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P Carvajal, M Alejandro Dinamarca, P Baeza, E Camú, J Ojeda
OBJECTIVE: To remove dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyl-dibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) adsorbed on alumina, silica and sepiolite through biodesulfurization (BDS) using Rhodococcus Rhodochrous spp., that selectively reduce sulfur molecules without generating of gaseous pollutants. RESULTS: The adsorption of DBT and 4,6-DMDBT was affected by the properties of the supports, including particle size and the presence of surface acidic groups. The highest adsorption of both sulfur-containing organic molecules used particle sizes of 0...
October 20, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
Adam P Rofe, Luther J Davis, Jean L Whittingham, Elizabeth C Latimer-Bowman, Anthony J Wilkinson, Paul R Pryor
Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) is an important pulmonary pathogen in foals that often leads to the death of the horse. The bacterium harbors a virulence plasmid that encodes numerous virulence-associated proteins (Vaps) including VapA that is essential for intracellular survival inside macrophages. However, little is known about the precise function of VapA. Here, we demonstrate that VapA causes perturbation to late endocytic organelles with swollen endolysosome organelles having reduced Cathepsin B activity and an accumulation of LBPA, LC3 and Rab7...
October 19, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Jizhe Sun, Huimin Yu, Jie Chen, Hui Luo, Zhongyao Shen
Rhodococcus ruber TH was selected as a parent strain to engineer for biomanufacturing of ammonium acrylate; the characteristics of this strain included accelerated growth rate, high cell tolerance and natively overexpressed nitrile hydratase (NHase). Transcriptome analysis revealed that the transcription levels of the native NHase, amidase and nitrilase were extremely high, moderate and extremely low, respectively. Through NHase-amidase double-knockout and amidase single-knockout, the engineered strains R. ruber THdAdN and R...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Jennifer M Willingham-Lane, Londa J Berghaus, Steeve Giguère, Mary K Hondalus
The soil-dwelling, saprophytic actinomycete Rhodococcus equi is a multihost, facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages. When inhaled by susceptible foals, it causes severe bronchopneumonia. It is also a pathogen of pigs, which may develop submaxillary lymphadenitis upon exposure. R. equi isolates obtained from foals and pigs possess conjugative plasmids housing a pathogenicity island (PAI) containing a novel family of genes of unknown function called the virulence-associated protein or vap family. The PAI regions of the equine and swine plasmids differ in vap gene composition, with equine isolates possessing six vap genes, including the major virulence determinant vapA, while the PAIs of swine isolates house vapB and five other unique vap genes...
September 2016: MSphere
Yuxin Xu, Man Yu, Alin Shen
Rhodococcus sp. WB1 is a polychlorinated biphenyl degrader which was isolated from contaminated soil in Zhejiang, China. Here, we present the complete genome sequence. The analysis of this genome indicated that a biphenyl-degrading gene cluster and several xenobiotic metabolism pathways are harbored.
October 13, 2016: Genome Announcements
Soumya Banerjee, S R Joshi, Tamal Mandal, Gopinath Halder
A microbial treatment of Cr(6+) contaminated wastewater with a chromium reducing bacteria isolated from coal mine area was investigated. In a series of batch study metal removal was executed under different parametric conditions which include pH (2-7), temperature (20-50 °C), initial Cr(6+) concentration (1-100 mg/L), substrate utilization and its overall effect on biomass generation. Impact of oxygen availability was checked at different agitation speed and its role on the remedial process. Liquid phase reduction of Cr(6+) was measured in terms of substrate reduction and total biomass yield...
October 8, 2016: Chemosphere
Ethan D Goddard-Borger, Christina Tysoe, Stephen G Withers
Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GCL), or Krabbe disease, is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by a deficiency in galactosylceramidase (GALC), which hydrolyses galactosylceramide and galactosylsphingosine (psychosine). Early detection of GCL in newborns is essential for timely therapeutic intervention and could be achieved by testing infant blood samples with isotopically labeled lysosmal enzyme substrates and mass spectrometry. While isotopically labeled psychosine would be a useful tool for the early diagnosis of GCL, its synthesis is lengthy and expensive...
September 22, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Nobuyuki Yoshida, Takanori Yano, Kaori Kedo, Takuya Fujiyoshi, Rina Nagai, Megumi Iwano, Eiji Taguchi, Tomoki Nishida, Hiroshi Takagi
Rhodococcus erythropolis N9T-4, isolated from stored crude oil, shows extremely oligotrophic features and can grow on a basal medium without any additional carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and energy sources, but requires CO2 for its oligotrophic growth. Transmission electron microscopic observation showed that a relatively large and spherical compartment was observed in a N9T-4 cell grown under oligotrophic conditions. In most cases, only one compartment was observed per cell, but in some cases, it was localized at each pole of the cell, suggesting that it divides at cell division...
October 7, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Phillip L van der Peet, Masahiro Nagata, Sayali Shah, Jonathan M White, Sho Yamasaki, Spencer J Williams
Mincle (macrophage-inducible C-type lectin) is a C-type lectin receptor that provides the capacity for immune sensing of a range of pathogen- and commensal-derived glycolipids. Mincle can recognize mycolic and/or corynomycolic acid esters of trehalose, glycerol and glucose from mycobacteria and corynebacteria. While simple straight-chain long fatty acids (e.g. behenic acid) can substitute for mycolic acid on trehalose and glycerol and maintain robust signalling through Mincle, glucose monobehenate has been reported to be much less active than glucose monocorynomycolate (GMCM)...
October 4, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Yang Liu, Fei Cao, Hui Xiong, Yanbing Shen, Min Wang
To develop a quick method for the preliminarily screening of mutant strains that can accumulate 9α-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (9α-OH-AD), a high-throughput screening method was presented by applying the principle that 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) can react with ketones to produce precipitation. The optimal color assay conditions were the substrate androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD) concentration at 2.0 g/L, the ratio of AD to DNPH solution at 1:4, and the sulfuric acid and ethanol solution percentages in DNPH solution at 2% and 35%, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Antonio Velasco, Arturo Aburto-Medina, Esmaeil Shahsavari, Sergio Revah, Irmene Ortiz
Abiotic and biotic processes can be used to remediate DDX (DDT, DDD, DDE, and DDNS) contaminated soils; these processes can be fostered using specific carbon-amendments to stimulate particular soil indigenous microbial communities to improve rates or extent of degradation. In this study, toluene and glycerol were evaluated as cosubstrates under aerobic and anoxic conditions to determine the degradation efficiencies of DDX and to elucidate possible degradation mechanisms. Slurry microcosms experiments were performed during 60 days using pretreated soil with zero-valent iron (ZVI)...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Lei Huang, Wei Wang, Sufen Zhang, Shenghua Tang, Pengfei Zhao, Qingfu Ye
Decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) is one of the most frequently detected flame retardants in terrestrial environments. However, the fate of DecaBDE and its transport in an earthworm-soil system with and without a DecaBDE-degrading strain have rarely been evaluated. In this study, (14)C-DecaBDE was self-synthesized, and a DBDE-degrading strain, Rhodococcus erythropolis, was used in an earthworm-soil system. DecaBDE showed limited degradation and mineralization after 35days of all treatments. The bound-residue (BR) formation in soil was <2...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
I P Solyanikova, O V Borzova, E V Emelyanova, E S Shumkova, N V Prisyazhnaya, E G Plotnikova, L A Golovleva
Dioxygenases induced during benzoate degradation by the actinobacterium Rhodococcus wratislaviensis G10 strain degrading haloaromatic compounds were studied. Rhodococcus wratislaviensis G10 completely degraded 2 g/liter benzoate during 30 h and 10 g/liter during 200 h. Washed cells grown on benzoate retained respiration activity for more than 90 days, and a high activity of benzoate dioxygenase was recorded for 10 days. Compared to the enzyme activities with benzoate, the activity of benzoate dioxygenases was 10-30% with 13 of 35 substituted benzoate analogs...
September 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Xiaowei Gong, Guanghui Ma, Yanqing Duan, Donglai Zhu, Yongkuan Chen, Ke-Qin Zhang, Jinkui Yang
Nicotine in tobacco is harmful to health and the environment, so there is an environmental requirement to remove nicotine from tobacco and tobacco wastes. In this study, the biotransformation of nicotine by Rhodococcus sp. Y22 was investigated, and three metabolites (NIC1, NIC4 and NIC5) were isolated by column separation, preparative TLC and solid plate's method, respectively. NIC1 was identified as 6-hydoxynicotine based on the results of NMR, MS, HPLC-UV and HRESIMS analysis; NIC4 was a novel compound and identified as 5-(3-methyl-[1,3]oxazinan-2-ylidene)-5H-pyridin-2-one based on the results of NMR, MS and UV analysis; NIC5 was identified as nicotine blue based on the results of NMR and MS analysis...
November 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Anusith Thanapimmetha, Tharatron Suwaleerat, Maythee Saisriyoot, Yusuf Chisti, Penjit Srinophakun
Production of carotenoids by Rhodococcus opacus PD630 is reported. A modified mineral salt medium formulated with glycerol as an inexpensive carbon source was used for the fermentation. Ammonium acetate was the nitrogen source. A dry cell mass concentration of nearly 5.4 g/L could be produced in shake flasks with a carotenoid concentration of 0.54 mg/L. In batch culture in a 5 L bioreactor, without pH control, the maximum dry biomass concentration was ~30 % lower than in shake flasks and the carotenoids concentration was 0...
September 19, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Elisa Anastasi, Iain MacArthur, Mariela Scortti, Sonsiray Alvarez, Steeve Giguère, Jose A Vazquez-Boland
We report a comparative study of 29 representative genomes of the animal pathogen Rhodococcus equi The analyses showed that R. equi is genetically homogeneous and clonal, with a large core genome accounting for ≈80% of an isolates' gene content. An open pangenome, even distribution of accessory genes among the isolates, and absence of significant core-genome recombination, indicated that gene gain/loss is a main driver of R. equi genome evolution. Traits previously predicted to be important in R. equi physiology, virulence and niche adaptation were part of the core genome...
September 16, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Monika Stompor
The aim of this research was to select microbial strains capable of transforming flavonoid compounds containing an amino group. 6-Aminoflavone (1) was used as a model compound. Biotransformation of 1 by the cultures of Rhodococcus sp. DSM 364 and Gordonia sp. DSM 44456 bacteria led to 6-acetamidoflavone (2) with the isolated yields in 86% and 93%, respectively. The structure of the product was determined on the basis of spectroscopic data, including NMR spectra ((1)H, (13)C, (1)H-(1)H, (1)H-(13)C, and DEPT 135°), a UV and IR spectrum and HR ESI-MS analysis...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Praveen Gundelly, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Julie A Ribes, Alice Thornton
Rhodococcus equi is an unusual zoonotic pathogen that can cause life-threatening diseases in susceptible hosts. Twelve patients with R. equi infection in Kentucky were compared to 137 cases reported in the literature. Although lungs were the primary sites of infection in immunocompromised patients, extrapulmonary involvement only was more common in immunocompetent patients (P < 0.0001). Mortality in R. equi-infected HIV patients was lower in the HAART era (8%) than in pre-HAART era (56%) (P < 0.0001), suggesting that HAART improves prognosis in these patients...
2016: BioMed Research International
Annett Mikolasch, Anne Reinhard, Anna Alimbetova, Anel Omirbekova, Lisa Pasler, Peter Schumann, Johannes Kabisch, Togzhan Mukasheva, Frieder Schauer
Heavy contamination of soils by crude oil is omnipresent in areas of oil recovery and exploitation. Bioremediation by indigenous plants in cooperation with hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms is an economically and ecologically feasible means to reclaim contaminated soils. To study the effects of indigenous soil bacteria capable of utilizing oil hydrocarbons on biomass production of plants growing in oil-contaminated soils eight bacterial strains were isolated from contaminated soils in Kazakhstan and characterized for their abilities to degrade oil components...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Daisuke Inoue, Tsubasa Tsunoda, Kazuko Sawada, Norifumi Yamamoto, Yuji Saito, Kazunari Sei, Michihiko Ike
In recent years, several strains capable of degrading 1,4-dioxane have been isolated from the genera Pseudonocardia and Rhodococcus. This study was conducted to evaluate the 1,4-dioxane degradation potential of phylogenetically diverse strains in these genera. The abilities to degrade 1,4-dioxane as a sole carbon and energy source and co-metabolically with tetrahydrofuran (THF) were evaluated for 13 Pseudonocardia and 12 Rhodococcus species. Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans JCM 13855(T), which is a 1,4-dioxane degrading bacterium also known as P...
November 2016: Biodegradation
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