medical and biotechnological interest namely: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rhodococcus jostii and Streptomyces coelicolor...
2017: EXCLI journal
Thomas Heine, Anika Scholtissek, Adrie H Westphal, Willem J H van Berkel, Dirk Tischler
Styrene monooxygenases (SMOs) are two-enzyme systems that catalyze the enantioselective epoxidation of styrene to (S)-styrene oxide. The FADH2 co-substrate of the epoxidase component (StyA) is supplied by an NADH-dependent flavin reductase (StyB). The genome of Rhodococcus opacus 1CP encodes two SMO systems. One system, which we define as E1-type, displays homology to the SMO from Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120. The other system, originally reported as a fused system (RoStyA2B), is defined as E2-type. Here we found that E1-type RoStyB is inhibited by FMN, while RoStyA2B is known to be active with FMN...
September 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jeffrey Czajka, Qinhong Wang, Yechun Wang, Yinjie J Tang
Genetically modified microbes have had much industrial success producing protein-based products (such as antibodies and enzymes). However, engineering microbial workhorses for biomanufacturing of commodity compounds remains challenging. First, microbes cannot afford burdens with both overexpression of multiple enzymes and metabolite drainage for product synthesis. Second, synthetic circuits and introduced heterologous pathways are not yet as "robust and reliable" as native pathways due to hosts' innate regulations, especially under suboptimal fermentation conditions...
September 7, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Akhikun Nahar, Anthony L Baker, Michael A Charleston, John P Bowman, Margaret L Britz
The draft genome sequences of three sub-Antarctic Rhodococcus sp. strains-1159, 1163, and 1168-are reported here. The estimated genome sizes were 7.09 Mb with a 62.3% GC content for strain 1159, 4.45 Mb with a 62.3% GC content for strain 1163, and 5.06 Mb with a 62.10% GC content for strain 1168.
September 7, 2017: Genome Announcements
Virginie Lemieux-Labonté, Anouk Simard, Craig K R Willis, François-Joseph Lapointe
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases of wildlife are increasing worldwide with implications for conservation and human public health. The microbiota (i.e. microbial community living on or in a host) could influence wildlife disease resistance or tolerance. White-nose syndrome (WNS), caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), has killed millions of hibernating North American bats since 2007. We characterized the skin microbiota of naïve, pre-WNS little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from three WNS-negative hibernation sites and persisting, previously exposed bats from three WNS-positive sites to test the hypothesis that the skin microbiota of bats shifts following WNS invasion...
September 5, 2017: Microbiome
Elizabeth P Sampaio, Li Ding, Stacey R Rose, Phillip Cruz, Amy P Hsu, Anuj Kashyap, Lindsey B Rosen, Margery Smelkinson, Tatyana A Tavella, Elise M N Ferre, Meredith K Wierman, Christa S Zerbe, Michail S Lionakis, Steven M Holland
BACKGROUND: Sumoylation is a posttranslational reversible modification of cellular proteins through the conjugation of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) and comprises an important regulator of protein function. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the molecular mechanism of a novel mutation at the SUMO motif on signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). METHODS: STAT1 sequencing and functional characterization were performed in transfection experiments by using immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation in STAT1-deficient cell lines...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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