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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792953/protective-effect-of-s-nitrosoglutathione-administration-against-hyperglycemia-induced-disruption-of-blood-brain-barrier-is-mediated-by-alterations-in-tight-junction-proteins-and-cell-adhesion-molecules
#1
Aanchal Aggarwal, Inderjit Singh, Rajat Sandhir
Diabetes is associated with increased blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability resulting in neurological deficits. The present study investigated the role of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) on tight junction proteins and cell adhesion molecules in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight) for 5 days in mice. GSNO was administered daily (100 μg/kg body weight, orally) for 8 weeks after the induction of diabetes. A significant decline was observed in the cognitive ability of diabetic animals assessed using radial arm maze test...
May 21, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791586/hypoxia-induced-hyperpermeability-of-rat-glomerular-endothelial-cells-involves-hif-2%C3%AE-mediated-changes-in-the-expression-of-occludin-and-zo-1
#2
Peng-Li Luo, Yan-Jun Wang, Yan-Yan Yang, Jia-Jia Yang
This study aimed to investigate the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) in the expression of tight junction proteins and permeability alterations in rat glomerular endothelial cells (rGENCs) under hypoxia conditions. The expression level of HIF-2α and tight junction proteins (occludin and ZO-1) in rGENCs were examined following 5% oxygen density exposure at different treatment times. HIF-2α lentivirus transfection was used to knockdown HIF-2α expression. Cells were divided into four groups: 1) control group (rGENCs were cultured under normal oxygen conditions), 2) hypoxia group (rGENCs were cultured under hypoxic conditions), 3) negative control group (rGENCs were infected with HIF-2α lentivirus negative control vectors and cultured under hypoxic conditions), and 4) Len group (rGENCs were transfected with HIF-2α lentivirus and cultured under hypoxic conditions)...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791316/roles-of-the-exon-junction-complex-components-in-the-central-nervous-system-a-mini-review
#3
Katarzyna Bartkowska, Beata Tepper, Kris Turlejski, Ruzanna L Djavadian
The exon junction complex (EJC) consists of four core proteins: Magoh, RNA-binding motif 8A (Rbm8a, also known as Y14), eukaryotic initiation factor 4A3 (eIF4A3, also known as DDX48), and metastatic lymph node 51 (MLN51, also known as Casc3 or Barentsz), which are involved in the regulation of many processes occurring between gene transcription and protein translation. Its main role is to assemble into spliceosomes at the exon-exon junction of mRNA during splicing. It is, therefore, a range of functions concerning post-splicing events such as mRNA translocation, translation, and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD)...
May 23, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791207/activation-of-trpv4-stimulates-transepithelial-ion-flux-in-a-porcine-choroid-plexus-cell-line
#4
Daniel Preston, Stefanie Simpson, Dan Halm, Alexandra Hochstetler, Christian Schwerk, Horst Schroten, Bonnie L Blazer-Yost
The choroid plexus (CP) epithelium plays a major role in the production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A polarized cell line, the porcine choroid plexus - Riems (PCP-R) line, that exhibits many of the characteristics of the native epithelium, was used to study the effect of activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) cation channel found in the PCP-R cells as well as in the native epithelium. Ussing-style electrophysiological experiments showed that activation of TRPV4 with a specific agonist, GSK 1016790A, resulted in an immediate increase in both transepithelial ion flux and conductance...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790387/crosstalk-between-connexin-32-and-mitochondrial-apoptotic-signaling-pathway-plays-a-pivotal-role-in-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#5
Chaojin Chen, Yao Weifeng, Wu Shan, Zhou Shaoli, Gu Yu, Ge Mian, Li Xiang, Guihua Chen, Joseph A Bellanti, Songguo Zheng, Dongdong Yuan, Ziqing Hei
AIMS: Perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) resulting from renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) is not conducive to the postoperative surgical recovery. Our previous study demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) transmitted by gap junction (GJ) composed of connexin32 (Cx32) contributed to AKI. However, the precise pathophysiologic mechanisms were unknown. The present study focuses on the underlying mechanisms related to ROS transmitted by Cx32 responsible for AKI aggravation. RESULTS: In a set of vivo studies, renal IR was found to cause severe impairment in renal tissues with massive ROS generation, and occurred contemporaneously with activation of NF-κB/p53/PUMA-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis pathways...
May 23, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789661/a-correlative-and-quantitative-imaging-approach-enabling-characterization-of-primary-cell-cell-communication-case-of-human-cd4-t-cell-macrophage-immunological-synapses
#6
Richard Kasprowicz, Emma Rand, Peter J O'Toole, Nathalie Signoret
Cell-to-cell communication engages signaling and spatiotemporal reorganization events driven by highly context-dependent and dynamic intercellular interactions, which are difficult to capture within heterogeneous primary cell cultures. Here, we present a straightforward correlative imaging approach utilizing commonly available instrumentation to sample large numbers of cell-cell interaction events, allowing qualitative and quantitative characterization of rare functioning cell-conjugates based on calcium signals...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788452/glutamine-alleviates-heat-stress-induced-impairment-of-intestinal-morphology-intestinal-inflammatory-response-and-barrier-integrity-in-broilers
#7
Q J Wu, N Liu, X H Wu, G Y Wang, L Lin
The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of glutamine (Gln) on the intestinal morphology, intestinal inflammatory response, and barrier integrity in broilers exposed to high ambient temperature. Three-hundred-sixty 21-d-old Arbor Acres broilers (half male and half female) were randomly allocated to 4 treatment groups in a completely randomized design, each of which included 6 replicates with 15 birds per replicate, for 21 d. The 4 treatment groups were as follows: the control group, in which birds were kept in a thermoneutral room at 22 ± 1°C (no stress, NS; fed a basal diet); the heat stress group (36 ± 1°C for 10 h/d from 08:00 to 18:00 h and 22 ± 1°C for the remaining time, heat stress (HT); fed a basal diet); and heat stress + Gln group (0...
May 17, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788092/cytokine-il9-triggers-the-pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-through-the-mir21-cldn8-pathway
#8
Li Li, Shanshan Huang, Huiling Wang, Kang Chao, Li Ding, Rui Feng, Yun Qiu, Ting Feng, Gaoshi Zhou, Ji-Fan Hu, Minhu Chen, Shenghong Zhang
Background: Cytokine interleukin-9 (IL9) plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the IL9 pathway remains unknown. Here, we initiate a series of studies to characterize the essential components of this pathway. Methods: The expression of IL9 in colon biopsies from Crohn's disease (CD) and controls were examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, and immunohistochemistry...
May 16, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786451/annexin-a2-is-a-robo4-ligand-that-modulates-arf6-activation-associated-cerebral-trans-endothelial-permeability
#9
Wenlu Li, Zhigang Chen, Jing Yuan, Zhanyang Yu, Chongjie Cheng, Qiuchen Zhao, Lena Huang, Katherine A Hajjar, Zhong Chen, Eng H Lo, Haibin Dai, Xiaoying Wang
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in neurological disorders remains an intractable problem with limited therapeutic options. Here, we investigate whether the endothelial cell membrane protein annexin A2 (ANXA2) may play a role in reducing trans-endothelial permeability and maintaining cerebrovascular integrity after injury. Compared with wild-type mice, the expression of cerebral endothelial junctional proteins was reduced in E15.5 and adult ANXA2 knockout mice, along with increased leakage of small molecule tracers...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786431/ultrasonic-assisted-spin-coating-improved-junction-by-enhanced-permeation-of-coating-material-within-nanostructures
#10
Jong-Won Yun, Farman Ullah, Se-Jeong Jang, Do Hui Kim, Tri Khoa Nguyen, Ki Yeon Ryu, Shinuk Cho, Joon I Jang, Dooyong Lee, Sungkyun Park, Yong Soo Kim
Over the last decades, the spin coating (SC) technique has been widely used to prepare thin films of various materials in liquid phase on arbitrary substrates. The technique simply relies on centrifugal force to spread a coating solution radially outwards over the substrate. This mechanism works fairly well for solutions with low surface tension to form thin films of reasonable junctions on smooth substrates. Here, we present a modified SC technique, namely ultrasonic-assisted spin-coating (UASC), to form thin films of coating solution having high surface tension on rough substrates with excellent junctions...
May 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785723/decreased-e-cadherin-in-mcf7-human-breast-cancer-cells-forming-multicellular-spheroids-exposed-to-simulated-microgravity
#11
Jayashree Sahana, Mohamed Zakaria Nassef, Markus Wehland, Sascha Kopp, Marcus Krüger, Thomas J Corydon, Manfred Infanger, Johann Bauer, Daniela Grimm
MCF7 human breast cancer cells were cultured under normal gravity (1g) and on a random positioning machine (RPM) preventing sedimentation. After two weeks, adherent 1g-control and adherent RPM cells (AD) as well as multicellular spheroids (MCS) were harvested. AD and MCS had been exposed to the RPM in the same culture flask. In a subsequent proteome analysis, the majority of the proteins detected showed similar label-free quantification scores (LFQ) in each of the respective subpopulations, but in both AD or MCS cultures, proteins were also found whose LFQs deviated at least twofold from their counterparts in the 1g-control cells...
May 21, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785346/integrated-bioinformatic-changes-and-analysis-of-retina-with-time-in-diabetic-rats
#12
Zekai Cui, Qiaolang Zeng, Yonglong Guo, Shiwei Liu, Jiansu Chen
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common chronic complication of diabetes. It can cause impaired vision and even blindness. However, the pathological mechanism of DR is still unknown. In the present study, we use bioinformatic analysis to reveal the pathological changes of early DR in a streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes rat model. The dataset GSE28831 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. To clarify the pathological mechanism of early DR, genes which were up-regulated (UP group) or down-regulated (DOWN group) over time were identified...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784924/allergy-immunotherapy-restores-airway-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-through-suppressing-il-25-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-asthma
#13
Xiefang Yuan, Junyi Wang, Yin Li, Xiang He, Bin Niu, Dehong Wu, Nan Lan, Xiaoyun Wang, Yun Zhang, Xi Dai, Xing Wang, Zhigang Liu, Guoping Li
Constant exposure to allergen triggers destructive type 2 cell-mediated inflammation. The effect of allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT) in maintaining airway epithelial barrier function in asthma remains unknown. In the current study, we showed that SIT maintained airway epithelial homeostasis in mice exposed to dermatophagoides farinae (Der f), which induced increased expression of IL-25, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and airway epithelial apoptosis. Meanwhile, SIT treatment ameliorated airway inflammatory infiltration and hyper-responsiveness in allergic mice...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784671/a-non-autonomous-function-of-the-core-pcp-protein-vangl2-directs-peripheral-axon-turning-in-the-developing-cochlea
#14
Satish R Ghimire, Evan M Ratzan, Michael R Deans
The cochlea is innervated by neurons that relay sound information from hair cells to central auditory targets. A subset of these are the TypeΙΙ spiral ganglion neurons which have nociceptive features and contribute to feedback circuits providing neuroprotection in extreme noise. TypeΙΙ neurons make a distinctive 90 degree turn towards the cochlear base to synapse with 10-15 outer hair cells. We demonstrate that this axon turning event requires Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signaling, is disrupted in Vangl2 and Celsr1 knockout mice, and that VANGL2 acts non-autonomously from the cochlea to direct turning...
May 21, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783744/interplay-between-er-ca-2-binding-proteins-stim1-and-stim2-is-required-for-store-operated-ca-2-entry
#15
Heather A Nelson, Colin A Leech, Richard F Kopp, Michael W Roe
Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), a fundamentally important homeostatic and Ca2+ signaling pathway in many types of cells, is activated by the direct interaction of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ -binding protein, with Ca2+ -selective Orai1 channels localized in the plasma membrane. While much is known about the regulation of SOCE by STIM1, the role of stromal interaction molecule 2 (STIM2) in SOCE remains incompletely understood. Here, using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats -CRISPR associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) genomic editing and molecular imaging, we investigated the function of STIM2 in NIH 3T3 fibroblast and αT3 cell SOCE...
May 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783653/avian-influenza-virus-subtype-h9n2-affects-intestinal-microbiota-barrier-structure-injury-and-inflammatory-intestinal-disease-in-the-chicken-ileum
#16
Hongxin Li, Xiaolin Liu, Feiyang Chen, Kejing Zuo, Che Wu, Yiming Yan, Weiguo Chen, Wencheng Lin, Qingmei Xie
Avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 (H9N2 AIV) has caused significant losses to the poultry industry due to the high mortality associated with secondary infections attributable to E. coli . This study tries to address the underlying secondary mechanisms after H9N2 AIV infection. Initially, nine day-old specific pathogen-free chickens were assigned to control (uninfected) and H9N2-infected groups, respectively. Using Illumina sequencing, histological examination, and quantitative real-time PCR, it was found that H9N2 AIV caused intestinal microbiota disorder, injury, and inflammatory damage to the intestinal mucosa...
May 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783282/sustained-conduction-of-vasomotor-responses-in-rat-mesenteric-arteries-in-a-two-compartment-in-vitro-setup
#17
Teresa Palao, Angela van Weert, Anne de Leeuw, Judith de Vos, Erik N T P Bakker, Ed van Bavel
AIM: Conduction of vasomotor responses may contribute to long-term regulation of resistance artery function and structure. Most previous studies have addressed conduction of vasoactivity only during very brief stimulations. We developed a novel setup that allows the local pharmacological stimulation of arteries in vitro for extended periods of time, and studied the conduction of vasomotor responses in rat mesenteric arteries under those conditions. METHODS: The new in vitro set up was based on the pressure myograph...
May 21, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782988/cholesterol-crystals-increase-vascular-permeability-by-inactivating-shp2-and-disrupting-adherens-junctions
#18
Arul M Mani, Rima Chattopadhyay, Nikhlesh K Singh, Gadiparthi N Rao
To understand the adverse effects of cholesterol crystals on vascular homeostasis, we have studied their effects on endothelial barrier function. Cholesterol crystals increased endothelial barrier permeability in a dose and time dependent manner. In addition, cholesterol crystals induced tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and α-catenin, disrupting endothelial AJ and its barrier function and these effects required xanthine oxidase-mediated H2 O2 production, SHP2 inactivation and Frk activation. Similarly, feeding C57BL/6 mice with cholesterol-rich diet increased xanthine oxidase expression, H2 O2 production, SHP2 inactivation and Frk activation leading to enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and α-catenin, thereby disrupting endothelial AJ and increasing vascular permeability...
May 18, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782610/castration-induces-satellite-cell-activation-that-contributes-to-skeletal-muscle-maintenance
#19
Alanna Klose, Wenxuan Liu, Nicole D Paris, Sophie Forman, John J Krolewski, Kent L Nastiuk, Joe V Chakkalakal
Background: Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle, is a side effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer patients. Resident stem cells of skeletal muscle, satellite cells (SCs), are an essential source of progenitors for the growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle. Decreased androgen signaling and deficits in the number and function of SCs are features of aging. Although androgen signaling is known to regulate skeletal muscle, the cellular basis for ADT-induced exacerbation of sarcopenia is unknown...
2018: JCSM rapid communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782355/inhibition-of-vascular-endothelial-cell-leak-following-escherichia-coli-attachment-in-an-experimental-model-of-sepsis
#20
Tony M McHale, Carolina D Garciarena, Robert P Fagan, Stephen G J Smith, Ignacio Martin-Loches, Gerard F Curley, Fidelma Fitzpatrick, Steve W Kerrigan
OBJECTIVES: The vascular endothelium is a major target of sepsis-induced events, and endothelial activation accounts for much of the pathology of sepsis. Urinary tract infections and pneumonia caused by Escherichia coli are among of the most common infections causing sepsis in both community and hospital settings. Currently, there are no approved drugs on the market to treat the underlying pathophysiology of sepsis. The aim of this study is to elucidate the molecular mechanism by which E...
May 18, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
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