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Lina Yang, Yuanyuan Liu, Chao Sun, Xinrui Yang, Zhen Yang, Juntao Ran, Qiuning Zhang, Hong Zhang, Xinyu Wang, Xiaohu Wang
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) exhibits radioresistance to conventional rays, due to its DNA damage repair systems. NSCLC may potentially be sensitized to radiation treatment by reducing those factors that continuously enhance the repair of damaged DNA. In the present study, normal lung fibroblast MRC-5 and lung cancer A549 cells were treated with NU7026 and CGK733, which are inhibitors of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (PKcs) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR), respectively, followed by exposure to X-rays and carbon ion irradiation...
November 2015: Oncology Letters
Yufeng Wang, Yasuhiro Kuramitsu, Byron Baron, Takao Kitagawa, Kazuhiro Tokuda, Junko Akada, Kazuyuki Nakamura
Microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3)-II is essential for autophagosome formation and is widely used to monitor autophagic activity. We show that CGK733 induces LC3 II and LC3-puncta accumulation, which are not involved in the activation of autophagy. The treatment of CGK733 did not alter the autophagic flux and was unrelated to p62 degradation. Treatment with CGK733 activated the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase/CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (PERK/CHOP) pathways and elevated the expression of p21Waf1/Cip1...
November 24, 2015: Oncotarget
Yufeng Wang, Yasuhiro Kuramitsu, Byron Baron, Takao Kitagawa, Junko Akada, Kazuhiro Tokuda, Dan Cui, Kazuyuki Nakamura
Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) are indispensable for the physiology of organisms and the molecular regulation of cells. We observed that CGK733, a synthetic chemical substance, induced non-apoptotic cell death and stimulated reversible calcium sequestration by vesicles in pancreatic cancer cells. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3/C/EBP homologous protein (PERK/CHOP) signaling pathway was shown to be activated by treatment with CGK733. Ionomycin, an ER stress drug and calcium ionophore, can activate PERK/CHOP signaling and accelerate CGK733-induced calcium sequestration...
September 22, 2015: Oncotarget
Edwardine Labay, Elena V Efimova, Benjamin K Quarshie, Daniel W Golden, Ralph R Weichselbaum, Stephen J Kron
Much like replicative senescence, the irreversible cell-cycle arrest induced by eroded telomeres, accelerated senescence occurs when replicative cells suffer irreparable DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Along with apoptosis and necrosis, senescence is a desirable outcome in cancer treatment with ionizing radiation (IR) or chemotherapy. In both normal and cancer cells, DSBs promote the assembly of IR-induced foci (IRIF), domains of modified chromatin that serve a key role in DNA damage signaling. IRIF persistence is a critical determinant of accelerated senescence, making drugs that promote persistent IRIF an attractive strategy to sensitize cancer to genotoxic therapy...
March 2011: International Journal of High Throughput Screening
Hongbo Chen, Xiaobin Zeng, Chunmei Gao, Pinghong Ming, Jianping Zhang, Caiping Guo, Lanzhen Zhou, Yin Lu, Lijun Wang, Laiqiang Huang, Xiangjiu He, Lin Mei
We previously reported that 7-hydroxy-5, 4'-dimethoxy-2-arylbenzofuran (HDAB) purified from Livistona chinensis is a key active agent. The present study investigated the function and molecular mechanism of HDAB. HDAB treatment of cervical cancer cells resulted in S phase arrest and apoptosis, together with cyclin A2 and CDK2 upregulation. Cyclin A2 siRNA and a CDK inhibitor efficiently relieved S phase arrest but increased the apoptosis rate. Mechanistic studies revealed that HDAB treatment significantly increased DNA strand breaks in an alkaline comet assay and induced ATM, CHK1, CHK2 and H2A...
2015: Scientific Reports
F Fallone, S Britton, L Nieto, B Salles, C Muller
Tumor cells adaptation to severe oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) plays a major role in tumor progression. The transcription factor HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor 1), whose α-subunit is stabilized under hypoxic conditions is a key component of this process. Recent studies showed that two members of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs) family, ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase), regulate the hypoxic-dependent accumulation of HIF-1. These proteins initiate cellular stress responses when DNA damage occurs...
September 12, 2013: Oncogene
Huan Wang, Bin Zuo, Haibin Wang, Laifeng Ren, Peng Yang, Ming Zeng, Dan Duan, Cong Liu, Mingyuan Li
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most deadly human cancers. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the predominant risk factors associated with the development of HCC and complicates the treatment of HCC. In this study, we demonstrate that a HBV-positive HCC cell line HepG2.2.15, was more resistant to chemotherapy agents than its parental HBV-negative cell line HepG2. HBV-positive HCC cells exhibited defective Chk1 phosphorylation and increased chromosomal instability. CGK733, a small molecule inhibitor reportedly targeting the kinase activities of ATM and ATR, significantly enhanced taxol-induced cytotoxicity in HBV-positive HepG2...
May 25, 2012: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shinji Kuroda, Yasuo Urata, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara
Radiotherapy plays a central part in cancer treatment, and use of radiosensitizing agents can greatly enhance this modality. Although studies have shown that several chemotherapeutic agents have the potential to increase the radiosensitivity of tumor cells, investigators have also studied a number of molecularly targeted agents as radiosensitizers in clinical trials based on reasonably promising preclinical data. Recent intense research into the DNA damage-signaling pathway revealed that ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and the Mre11-Rad50-NBS1 (MRN) complex play central roles in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints and that these molecules are promising targets for radiosensitization...
2012: Acta Medica Okayama
Sandra Cuffe, Catherine M Dowling, James Claffey, Clara Pampillón, Megan Hogan, John M Fitzpatrick, Michael P Carty, Matthias Tacke, R William G Watson
BACKGROUND: While locally advanced prostate cancer is initially treatable with androgen ablation, eventually cells develop a castrate-resistant phenotype. Currently, there are no effective treatments for this form of the disease with Docetaxel only providing a small survival advantage. In this study, the effects of novel derivatives of titanocene dichloride on prostate cancer cell lines has been investigated. METHODS: Cellular effects were assessed using the crystal violet assay and the clonogenic survival assay...
February 1, 2011: Prostate
Akihisa Takahashi, Eiichiro Mori, Xiaoming Su, Yosuke Nakagawa, Noritomo Okamoto, Hirokazu Uemura, Natsuko Kondo, Taichi Noda, Atsushi Toki, Yosuke Ejima, David J Chen, Ken Ohnishi, Takeo Ohnishi
Heating induces histone H2AX phosphorylation at serine 139 (gammaH2AX). Phosphorylated H2AX subsequently forms foci in numerous mammalian cell lines. The aim of this study was to clarify details in the mechanisms involved in the phosphorylation of H2AX after heating. The cell lines used were DNA-PKcs knockout cells, ATM knockout cells, and their parental cell lines. To elucidate mechanisms of induction of phosphorylation of H2AX after heating, ATM/ATR inhibitor (CGK733) and DNA-PK inhibitor (NU7026) were used...
2010: Journal of Radiation Research
John P Alao, Per Sunnerhagen
The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and the ATM- related (ATR) kinases play a central role in facilitating the resistance of cancer cells to genotoxic treatment regimens. The components of the ATM and ATR regulated signaling pathways thus provide attractive pharmacological targets, since their inhibition enhances cellular sensitivity to chemo- and radiotherapy. Caffeine as well as more specific inhibitors of ATM (KU55933) or ATM and ATR (CGK733) have recently been shown to induce cell death in drug-induced senescent tumor cells...
2009: Radiation Oncology
Sujoy Bhattacharya, Ramesh M Ray, Leonard R Johnson
Although p53 is known to play a critical role in the proliferation of gastrointestinal epithelia, the role of the Mdm2/p53 pathway in response to inducers of apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells is unknown. Our data show that camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis correlated with increased p53, p21Cip1, and Mdm2 protein levels, with a simultaneous increase in ATR Ser428, p53 Ser15 and Mdm2 Ser166 phosphorylation in IEC-6 cells. Increased p53 levels and its phosphorylation increased Bax protein, caspase-9, -3 activation and apoptosis...
April 2009: Cellular Signalling
Elvira Crescenzi, Giuseppe Palumbo, Jasper de Boer, Hugh J M Brady
PURPOSE: Premature or stress-induced senescence is a major cellular response to chemotherapy in solid tumors and contributes to successful treatment. However, senescent tumor cells are resistant to apoptosis and may also reenter the cell cycle. We set out to find a means to specifically induce senescent tumor cells to undergo cell death and not to reenter the cell cycle that may have general application in cancer therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We investigated the mechanisms regulating cell survival in drug-induced senescent tumor cells...
March 15, 2008: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Séverine Cruet-Hennequart, Macdara T Glynn, Laura S Murillo, Seamus Coyne, Michael P Carty
The chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin and oxaliplatin act by induction of DNA damage, including monoadducts, intrastrand and interstrand crosslinks. An increased understanding of the repair and replication of platinum-damaged DNA is required to improve the effectiveness of these drugs in killing cancer cells. We have investigated the effect of expression of DNA polymerase eta (poleta), a translesion synthesis (TLS) enzyme, on the response of human cell lines to cisplatin and oxaliplatin. Poleta-deficient cells are more sensitive to both drugs than are normal cells...
April 2, 2008: DNA Repair
Michael Goldstein, Wynand P Roos, Bernd Kaina
Cyclophosphamide is one of the most often used anticancer drugs. Although DNA interstrand cross-links are considered responsible for its cytotoxicity, the mechanism of initiation and execution of cell death is largely unknown. Using the cyclophosphamide analogue mafosfamide, which does not need metabolic activation, we show that mafosfamide induces apoptosis dose and time dependently in lymphoblastoid cells, with clearly more apoptosis in p53(wt) cells. We identified two upstream processes that initiate apoptosis, DNA replication blockage and transcriptional inhibition...
May 15, 2008: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Jaejoon Won, Mina Kim, Nuri Kim, Jin Hee Ahn, Woo Gil Lee, Sung Soo Kim, Ki-Young Chang, Yong-Weon Yi, Tae Kook Kim
Most somatic cells encounter an inevitable destiny, senescence. Little progress has been made in identifying small molecules that extend the finite lifespan of normal human cells. Here we show that the intrinsic 'senescence clock' can be reset in a reversible manner by selective modulation of the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) protein and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) protein with a small molecule, CGK733. This compound was identified by a high-throughput phenotypic screen with automated imaging. Employing a magnetic nanoprobe technology, magnetism-based interaction capture (MAGIC), we identified ATM as the molecular target of CGK733 from a genome-wide screen...
July 2006: Nature Chemical Biology
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