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Kristina M Mahan, Rosemary K Le, Tyrone Wells, Seth Anderson, Joshua S Yuan, Ryan J Stoklosa, Aditya Bhalla, David B Hodge, Arthur J Ragauskas
Livestock and fish farming are rapidly growing industries facing the simultaneous pressure of increasing production demands and limited protein required to produce feed. Bacteria that can convert low-value non-food waste streams into singe cell protein (SCP) present an intriguing route for rapid protein production. The oleaginous bacterium Rhodococcus opacus serves as a model organism for understanding microbial lipid production. SCP production has not been explored using an organism from this genus. In the present research, R...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Dockyu Kim, Ki Young Choi, Miyoun Yoo, Gerben J Zylstra, Eungbin Kim
The genus Rhodococcus is a phylogenetically and catabolically diverse group that has been isolated from diverse environments, including polar and alpine regions, for its versatile ability to degrade a wide variety of natural and synthetic organic compounds. Their metabolic capacity and diversity result from their diverse catabolic genes, which are believed to be obtained through frequent recombination events mediated by large catabolic plasmids. Many rhodococci have been used commercially for the biodegradation of environmental pollutants and for the biocatalytic production of high value chemicals from low value materials...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Le-Xiang Cui, Li-Na Gu, Yan-Bo Hou, Bei-Lin Zhang, Jing-Yao Liu
RATIONALE: Purulent meningitis refers infection of the subarachnoid space by various purulent bacteria and the corresponding inflammation of the leptomeninges. However, purulent meningitis due to Rhodococcus equi is extremely rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 40-year-old man presented with fever and intermittent headache for 6 days. Two hours prior to admission, he developed epileptic seizures. DIAGNOSES: Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed intracerebral malacic lesions...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Bang-Xiao Zheng, Huang-Kai Zhang, Kai Ding
Rhodococcus opacus strain 04-OD7 (=CCTCC AB 2017148) is a Gram-positive bacterium showing inorganic phosphate solubilization capacity for the first time in the genus Rhodococcus We present here the draft genome description of R. opacus 04-OD7 along with multiple phosphorus (P) mobilization-related genes, supporting its inorganic phosphate solubilization.
June 7, 2018: Genome Announcements
Gerardo Retamal-Morales, Thomas Heine, Judith S Tischler, Beate Erler, Janosch A D Gröning, Stefan R Kaschabek, Michael Schlömann, Gloria Levicán, Dirk Tischler
Biosurfactants are amphipathic molecules with relevance in biotechnology due to their structural diversity, low toxicity and biodegradability. The genus Rhodococcus has extensively been studied because of its capacity to produce trehalose-containing surfactants as well as trehalose lipids as potential pathogenic factor. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Rhodococcus erythropolis B7g isolated with toluene from fuel-contaminated soil. The genome comprises 7,175,690 bp in 121 contigs, a G + C content of 62,4% and 7,153 coding DNA sequences (CDSs), and it contains genes for trehalose biosynthesis and surfactant production...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
P Sivasankar, K Priyanka, Bhagwan Rekadwad, K Sivakumar, T Thangaradjou, S Poongodi, R Manimurali, P V Bhaskar, N Anilkumar
Integration of microbiological data and geographical locations is necessary to understand the spatiotemporal patterns of the microbial diversity of an ecosystem. The Geographic Information System (GIS) to map and catalogue the data on the actinobacterial diversity of the Southern Ocean waters was completed through sampling and analysis. Water samples collected at two sampling stations viz. Polar Front 1 (Station 1) and Polar Front 2 (Station 2) during 7th Indian Scientific Expedition to the Indian Ocean Sector of the Southern Ocean (SOE-2012-13) were used for analysis...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Gillian A Y Haanen, Chee Kin Lim, Aubrey N Baird, Mario F Sola, Stephen D Lenz
Disseminated Rhodococcus equi infection was diagnosed in an Anglo-Nubian goat presenting for non-weight bearing lameness of the right pelvic limb. Radiographs showed a moth-eaten osteolytic lesion in the proximal tibia suggestive of an aggressive bone lesion. Two pulmonary nodules were also present on thoracic radiographs. Initial antemortem cytology of the tibial lesion was suggestive of Rhodococcosis and the goat was sent to necropsy. Necropsy and bacterial culture confirmed the diagnosis of disseminated R...
June 5, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Hai-Ming Zhao, Rui-Wen Hu, Huan Du, Xiao-Ping Xin, Yan-Wen Li, Hui Li, Quan-Ying Cai, Ce-Hui Mo, Jie-Sheng Liu, Dong-Mei Zhou, Ming-Hung Wong, Zhen-Li He
Microbial degradation is considered the most promising method for removing phthalate acid esters (PAEs) from polluted environments; however, a comprehensive genomic understanding of the entire PAE catabolic process is still lacking. In this study, the repertoire of PAE catabolism genes in the metabolically versatile bacterium Rhodococcus sp. 2G was examined using genomic, metabolic, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 4930 coding genes were identified from the 5.6 Mb genome of the 2G strain, including 337 esterase/hydrolase genes and 48 transferase and decarboxylase genes that were involved in hydrolysing PAEs into phthalate acid (PA) and decarboxylating PA into benzoic acid (BA)...
June 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dayakar Alti, Chandrasekaran Sambamurthy, Suresh K Kalangi
Deficiency of leptin ( ob/ob ) and/or desensitization of leptin signaling ( db/db ) and elevated expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) reported in obesity are also reported in a variety of pathologies including hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and malnutrition as the risk factors in host defense system. Viral infections cause the elevated SOCS3 expression, which inhibits leptin signaling. It results in immunosuppression by T-regulatory cells (Tregs). The host immunity becomes incompetent to manage pathogens' attack and invasion, which results in the accelerated infections and diminished vaccine-specific antibody response...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Xuhao Zeng, Dongsheng Xue
Optimum pH and temperature of the endoglucanase from Rhodococcus sp. was 5.0 and 40 °C. The endoglcuanase activity was 1.18 folds higher in 5% butanol solution than that in butanol-free solution. Melt point temperature was 2.5 °C higher in 5% butanol solution (50.0 °C) than that in butanol-free solution (47.5 °C). At 45-60 °C, Gbbs-free energy change, ∆ G , was higher in 5% butanol solution than that in butanol-free solution. The content of α-helix and β-sheet increased in 5% butanol solution...
June 2018: 3 Biotech
Tomohiro Matsuoka, Nobuyuki Yoshida
Rhodococcus erythropolis N9T-4 grows on an inorganic solid-state medium with no additional carbon and energy sources; however, it is unable to grow well in a liquid culture medium under the oligotrophic conditions. We examined submerged cultivations of N9T-4 using a polyurethane foam sponge to achieve approximately 10 times of the oligotrophic growth of the bacterium in the liquid culture medium.
June 3, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Dong Wan Lee, Hanbyul Lee, Bong-Oh Kwon, Jong Seong Khim, Un Hyuk Yim, Beom Seok Kim, Jae-Jin Kim
Crude oil and its derivatives are considered as one group of the most pervasive environmental pollutants in marine environments. Bioremediation using oil-degrading bacteria has emerged as a promising green cleanup alternative in more recent years. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing indigenous bacteria enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation by making hydrocarbons bioavailable for degradation. In this study, the best candidates of biosurfactant-producing indigenous bacteria were selected by screening of biochemical tests...
May 25, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Wafa Hassen, Mohamed Neifar, Hanene Cherif, Mouna Mahjoubi, Yasmine Souissi, Noura Raddadi, Fabio Fava, Ameur Cherif
A total of 68 dimethoate and pentachlorophenol-tolerant rhizobacteria, isolated from a pesticide-contaminated agricultural soil, have been identified and typed by means of 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacers analysis (ITS-PCR), 16S rRNA gene sequencing and by repetitive extragenic palindromic (BOX-PCR). The majority of bacterial isolates (84.31%) belonged to Proteobacteria (with a predominance of Gammaproteobacteria, 72.54%), while the remaining isolates were affiliated with Firmicutes (9.80%), Bacteroidetes (1...
June 2018: 3 Biotech
Konstantin V Lavrov, Anna O Shemyakina, Elena G Grechishnikova, Andrey D Novikov, Denis D Derbikov, Tatyana I Kalinina, Alexander S Yanenko
Rhodococcus strains are important biocatalysts used for biotechnological production of acrylamide catalysed by a nitrile hydratase (NHase) containing cobalt. This metalloenzyme is present at high intracellular concentrations representing up to 50% of the soluble proteins in Rhodococcus rhodochrous M8 strain. Cobalt ions were formerly reported to be essential for the synthesis of the NHase subunits, encoded by nhmBA structural genes in R. rhodochrous M8. To understand the regulatory mechanisms enabling high expression of the NHase structural genes by cobalt, two reporter genes coding for an acylamidase from Rhodococcus erythropolis TA37 and a nitrilase from Alcaligenes denitrificans C-32 were fused to the nhmBA promoter...
May 22, 2018: Research in Microbiology
Weijie V Lin, Robert L Kruse, Katharine Yang, Daniel M Musher
BACKGROUND: Rhodococcus equi is a recognized cause of disease in humans, especially in patients who are immunocompromised. Because diphtheroids are regarded as part of normal respiratory flora, the importance of R. equi as a pulmonary pathogen may not be fully appreciated and its prevalence underestimated. Most treatment recommendations for R. equi infection were established before antiretroviral drugs became available for HIV/AIDS therapy, and therapeutic strategies may need to be updated...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Seetharaman Prabukumar, Chandrasekaran Rajkuberan, Gnanasekar Sathishkumar, Mani Illaiyaraja, Sivaperumal Sivaramakrishnan
In this study, the leaf extract of an important medicinal plant Crescentia cujete L. (CC) was employed as a green reducing agent to synthesise highly-stable C. cujete silver nanoparticles (CCAgNPs). The reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 nanoparticles was initially observed by a colour change which generates an intense surface plasmon resonance peak at 417 nm using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Various optimisation factors such as temperature, pH, time and the stoichiometric proportion of the reaction mixture were performed, which influence the size, dispersity and synthesis rate of CCAgNPs...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
A Giuliano, P Watson, L Owen, B Skelly, L Davison, J Dobson, F Costantino-Casas
Pyogranulomatous inflammation has been extensively described in cats, in particular in cases of feline infectious peritonitis and also associated with Mycobacteria, Actinomyces, Nocardia, Rhodococcus and fungal infections. Idiopathic sterile pyogranulomatous dermatitis has also been described. In this case series we describe the clinical presentation, histopathology and outcome of three cases of feline idiopathic sterile steroid-responsive pyogranuloma with different presentation and different locations of the lesion, but with the common feature of having a mass with no superficial skin involvement...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Matthew S Kimber, Evan Mallette
S-(+)-1-amino-2-propanol dehydrogenase (APDH) is a short chain dehydrogenase/reductase associated with the incompletely characterized Rhodococcus and Mycobacterium bacterial microcompartment (RMM). We enzymatically characterized the APDH from M. smegmatis, and showed it is highly selective, with a low-micromolar Km for S-(+)-1-amino-2-propanol, and specificity for NADP(H). A paralogous enzyme from a non-microcompartment associated operon in the same organism was also shown to have similar activity. We determined the structure of APDH in both apo form (at 1...
May 14, 2018: Biochemistry
Ting Yang, Lei Ren, Yang Jia, Shuanghu Fan, Junhuan Wang, Jiayi Wang, Ruth Nahurira, Haisheng Wang, Yanchun Yan
Di-(2-ethylehxyl) phthalate (DEHP) is one of the most broadly representative phthalic acid esters (PAEs) used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production, and is considered to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical. DEHP and its monoester metabolites are responsible for adverse effects on human health. An efficient DEHP-degrading bacterial strain Rhodococcus ruber YC-YT1, with super salt tolerance (0⁻12% NaCl), is the first DEHP-degrader isolated from marine plastic debris found in coastal saline seawater...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yunfu Gu, Yingyan Wang, Yihao Sun, Ke Zhao, Quanju Xiang, Xiumei Yu, Xiaoping Zhang, Qiang Chen
BACKGROUND: Alleviating arsenic (As) contamination is a high-priority environmental issue. Hyperaccumulator plants may harbor endophytic bacteria able to detoxify As. Therefore, we investigated the distribution, diversity, As (III) resistance levels, and resistance-related functional genes of arsenite-resistant bacterial endophytes in Pteris vittata L. growing in a lead-zinc mining area with different As contamination levels. RESULTS: A total of 116 arsenite-resistant bacteria were isolated from roots of P...
May 8, 2018: BMC Microbiology
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