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Myopia prevention and control

N Wat, R Lm Wong, I Yh Wong
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease with complications that include sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. It is essential to understand the risk factors of diabetic retinopathy before effective prevention can be implemented. The aim of this review was to examine the association between diabetic retinopathy and systemic risk factors. METHODS: A PubMed literature search was performed up to May 2016 to identify articles reporting associations between diabetic retinopathy and systemic risk factors; only publications written in English were included...
October 24, 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
J Willem L Tideman, Margaretha C C Snabel, Milly S Tedja, Gwyneth A van Rijn, King T Wong, Robert W A M Kuijpers, Johannes R Vingerling, Albert Hofman, Gabriëlle H S Buitendijk, Jan E E Keunen, Camiel J F Boon, Annette J M Geerards, Gregorius P M Luyten, Virginie J M Verhoeven, Caroline C W Klaver
Importance: Myopia (ie, nearsightedness) is becoming the most common eye disorder to cause blindness in younger persons in many parts of the world. Visual impairment due to myopia is associated with structural changes of the retina and the globe because of elongation of the eye axis. How axial length-a sum of the anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and vitreous chamber depth-and myopia relate to the development of visual impairment over time is unknown. Objectives: To evaluate the association between axial length, spherical equivalent, and the risk of visual impairment and to make projections of visual impairment for regions with high prevalence rates...
October 20, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
Michael A Bergen, Han Na Park, Ranjay Chakraborty, Erica G Landis, Curran Sidhu, Li He, P Michael Iuvone, Machelle T Pardue
Purpose: The neuromodulator dopamine (DA) has been implicated in the prevention of excessive ocular elongation and myopia in various animal models. This study used retina-specific DA knockout mice to investigate the role of retinal DA in refractive development and susceptibility to experimental myopia. Methods: Measurements of refractive error, corneal curvature, and ocular biometrics were obtained as a function of age for both untreated and form-deprived (FD) groups of retina-specific tyrosine hydroxylase knockout (rTHKO) and control (Ctrl) mice...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Nooshin Bazzazi, Siamak Akbarzadeh, Minoo Yavarikia, Jalal Poorolajal, Daniel F Fouladi
PURPOSE: To examine an association between high myopia and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic patients with high myopic anisometropia. METHODS: A total of 116 white diabetic patients (232 eyes) with high myopia (spherical equivalent > -5.00 diopters, D) anisometropia (difference ≥ -6 D) were enrolled in this cross-sectional, contralateral eye study. The frequency of DR was compared between the high myopic and the contralateral eyes. RESULTS: Compared with the fellow eyes, DR was significantly less frequent in high myopic side (27...
September 30, 2016: Retina
Monika Fedor, Katarzyna Socha, Beata Urban, Jolanta Soroczyńska, Monika Matyskiela, Maria H Borawska, Alina Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk
The purpose of the present study was the assessment of the serum concentration of antioxidant microelements-zinc, copper, selenium, manganese, and Cu/Zn ratio in children and adolescents with myopia. Eighty-three children were examined (mean age 14.36 ± 2.49 years) with myopia. The control group was 38 persons (mean age 12.89 ± 3.84 years). Each patient had complete eye examination. The serum concentration of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cu/Zn ratio, which is the indicator of the oxidative stress, was also calculated...
July 16, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Xiu-Juan Li, Xiao-Peng Yang, Qiu-Ming Li, Yu-Ying Wang, Yuan Wang, Xiao-Bei Lyu, Heng Jia
AIM: To investigate the effects of posterior scleral reinforcement (PSR) in the treatment of pathological myopia. METHODS: The study included 52 eyes in 43 patients with pathological myopia who underwent PSR (PSR group), and 52 eyes in 36 age- and myopia-matched patients who did not undergo such treatment as control group. Axial length, refraction error, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and macular scans by optical coherence tomography (OCT) were recorded at baseline, 6mo, 1, 3 and 5y after the surgery, and the complications were noted...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Jana Bregman, Sean P Donahue
BACKGROUND: Photoscreening instruments have been widely validated in pediatric ophthalmology clinics and field studies; however, validation by general pediatricians is lacking. We performed the first prospective, multisite evaluation of a commercially available photoscreener in the medical home. METHODS: Eleven practices in Middle Tennessee recruited over 3,100 children between 12 months and 5 years to be screened at well-child examinations. Participants were those who received a "refer" result; controls received a "pass...
April 2016: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Hong-Wei Deng, Yuan Tian, Xiao-Juan Zhou, Xiao-Ming Zhang, Jing Meng
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of bilberry extract, Difrarel, on form-deprivation myopia in guinea pigs. METHOD: Thirty healthy pigmented guinea pigs, at the age of 3 weeks, were randomly assigned to 3 groups: 2 groups receiving daily orally administered Difrarel (300 mg/kg) either from the outset for 4 or 2 weeks after form deprivation and a control group. Form deprivation was induced with translucent eye patches on the right eye and lasted for 4 weeks. Another 12 guinea pigs without the form deprivation were assigned into 2 groups for oral administration of Difrarel and saline for 4 weeks...
May 2016: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Ricarda Diem, Fanni Molnar, Flemming Beisse, Nikolai Gross, Katharina Drüschler, Sven P Heinrich, Lutz Joachimsen, Sebastian Rauer, Amelie Pielen, Kurt-Wolfram Sühs, Ralf Andreas Linker, Cord Huchzermeyer, Philipp Albrecht, Andrea Hassenstein, Orhan Aktas, Tanja Guthoff, Felix Tonagel, Christoph Kernstock, Kathrin Hartmann, Tania Kümpfel, Katharina Hein, Christian van Oterendorp, Birgit Grotejohann, Gabriele Ihorst, Julia Maurer, Matthias Müller, Martin Volkmann, Brigitte Wildemann, Michael Platten, Wolfgang Wick, Christoph Heesen, Ulrich Schiefer, Sebastian Wolf, Wolf A Lagrèze
INTRODUCTION: Optic neuritis leads to degeneration of retinal ganglion cells whose axons form the optic nerve. The standard treatment is a methylprednisolone pulse therapy. This treatment slightly shortens the time of recovery but does not prevent neurodegeneration and persistent visual impairment. In a phase II trial performed in preparation of this study, we have shown that erythropoietin protects global retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT-G) in acute optic neuritis; however, the preparatory trial was not powered to show effects on visual function...
2016: BMJ Open
Danielle M Purvis, Kathryn E Gallagher, Dominic J Parrott
Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) purports that alcohol facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus onto salient and instigatory cues common to conflict situations. However, few tests of its counterintuitive prediction - that alcohol may decrease aggression when inhibitory cues are most salient - have been conducted. The present study examined whether an AMT-inspired self-awareness intervention manipulation would reduce heavy drinking men's intoxicated aggression toward women and also examined whether a relevant individual variable, locus of control, would moderate this effect...
July 2016: Addictive Behaviors
James Loughman, D I Flitcroft
BACKGROUND: Myopia is a condition of enormous public health concern, affecting up to 2.5 billion people worldwide. The most effective treatment to prevent myopia progression is atropine but at the cost of accommodative paresis and mydriasis, necessitating the use of bifocal glasses. Low-dose atropine (0.01%) has been found to be almost as effective with significantly reduced side effects. Since there are well-recognised differences in the effect of atropine between heavily pigmented Asian eyes and Caucasian eyes, this study aimed to determine the acceptability and tolerability of 0...
February 22, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Yunkai Lu, Yangfeng Guo, Hongxing Diao, Xiaosong Liang, Jinhua Lu, Yangfa Zeng
PURPOSE: To compare the education effect of video demonstrations and conventional teaching on the prevention and control of myopia. METHODS: Eighty students were randomly divided into an experimental (n = 40) and a control (n = 40) group, and each group was split into two classes of 40 students. The students in the experimental group attended classes mainly based on video demonstration and those in the control group received conventional teaching. All students then undertook a test and the examination scores were statistically compared between the two groups...
June 2015: Eye Science
Charles W McMonnies
Pathological myopia is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. Myopic development and progression is biomechanical and dominated by axial elongation. This clinical perspective examines some of the stretch-related fundal changes, which are associated with axial elongation and myopic pathology. The biomechanics of stretching of the fundus appears to depend on genetically and/or visual experience-based scleral changes, which reduce its thickness and elastic modulus so that it becomes more susceptible to the distending forces of intraocular pressure...
March 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Jaime Pauné, Hari Morales, Jesús Armengol, Lluisa Quevedo, Miguel Faria-Ribeiro, José M González-Méijome
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the degree of axial elongation with soft radial refractive gradient (SRRG) contact lenses, orthokeratology (OK), and single vision (SV) spectacle lenses (control) during a period of 1 year before treatment and 2 years after treatment. METHODS: This was a prospective, longitudinal, nonrandomized study. The study groups consisted of 30, 29, and 41 children, respectively. The axial length (AL) was measured during 2 years after recruitment and lens fitting...
2015: BioMed Research International
Elizabeth L Irving, Jacob G Sivak, Murchison G Callender
PURPOSE: To summarize the OPO 1992 Classic Paper: Refractive plasticity of the developing chick eye (12: 448-452) and discuss recent findings in refractive development. SUMMARY AND RECENT FINDINGS: The classic paper shows that when lightweight plastic goggles with rigid contact lens inserts are applied to the eyes of newly hatched chicks, the eye responds accurately to defocus between -10 and +20 D, although hyperopia develops more rapidly. While the changes largely are due to change in axial length, high levels of hyperopia are associated with corneal flattening...
November 2015: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Mingguang He, Fan Xiang, Yangfa Zeng, Jincheng Mai, Qianyun Chen, Jian Zhang, Wayne Smith, Kathryn Rose, Ian G Morgan
IMPORTANCE: Myopia has reached epidemic levels in parts of East and Southeast Asia. However, there is no effective intervention to prevent the development of myopia. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of increasing time spent outdoors at school in preventing incident myopia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Cluster randomized trial of children in grade 1 from 12 primary schools in Guangzhou, China, conducted between October 2010 and October 2013...
September 15, 2015: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Andrzej Grzybowski, Alejandro Armesto, Maria Szwajkowska, Guillermo Iribarren, Rafael Iribarren
High myopia is a major cause of uncorrectable visual impairment. It imposes major challenges and costs for refractive correction, and for the treatment of associated pathological complications. In the last 60 years, there has been a marked increase in the prevalence of high myopia in younger generations in developed countries in East and Southeast Asia, and there are signs of similar, but less pronounced increases in North America and Europe. In some parts of the world, 70-90% of children completing high schools are now myopic, and as many as 20% may be highly myopic...
2015: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Kendrick Co Shih, Tommy Chung-Yan Chan, Alex Lap-Ki Ng, Jimmy Shiu-Ming Lai, Walton Wai-Tat Li, Arthur Chak-Kwan Cheng, Dorothy Shu-Ping Fan
OBJECTIVE: The most effective strategy to reduce myopia-related complications is to prevent myopia progression during childhood. This review article examines the latest published evidence on the use of atropine in childhood myopia control and discusses practical aspects of applying the findings to clinical practice. Future directions including possible forms of combination therapy are examined. METHODS: A literature search with a focus on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses on the subject was conducted...
January 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Jianlan Zhou, Peiying Xie, Dan Wang, Xi Guo, Lina Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term clinical effects of orthokeratology (ortho-k) in high myopia children with 5 years of follow-ups. METHODS: Prospective study. We chose 30 high myopia patients to wear ortho-k contact lenses (CLs) for controlling or delaying myopia progression from 2003. Among them, there were 10 boys and 20 girls whose average age was (15 ± 2) years, spherical diopters were (-7.34 ± 0.91) D, corneal astigmatism diopters were (-1.06 ± 0...
July 2015: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Mengmeng Wang, Christine Carole C Corpuz
BACKGROUND: Scleral cross-linking (CXL) is a novel attempt to slow down the axial elongation process in animal eyes. As a natural CXL reagent, genipin would be also effective for the prevention of myopia process. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of scleral cross-linking using genipin on the form-deprivation (FD) myopia process of guinea pigs. METHODS: Twenty-seven 3-week-old pigmented guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups...
2015: BMC Ophthalmology
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