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Microstates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071918/stereoelectronic-effect-induced-conductance-switching-in-aromatic-chain-single-molecule-junctions
#1
Na Xin, Jinying Wang, Chuancheng Jia, Zitong Liu, Xisha Zhang, Chenmin Yu, Mingliang Li, Shuopei Wang, Yao Gong, Hantao Sun, Guanxin Zhang, Zhirong Liu, Guangyu Zhang, Jianhui Liao, Deqing Zhang, Xuefeng Guo
Biphenyl, as the elementary unit of organic functional materials, has been widely used in electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, over decades little has been fundamentally understood regarding how the intramolecular conformation of biphenyl dynamically affects its transport properties at the single-molecule level. Here, we establish the stereoelectronic effect of biphenyl on its electrical conductance based on the platform of graphene-molecule single-molecule junctions, where a specifically designed hexaphenyl aromatic chain molecule is covalently sandwiched between nanogapped graphene point contacts to create stable single-molecule junctions...
January 12, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030720/bleb-morphology-after-needling-with-viscoelastic-of-an-ab-interno-microstent-assessed-by-optical-coherence-tomography
#2
Andrei-Alexandru Szigiato, Matthew Schlenker, Iqbal Ike K Ahmed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007612/low-motivational-incongruence-predicts-successful-eeg-resting-state-neurofeedback-in-healthy-adults
#3
Laura Diaz Hernandez, Kathryn Rieger, Thomas Koenig
Neurofeedback is becoming increasingly sophisticated and widespread, although predictors of successful performance still remain scarce. Here, we explored the possible predictive value of psychological factors and report the results obtained from a neurofeedback training study designed to enhance the self-regulation of spontaneous EEG microstates of a particular type (microstate class D). Specifically, we were interested in life satisfaction (including motivational incongruence), body awareness, personality and trait anxiety...
December 20, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007553/shannon-information-entropy-in-the-canonical-genetic-code
#4
Louis R Nemzer
The Shannon entropy measures the expected information value of messages. As with thermodynamic entropy, the Shannon entropy is only defined within a system that identifies at the outset the collections of possible messages, analogous to microstates, that will be considered indistinguishable macrostates. This fundamental insight is applied here for the first time to amino acid alphabets, which group the twenty common amino acids into families based on chemical and physical similarities. To evaluate these schemas objectively, a novel quantitative method is introduced based the inherent redundancy in the canonical genetic code...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000675/suppressed-ion-scale-turbulence-in-a-hot-high-%C3%AE-plasma
#5
L Schmitz, D P Fulton, E Ruskov, C Lau, B H Deng, T Tajima, M W Binderbauer, I Holod, Z Lin, H Gota, M Tuszewski, S A Dettrick, L C Steinhauer
An economic magnetic fusion reactor favours a high ratio of plasma kinetic pressure to magnetic pressure in a well-confined, hot plasma with low thermal losses across the confining magnetic field. Field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas are potentially attractive as a reactor concept, achieving high plasma pressure in a simple axisymmetric geometry. Here, we show that FRC plasmas have unique, beneficial microstability properties that differ from typical regimes in toroidal confinement devices. Ion-scale fluctuations are found to be absent or strongly suppressed in the plasma core, mainly due to the large FRC ion orbits, resulting in near-classical thermal ion confinement...
December 21, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967070/anomalous-structural-transition-of-confined-hard-squares
#6
Péter Gurin, Szabolcs Varga, Gerardo Odriozola
Structural transitions are examined in quasi-one-dimensional systems of freely rotating hard squares, which are confined between two parallel walls. We find two competing phases: one is a fluid where the squares have two sides parallel to the walls, while the second one is a solidlike structure with a zigzag arrangement of the squares. Using transfer matrix method we show that the configuration space consists of subspaces of fluidlike and solidlike phases, which are connected with low probability microstates of mixed structures...
November 2016: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933418/temporal-characteristics-of-eeg-microstates-mediate-trial-by-trial-risk-taking
#7
Andreas Pedroni, Lorena R R Gianotti, Thomas Koenig, Dietrich Lehmann, Pascal Faber, Daria Knoch
People seem to have difficulties when perceiving events whose outcome has no influence on the outcome of future events. This illusion that patterns exist where there are none may lead to adverse consequences, such as escalating losses in financial trading or gambling debt. Despite the enormous social consequences of these cognitive biases, however, their neural underpinnings are poorly understood. Attempts to investigate them have so far relied on evoked neural activity, whereas spontaneous brain activity has been treated as noise to be averaged out...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913138/compared-in%C3%A2-vivo-efficiency-of-nanoemulsions-unloaded-and-loaded-with-calixarene-and-soapy-water-in-the-treatment-of-superficial-wounds-contaminated-by-uranium
#8
Sophie Grivès, Guillaume Phan, Céline Bouvier-Capely, David Suhard, François Rebière, Michelle Agarande, Elias Fattal
No emergency decontamination treatment is currently available in the case of radiological skin contamination by uranium compounds. First responders in the workplace or during an industrial nuclear accident must be able to treat internal contamination through skin. For this purpose, a calixarene nanoemulsion was developed for the treatment of intact skin or superficial wounds contaminated by uranium, and the decontamination efficiency of this nanoemulsion was investigated in vitro and ex vivo. The present work addresses the in vivo decontamination efficiency of this nanoemulsion, using a rat model...
November 29, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886509/smooth-horizonless-geometries-deep-inside-the-black-hole-regime
#9
Iosif Bena, Stefano Giusto, Emil J Martinec, Rodolfo Russo, Masaki Shigemori, David Turton, Nicholas P Warner
We construct the first family of horizonless supergravity solutions that have the same mass, charges, and angular momenta as general supersymmetric rotating D1-D5-P black holes in five dimensions. This family includes solutions with arbitrarily small angular momenta, deep within the regime of quantum numbers and couplings for which a large classical black hole exists. These geometries are well approximated by the black-hole solution, and in particular exhibit the same near-horizon throat. Deep in this throat, the black-hole singularity is resolved into a smooth cap...
November 11, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866990/longitudinal-auditory-learning-facilitates-auditory-cognition-as-revealed-by-microstate-analysis
#10
Nathalie Giroud, Ulrike Lemke, Philip Reich, Katarina L Matthes, Martin Meyer
The current study investigates cognitive processes as reflected in late auditory-evoked potentials as a function of longitudinal auditory learning. A normal hearing adult sample (n=15) performed an active oddball task at three consecutive time points (TPs) arranged at two week intervals, and during which EEG was recorded. The stimuli comprised of syllables consisting of a natural fricative (/sh/,/s/,/f/) embedded between two /a/ sounds, as well as morphed transitions of the two syllables that served as deviants...
November 17, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802651/effects-of-electric-field-on-thermodynamics-and-ordering-of-a-dipolar-liquid
#11
G P Johari
We propose that an electric field's role in changing the structural disorder may be investigated by comparing the field-induced entropy decrease, ΔES, against the pressure-induced and cooling-induced entropy decreases, ΔpS and ΔTS, respectively, for the same increase in the dielectric α-relaxation time, Δτα, or in the viscosity. If these three quantities are found to be the same, the change in the number of microstates, Δln Ω = ΔS/R, would be the same whether there is an electric field-induced dipole vector alignment, or not...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782633/dimensional-reduction-of-markov-state-models-from-renormalization-group-theory
#12
S Orioli, P Faccioli
Renormalization Group (RG) theory provides the theoretical framework to define rigorous effective theories, i.e., systematic low-resolution approximations of arbitrary microscopic models. Markov state models are shown to be rigorous effective theories for Molecular Dynamics (MD). Based on this fact, we use real space RG to vary the resolution of the stochastic model and define an algorithm for clustering microstates into macrostates. The result is a lower dimensional stochastic model which, by construction, provides the optimal coarse-grained Markovian representation of the system's relaxation kinetics...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764024/clinical-investigation-of-new-glaucoma-procedures
#13
Kateki Vinod, Steven J Gedde
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent studies evaluating the efficacy and complication profiles of novel glaucoma procedures promoting aqueous outflow. RECENT FINDINGS: Literature from the 2015 to 2016 review period includes abundant data regarding new and emerging glaucoma procedures. Notable findings from recent randomized clinical trials include titratability of intraocular pressure with multiple trabecular microbypass stents (iStent; Glaukos, Laguna Hills, California, USA) and greater reduction in intraocular pressure and medication usage following intracanalicular scaffolding (Hydrus Microstent; Ivantis Inc...
October 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761104/accurate-chemical-master-equation-solution-using-multi-finite-buffers
#14
Youfang Cao, Anna Terebus, Jie Liang
The discrete chemical master equation (dCME) provides a fundamental framework for studying stochasticity in mesoscopic networks. Because of the multi-scale nature of many networks where reaction rates have large disparity, directly solving dCMEs is intractable due to the exploding size of the state space. It is important to truncate the state space effectively with quantified errors, so accurate solutions can be computed. It is also important to know if all major probabilistic peaks have been computed. Here we introduce the Accurate CME (ACME) algorithm for obtaining direct solutions to dCMEs...
2016: Multiscale Modeling & Simulation: a SIAM Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747986/event-related-potential-differences-in-children-supplemented-with-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-infancy
#15
Ke Liao, Bruce D McCandliss, Susan E Carlson, John Colombo, D Jill Shaddy, Elizabeth H Kerling, Rebecca J Lepping, Wichian Sittiprapaporn, Carol L Cheatham, Kathleen M Gustafson
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) have been shown to be necessary for early retinal and brain development, but long-term cognitive benefits of LCPUFA in infancy have not been definitively established. The present study sought to determine whether LCPUFA supplementation during the first year of life would result in group differences in behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) while performing a task requiring response inhibition (Go/No-Go) at 5.5 years of age. As newborns, 69 children were randomly assigned to infant formulas containing either no LCPUFA (control) or formula with 0...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742598/cognitive-manipulation-of-brain-electric-microstates
#16
Benjamin A Seitzman, Malene Abell, Samuel C Bartley, Molly A Erickson, Amanda R Bolbecker, William P Hetrick
EEG studies of wakeful rest have shown that there are brief periods in which global electrical brain activity on the scalp remains semi-stable (so-called microstates). Topographical analyses of this activity have revealed that much of the variance is explained by four distinct microstates that occur in a repetitive sequence. A recent fMRI study showed that these four microstates correlated with four known functional systems, each of which is activated by specific cognitive functions and sensory inputs. The present study used high density EEG to examine the degree to which spatial and temporal properties of microstates may be altered by manipulating cognitive task (a serial subtraction task vs...
October 11, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715136/quantum-correlations-separability-and-quantum-coherence-length-in-equilibrium-many-body-systems
#17
Daniele Malpetti, Tommaso Roscilde
Nonlocality is a fundamental trait of quantum many-body systems, both at the level of pure states, as well as at the level of mixed states. Because of nonlocality, mixed states of any two subsystems are correlated in a stronger way than what can be accounted for by considering the correlated probabilities of occupying some microstates. In the case of equilibrium mixed states, we explicitly build two-point quantum correlation functions, which capture the specific, superior correlations of quantum systems at finite temperature, and which are directly accessible to experiments when correlating measurable properties...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705762/urea-dependent-adenylate-kinase-activation-following-redistribution-of-structural-states
#18
Per Rogne, Magnus Wolf-Watz
Proteins are often functionally dependent on conformational changes that allow them to sample structural states that are sparsely populated in the absence of a substrate or binding partner. The distribution of such structural microstates is governed by their relative stability, and the kinetics of their interconversion is governed by the magnitude of associated activation barriers. Here, we have explored the interplay among structure, stability, and function of a selected enzyme, adenylate kinase (Adk), by monitoring changes in its enzymatic activity in response to additions of urea...
October 4, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661062/g-protein-coupled-receptor-endosomal-signaling-and-regulation-of-neuronal-excitability-and-stress-responses-signaling-options-and-lessons-from-the-pac1-receptor
#19
REVIEW
Victor May, Rodney L Parsons
Our understanding of G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) mechanisms and functions have evolved considerably. Among the many conceptual realignments, GPCRs can exist in an ensemble of active microstates that have the potential to differentially engage specific downstream signaling events. Furthermore, among GPCR dynamics, GPCR internalization and vesicular trafficking are no longer solely mechanisms for desensitization, but now appreciated to form intricate endosomal signaling complexes that can potentially target second messengers to intracellular compartments with high temporal and spatial resolution...
April 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647317/association-between-resting-state-microstates-and-ratings-on-the-amsterdam-resting-state-questionnaire
#20
Evaldas Pipinis, Sigita Melynyte, Thomas Koenig, Lina Jarutyte, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen, Osvaldas Ruksenas, Inga Griskova-Bulanova
There is a gap in understanding on how physiologically observed activity is related to the subjective, internally oriented experience during resting state. Microstate analysis is a frequent approach to evaluate resting-state EEG. But the relationship of commonly observed resting-state microstates to psychological domains of resting is not clear. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ) was recently introduced, offering an effective way to quantify subjective states after a period of resting and associate these quantifiers to psychological and physiological variables...
September 19, 2016: Brain Topography
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