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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906061/laminin-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-11-regulate-fibronectin-levels-in-the-zebrafish-myotendinous-junction
#1
Molly H Jenkins, Sarah S Alrowaished, Michelle F Goody, Bryan D Crawford, Clarissa A Henry
BACKGROUND: Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell adhesion as well as signaling between cells and their microenvironment. Despite the importance of tightly regulated ECM remodeling for normal muscle development and function, mechanisms underlying ECM remodeling in vivo remain elusive. One excellent paradigm in which to study ECM remodeling in vivo is morphogenesis of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) during zebrafish skeletal muscle development. During MTJ development, there are dramatic shifts in the primary components comprising the MTJ matrix...
May 2, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905172/recommendations-for-pathologic-staging-ptnm-of-cancer-of-the-esophagus-and-esophagogastric-junction-for-the-8th-edition-ajcc-uicc-staging-manuals
#2
T W Rice, H Ishwaran, W L Hofstetter, D P Kelsen, C Apperson-Hansen, E H Blackstone
We report analytic and consensus processes that produced recommendations for pathologic stage groups (pTNM) of esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancer for the AJCC/UICC cancer staging manuals, 8th edition. The Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration provided data for 22,654 patients with epithelial esophageal cancers; 13,300 without preoperative therapy had pathologic assessment after esophagectomy or endoscopic treatment. Risk-adjusted survival for each patient was developed using random survival forest analysis to identify data-driven pathologic stage groups wherein survival decreased monotonically with increasing group, was distinctive between groups, and homogeneous within groups...
November 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905171/recommendations-for-clinical-staging-ctnm-of-cancer-of-the-esophagus-and-esophagogastric-junction-for-the-8th-edition-ajcc-uicc-staging-manuals
#3
Thomas W Rice, Hemant Ishwaran, Eugene H Blackstone, Wayne L Hofstetter, David P Kelsen, Carolyn Apperson-Hansen
We report analytic and consensus processes that produced recommendations for clinical stage groups (cTNM) of esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancer for the AJCC/UICC cancer staging manuals, 8th edition. The Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC) provided data on 22,123 clinically staged patients with epithelial esophageal cancers. Risk-adjusted survival for each patient was developed using random survival forest analysis from which (1) data-driven clinical stage groups were identified wherein survival decreased monotonically and was distinctive between and homogeneous within groups and (2) data-driven anatomic clinical stage groups based only on cTNM...
November 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905170/recommendations-for-neoadjuvant-pathologic-staging-yptnm-of-cancer-of-the-esophagus-and-esophagogastric-junction-for-the-8th-edition-ajcc-uicc-staging-manuals
#4
Thomas W Rice, Hemant Ishwaran, David P Kelsen, Wayne L Hofstetter, Carolyn Apperson-Hansen, Eugene H Blackstone
We report analytic and consensus processes that produced recommendations for neoadjuvant pathologic stage groups (ypTNM) of esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancer for the AJCC/UICC cancer staging manuals, 8th edition. The Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration provided data for 22,654 patients with epithelial esophageal cancers; 7,773 had pathologic assessment after neoadjuvant therapy. Risk-adjusted survival for each patient was developed. Random forest analysis identified data-driven neoadjuvant pathologic stage groups wherein survival decreased monotonically with increasing group, was distinctive between groups, and homogeneous within groups...
November 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904960/active-and-passive-involvement-of-claudins-in-the-pathophysiology-of-intestinal-inflammatory-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Christian Barmeyer, Michael Fromm, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke
Intestinal inflammatory diseases, four of which are discussed here, are associated with alterations of claudins. In ulcerative colitis, diarrhea and antigen entry into the mucosa occurs. Claudin-2 is upregulated but data on other claudins are still limited or vary (e.g., claudin-1 and -4). Apart from that, tight junction changes contribute to diarrhea via a leak flux mechanism, while protection against antigen entry disappears behind epithelial gross lesions (erosions) and apoptotic foci. Crohn's disease is additionally characterized by a claudin-5 and claudin-8 reduction which plays an active role in antigen uptake already before gross lesions appear...
November 30, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903977/dioscin-augments-hsv-tk-mediated-suicide-gene-therapy-for-melanoma-by-promoting-connexin-based-intercellular-communication
#6
Jianyong Xiao, Guangxian Zhang, Bin Li, Yingya Wu, Xijuan Liu, Yuhui Tan, Biaoyan Du
Suicide gene therapy is a promising strategy against melanoma. However, the low efficiency of the gene transfer technique can limit its application. Our preliminary data showed that dioscin, a glucoside saponin, could upregulate the expression of connexins Cx26 and Cx43, major components of gap junctions, in melanoma cells. We hypothesized that dioscin may increase the bystander effect of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV-tk/GCV) through increasing the formation of gap junctions. Further analysis showed that dioscin indeed could increase the gap junctional intercellular communication in B16 melanoma cells, resulting in more efficient GCV-induced bystander killing in B16tk cells...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902484/depletion-of-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-downregulates-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-cervical-cancer-cells
#7
Galina Shagieva, Lidiya Domnina, Olga Makarevich, Boris Chernyak, Vladimir Skulachev, Vera Dugina
In the course of cancer progression, epithelial cells often acquire morphological and functional characteristics of mesenchymal cells, a process known as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT provides epithelial cells with migratory, invasive, and stem cell capabilities. Reactive oxygen species produced by mitochondria (mtROS) could be of special importance for pro-tumorigenic signaling and EMT.In our study, we used mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 to lower the mtROS level and analyze their role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, adhesion junctions, and signaling pathways critical for tumorigenesis of cervical carcinomas...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902359/determinants-of-the-vp1-2a-junction-cleavage-by-the-3c-protease-in-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-infected-cells
#8
Thea Kristensen, Preben Normann, Maria Gullberg, Ulrik Fahnøe, Charlotta Polacek, Thomas Bruun Rasmussen, Graham J Belsham
The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid precursor, P1-2A, is cleaved by FMDV 3C protease to yield VP0, VP3, VP1 and 2A. Cleavage of the VP1/2A junction is the slowest. Serotype O FMDVs with uncleaved VP1-2A (having a K210E substitution in VP1; at position P2 in cleavage site) have been described previously and acquired a second site substitution (VP1 E83K) during virus rescue. Furthermore, introduction of the VP1 E83K substitution alone generated a second site change at the VP1/2A junction (2A L2P, position P2' in cleavage site)...
November 18, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901079/design-and-fabrication-of-six-volt-vertically-stacked-gaas-photovoltaic-power-converter
#9
Yongming Zhao, Yurun Sun, Yang He, Shuzhen Yu, Jianrong Dong
A six-volt vertically-stacked, high current GaAs photovoltaic power converter (PPC) has been designed and fabricated to produce output power over 1 W under monochromatic illumination. An N(++)-GaAs/P(++)-AlGaAs tunnel junctions (TJs) structure has been used for connecting each sub-cell in this vertically-stacked PPC device. The thickness of the each GaAs sub-cell has been derived based on the calculation of absorption depth of photons with a wavelength of 808 nm using absorption coefficient obtained from ellipsometry measurements...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899284/defective-lymphatic-valve-development-and-chylothorax-in-mice-with-a-lymphatic-specific-deletion-of-connexin43
#10
Stephanie J Munger, Michael J Davis, Alexander M Simon
Lymphatic valves (LVs) are cusped luminal structures that permit the movement of lymph in only one direction and are therefore critical for proper lymphatic vessel function. Congenital valve aplasia or agenesis can, in some cases, be a direct cause of lymphatic disease. Knowledge about the molecular mechanisms operating during the development and maintenance of LVs may thus aid in the establishment of novel therapeutic approaches to treat lymphatic disorders. In this study, we examined the role of Connexin43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), during valve development...
November 26, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899160/physiopathology-of-vesico-ureteral-reflux
#11
REVIEW
Salvatore Arena, Roberta Iacona, Pietro Impellizzeri, Tiziana Russo, Lucia Marseglia, Eloisa Gitto, Carmelo Romeo
Vescico-Ureteral Reflux (VUR) is a common condition in childhood, caused by a congenital anomaly at the Vescico-Ureteral Junction (VUJ) level. It seems that the main cause could be an abnormal embryological development occurred during the early stage of fetal life.Refluxing ureteral endings show structural and functional anomalies: previous studies have shown a significant decrease in alfa actin, miosin and desmin contents as well as an high rate of atrophy and muscular degeneration with disorganized muscular fibres...
November 29, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896839/dopamine-elevates-and-lowers-astroglial-ca-2-through-distinct-pathways-depending-on-local-synaptic-circuitry
#12
Alistair Jennings, Olga Tyurikova, Lucie Bard, Kaiyu Zheng, Alexey Semyanov, Christian Henneberger, Dmitri A Rusakov
Whilst astrocytes in culture invariably respond to dopamine with cytosolic Ca(2+) rises, the dopamine sensitivity of astroglia in situ and its physiological roles remain unknown. To minimize effects of experimental manipulations on astroglial physiology, here we monitored Ca(2+) in cells connected via gap junctions to astrocytes loaded whole-cell with cytosolic indicators in area CA1 of acute hippocampal slices. Aiming at high sensitivity of [Ca(2+) ] measurements, we also employed life-time imaging of the Ca(2+) indicator Oregon Green BAPTA-1...
November 29, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895596/reciprocal-modulation-of-ik1-ina-extends-excitability-in-cardiac-ventricular-cells
#13
Anthony Varghese
The inwardly rectifying potassium current (IK1) and the fast inward sodium current (INa) are reciprocally modulated in mammalian ventricular myocytes. An increase in the expression of channels responsible for one of these two currents results in a corresponding increase in expression of the other. These currents are critical in the propagation of action potentials (AP) during the normal functioning of the heart. This study identifies a physiological role for IK1-INa reciprocal modulation in ventricular fiber activation thresholds and conduction...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895587/vitamin-d-signaling-through-induction-of-paneth-cell-defensins-maintains-gut-microbiota-and-improves-metabolic-disorders-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-animal-models
#14
Danmei Su, Yuanyang Nie, Airu Zhu, Zishuo Chen, Pengfei Wu, Li Zhang, Mei Luo, Qun Sun, Linbi Cai, Yuchen Lai, Zhixiong Xiao, Zhongping Duan, Sujun Zheng, Guihui Wu, Richard Hu, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Aurelia Lugea, Zhenqui Liu, Stephen J Pandol, Yuan-Ping Han
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized as obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), is associated with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in epidemiological studies, while the underlying mechanism is poorly addressed. On the other hand, disorder of gut microbiota, namely dysbiosis, is known to cause MetS and NAFLD. It is also known that systemic inflammation blocks insulin signaling pathways, leading to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, which are the driving force for hepatic steatosis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894419/epidermal-cell-turnover-across-tight-junctions-based-on-kelvin-s-tetrakaidecahedron-cell-shape
#15
Mariko Yokouchi, Toru Atsugi, Mark van Logtestijn, Reiko J Tanaka, Mayumi Kajimura, Makoto Suematsu, Mikio Furuse, Masayuki Amagai, Akiharu Kubo
In multicellular organisms, cells adopt various shapes, from flattened sheets of endothelium to dendritic neurons, that allow the cells to function effectively. Here, we elucidated the unique shape of cells in the cornified stratified epithelia of the mammalian epidermis that allows them to achieve homeostasis of the tight junction (TJ) barrier. Using intimate in vivo 3D imaging, we found that the basic shape of TJ-bearing cells is a flattened Kelvin's tetrakaidecahedron (f-TKD), an optimal shape for filling space...
November 29, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893847/a2a-adenosine-receptor-antagonism-reverts-the-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-induced-by-sleep-restriction
#16
Gabriela Hurtado-Alvarado, Emilio Domínguez-Salazar, Javier Velázquez-Moctezuma, Beatriz Gómez-González
Chronic sleep restriction induces blood-brain barrier disruption and increases pro-inflammatory mediators in rodents. Those inflammatory mediators may modulate the blood-brain barrier and constitute a link between sleep loss and blood-brain barrier physiology. We propose that adenosine action on its A2A receptor may be modulating the blood-brain barrier dynamics in sleep-restricted rats. We administrated a selective A2A adenosine receptor antagonist (SCH58261) in sleep-restricted rats at the 10th day of sleep restriction and evaluated the blood-brain barrier permeability to dextrans coupled to fluorescein (FITC-dextrans) and Evans blue...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892724/efficacy-safety-and-mechanism-of-hp-%C3%AE-cd-pei-polymers-as-absorption-enhancers-on-the-intestinal-absorption-of-poorly-absorbable-drugs-in-rats
#17
Hailong Zhang, Xiaoyan Huang, Guangyou Lu, Yongjing Zhang, Yang Gao
CONTEXT: Oral bioavailability of some hydrophilic therapeutic macromolecules was very poor, thus leading to their limited application in clinic. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy, safety and mechanism of HP-β-CD-PEI polymers on the intestinal absorption of some poorly absorbable drugs in rats. METHODS: Effects of HP-β-CD-PEI polymers on the intestinal absorptions of drugs were investigated by an in situ closed loop method in rats. The safety of HP-β-CD-PEI polymer was evaluated by measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and amount of protein released from rat intestinal perfusate...
November 28, 2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892530/fine-tuning-of-rac1-and-rhoa-alters-cuspal-shapes-by-remolding-the-cellular-geometry
#18
Liwen Li, Qinghuang Tang, Takashi Nakamura, Jun-Gyo Suh, Hayato Ohshima, Han-Sung Jung
The anatomic and functional combinations of cusps and lophs (ridges) define the tooth shape of rodent molars, which distinguishes species. The species-specific cusp patterns result from the spatiotemporal induction of enamel knots (EKs), which require precisely controlled cellular behavior to control the epithelial invagination. Despite the well-defined roles of EK in cusp patterning, the determinants of the ultimate cuspal shapes and involvement of epithelial cellular geometry are unknown. Using two typical tooth patterns, the lophodont in gerbils and the bunodont in mice, we showed that the cuspal shape is determined by the dental epithelium at the cap stage, whereas the cellular geometry in the inner dental epithelium (IDE) is correlated with the cuspal shape...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891197/the-oscillation-like-activity-in-bullfrog-on-off-retinal-ganglion-cell
#19
Xiao-Wei Qiu, Hai-Qing Gong, Pu-Ming Zhang, Pei-Ji Liang
Oscillatory activity of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) has been observed in various species. It was reported such oscillatory activity is raised within large neural network and involved in retinal information coding. In the present research, we found an oscillation-like activity in ON-OFF RGC of bullfrog retina, and studied the mechanisms underlying the ON and OFF activities respectively. Pharmacological experiments revealed that the oscillation-like activity patterns in both ON and OFF pathways were abolished by GABA receptor antagonists, indicating GABAergic inhibition is essential for generating them...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890801/eus-guided-paclitaxel-injection-as-an-adjunctive-therapy-to-systemic-chemotherapy-and-concurrent-external-beam-radiation-before-surgery-for-localized-or-locoregional-esophageal-cancer-a-multicenter-prospective-randomized-trial
#20
John M DeWitt, S Krishna Murthy, Ramesh Ardhanari, G Aaron DuVall, Grzegorz Wallner, Paul Litka, Claire Daugherty, Kirk Fowers
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: OncoGel is paclitaxel (PTX) formulated in a thermosensitive, biodegradable copolymer for focused cytotoxicity and radiosensitization. A phase IIa study suggested EUS-guided PTX injection into esophageal tumors subsequently receiving radiation therapy (RT) was safe. METHODS: In an international multicenter, prospective randomized phase IIb study, patients with local or locoregional adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) of the esophagus/GE junction and eligible for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) before surgery were randomized to standard of care (SOC) plus EUS-guided PTX injection or SOC alone...
November 24, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
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