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Ei-Tora Yamamura
NADP+ -dependent aminoalcohol dehydrogenase (AADH) of Rhodococcus erythropolis MAK154 produces double chiral aminoalcohols, which are used as pharmaceuticals. However, the genetic manipulation of Rhodococcus strains to increase their production of such industrially important enzymes is not well studied. Therefore, I aimed to construct Rhodococcus expression vectors, derived from the Rhodococcus-Escherichia coli shuttle vector pRET1102, to express aadh. The plasmid pRET1102 could be transformed into many actinomycete strains, including R...
April 20, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yasmin Elsayed, John Refaat, Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen, Eman Maher Othman, Helga Stopper, Mostafa Ahmed Fouad
INTRODUCTION: Marine sponge-associated actinomycetes are potent sources of bioactive natural products of pharmaceutical significance. They also contributed to the discovery of several clinically relevant antimicrobials. OBJECTIVE: To apply the non-targeted metabolomics approach in chemical profiling of the sponge-derived bacterium Rhodococcus sp. UA13, formerly recovered from the Red Sea sponge Callyspongia aff. Implexa, along with testing for the anti-infective potential of its different fractions...
April 19, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Shihui Yang, Mary Ann Franden, Qing Yang, Yat-Chen Chou, Min Zhang, Philip T Pienkos
The aim of this work was to identify inhibitors in pretreated lignocellulosic slurries, evaluate high-throughput screening strategies, and investigate the impact of inhibitors on potential hydrocarbon-producing microorganisms. Compounds present in slurries that could inhibit microbial growth were identified through a detailed analysis of saccharified slurries by applying a combination of approaches of high-performance liquid chromatography, GC-MS, LC-DAD-MS, and ICP-MS. Several high-throughput assays were then evaluated to generate toxicity profiles...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Drew M DeLorenzo, Tae Seok Moon
Rhodococcus opacus PD630 is a gram-positive bacterium with promising attributes for the conversion of lignin into valuable fuels and chemicals. To develop an organism as a cellular factory, it is necessary to have a deep understanding of its metabolism and any heterologous pathways being expressed. For the purpose of quantifying gene transcription, reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is the gold standard due to its sensitivity and reproducibility. However, RT-qPCR requires the use of reference genes whose expression is stable across distinct growth or treatment conditions to normalize the results...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Juan Li, Shengmei Yang, Runhong Lei, Weihong Gu, Yanxia Qin, Sihan Ma, Kui Chen, Yanan Chang, Xue Bai, Shibo Xia, Chongming Wu, Gengmei Xing
The widespread application of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) as additives in foods such as gum, candy and puddings has dramatically increased the human ingestion and accumulation of these nanomaterials. Although the toxicity of TiO2 NPs has been extensively studied, their impact on gut microbiota in vivo still needs further research. In this study, TiO2 NPs with two main crystalline phases anatase and rutile were orally administrated to mice for 28 days. The dynamic influences of anatase and rutile on gut microbiota structures were investigated at doses equivalent to those consumed by people who love to eat candies...
April 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Jacob T Carlson, James C Yuen, Matthew R Smeds
Animal bites are fairly rare events but can cause devastating traumatic injuries to the victim. In addition to the soft tissue, vascular, and orthopedic trauma inflicted by these occurrences, bite injuries also have the potential to introduce an inoculum of microbes, which may progress to an infection if not treated properly and expeditiously. We present the case of a healthy male who sustained multiple bite wounds from a domestic zebra to his left upper extremity. This attack caused severe damage, including devascularization of the arm at the brachial artery, disruption of the distal biceps and brachialis, stripping of the forearm nerves, and shearing of the overlying soft tissue...
June 2017: Trauma Case Reports
Gerardo Retamal-Morales, Marika Mehnert, Ringo Schwabe, Dirk Tischler, Claudia Zapata, Renato Chávez, Michael Schlömann, Gloria Levicán
The metalloid arsenic is highly toxic to all forms of life, and in many countries decontamination of water and soil is still required. Some bacteria have mechanisms to detoxify arsenic and can live in its presence. Actinobacteria are well known for their ability to produce a myriad of biologically-active compounds. In the present study, we isolated arsenic-tolerant Actinobacteria from contaminated water in Saxony, Germany, and determined their ability to produce siderophores able to bind arsenic. The binding capacity of different siderophore-like compounds was determined by a modified chrome azurol S (As-m CAS) assay with As(III) at high pH and using CAS decolorization as a readout...
April 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Dhiraj Kumar Chaudhary, Jaisoo Kim
A Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, creamy-white and rod-coccus shaped actinobacterium, designated strain Ktm-20T , capable of degrading petroleum oil was isolated from oil-contaminated soil. Strain Ktm-20T was able to grow at 15-37 °C, at pH 5.5-10.0 and at 0.0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl concentration. This strain was taxonomically characterized by a polyphasic approach. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain Ktm-20T belonged to the genus Rhodococcus and is closely related to Rhodococcus triatomae DSM 44892T , Rhodococcus pedocola UC12T , Rhodococcus wratislaviensis NBRC 100605T , Rhodococcus agglutinans CFH S0262T and Rhodococcus canchipurensis MBRL 353T (98...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Yi Cheng, Hailian Zang, Hailan Wang, Dapeng Li, Chunyan Li
Chlorimuron-ethyl is a typical long-term residual sulfonylurea herbicide whose long period of residence poses a serious hazard to rotational crops. Microbial degradation is considered to be the most acceptable method for its removal, but the degradation mechanism is not clear. In this work, we investigated gene expression changes during the degradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by an effective chlorimuron-ethyl-degrading bacterium, Rhodococcus erythropolis D310-1. The genes that correspond to this degradation and their mode of action were identified using RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR...
March 31, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Kaspar Tootsi, Hannes Tamm, Tanel Laisaar
Mediastinal lymphadenopathy is common finding in thoracic surgery, which often requires morphological confirmation to establish the definite diagnosis. The most frequent diagnoses are metastatic lung cancer, sarcoidosis, lymphoma, tuberculosis and other causes of granulomatous infections. Rhodococcus equi is a rare pathogen in humans, mostly affecting immunocompromised patients. We present a case with isolated mediastinal lymphadenopathy caused by Rhodococcus equi infection in a 71-year immunocompetent patient...
March 31, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Chongyang Ren, Yiying Wang, Lili Tian, Meng Chen, Jiao Sun, Li Li
Horizontal transfer of catabolic plasmids is used in genetic bioaugmentation for environmental pollutant remediation. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of genetic bioaugmentation with dioxin-catabolic plasmids harbored by Rhodococcus sp. strain p52 in laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). During 100 days of operation, bioaugmentation decreased the dibenzofuran content (120 mg L-1 ) in the synthetic wastewater by 32.6%-100% of that in the non-bioaugmented SBR. Additionally, dibenzofuran was removed to undetectable levels in the bioaugmented SBR, in contrast, 46...
April 2, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
D Wilmes, E Coche, H Rodriguez-Villalobos, N Kanaan
Bacterial pathogens are the most frequent cause of pneumonia after transplantation. Early after transplantation, recipients are at higher risk for nosocomial infections. The most commonly encountered pathogens during this period are gram-negative bacilli (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa …), but gram-positive coccus such as Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pneumoniae and anaerobic bacteria can also be found. Empirical antibiotic therapy should be guided by previous colonisation of the recipient and bacterial resistance pattern in the hospital...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Ruta S Deshpande, Devi Sundaravadivelu, Stephen Techtmann, Robyn N Conmy, Jorge W Santo Domingo, Pablo Campo
Treatability experiments were conducted to determine the biodegradation of diluted bitumen (dilbit) at 5 and 25 °C for 72 and 60 days, respectively. Microbial consortia obtained from the Kalamazoo River Enbridge Energy spill site were enriched on dilbit at both 5 (cryo) and 25 (meso) ºC. On every sampling day, triplicates were sacrificed and residual hydrocarbon concentrations (alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were determined by GCMS/MS. The composition and relative abundance of different bacterial groups were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Ryoko Nakagawa, Hiroaki Moki, Kazuhide Hayashi, Kaname Ooniwa, Kyori Tokuyama, Tsutomu Kakuda, Kazuki Yoshioka, Shinji Takai
Rhodococcus equi was isolated from the granulomatous lesions of the lung, kidney, liver, and hepatic, mesenteric, and abomasum lymph nodes of a Japanese black heifer. R. equi isolates were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for virulence-associated protein genes. The vapN gene was detected in all the isolates examined. This is the first report in which vapN-positive R. equi was isolated from cattle in Japan.
March 29, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Yang Zhou, Honghui Zhu, Qing Yao
Phosphorus (P) cycling is a fundamental process driven by microorganisms, and plants can regulate P cycling directly or via their influence on the soil microbial community. However, the differential P cycling patterns associated with legumes and grass are largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the microbial community involved in P cycling in subtropical soil grown with stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis, legume) or bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum, grass) using metagenomic sequencing. P fractionation indicated that sparingly soluble inorganic P (Pi) accounted for approximately 75% of P pool...
March 24, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Pengchao Zhao, Yun Xue, Weina Gao, Jinghua Li, Xiangyang Zu, Dongliao Fu, Shuxiao Feng, Xuefei Bai, Yanjun Zuo, Ping Li
Members of the Actinobacteria, including Streptomyces spp., Kutzneria sp. Actinoplanes spp., Actinomycete sp., Nocardia sp., Brevibacteriumsp.,Actinomadura spp., Micromonospora sp., Amycolatopsis spp., Nonomuraea spp., Nocardiopsis spp., Marinactinospora sp., Rhodococcus sp., Lentzea sp., Actinokineospora sp., Planomonospora sp., Streptomonospora sp., and Microbacterium sp., are an important source of structurally diverse classes of short peptides of ∼30 residues or fewer that will likely play an important role in new antibiotic development and discovery...
March 19, 2018: Peptides
Delphine Adam, Marta Maciejewska, Aymeric Naômé, Loïc Martinet, Wouter Coppieters, Latifa Karim, Denis Baurain, Sébastien Rigali
Cave moonmilk deposits host an abundant and diverse actinobacterial population that has a great potential for producing novel natural bioactive compounds. In our previous attempt to isolate culturable moonmilk-dwelling Actinobacteria, only Streptomyces species were recovered, whereas a metagenetic study of the same deposits revealed a complex actinobacterial community including 46 actinobacterial genera in addition to streptomycetes. In this work, we applied the rehydration-centrifugation method to lessen the occurrence of filamentous species and tested a series of strategies to achieve the isolation of hard-to-culture and rare Actinobacteria from the moonmilk deposits of the cave "Grotte des Collemboles"...
March 22, 2018: Antibiotics
Mingzhao Guo, Lufan Yang, Jiahui Li, Song Jiao, Yujun Wang, Guangsheng Luo, Huimin Yu
In this work, the drastic change in the reaction rate throughout the acrylonitrile bio-hydration reaction, which was catalyzed by Rhodococcus ruber TH3 free cells in a two-liquid-phase system, was studied by changing the initial mass fraction of acrylonitrile and acrylamide. We found that the reaction rate was sensitively affected by the contact area between the acrylonitrile droplets and cells. With the acrylonitrile mass fraction of 3 wt%, the cell solution of 800 U/mL could make the superficial area of acrylonitrile droplets saturated...
March 19, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Syahir Habib, Siti Aqlima Ahmad, Wan Lutfi Wan Johari, Mohd Yunus Abd Shukor, Siti Aisyah Alias, Khalilah Abdul Khalil, Nur Adeela Yasid
BACKGROUND: Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in Antarctic soil has been reported to be achieved through the utilisation of indigenous cold-adapted microorganisms. Although numerous bacteria isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated sites in Antarctica were able to demonstrate promising outcomes in utilising hydrocarbon components as their energy source, reports on the utilisation of hydrocarbons by strains isolated from pristine Antarctic soil are scarce. In the present work, two psychrotolerant strains isolated from Antarctic pristine soil with the competency to utilise diesel fuel as the sole carbon source were identified and optimised through conventional and response surface method...
March 17, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Amanda Bonalume Cordeiro de Morais, Carmen Alicia Daza Bolaños, Ana Carolina Alves, Cássia Yumi Ikuta, Gustavo Henrique Batista Lara, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Rogério Giuffrida, Fernando Paganini Listoni, Mateus de Souza Ribeiro Mioni, Rodrigo Garcia Motta, Shinji Takai, Márcio Garcia Ribeiro
Mycobacterium species and the virulence-associated proteins (vapA, vapB, and vapN genes) of Rhodococcus equi isolated from 330 lymph nodes of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) intended for human consumption were investigated. Thirty-six (10.9%) R. equi strains were isolated; 3.3% (n = 11/330) were from white-lipped peccary lymph nodes, and 7.6% (25/330) were from collared peccary lymph nodes. Among the 11 isolates of R. equi from the white-lipped peccaries, 90...
March 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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