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Myopia prevention and control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920429/nitric-oxide-no-mediates-the-inhibition-of-form-deprivation-myopia-by-atropine-in-chicks
#1
Brittany J Carr, William K Stell
Myopia is the most common childhood refractive disorder. Atropine inhibits myopia progression, but its mechanism is unknown. Here, we show that myopia-prevention by atropine requires production of nitric oxide (NO). Form-deprivation myopia (FDM) was induced in week-old chicks by diffusers over the right eye (OD); the left eye (OS) remained ungoggled. On post-goggling days 1, 3, and 5, OD received intravitreally 20 µL of phosphate-buffered saline (vehicle), or vehicle plus: NO source: L-arginine (L-Arg, 60-6,000 nmol) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10-1,000 nmol); atropine (240 nmol); NO inhibitors: L-NIO or L-NMMA (6 nmol); negative controls: D-Arg (10 µmol) or D-NMMA (6 nmol); or atropine plus L-NIO, L-NMMA, or D-NMMA; OS received vehicle...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918833/effects-of-lead-phytochemicals-of-radix-scutellariae-on-acanthamoeba
#2
Pauline Cho, Guangsen Shi, Maurice Yap, Maureen V Boost
Purpose: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), which is associated with noncompliant use of contact lenses, remains difficult to treat due to delayed diagnosis and paucity of therapeutic agents. Although improvements in activity against Acanthamoeba infection have been achieved in disinfecting solutions for soft contact lenses, such modifications have not been extended to those for special rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses, which are increasingly used for myopia control in children. Phytochemicals present in herbs used for traditional Chinese medicine may be effective as therapeutic or preventive agents...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898443/environmental-factors-and-myopia-paradoxes-and-prospects-for-prevention
#3
Kathryn Ailsa Rose, Amanda Nicole French, Ian George Morgan
The prevalence of myopia in developed countries in East and Southeast Asia has increased to more than 80% in children completing schooling, whereas that of high myopia has increased to 10%-20%. This poses significant challenges for correction of refractive errors and the management of pathological high myopia. Prevention is therefore an important priority. Myopia is etiologically heterogeneous, with a low level of myopia of clearly genetic origins that appears without exposure to risk factors. The big increases have occurred in school myopia, driven by increasing educational pressures in combination with limited amounts of time spent outdoors...
November 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898442/epidemiology-of-pathologic-myopia-in-asia-and-worldwide
#4
Yee-Ling Wong, Seang-Mei Saw
The myopia epidemic in Asia is evident because the prevalence of high myopia among young adults is higher among Asian (6.8%-21.6%) compared with non-Asian populations (2.0%-2.3%). High myopia is linked to pathologic myopia (PM), which may cause irreversible visual impairment (VI). This review will highlight updates on the prevalence of PM and the associated VI from PM. The prevalence of PM among the middle-aged and elderly (0.9%-3.1%) is higher than the prevalence among children and adolescents (<0.2%). The PM lesions detected among older adults include advanced lesions, such as posterior staphyloma, chorioretinal atrophy, lacquer cracks, and Fuchs spot (in descending frequency of occurrence)...
November 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898441/epidemiology-of-myopia
#5
Pei-Chang Wu, Hsiu-Mei Huang, Hun-Ju Yu, Po-Chiung Fang, Chueh-Tan Chen
Myopia is not a simple refractive error, but an eyesight-threatening disease. There is a high prevalence of myopia, 80% to 90%, in young adults in East Asia; myopia has become the leading cause of blindness in this area. As the myopic population increases globally, the severity of its impact is predicted. Approximately one fifth of the myopic population has high myopia (≥-6 diopters), which results in irreversible vision loss such as retinal detachment, choroidal neovascularization, cataracts, glaucoma, and macular atrophy...
November 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832275/genome-wide-scleral-micro-and-messenger-rna-regulation-during-myopia-development-in-the-mouse
#6
Ravikanth Metlapally, Han Na Park, Ranjay Chakraborty, Kevin K Wang, Christopher C Tan, Jacob G Light, Machelle T Pardue, Christine F Wildsoet
Purpose: MicroRNA (miRNAs) have been previously implicated in scleral remodeling in normal eye growth. They have the potential to be therapeutic targets for prevention/retardation of exaggerated eye growth in myopia by modulating scleral matrix remodeling. To explore this potential, genome-wide miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) scleral profiles in myopic and control eyes from mice were studied. Methods: C57BL/6J mice (n = 7; P28) reared under a 12L:12D cycle were form-deprived (FD) unilaterally for 2 weeks...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829051/scleral-cross-linking-using-riboflavin-uva-irradiation-for-the-prevention-of-myopia-progression-in-a-guinea-pig-model-blocked-axial-extension-and-altered-scleral-microstructure
#7
Shuai Liu, Shengjie Li, Bingjie Wang, Xiao Lin, Yi Wu, Hong Liu, Xiaomei Qu, Jinhui Dai, Xingtao Zhou, Hao Zhou
PURPOSE: To develop methods of collagen cross-linking (CXL) in the sclera for the treatment of progressive myopia and to investigate the biomechanical and histological changes that occur in as a result. METHODS: Twenty 14-day-old guinea pigs were divided into 3 groups: the cross-linking group (CL, n = 8), non cross-linking group (NCL, n = 8), and control group (n = 4). The scleras of the right eyes of the guinea pigs in the CL group were surgically exposed and riboflavin was dropped onto the irradiation zone for 20 seconds prior to ultraviolet-A (UVA) irradiation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818204/retinal-microvascular-network-and-microcirculation-assessments-in-high-myopia
#8
Min Li, Ye Yang, Hong Jiang, Giovanni Gregori, Luiz Roisman, Fang Zheng, Bilian Ke, Dongyi Qu, Jianhua Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate the changes of the retinal microvascular network and microcirculation in high myopia. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, matched, comparative clinical study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty eyes of twenty subjects with non-pathological high myopia (28 ± 5 Years) with a refractive error of -6.31 ± 1.23 Diopters (mean ± standard deviation) and twenty eyes of twenty age- and gender-matched control subjects (30 ± 6 years) with a refractive error of -1...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779095/associations-between-diabetic-retinopathy-and-systemic-risk-factors
#9
REVIEW
N Wat, R Lm Wong, I Yh Wong
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease with complications that include sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. It is essential to understand the risk factors of diabetic retinopathy before effective prevention can be implemented. The aim of this review was to examine the association between diabetic retinopathy and systemic risk factors. METHODS: A PubMed literature search was performed up to May 2016 to identify articles reporting associations between diabetic retinopathy and systemic risk factors; only publications written in English were included...
December 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768171/association-of-axial-length-with-risk-of-uncorrectable-visual-impairment-for-europeans-with-myopia
#10
J Willem L Tideman, Margaretha C C Snabel, Milly S Tedja, Gwyneth A van Rijn, King T Wong, Robert W A M Kuijpers, Johannes R Vingerling, Albert Hofman, Gabriëlle H S Buitendijk, Jan E E Keunen, Camiel J F Boon, Annette J M Geerards, Gregorius P M Luyten, Virginie J M Verhoeven, Caroline C W Klaver
Importance: Myopia (ie, nearsightedness) is becoming the most common eye disorder to cause blindness in younger persons in many parts of the world. Visual impairment due to myopia is associated with structural changes of the retina and the globe because of elongation of the eye axis. How axial length-a sum of the anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and vitreous chamber depth-and myopia relate to the development of visual impairment over time is unknown. Objectives: To evaluate the association between axial length, spherical equivalent, and the risk of visual impairment and to make projections of visual impairment for regions with high prevalence rates...
October 20, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750284/altered-refractive-development-in-mice-with-reduced-levels-of-retinal-dopamine
#11
Michael A Bergen, Han Na Park, Ranjay Chakraborty, Erica G Landis, Curran Sidhu, Li He, P Michael Iuvone, Machelle T Pardue
Purpose: The neuromodulator dopamine (DA) has been implicated in the prevention of excessive ocular elongation and myopia in various animal models. This study used retina-specific DA knockout mice to investigate the role of retinal DA in refractive development and susceptibility to experimental myopia. Methods: Measurements of refractive error, corneal curvature, and ocular biometrics were obtained as a function of age for both untreated and form-deprived (FD) groups of retina-specific tyrosine hydroxylase knockout (rTHKO) and control (Ctrl) mice...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749693/high-myopia-and-diabetic-retinopathy-a-contralateral-eye-study-in-diabetic-patients-with-high-myopic-anisometropia
#12
Nooshin Bazzazi, Siamak Akbarzadeh, Minoo Yavarikia, Jalal Poorolajal, Daniel F Fouladi
PURPOSE: To examine an association between high myopia and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic patients with high myopic anisometropia. METHODS: A total of 116 white diabetic patients (232 eyes) with high myopia (spherical equivalent > -5.00 diopters, D) anisometropia (difference ≥ -6 D) were enrolled in this cross-sectional, contralateral eye study. The frequency of DR was compared between the high myopic and the contralateral eyes. RESULTS: Compared with the fellow eyes, DR was significantly less frequent in high myopic side (27...
September 30, 2016: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424299/serum-concentration-of-zinc-copper-selenium-manganese-and-cu-zn-ratio-in-children-and-adolescents-with-myopia
#13
Monika Fedor, Katarzyna Socha, Beata Urban, Jolanta Soroczyńska, Monika Matyskiela, Maria H Borawska, Alina Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk
The purpose of the present study was the assessment of the serum concentration of antioxidant microelements-zinc, copper, selenium, manganese, and Cu/Zn ratio in children and adolescents with myopia. Eighty-three children were examined (mean age 14.36 ± 2.49 years) with myopia. The control group was 38 persons (mean age 12.89 ± 3.84 years). Each patient had complete eye examination. The serum concentration of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cu/Zn ratio, which is the indicator of the oxidative stress, was also calculated...
July 16, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27162733/posterior-scleral-reinforcement-for-the-treatment-of-pathological-myopia
#14
Xiu-Juan Li, Xiao-Peng Yang, Qiu-Ming Li, Yu-Ying Wang, Yuan Wang, Xiao-Bei Lyu, Heng Jia
AIM: To investigate the effects of posterior scleral reinforcement (PSR) in the treatment of pathological myopia. METHODS: The study included 52 eyes in 43 patients with pathological myopia who underwent PSR (PSR group), and 52 eyes in 36 age- and myopia-matched patients who did not undergo such treatment as control group. Axial length, refraction error, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and macular scans by optical coherence tomography (OCT) were recorded at baseline, 6mo, 1, 3 and 5y after the surgery, and the complications were noted...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27079598/validation-of-photoscreening-technology-in-the-general-pediatrics-office-a-prospective-study
#15
Jana Bregman, Sean P Donahue
BACKGROUND: Photoscreening instruments have been widely validated in pediatric ophthalmology clinics and field studies; however, validation by general pediatricians is lacking. We performed the first prospective, multisite evaluation of a commercially available photoscreener in the medical home. METHODS: Eleven practices in Middle Tennessee recruited over 3,100 children between 12 months and 5 years to be screened at well-child examinations. Participants were those who received a "refer" result; controls received a "pass...
April 2016: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26982283/effect-of-bilberry-extract-on-development-of-form-deprivation-myopia-in-the-guinea-pig
#16
Hong-Wei Deng, Yuan Tian, Xiao-Juan Zhou, Xiao-Ming Zhang, Jing Meng
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of bilberry extract, Difrarel, on form-deprivation myopia in guinea pigs. METHOD: Thirty healthy pigmented guinea pigs, at the age of 3 weeks, were randomly assigned to 3 groups: 2 groups receiving daily orally administered Difrarel (300 mg/kg) either from the outset for 4 or 2 weeks after form deprivation and a control group. Form deprivation was induced with translucent eye patches on the right eye and lasted for 4 weeks. Another 12 guinea pigs without the form deprivation were assigned into 2 groups for oral administration of Difrarel and saline for 4 weeks...
May 2016: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26932144/treatment-of-optic-neuritis-with-erythropoietin-tone-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-study-protocol
#17
Ricarda Diem, Fanni Molnar, Flemming Beisse, Nikolai Gross, Katharina Drüschler, Sven P Heinrich, Lutz Joachimsen, Sebastian Rauer, Amelie Pielen, Kurt-Wolfram Sühs, Ralf Andreas Linker, Cord Huchzermeyer, Philipp Albrecht, Andrea Hassenstein, Orhan Aktas, Tanja Guthoff, Felix Tonagel, Christoph Kernstock, Kathrin Hartmann, Tania Kümpfel, Katharina Hein, Christian van Oterendorp, Birgit Grotejohann, Gabriele Ihorst, Julia Maurer, Matthias Müller, Martin Volkmann, Brigitte Wildemann, Michael Platten, Wolfgang Wick, Christoph Heesen, Ulrich Schiefer, Sebastian Wolf, Wolf A Lagrèze
INTRODUCTION: Optic neuritis leads to degeneration of retinal ganglion cells whose axons form the optic nerve. The standard treatment is a methylprednisolone pulse therapy. This treatment slightly shortens the time of recovery but does not prevent neurodegeneration and persistent visual impairment. In a phase II trial performed in preparation of this study, we have shown that erythropoietin protects global retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT-G) in acute optic neuritis; however, the preparatory trial was not powered to show effects on visual function...
March 1, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26905761/reducing-alcohol-related-aggression-effects-of-a-self-awareness-manipulation-and-locus-of-control-in-heavy-drinking-males
#18
Danielle M Purvis, Kathryn E Gallagher, Dominic J Parrott
Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) purports that alcohol facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus onto salient and instigatory cues common to conflict situations. However, few tests of its counterintuitive prediction - that alcohol may decrease aggression when inhibitory cues are most salient - have been conducted. The present study examined whether an AMT-inspired self-awareness intervention manipulation would reduce heavy drinking men's intoxicated aggression toward women and also examined whether a relevant individual variable, locus of control, would moderate this effect...
July 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26903521/the-acceptability-and-visual-impact-of-0-01-atropine-in-a-caucasian-population
#19
James Loughman, D I Flitcroft
BACKGROUND: Myopia is a condition of enormous public health concern, affecting up to 2.5 billion people worldwide. The most effective treatment to prevent myopia progression is atropine but at the cost of accommodative paresis and mydriasis, necessitating the use of bifocal glasses. Low-dose atropine (0.01%) has been found to be almost as effective with significantly reduced side effects. Since there are well-recognised differences in the effect of atropine between heavily pigmented Asian eyes and Caucasian eyes, this study aimed to determine the acceptability and tolerability of 0...
February 22, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26902064/comparison-of-the-educational-effect-upon-myopia-prevention-and-treatment-between-video-demonstration-and-traditional-teaching
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Yunkai Lu, Yangfeng Guo, Hongxing Diao, Xiaosong Liang, Jinhua Lu, Yangfa Zeng
PURPOSE: To compare the education effect of video demonstrations and conventional teaching on the prevention and control of myopia. METHODS: Eighty students were randomly divided into an experimental (n = 40) and a control (n = 40) group, and each group was split into two classes of 40 students. The students in the experimental group attended classes mainly based on video demonstration and those in the control group received conventional teaching. All students then undertook a test and the examination scores were statistically compared between the two groups...
June 2015: Eye Science
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