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Zixin Min, Yuanxu Guo, Mengyao Sun, Safdar Hussain, Yitong Zhao, Dongxian Guo, Huang Huang, Lisong Heng, Fujun Zhang, Qilan Ning, Yan Han, Peng Xu, Nannan Zhong, Jian Sun, Shemin Lu
Selenium (Se) deficiency brings about defects in the biosynthesis of several selenoproteins and has been associated with aberrant chondrogenesis. Selenocysteine (Sec) Insertion Sequence (SECIS) and SECIS binding protein 2 (SBP2) interaction is a very critical node for the metabolic balance between Se and selenoproteins. The Gpx1, Gpx4 and SelS have different binding affinities with SBP2 in cells. According to our results, both miR-181a-5p and SBP2 appeared to be selenium-sensitive and regulated the expression of selenoproteins in C28/I2 cells under Se sufficient environment...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Hesham Aly Helal, Mohamed Abdel Mohsen Ghanem, Ahmed Mohamed Al-Badawy, Mohamed Mammdouh Abdel Haleem, Manal Hassan Mousa
Background: Rhinoplasty in the elderly requires different surgical approaches due to the morphological and structural changes affecting the nose by time. Objectives: In this study we aim to evaluate the age-related cellular and architectural changes of nasal cartilages and soft tissue attachments. Methods: This prospective study included 80 patients undergoing rhinoplasty. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to age. Group I included 40 patients with an age range of 19-39 years...
September 21, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Michael V DeFazio, Nicole C Episalla, Chrisovalantis Lakhiani, James M Economides, Stephen B Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Brian T Feeley, Brian C Lau
Partial meniscectomy for meniscus tears is one of the most common procedures performed by orthopaedic surgeons. Much research has been done to evaluate the biomechanical consequences and clinical outcomes from meniscus débridement. Biomechanically, as the portion of the meniscus that is removed increases, greater contact pressures are experienced by the cartilage, which leads to altered knee mechanics. The use of partial meniscectomy to manage degenerative meniscus tears in knees with mild preexisting arthritis and mechanical symptoms may be beneficial; however, its routine use in the degenerative knee over physical therapy alone is not supported...
September 18, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Yan Wang, Zhijuan He, Xu Ma, Qingchun Li, Ning Li, Guofeng Liu
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to introduce a new technique for the correction of mild or moderate types of cryptotia. METHODS: During January 2010 to March 2015, patients with cryptotia deformities came to our hospital and were enrolled in this study. A new surgical method of correction of abnormal cartilage by combining irregular incisions in auricle malformation and directional transplantation of auricular cartilage was designed. The irregular Z shaped flap was designed to correct the skin defects...
September 20, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Pradipta-Kumar Parida, Raja Kalaiarasi, Arun Alexander
Introduction: Laryngotracheal trauma is a rare life-threatening emergency that requires early identification and immediate intervention. Here, we present 26 patients with laryngotracheal trauma from a tertiary hospital in India. The aim was to describe the clinical presentation and management of laryngotracheal trauma patients. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of laryngotracheal trauma patients treated between January 2011 and March 2016. Patients who presented with a breach in the laryngotracheal framework were included, while those who had penetrating neck injuries superficial to strap muscles/platysma, burn injuries, caustic ingestion, or endotracheal injuries were excluded from the study...
September 2018: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Hirotaka Iijima, Takuya Isho, Hiroshi Kuroki, Masaki Takahashi, Tomoki Aoyama
This systematic review with a meta-analysis aimed to summarize the current evidence of the effectiveness of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment for knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to examine whether rehabilitation is an effect modifier of the effect estimate of MSC treatment. A literature search yielded 659 studies, of which 35 studies met the inclusion criteria ( n  = 2385 patients; mean age: 36.0-74.5 years). The meta-analysis results suggested that MSC treatment through intra-articular injection or arthroscopic implantation significantly improved knee pain (standardized mean difference [SMD]: -1...
2018: NPJ Regenerative Medicine
Jasmin Koch, Fabian Unteregger, Flurin Honegger, Silke Potthast, Claudio Storck
OBJECTIVE: Type A cricothyroid joint (CTJ) leads to a higher elongation of the vocal folds than Type B/C CTJ. Therefore, the determination for the CTJ type is important whether to perform a cricoid-thyroid approximation for a pitch elevation in transwomen with gender dysphoria. This study aimed to develop a tool for clinicians and radiologists for distinguishing between Type A (cricoid cartilage protuberance) and Type B/C (flat surface with/without cartilage of the cricoid) CTJs on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT)...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Makoto Komura, Hiroko Komura, Hiroaki Komuro, Kenichiro Konishi, Kazuko Obana, Kenichi Ikebukuro, Atsuyuki Hikita, Kazuto Hoshi, Tsuyoshi Takato
BACKGROUND: Intratracheal injection of basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) has been shown to enlarge the tracheal lumen 4 weeks after treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of tracheal cartilage growth promotion by intratracheal injection of b-FGF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: New Zealand white rabbits were classified into four groups to receive either distilled water alone (Group 1; n = 16; control), 40 μg (Group 2; n = 10), 100 μg (Group 3; n = 13), or 200 μg (Group 4; n = 16) of b-FGF dissolved in water...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Kwong Ming Tse, Long Bin Tan, Shu Jin Lee, Mohamed Zulfikar Rasheed, Bien Keem Tan, Heow Pueh Lee
The Nuss procedure is the most minimally invasive and commonly used surgical correction for pectus excavatum (PE) by using a prebent pectus bar to elevate the deformed chest wall. However, there are some complications associated with this procedure such as postoperative pain as well as surgical uncertainties because of human judgment. It is therefore important to understand the biomechanical effect of the pectus bar on PE thoraces undergoing an operation to alleviate the postoperative pain as well as to improve surgical outcome...
October 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Shuang Liu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent stem cells that display the capacity to generate the tissue in which they reside. MSC have been used as progenitor cells to engineer cartilage implants that can be used to repair chondral and osteochondral lesions, or as trophic producers of bioactive factors to initiate endogenous regenerative activities in the arthritic joint. Targeted gene therapy might further enhance the capacity of MSC for chondrogenesis. By using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein genomic manipulation technique, target-gene-modified MSC would be a promising therapeutic option for regeneration of diseased joints in the treatment of RA...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Shuang Liu
Human-SCID grafting is a commonly used technique for the long-term investigation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) explants. To establish a chimeric immunological system in NOD/SCID mice, RA patient-derived pannus tissue from the synovial membrane, articular cartilage, and bone can be transplanted subcutaneously. The same patient-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cell chimerism can be successfully achieved by intraperitoneal engraftment. This xenograft model is able to be used for initial screening of human target-specified biologics...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Maya Miyoshi, Shuang Liu
Due to limitations of using patient-derived samples for systemic kinetic studies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) research, animal models are helpful for further understanding the pathophysiology of RA and seeking potential therapeutic targets or strategies. The collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model is one of the standard RA models used in preclinical research. The CIA model shares several pathological features with RA, such as breach of tolerance and generation of autoantibodies targeting collagen, synovial inflammatory cell infiltration, synovial hyperplasia, cartilage destruction, and bone erosion...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yuan Luo, Yiwen Zhang, Yuanliang Huang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the role of icariin, a Chinese traditional herbal medicine extracted from Epimedium, in osteoarthritis (OA), using the murine anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT)-induced model of OA and micromass culture of murine chondrocytes. MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-four three-month-old C57/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups: the sham group (no surgery and joint injection with normal saline) (N=8); the ACLT + ICA group (ACLT surgery and icariin treatment) (N=8); and the ACLT group (ACLT surgery and joint injection with normal saline) (N=8)...
September 23, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Siegmund Lang, Markus Loibl, Marietta Herrmann
BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) refers to an enriched platelet suspension in plasma. In addition to the clinical application of PRP in the context of various orthopedic diseases and beyond, PRP and platelet lysate (PL) have been in focus in the field of tissue engineering. In this review, we discuss the application of PRP as a cell culture supplement and as part of tissue engineering strategies, particularly emphasizing current hurdles and ambiguities regarding the efficacy of PRP in these approaches...
September 21, 2018: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
Vladimir Juras, Markus Schreiner, Didier Laurent, Štefan Zbýň, Vladimir Mlynarik, Pavol Szomolanyi, Benedikt Hager, Celeste Scotti, Jörg Goldhahn, Rahel Heule, Oliver Bieri, Siegfried Trattnig
OBJECTIVE: To investigate T2 mapping as a possible marker for low-grade human articular cartilage lesions during a one-year follow-up, possible changes during the follow-up and compare the reliability and sensitivity of these measurements on high-field (3 T) and ultra-high-field (7 T) MRI scanners. DESIGN: Twenty-one patients with femoral, tibial and patellar cartilage defect in the knee joint participated in the study. The MRI protocol consisted of morphological, as well as three-dimensional triple-echo steady-state (3D-TESS) T2 mapping sequences with similar parameters at 3T and 7T...
September 19, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Youichi Yasui, Yoshiharu Shimozono, Chun Wai Hung, Alberto Marangon, Eoghan T Hurley, Arianna L Gianakos, John G Kennedy
Residual symptoms often persist even after successful operative reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of ankle fractures. Concurrent ankle arthroscopic procedures (CAAPs) have been proposed to improve clinical outcomes; however, a dearth of evidence is available supporting this practice. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reoperation and complication rates after ORIF of ankle fractures with and without CAAPs. Reoperations and complications after ORIF of ankle fractures were identified using the PearlDiver database from January 2007 to December 2011...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Conrad Harrison, Cian Wade, Matthew Potter, Oliver Cassell
BACKGROUND: The excision of melanoma of the external ear poses a challenge to surgeons, who must achieve adequate oncological control while minimising impact on form and function. Cartilage-preserving surgery is an attractive option, as it leaves behind a scaffold for immediate reconstruction with a variety of techniques including full-thickness skin grafts (FTSGs) and local flaps. This manuscript will review the literature comparing cartilage-sparing surgery with composite excision of the skin and the cartilage for the treatment of auricular melanoma...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Zekai Mao, Pengcheng Wang, Qiyong Pan, Xiaojian Huang, Rui Zhang, Xiaobin Shang, Xiaohu Ma, Hongbo You
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation driven by proinflammatory cytokines; meanwhile, statins display anti-inflammatory effects. Here we assessed the effects of pravastatin on inflammatory rat chondrocytes and explored the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Rat articular chondrocytes were pretreated with pravastatin and subsequently stimulated with IL-1β. Then, the expression levels of OA- and autophagy-related effectors, at the mRNA and protein levels, were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively...
September 19, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Jiali Shen, Dongjian Shi, Liangliang Dong, Zhuying Zhang, Xiaojie Li, Mingqing Chen
Polydopamine (PDA) can greatly affect polymer's properties, due to the chemical and physical interactions between the polymers and PDA. In this study, PDA was demonstrated to adjust the pore structures and increase the mechanical properties of alginate hydrogel-based cartilage tissue scaffolds. Dopamine modified alginate (Alg-DA) was firstly synthesized by modification of Alg with DA. Alg-DA interacted with preprepared PDA nanoparticles and further crosslinked with calcium ions (Ca2+ ) to form the hydrogel scaffold (Alg-DA/PDA)...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
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