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Myopia prevention and control

Miri Na, Aeri Yoo
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the orthokeratology (OK) lens slowing myopic progression compared with no intervention in pediatric eyes METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records was performed on 45 monocular myopic subjects 7 to 13 years of age who were treated with monocular ortho-k lens and followed-up for more than 12 months. The monocular myopia in the subjects' eyes was -0.75 to -4.25 D (diopter), and near emmetropia in the contralateral and with-the-rule astigmatism no greater than -1...
March 9, 2018: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Pei-Chang Wu, Chueh-Tan Chen, Ken-Kuo Lin, Chi-Chin Sun, Chien-Neng Kuo, Hsiu-Mei Huang, Yi-Chieh Poon, Meng-Ling Yang, Chau-Yin Chen, Jou-Chen Huang, Pei-Chen Wu, I-Hui Yang, Hun-Ju Yu, Po-Chiung Fang, Chia-Ling Tsai, Shu-Ti Chiou, Yi-Hsin Yang
PURPOSE: To investigate the effectiveness of a school-based program promoting outdoor activities in Taiwan for myopia prevention and to identify protective light intensities. DESIGN: Multi-area, cluster-randomized intervention controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: A total 693 grade 1 schoolchildren in 16 schools participated. Two hundred sixty-seven schoolchildren were in the intervention group and 426 were in the control group. METHODS: Initially, 24 schools were randomized into the intervention and control groups, but 5 and 3 schools in the intervention and control groups, respectively, withdrew before enrollment...
January 19, 2018: Ophthalmology
Alex Hui, Magdalena Bajgrowicz-Cieslak, Chau-Minh Phan, Lyndon Jones
The purpose of this study was to investigate the release of the anti-myopia drugs atropine sulfate and pirenzepine dihydrochloride from commercially available soft contact lenses. Standard ultraviolet (UV) absorbance-concentration curves were generated for atropine and pirenzepine. Ten commercially available contact lenses, including four multifocal lenses, were loaded by soaking in atropine or pirenzepine solutions at two different concentrations (10 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL). The release of the drugs into phosphate-buffered saline was determined over the course of 24 hours at 34°C using UV absorbance...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
Danny S C Ng, Timothy Y Y Lai, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
Myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is one of the most vision-impairing complications in patients with pathologic myopia. It is also one of the most frequently encountered non.age-related macular degeneration causes of CNV and affects young patients in the working age group. Fluorescein angiography (FA) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) are generally indicated to confirm the diagnosis of active myopic CNV before initiation of treatment. Without treatment, natural history studies have shown that the vision outcome can be very poor...
November 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Qinghui Kong, Jiang Guo, Jing Zhou, Yanling Zhang, Xiaoyan Dou
BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify factors influencing the therapeutic outcome of orthokeratology on controlling juvenile myopia progression, and the risk factors for complications. METHODS: Myopic patients (n=724) in Shenzhen Second Hospital from Jan 2011 to Jan 2016 fitted with orthokeratology lenses and followed-up for 6-65 months were reviewed retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to screen for the factors that can improve treatment outcome and prevent the development of complications...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Ian G Morgan, Amanda N French, Regan S Ashby, Xinxing Guo, Xiaohu Ding, Mingguang He, Kathryn A Rose
There is an epidemic of myopia in East and Southeast Asia, with the prevalence of myopia in young adults around 80-90%, and an accompanying high prevalence of high myopia in young adults (10-20%). This may foreshadow an increase in low vision and blindness due to pathological myopia. These two epidemics are linked, since the increasingly early onset of myopia, combined with high progression rates, naturally generates an epidemic of high myopia, with high prevalences of "acquired" high myopia appearing around the age of 11-13...
September 23, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Xiaoxia Li, Miaoqin Wu, Luyi Zhang, Hui Liu, Lan Zhang, Jinjing He
In this study, we evaluated the effect of oral administration of riboflavin combined with whole-body ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation on the biochemical and biomechanical properties of sclera in a guinea pig model to control the progression of myopia. Experimental groups were administered 0.1% riboflavin solution with or without vitamin C by gavage from 3 days before myopic modeling and during the modeling process. Guinea pigs underwent 30 min of whole-body UVA irradiation after each gavage for 2 weeks. For control groups, guinea pigs were administered vitamin C and underwent either whole-body UVA irradiation without 0...
December 2017: Experimental Eye Research
Yating Tang, Xiaofeng Wang, Jiucun Wang, Li Jin, Wei Huang, Yi Luo, Yi Lu
IMPORTANCE: Cataract risk factors data will provide epidemic evidence for cataract prevention. BACKGROUND: To study the risk factors for age-related cataract (ARC) in a Chinese adult population. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: 10,234 eligible subjects ≥45 years old (response rate 78.1%). METHODS: We conducted detailed eye examinations including presenting visual acuity (PVA), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit lamp examination of lens opacities and fundus examination...
August 25, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Stacy L Pineles, Raymond T Kraker, Deborah K VanderVeen, Amy K Hutchinson, Jennifer A Galvin, Lorri B Wilson, Scott R Lambert
PURPOSE: To review the published literature on the efficacy of topical atropine for the prevention of myopic progression in children. METHODS: Literature searches were last conducted in December 2016 in the PubMed database with no date restrictions, but were limited to studies published in English, and in the Cochrane Library database without any restrictions. The combined searches yielded 98 citations, 23 of which were reviewed in full text. Of these, 17 articles were deemed appropriate for inclusion in this assessment and subsequently were assigned a level of evidence rating by the panel methodologist...
December 2017: Ophthalmology
Pinar Kosekahya, Ozge Sarac, Mustafa Koc, Mehtap Caglayan, Gozde Hondur, Nurullah Cagil
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the shifting of the line of sight (LoS) and the refractive, topographic, and aberrometric parameters that may be associated with the shifting of the LoS in eyes with tilted disk syndrome (TDS). METHODS: Eighty left eyes of 80 subjects with TDS (Study Group) and 70 left eyes of 70 subjects with myopia and astigmatism (Control Group) were included in this study. Line-of-sight coordinates on the horizontal (x) and vertical (y) axes, refractive, topographic, and aberrometric parameters were evaluated...
June 16, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
Y Song, P J Hu, Y H Dong, B Zhang, J Ma
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of reduced visual acuity (VA) and to examine the association between reduced visual acuity and influencing factors among Chinese Han students, so as to provide bases for the prevention and treatment of reduced visual acuity. METHODS: Subjects were from 2014 Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (CNSSCH). In this survey, 261 832 Han students aged 7-22 years participated. Unaided distance VA was measured using a retro-illuminated lgMAR chart with tumbling-E optotypes...
June 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Xiangtian Zhou, Machelle T Pardue, P Michael Iuvone, Jia Qu
In the face of an "epidemic" increase in myopia over the last decades and myopia prevalence predicted to reach 2.5 billion people by the end of this decade, there is an urgent need to develop effective and safe therapeutic interventions to slow down this "myopia booming" and prevent myopia-related complications and vision loss. Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the retina and mediates diverse functions including retina development, visual signaling, and refractive development. Inspired by the convergence of epidemiological and animal studies in support of the inverse relationship between outdoor activity and risk of developing myopia and by the close biological relationship between light exposure and dopamine release/signaling, we felt it is timely and important to critically review the role of DA in myopia development...
November 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Joah Aliancy, W Daniel Stamer, Barbara Wirostko
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, affecting 64.3 million people. An estimated 60.5 million people are affected by primary open angle glaucoma globally, and this will increase to 111.8 million by 2040. The definition of glaucoma has evolved greatly over time. Although multiple risk factors such as ischemia, inflammation, myopia, race, age and low ocular perfusion pressure may play a role, intraocular pressure (IOP) is still the main risk factor we can easily identify and modify...
December 2017: Ophthalmology and Therapy
Brittany J Carr, William K Stell
Myopia is the most common childhood refractive disorder. Atropine inhibits myopia progression, but its mechanism is unknown. Here, we show that myopia-prevention by atropine requires production of nitric oxide (NO). Form-deprivation myopia (FDM) was induced in week-old chicks by diffusers over the right eye (OD); the left eye (OS) remained ungoggled. On post-goggling days 1, 3, and 5, OD received intravitreally 20 µL of phosphate-buffered saline (vehicle), or vehicle plus: NO source: L-arginine (L-Arg, 60-6,000 nmol) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10-1,000 nmol); atropine (240 nmol); NO inhibitors: L-NIO or L-NMMA (6 nmol); negative controls: D-Arg (10 µmol) or D-NMMA (6 nmol); or atropine plus L-NIO, L-NMMA, or D-NMMA; OS received vehicle...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ian C Campbell, Bailey G Hannon, A Thomas Read, Joseph M Sherwood, Stephen A Schwaner, C Ross Ethier
The concept of scleral stiffening therapies has emerged as a novel theoretical approach for treating the ocular disorders glaucoma and myopia. Deformation of specific regions of the posterior eye is innately involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases, and thus targeted scleral stiffening could resist these changes and slow or prevent progression of these diseases. Here, we present the first systematic screen and direct comparison of the stiffening effect of small molecule collagen cross-linking agents in the posterior globe, namely using glyceraldehyde, genipin and methylglyoxal (also called pyruvaldehyde)...
April 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Pauline Cho, Sin-Wan Cheung
Purpose: To determine the relative risk of rapid progression and number needed to treat (NNT) in younger and older children using combined data from the retardation of myopia in orthokeratology (ROMIO) and toric orthokeratology-slowing eye elongation (TO-SEE) studies. Methods: Data from 136 subjects of two studies, ROMIO and TO-SEE, were retrieved (72 orthokeratology [ortho-k]: 37 ROMIO, 35 TO-SEE; 64 control: 41 ROMIO, 23 TO-SEE) and the myopia control effect on younger (6-8 years) and older (9-12 years) subjects evaluated...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Shuyu Xiong, Padmaja Sankaridurg, Thomas Naduvilath, Jiajie Zang, Haidong Zou, Jianfeng Zhu, Minzhi Lv, Xiangui He, Xun Xu
Outdoor time is considered to reduce the risk of developing myopia. The purpose is to evaluate the evidence for association between time outdoors and (1) risk of onset of myopia (incident/prevalent myopia); (2) risk of a myopic shift in refractive error and c) risk of progression in myopes only. A systematic review followed by a meta-analysis and a dose-response analysis of relevant evidence from literature was conducted. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant papers. Of the 51 articles with relevant data, 25 were included in the meta-analysis and dose-response analysis...
September 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
Seo Wei Leo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myopia is a global problem, being particularly prevalent in the urban areas of east and southeast Asia. In addition to the direct economic and social burdens, associated ocular complications may lead to substantial vision loss. With prevalence of myopia above 80% and high myopia over 20%, it is crucial to control myopia. The aim of this review to is provide an update on the interventions to slow the onset of myopia and retard its progression. RECENT FINDINGS: The epidemic of myopia is characterized by increasingly early onset, combined with high myopia progression rates...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Hidemasa Torii, Toshihide Kurihara, Yuko Seko, Kazuno Negishi, Kazuhiko Ohnuma, Takaaki Inaba, Motoko Kawashima, Xiaoyan Jiang, Shinichiro Kondo, Maki Miyauchi, Yukihiro Miwa, Yusaku Katada, Kiwako Mori, Keiichi Kato, Kinya Tsubota, Hiroshi Goto, Mayumi Oda, Megumi Hatori, Kazuo Tsubota
Prevalence of myopia is increasing worldwide. Outdoor activity is one of the most important environmental factors for myopia control. Here we show that violet light (VL, 360-400nm wavelength) suppresses myopia progression. First, we confirmed that VL suppressed the axial length (AL) elongation in the chick myopia model. Expression microarray analyses revealed that myopia suppressive gene EGR1 was upregulated by VL exposure. VL exposure induced significantly higher upregulation of EGR1 in chick chorioretinal tissues than blue light under the same conditions...
February 2017: EBioMedicine
L L Zhai, X Y Wu, S J Xu, F B Tao
Myopia has become a major health problem on global scale due to its increasing high prevalence in the past few decades and gradual younger onset age. Accumulated epidemiological surveys have shown that decreased time of exposure to sunlight would be an inducement for the development of myopia. Increasing time spent outdoors and exposure to sunlight might be the most cost-effective and effective measure for children to prevent myopia. This paper summarizes the progress in research of the association between sunlight exposure and myopia in children and its mechanisms to provide new clues for the research on myopia prevention and control...
November 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
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