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András Táncsics, István Máthé, Tibor Benedek, Erika M Tóth, Ewelina Atasayar, Cathrin Spröer, Károly Márialigeti, Tamás Felföldi, Balázs Kriszt
A Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, mesophilic bacterium, designated H004T, was isolated from water sample of the hypersaline and heliothermal Lake Ursu, Sovata, Romania. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain H004T formed a distinct phyletic lineage within the genus Rhodococcus. It shared the highest 16S rRNA gene similarity with Rhodococcus yunnanensis YIM 70056T (98.80%), followed by Rhodococcus fascians LMG 3623T (98.73%), Rhodococcus cercidiphylli YIM 65003T (98.73%), Rhodococcus cerastii C5T (98...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Ryszard Dobrowolski, Aleksandra Szcześ, Magdalena Czemierska, Anna Jarosz-Wikołazka
The adsorption of Cd(II), Pb(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Cr(VI) ions on the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) obtained from bacterial strain Rhodococcus opacus and Rhodococcus rhodochrous was investigated by the static sorption method. Influence of pH, time and temperature were studied. It was found that the influence of the pH value and time of adsorption depends on the type of adsorbed ions. For all investigated systems an increase of temperature above 35°C reduces adsorption. However, the static sorption capacities values oscillate around 1...
November 16, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Andrew C Schuerger, Wayne L Nicholson
Bacterial growth at low pressure is a new research area with implications for predicting microbial activity in clouds and the bulk atmosphere on Earth and for modeling the forward contamination of planetary surfaces like Mars. Here, we describe experiments on the recovery and identification of 20 species of bacterial hypobarophiles (def., growth under hypobaric conditions of approximately 1-2 kPa) in 10 genera capable of growth at 0.7 kPa. Hypobarophilic bacteria, but not archaea or fungi, were recovered from diverse soils, and high numbers of hypobarophiles were recovered from Arctic and Siberian permafrost soils...
November 21, 2016: Astrobiology
Pragatheswari Dhandapani, Jiancheng Song, Ondrej Novak, Paula E Jameson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pisum sativum L. (pea) seed is a source of carbohydrate and protein for the developing plant. By studying pea seeds inoculated by the cytokinin-producing bacterium, Rhodococcus fascians, we sought to determine the impact of both an epiphytic (avirulent) strain and a pathogenic strain on source-sink activity within the cotyledons during and following germination. METHODS: Bacterial spread was monitored microscopically, and real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was used to determine the expression of cytokinin biosynthesis, degradation and response regulator gene family members, along with expression of family members of SWEET, SUT, CWINV and AAP genes - gene families identified initially in pea by transcriptomic analysis...
November 17, 2016: Annals of Botany
Dongping Wang, Hakim Boukhalfa, Oana Marina, Doug S Ware, Tim J Goering, Fengjie Sun, Hajnalka E Daligault, Chien-Chi Lo, Momchilo Vuyisich, Shawn R Starkenburg
Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a high explosive released to the environment as a result of weapons manufacturing and testing worldwide. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Technical Area (TA) 16 260 Outfall discharged high-explosives-bearing water from a high-explosives-machining facility to Cañon de Valle during 1951 through 1996. These discharges served as a primary source of high-explosives and inorganic-element contamination in the area. Data indicate that springs, surface water, alluvial groundwater, and perched-intermediate groundwater contain explosive compounds, including RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine); HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine); and TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene)...
November 17, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Shizong Wang, Anja Miltner, Karolina M Nowak
Metamitron is one of the most commonly used herbicide in sugar beet and flower bulb cultures. Numerous laboratory and field studies on sorption and degradation of metamitron were performed. Detailed biodegradation studies in soil using (13)C-isotope labeling are still missing. Therefore, we aimed at providing a detailed turnover mass balance of (13)C6-metamitron in soil microcosms over 80 days. In the biotic system, metamitron mineralized rapidly, and (13)CO2 finally constituted 60% of the initial (13)C6-metamitron equivalents...
November 4, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Liliana Gonzalez-Osorio, Kelvin Luong, Samatar Jirde, Bruce A Palfey, Jessica L Vey
Dibenzothiophene monooxygenase is the initiating enzyme in the Rhodococcus 4S biodesulfurization pathway. A member of the Class D flavin monooxygenases, it uses FMN to activate molecular oxygen for oxygenation of the substrate, dibenzothiophene. Here, we have used stopped-flow spectrophotometry to show that DszC forms a peroxyflavin intermediate in the absence of substrate. Mutagenesis of Ser163 and His391 to Ala appears to decrease the binding affinity for reduced FMN and eliminates the enzyme's ability to stabilize the peroxyflavin intermediate...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Natalie Gumataotao, K P Wasantha Lankathilaka, Brian Bennett, Richard C Holz
The Fe-type nitrile hydratase activator protein from Rhodococcus equi TG328-2 ( Re NHase-TG328-2) was successfully expressed and purified.  Sequence analysis and homology modeling suggest that it is a G3E P-loop GTPase within the COG0523 subfamily.  Kinetic studies revealed that the Fe-type activator protein is capable of hydrolyzing GTP to GDP with a k cat value of 1.2 x 10(-3) s(-1) and a K m value of 40 μM in the presence of 5 mM MgCl2 in 50 mM HEPES at pH 8.0.  The addition of divalent metal ions such as Co(II), which binds to the Re NHase-TG328-2 activator protein with a K d of 2...
November 2, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Wai Ling Cheung, Maria Y Chen, Mikhail O Maksimov, A James Link
Lasso peptides are a member of the superclass of ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs). Like all RiPPs, lasso peptides are derived from a gene-encoded precursor protein. The biosynthesis of lasso peptides requires two enzymatic activities: proteolytic cleavage between the leader peptide and the core peptide in the precursor protein, accomplished by the B enzymes, and ATP-dependent isopeptide bond formation, accomplished by the C enzymes. In a subset of lasso peptide biosynthetic gene clusters from Gram-positive organisms, the B enzyme is split between two proteins...
October 26, 2016: ACS Central Science
Eleonora Egidi, Jennifer L Wood, Edward M Fox, Wuxing Liu, Ashley E Franks
Rhodococcus erythropolis NSX2 is a rhizobacterium isolated from a heavy metal-contaminated environment. The 6.2-Mb annotated genome sequence shows that this strain harbors genes associated with heavy-metal resistance and xenobiotics degradation.
October 20, 2016: Genome Announcements
Samiya Khan, D K Adhikari, Sanjay Gupta, Nidhi Gupta
OBJECTIVES: With the view of designing a single biocatalyst for biorefining, carbazole dioxygenase was cloned from Pseudomonas sp. and expressed in Rhodococcus sp. RESULTS: The recombinant, IGTS8, degraded both carbazole and dibenzothiophene at 400 mg/l in 24 h. Maximum carbazole degradation was in 1:1 (v/v) hexadecane/aqueous phase. Anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, fluoranthene and fluorine were also degraded without affecting the aliphatic component. CONCLUSIONS: Recombinant Rhodococcus sp...
October 27, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
Thilini Piushani Keerthirathne, Dhammika Nayoma Magana-Arachchi, Dushantha Madegedara, Suneth Sithumini Sooriyapathirana
BACKGROUND: Mycobacteria have a spectrum of virulence and different susceptibilities to antibiotics. Distinguishing mycobacterial species is vital as patients with non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections present clinical features that are similar to those of patients with tuberculosis. Thus, rapid differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from NTM is critical to administer appropriate treatment. Hence the aim of the study was to rapid identification of mycobacterial species present in bronchial washings using multiplex real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and to determine the drug susceptibility in identified mycobacterial species...
October 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Maryam Bello-Akinosho, Rosina Makofane, Rasheed Adeleke, Mapitsi Thantsha, Michael Pillay, George Johannes Chirima
Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH-) polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates' partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA) production...
2016: BioMed Research International
C A Müller, A M Weingartner, A Dennig, A J Ruff, H Gröger, Ulrich Schwaneberg
A novel whole cell cascade for double oxidation of cyclooctane to cyclooctanone was developed. The one-pot oxidation cascade requires only a minimum of reaction components: resting E. coli cells in aqueous buffered medium (=catalyst), the target substrate and oxygen as environmental friendly oxidant. Conversion of cyclooctane was catalysed with high efficiency (50% yield) and excellent selectivity (>94%) to cyclooctanone. The reported oxidation cascade represents a novel whole cell system for double oxidation of non-activated alkanes including an integrated cofactor regeneration...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Michelle Coleman, Kyle Kuskie, Mei Liu, Keith Chaffin, Melissa Libal, Steve Giguère, Lawrence Bernstein, Noah Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
P Carvajal, M Alejandro Dinamarca, P Baeza, E Camú, J Ojeda
OBJECTIVE: To remove dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyl-dibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) adsorbed on alumina, silica and sepiolite through biodesulfurization (BDS) using Rhodococcus Rhodochrous spp., that selectively reduce sulfur molecules without generating of gaseous pollutants. RESULTS: The adsorption of DBT and 4,6-DMDBT was affected by the properties of the supports, including particle size and the presence of surface acidic groups. The highest adsorption of both sulfur-containing organic molecules used particle sizes of 0...
October 20, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
Adam P Rofe, Luther J Davis, Jean L Whittingham, Elizabeth C Latimer-Bowman, Anthony J Wilkinson, Paul R Pryor
Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) is an important pulmonary pathogen in foals that often leads to the death of the horse. The bacterium harbors a virulence plasmid that encodes numerous virulence-associated proteins (Vaps) including VapA that is essential for intracellular survival inside macrophages. However, little is known about the precise function of VapA. Here, we demonstrate that VapA causes perturbation to late endocytic organelles with swollen endolysosome organelles having reduced Cathepsin B activity and an accumulation of LBPA, LC3 and Rab7...
October 19, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Jizhe Sun, Huimin Yu, Jie Chen, Hui Luo, Zhongyao Shen
Rhodococcus ruber TH was selected as a parent strain to engineer for biomanufacturing of ammonium acrylate; the characteristics of this strain included accelerated growth rate, high cell tolerance and natively overexpressed nitrile hydratase (NHase). Transcriptome analysis revealed that the transcription levels of the native NHase, amidase and nitrilase were extremely high, moderate and extremely low, respectively. Through NHase-amidase double-knockout and amidase single-knockout, the engineered strains R. ruber THdAdN and R...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Jennifer M Willingham-Lane, Londa J Berghaus, Steeve Giguère, Mary K Hondalus
The soil-dwelling, saprophytic actinomycete Rhodococcus equi is a multihost, facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages. When inhaled by susceptible foals, it causes severe bronchopneumonia. It is also a pathogen of pigs, which may develop submaxillary lymphadenitis upon exposure. R. equi isolates obtained from foals and pigs possess conjugative plasmids housing a pathogenicity island (PAI) containing a novel family of genes of unknown function called the virulence-associated protein or vap family. The PAI regions of the equine and swine plasmids differ in vap gene composition, with equine isolates possessing six vap genes, including the major virulence determinant vapA, while the PAIs of swine isolates house vapB and five other unique vap genes...
September 2016: MSphere
Yuxin Xu, Man Yu, Alin Shen
Rhodococcus sp. WB1 is a polychlorinated biphenyl degrader which was isolated from contaminated soil in Zhejiang, China. Here, we present the complete genome sequence. The analysis of this genome indicated that a biphenyl-degrading gene cluster and several xenobiotic metabolism pathways are harbored.
October 13, 2016: Genome Announcements
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