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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221102/rhodococcus-infection-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-1
#1
Pascalis Vergidis, Ella J Ariza-Heredia, Anoma Nellore, Camille N Kotton, Daniel R Kaul, Michele I Morris, Theodoros Kelesidis, Harshal Shah, Seo Young Park, M Hong Nguyen, Raymund R Razonable
We conducted a case-control study of 18 US transplant recipients with Rhodococcus infection and 36 matched controls. The predominant types of infection were pneumonia and bacteremia. Diabetes mellitus and recent opportunistic infection were independently associated with disease. Outcomes were generally favorable except for 1 relapse and 1 death.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220441/diversity-of-crude-oil-degrading-bacteria-and-alkane-hydroxylase-alkb-genes-from-the-qinghai-tibet-plateau
#2
Haozhi Long, Yilin Wang, Sijing Chang, Guangxiu Liu, Tuo Chen, Guanghua Huo, Wei Zhang, Xiukun Wu, Xisheng Tai, Likun Sun, Baogui Zhang
The aim of this study was to survey the response of the microbial community to crude oil and the diversity of alkane hydroxylase (alkB) genes in soil samples from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). The enrichment cultures and clone libraries were used. Finally, 53 isolates and 94 alkB sequences were obtained from 10 pristine soil samples after enrichment at 10 °C with crude oil as sole carbon source. The isolates fell into the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, with the dominance of Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208114/efficient-degradation-of-chlorimuron-ethyl-by-a-bacterial-consortium-and-shifts-in-the-aboriginal-microorganism-community-during-the-bioremediation-of-contaminated-soil
#3
Chunyan Li, Tongyang Lv, Wanjun Liu, Hailian Zang, Yi Cheng, Dapeng Li
Excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to soil contamination and limited crop rotation; therefore, tactics to decrease and eliminate residual chlorimuron-ethyl in the environment have attracted increasing attention. In this study, two chlorimuron-ethyl-degrading bacterial strains (Rhodococcus sp. D310-1; Enterobacter sp. D310-5) were used to ferment and prepare a chlorimuron-ethyl-degrading bacterial consortium. To improve the degradation efficiency of the bacterial consortium, the cultivation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM)...
February 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198553/treatment-of-septic-arthritis-of-the-coxofemoral-joint-in-12-foals
#4
F Barceló Oliver, T M Russell, K L Uprichard, K M Neil, P J Pollock
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical signs, surgical treatment, and outcome of septic arthritis of the coxofemoral joint in foals. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective clinical study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Foals (n = 12) with confirmed sepsis of the coxofemoral joint. METHODS: Lameness was localized to the coxofemoral joint based on physical examination. Sepsis was confirmed by cytological analysis of synovial fluid obtained under ultrasonographic guidance, during general anesthesia or standing sedation...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185734/arsenic-behavior-in-different-biogeochemical-zonations-approximately-along-the-groundwater-flow-path-in-datong-basin-northern-china
#5
Junwen Zhang, Teng Ma, Liang Feng, Yani Yan, Olusegun K Abass, Zhiqiang Wang, Huawei Cai
Studies have shown that arsenic is desorbed/released into groundwater as a result of bacterial reduction of As(V) and Fe(III). However, bacterial activities like sulfate reduction process can also reduce the content of arsenic in groundwater. In this study, we examined the effects of different biogeochemical processes (e.g. NO3(-) and SO4(2-) reduction) on arsenic, by investigating the chemical characteristics and bacterial community structure of groundwater in the Datong Basin, northern China. Along the groundwater flow path, arsenic concentration increased from <1 to 947...
February 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179425/structural-insights-into-the-broad-substrate-specificity-of-a-novel-endo-glycoceramidase-i-belonging-to-a-new-subfamily-of-gh5-glycosidase
#6
Yun-Bin Han, Liu-Qing Chen, Zhuo Li, Yu-Meng Tan, Yan Feng, Guang-Yu Yang
Endoglycoceramidases (EGCases) specifically hydrolyze the glycosidic linkage between the oligosaccharide and the ceramide moieties of various glycosphingolipids, and they have received substantial attention in the emerging field of glycosphingolipidology. However, the mechanism regulating the strict substrate specificity of these GH5 glycosidases has not been identified. In this study, we report a novel EGCase I from Rhodococcus equi 103S (103S_EGCase I) with remarkably broad substrate specificity. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the enzyme may represent a new subfamily of GH5 glycosidases...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177033/enantioselective-synthesis-of-1-2-3-4-tetrahydroquinoline-4-ols-and-2-3-dihydroquinolin-4-1h-ones-via-a-sequential-asymmetric-hydroxylation-diastereoselective-oxidation-process-using-rhodococcus-equi-zmu-lk19
#7
Ke Li, Juxiang Wang, Kailin Wu, Daijun Zheng, Xiaojian Zhou, Wenyong Han, Nanwei Wan, Baodong Cui, Yongzheng Chen
A cascade biocatalysis system involving asymmetric hydroxylation and diastereoselective oxidation was developed using Rhodococcus equi ZMU-LK19, which gave chiral 2-substituted-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-4-ols (2) (up to 57% isolated yield, 99 : 1 dr, and >99% ee) and chiral 2-substituted-2,3-dihydroquinolin-4(1H)-ones (3) (up to 25% isolated yield, and >99% ee) from (±)-2-substituted-tetrahydroquinolines (1). In addition, a possible mechanism for this cascade biocatalysis was tentatively proposed...
February 8, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166281/correction-localization-of-low-copy-number-plasmid-prc4-in-replicating-rod-and-non-replicating-cocci-cells-of-rhodococcus-erythropolis-pr4
#8
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0166491.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161038/treatment-of-infections-caused-by-rhodococcus-equi
#9
REVIEW
Steeve Giguère
Pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi remains an important cause of disease and death in foals. The combination of a macrolide (erythromycin, azithromycin, or clarithromycin) with rifampin remains the recommended therapy for foals with clinical signs of infection caused by R equi. Most foals with small, subclinical ultrasonographic pulmonary lesions associated with R equi recover without therapy, and administration of antimicrobial agents to these subclinically affected foals does not hasten lesion resolution relative to administration of a placebo...
February 1, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150192/establishment-of-bioprocess-for-synthesis-of-nicotinamide-by-recombinant-escherichia-coli-expressing-high-molecular-mass-nitrile-hydratase
#10
Zhe Wang, Zhongmei Liu, Wenjing Cui, Zhemin Zhou
Application of engineered bacteria expressing nitrile hydratase for the production of amide is getting tremendous attention due to the rapid development of recombinant DNA technique. This study evaluated the effect of 3-cyanopyridine concentrations on nicotinamide production using recombinant Escherichia coli strain (BAG) expressing high-molecular-mass nitrile hydratase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous J1, and established proper process of whole-cell catalysis of 3-cyanopyridine and high cell-density cultivation...
February 1, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130036/construction-of-a-biobrick%C3%A2-compatible-vector-system-for-rhodococcus
#11
James Ellinger, Claudia Schmidt-Dannert
Throughout the past decade, the field of synthetic biology has grown rapidly. By using assembly platforms such as BioBricks™, scientists can quickly and easily build gene circuits or multi-step pathways. One limitation, however, is that most of these parts were designed and characterized with Escherichia coli as the target chassis. As a consequence, there exists a lack of standardized and well characterized or BioBrick™ compatible plasmid backbones that replicate in other potential non-model chassis organisms...
January 24, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122588/evidence-of-low-prevalence-of-mycobacterial-lymphadenitis-in-wild-boars-sus-scrofa-in-poland
#12
Lucjan Witkowski, Blanka Orłowska, Magdalena Rzewuska, Michał Czopowicz, Mirosław Welz, Krzysztof Anusz, Jerzy Kita
Mycobacterium spp. and Rhodococcus equi are generally regarded as the main causes of lymphadenitis in pigs and wild boars. In Poland, mycobacterial submandibular lymphadenitis was first diagnosed in a wild boar in 2012 but Mycobacterium spp. infections are also present in the Polish population of European bison (Bison bonasus). The prevalence of lymphadenitis in Polish wild boars has been found to 8.4% (95% CI 6.2-11.3%) and it has been proved that R. equi is not an important cause of purulent lesions in these animals...
January 25, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122544/molecular-characterization-of-rhodococcus-equi-isolates-from-horses-in-poland-pvapa-characteristics-and-plasmid-new-variant-85-kb-type-v
#13
Lucjan Witkowski, Magdalena Rzewuska, Shinji Takai, Dorota Chrobak-Chmiel, Magdalena Kizerwetter-Świda, Małgorzata Feret, Marta Gawryś, Maciej Witkowski, Jerzy Kita
BACKGROUND: Rhodococcus equi is one of the most significant bacterial pathogens affecting foals up to 6 months of age worldwide. Rhodococcosis is present in Poland however information about molecular characterization of R. equi isolates is scarce. This study describes molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi infection on 13 horse breeding farms in Poland between 2001 and 2012. Samples were collected by tracheobronchial aspiration from pneumonic foals or during necropsy. The R. equi isolates were genotyped by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...
January 26, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114416/microbial-community-in-a-biofilter-for-removal-of-low-load-nitrobenzene-waste-gas
#14
Jian Zhai, Zhu Wang, Peng Shi, Chao Long
To improve biofilter performance, the microbial community of a biofilter must be clearly defined. In this study, the performance of a lab-scale polyurethane biofilter for treating waste gas with low loads of nitrobenzene (NB) (< 20 g m-3 h-1) was investigated when using different empty bed residence times (EBRT) (64, 55.4 and 34 s, respectively). In addition, the variations of the bacterial community in the biofilm on the longitudinal distribution of the biofilters were analysed by using Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110226/cometabolic-degradation-of-chloramphenicol-via-a-meta-cleavage-pathway-in-a-microbial-fuel-cell-and-its-microbial-community
#15
Qinghua Zhang, Yanyan Zhang, Daping Li
The performance of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) in terms of degradation of chloramphenicol (CAP) was investigated. Approximately 84% of 50mg/L CAP was degraded within 12h in the MFC. A significant interaction of pH, temperature, and initial CAP concentration was found on removal of CAP, and a maximum degradation rate of 96.53% could theoretically be achieved at 31.48°C, a pH of 7.12, and an initial CAP concentration of 106.37mg/L. Moreover, CAP was further degraded through a ring-cleavage pathway. The antibacterial activity of CAP towards Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 was largely eliminated by MFC treatment...
April 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103877/rhodococcus-erythropolis-as-a-host-for-expression-secretion-and-glycosylation-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-proteins
#16
Antonio J Vallecillo, Cristina Parada, Pedro Morales, Clara Espitia
BACKGROUND: Glycosylation is one of the most abundant posttranslational polypeptide chain modification in nature. Although carbohydrate modification of protein antigens from many microbial pathogens constitutes important components of B cell epitopes, the role in T cell immunity is not completely understood. There is growing evidence about the importance of these modifications in host bacteria interactions in tuberculosis. It is known, that the sugars present in some Mycobacterium tuberculosis glycoproteins play an important role in both humoral and cellular immune response against the pathogen...
January 19, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103078/improvement-of-phytoremediation-of-an-aged-petroleum-hydrocarbon-contaminated-soil-by-rhodococcus-erythropolis-cd-106-strain
#17
Tomasz Płociniczak, Ewa Fic, Magdalena Pacwa-Płociniczak, Małgorzata Pawlik, Zofia Piotrowska-Seget
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of soil inoculation with the Rhodococcus erythropolis CD 106 strain on the effectiveness of the phytoremediation of an aged hydrocarbon-contaminated (approx. 1% TPH) soil using ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The introduction of CD 106 into the soil significantly increased the biomass of ryegrass and the removal of hydrocarbons in planted soil. The fresh weight of the shoots and roots of plants inoculated with CD 106 increased by 49 and 30%, respectively. After 210 days of the experiment, the concentration of TPH was reduced by 31...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098428/the-self-sufficient-p450-rhf-expressed-in-a-whole-cell-system-selectively-catalyses-the-5-hydroxylation-of-diclofenac
#18
Jan M Klenk, Bernd A Nebel, Joanne L Porter, Justyna K Kulig, Shaneela A Hussain, Sven M Richter, Michele Tavanti, Nicholas J Turner, Martin A Hayes, Bernhard Hauer, Sabine L Flitsch
P450 monooxygenases are able to catalyse the highly regio- and stereoselective oxidations of many organic molecules. However, the scale-up of such bio-oxidations remains challenging due to the often-low activity, level of expression and stability of P450 biocatalysts. Despite these challenges they are increasingly desirable as recombinant biocatalysts, particularly for the production of drug metabolites. Diclofenac is a widely used anti-inflammatory drug that is persistent in the environment along with the 4'- and 5-hydroxy metabolites...
January 18, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097167/expression-purification-and-kinetic-characterization-of-recombinant-benzoate-dioxygenase-from-rhodococcus-ruber-ukmp-5m
#19
Arezoo Tavakoli, Ainon Hamzah, Amir Rabu
In this study, benzoate dioxygenase from Rhodococcus ruber UKMP-5M was catalyzed by oxidating the benzene ring to catechol and other derivatives. The benzoate dioxygenase (benA gene) from Rhodococcus ruber UKMP-5M was then expressed, purified, characterized, The benA gene was amplified (642 bp), and the product was cloned into a pGEM-T vector. The recombinant plasmid pGEMT-benA was digested by double restriction enzymes BamHI and HindIII to construct plasmid pET28b-benA and was then ligated into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)...
September 2016: Molecular Biology Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087615/microbial-catabolism-of-sterols-focus-on-the-enzymes-that-transform-the-sterol-3%C3%AE-hydroxy-5-en-into-3-keto-4-en
#20
Joseph Kreit
An overview on the microbial sterol catabolism is described with a focus on the catabolic step of the 3β-hydroxy-5-en structure. Cholesterol oxidase transforms this structure into the corresponding 3-keto-4-en feature, and thus initiates the sterol molecule catabolism. The oxidase has been found in a large number of microorganisms, especially in actinobacteria as species of Rhodococcus and Streptomyces Other actinobacteria as species of Mycobacterium and Nocardia possess NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenase for this catabolic step...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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