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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346507/olive-oil-bioactives-protect-pigs-against-experimentally-induced-chronic-inflammation-independently-of-alterations-in-gut-microbiota
#1
Martin Liehr, Alessandro Mereu, Jose Javier Pastor, Jose Carlos Quintela, Stefanie Staats, Gerald Rimbach, Ignacio Rodolfo Ipharraguerre
Subclinical chronic inflammation (SCI) is associated with impaired animal growth. Previous work has demonstrated that olive-derived plant bioactives exhibit anti-inflammatory properties that could possibly counteract the growth-depressing effects of SCI. To test this hypothesis and define the underlying mechanism, we conducted a 30-day study in which piglets fed an olive-oil bioactive extract (OBE) and their control counterparts (C+) were injected repeatedly during the last 10 days of the study with increasing doses of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce SCI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346438/basolateral-protrusion-and-apical-contraction-cooperatively-drive-drosophila-germ-band-extension
#2
Zijun Sun, Christopher Amourda, Murat Shagirov, Yusuke Hara, Timothy E Saunders, Yusuke Toyama
Throughout development, tissues undergo complex morphological changes, resulting from cellular mechanics that evolve over time and in three-dimensional space. During Drosophila germ-band extension (GBE), cell intercalation is the key mechanism for tissue extension, and the associated apical junction remodelling is driven by polarized myosin-II-dependent contraction. However, the contribution of the basolateral cellular mechanics to GBE remains poorly understood. Here, we characterize how cells coordinate their shape from the apical to the basal side during rosette formation, a hallmark of cell intercalation...
March 27, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345127/zoledronate-promotes-bone-formation-by-blocking-osteocyte-osteoblast-communication-during-bone-defect-healing
#3
Pingping Cui, Hongrui Liu, Jing Sun, Norio Amizuka, Qinfeng Sun, Minqi Li
Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) are potent antiresorptive drugs and their actions on osteoclasts have been studied extensively. Recent studies have suggested that N-BPs also target bone-forming cells. However, the precise mechanism of N-BPs in osteoblasts is paradoxical, and the specific role of osteocytes is worthy of in-depth study. Here, we investigated the cellular mechanisms of N-BPs regulating bone defect healing by zoledronate (ZA). Bone histomorphometry confirmed an increase in new bone formation by systemic ZA administration...
March 27, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345043/anomalous-photovoltaic-effect-in-organic-inorganic-hybrid-perovskite-solar-cells
#4
Yongbo Yuan, Tao Li, Qi Wang, Jie Xing, Alexei Gruverman, Jinsong Huang
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs) have been demonstrated to be highly successful photovoltaic materials yielding very-high-efficiency solar cells. We report the room temperature observation of an anomalous photovoltaic (APV) effect in lateral structure OIHP devices manifested by the device's open-circuit voltage (VOC) that is much larger than the bandgap of OIHPs. The persistent VOC is proportional to the electrode spacing, resembling that of ferroelectric photovoltaic devices. However, the APV effect in OIHP devices is not caused by ferroelectricity...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344990/inspiired-a-pipeline-for-quantitative-analysis-of-sites-of-new-dna-integration-in-cellular-genomes
#5
Eric Sherman, Christopher Nobles, Charles C Berry, Emmanuelle Six, Yinghua Wu, Anatoly Dryga, Nirav Malani, Frances Male, Shantan Reddy, Aubrey Bailey, Kyle Bittinger, John K Everett, Laure Caccavelli, Mary J Drake, Paul Bates, Salima Hacein-Bey-Abina, Marina Cavazzana, Frederic D Bushman
Integration of new DNA into cellular genomes mediates replication of retroviruses and transposons; integration reactions have also been adapted for use in human gene therapy. Tracking the distributions of integration sites is important to characterize populations of transduced cells and to monitor potential outgrow of pathogenic cell clones. Here, we describe a pipeline for quantitative analysis of integration site distributions named INSPIIRED (integration site pipeline for paired-end reads). We describe optimized biochemical steps for site isolation using Illumina paired-end sequencing, including new technology for suppressing recovery of unwanted contaminants, then software for alignment, quality control, and management of integration site sequences...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344757/leveraging-blood-serotonin-as-an-endophenotype-to-identify-de-novo-and-rare-variants-involved-in-autism
#6
Rui Chen, Lea K Davis, Stephen Guter, Qiang Wei, Suma Jacob, Melissa H Potter, Nancy J Cox, Edwin H Cook, James S Sutcliffe, Bingshan Li
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, but underlying molecular mechanisms are still unresolved due to extreme locus heterogeneity. Leveraging meaningful endophenotypes or biomarkers may be an effective strategy to reduce heterogeneity to identify novel ASD genes. Numerous lines of evidence suggest a link between hyperserotonemia, i.e., elevated serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) in whole blood, and ASD. However, the genetic determinants of blood 5-HT level and their relationship to ASD are largely unknown...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344002/establishment-of-a-human-blood-brain-barrier-co-culture-model-mimicking-the-neurovascular-unit-using-induced-pluri-and-multipotent-stem-cells
#7
Antje Appelt-Menzel, Alevtina Cubukova, Katharina Günther, Frank Edenhofer, Jörg Piontek, Gerd Krause, Tanja Stüber, Heike Walles, Winfried Neuhaus, Marco Metzger
In vitro models of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) are highly desirable for drug development. This study aims to analyze a set of ten different BBB culture models based on primary cells, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), and multipotent fetal neural stem cells (fNSCs). We systematically investigated the impact of astrocytes, pericytes, and NSCs on hiPSC-derived BBB endothelial cell function and gene expression. The quadruple culture models, based on these four cell types, achieved BBB characteristics including transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) up to 2,500 Ω cm(2) and distinct upregulation of typical BBB genes...
March 22, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343134/exfoliated-graphene-nanosheets-ph-sensitive-drug-carrier-and-anti-cancer-activity
#8
Nisha Tyagi, Nour F Attia, Kurt E Geckeler
A straightforward and facile method for the exfoliation of graphene sheets using poly(vinylpyrrolidone) nanoparticles of an average size of 42nm was developed and their dual role as pH-sensitive drug carrier and anti-cancer agent was evaluated. The cytotoxic impact of the exfoliated nanosheets (GRP-PVP-NP) was examined on various cells (HCT-116, HeLa, SCC-9, NIH-3T3 and HEK-293cells) by a series of assays. Their cytotoxic nature was attributed to affecting the mitochondrial enzyme activity, proliferation capability, and the formation of tight junctions in cancer cells...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342862/mir-29a-suppresses-growth-and-migration-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-regulating-cldn1
#9
Shaya Mahati, Lei Xiao, Ying Yang, Rui Mao, Yongxing Bao
CLDN1 (claudin1) is essential for intercellular junctions and has been reported to be involving in cell migration and metastasis, making it as an oncogene in various cancer types. However, the biological function roles and regulatory mechanisms of CLDN1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still not clarified. In this study, we found down-regulation of miR-29a and up-regulation of CLDN1 in HCC tissues and cell lines. Further found an inverse relation between the expressions of miR-29a and CLDN1 in HCC. Dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that miR-29a regulated the expression of CLDN1 by binding to its 3' untranslated region (3'UTR)...
March 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342807/myocardin-inhibited-the-gap-protein-connexin-43-via-promoted-mir-206-to-regulate-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-phenotypic-switch
#10
Hui Li, Yuan Xiang, Li-Juan Fan, Xiao-Yu Zhang, Jia-Peng Li, Cheng-Xi Yu, Le-Yuan Bao, Dong-Sun Cao, Wei-Bing Xing, Xing-Hua Liao, Tong-Cun Zhang
Myocardin is regarded as a key mediator for the change of smooth muscle phenotype. The gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) has been shown to be involved in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation and the development of atherosclerosis. However, the role of myocardin on gap junction of cell communication and the relation between myocardin and Cx43 in VSMC phenotypic switch has not been investigated. The goal of the present study is to investigate the molecular mechanism by which myocardin affects Cx43-regulated VSMC proliferation...
March 22, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342743/measurement-of-ion-fluxes-across-epithelia
#11
REVIEW
Miroslaw Zajac, Krzysztof Dolowy
Epithelial tissues line all wet surfaces of vertebrate bodies. Their major function is directional transport of ions and water. Cells forming an epithelial layer are bound together by a tight junction that forms a barrier to ion flux. Ions and water are transported via specialized molecules. The presence of a defect in a single ion channel molecule leads to cystic fibrosis - the most common, fatal, human genetic disease. The paper describes ion transport data obtained by means of different experimental techniques...
March 22, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342321/improvement-of-paracellular-transport-in-the-caco-2-drug-screening-model-using-protein-engineered-substrates
#12
Rebecca L DiMarco, Daniel R Hunt, Ruby E Dewi, Sarah C Heilshorn
The Caco-2 assay has achieved wide popularity among pharmaceutical companies in the past two decades as an in vitro method for estimation of in vivo oral bioavailability of pharmaceutical compounds during preclinical characterization. Despite its popularity, this assay suffers from a severe underprediction of the transport of drugs which are absorbed paracellularly, that is, which pass through the cell-cell tight junctions of the absorptive cells of the small intestine. Here, we propose that simply replacing the collagen I matrix employed in the standard Caco-2 assay with an engineered matrix, we can control cell morphology and hence regulate the cell-cell junctions that dictate paracellular transport...
March 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342216/case-of-bullous-pemphigoid-coexisting-with-anti-desmoglein-autoantibodies
#13
Duerna Tie, Tokiko Yoshida, Yuko Chinuki, Xia Da, Noriyoshi Ishikawa, Eishin Morita
A 79-year-old Japanese woman had clinical and histopathological features of bullous pemphigoid, while direct immunofluorescence test revealed C3 and immunoglobulin G depositions in the lower cell surfaces of the epidermis in addition to those in the dermoepidermal junction. Chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays were positive for desmoglein-1 and -3 antibodies in addition to anti-BP180 antibodies. In an immunoblotting study, antibodies against both 180-kDa bullous pemphigoid antigen and 130-kDa pemphigus vulgaris antigen were detected...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342022/identifying-connexin-expression-and-determining-gap-junction-intercellular-communication-in-rainbow-trout-cells
#14
Joshua Hooper, Sarah J Poynter, Stephanie J DeWitte-Orr
Gap junctions are groups of membrane-bound channels that allow the passage of small molecules and ions between cells, permitting cell-cell communication. Because of their importance in cell homeostasis, gap junction presence and function were characterized in three commonly studied rainbow trout cell lines, namely RTgill-W1, RTgutGC, and RTG-2. Firstly, gap junction presence was determined by screening for gap junction protein alpha 7 and alpha 1 (GJA7 and GJA1) presence at the transcript level and GJA7 at the protein level...
March 24, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341661/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a165b-ameliorates-outer-retinal-barrier-and-vascular-dysfunction-in-the-diabetic-retina
#15
Nikita Ved, Richard P Hulse, Samuel M Bestall, Lucy F Donaldson, James W Bainbridge, David Bates
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the developed world. Characteristic features of DR are retinal neurodegeneration, pathological angiogenesis and breakdown of both the inner and outer retinal barriers of the retinal vasculature and RPE-choroid respectively. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF), a key regulator of angiogenesis and permeability, is the target of most pharmacological interventions of DR. VEGF-A can be alternatively spliced at exon 8 to form 2 families of isoforms, pro- and anti-angiogenic...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339614/integrin-linked-kinase-regulates-syncytialization-of-bewo-trophoblast-cells%C3%A2
#16
Trina M Butler, Justin A Pater, Daniel J MacPhee
During placental development, mononuclear villous cytotrophoblast cells differentiate and fuse with the overlying syncytiotrophoblast. This process requires the dissolution of E-cadherin (CDH1)-containing adherens junctions in cytotrophoblast. Integrin linked kinase (ILK) can downregulate CDH1 through poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and Snail-1 (SNAI1) during epithelial-mesenchymal transition. ILK is known to be expressed in cytotrophoblast; thus, the role of a potential ILK-PARP1-SNAI1 pathway in aiding trophoblast syncytialization via the downregulation of CDH1 was examined...
January 27, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339476/transgenic-mice-overexpressing-desmocollin-2-dsc2-develop-cardiomyopathy-associated-with-myocardial-inflammation-and-fibrotic-remodeling
#17
Andreas Brodehl, Darrell D Belke, Lauren Garnett, Kristina Martens, Nelly Abdelfatah, Marcela Rodriguez, Catherine Diao, Yong-Xiang Chen, Paul M K Gordon, Anders Nygren, Brenda Gerull
BACKGROUND: Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy is an inherited heart muscle disorder leading to ventricular arrhythmias and heart failure, mainly as a result of mutations in cardiac desmosomal genes. Desmosomes are cell-cell junctions mediating adhesion of cardiomyocytes; however, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the disease remain widely unknown. Desmocollin-2 is a desmosomal cadherin serving as an anchor molecule required to reconstitute homeostatic intercellular adhesion with desmoglein-2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339048/agr2-ameliorates-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-via-suppression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-mediated-mlck-p-mlc-pathway-activation
#18
Xiaolin Ye, Mei Sun
Intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Anterior gradient protein 2 homologue (AGR2) assists in maintaining intestinal homeostasis in dextran sulphate sodium-induced mouse ileocolitis; however, it is unclear whether it modulates intestinal barrier function. Our study aimed to investigate the protective role of AGR2 in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced intestinal epithelial barrier injury. Caco-2 cell monolayers were pre-transfected with an AGR2 plasmid and then exposed to TNF-α...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338398/dexamethasone-suppresses-jmjd3-gene-activation-via-a-putative-negative-glucocorticoid-response-element-and-maintains-integrity-of-tight-junctions-in-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#19
Wonho Na, Jee Y Shin, Jee Y Lee, Sangyun Jeong, Won-Sun Kim, Tae Y Yune, Bong-Gun Ju
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) exhibits a highly selective permeability to support the homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). The tight junctions in the BBB microvascular endothelial cells seal the paracellular space to prevent diffusion. Thus, disruption of tight junctions results in harmful effects in CNS diseases and injuries. It has recently been demonstrated that glucocorticoids have beneficial effects on maintaining tight junctions in both in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. In the present study, we found that dexamethasone suppresses the expression of JMJD3, a histone H3K27 demethylase, via the recruitment of glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) and nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) to the negative glucocorticoid response element (nGRE) in the upstream region of JMJD3 gene in brain microvascular endothelial cells subjected to TNFα treatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337539/homer1-vesl-1-in-the-rat-esophagus-focus-on-myenteric-plexus-and-neuromuscular-junction
#20
J Zimmermann, W L Neuhuber, M Raab
Homer1, a scaffolding protein of the postsynaptic density (PSD), enriched at excitatory synapses is known to anchor and modulate group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and different channel- and receptor-proteins. Homer proteins are expressed in neurons of different brain regions, but also in non-neuronal tissues like skeletal muscle. Occurrence and location of Homer1 and mGluR5 in myenteric plexus and neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) of rat esophagus have yet not been characterized. We located Homer1 and mGluR5 immunoreactivity (-iry) in rat esophagus and focused on myenteric neurons, intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs) and NMJs, using double- and triple-label immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy...
March 23, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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