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Neslihan Ucuncuoglu, Kurt Warncke
The adenosylcobalamin- (coenzyme B12 ) dependent ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EAL) plays a key role in aminoethanol metabolism, associated with microbiome homeostasis and Salmonella- and Escherichia coli-induced disease conditions in the human gut. To gain molecular insight into these processes toward development of potential therapeutic targets, reactions of the cryotrapped (S)-2-aminopropanol substrate radical EAL from Salmonella typhimurium are addressed over a temperature (T) range of 220-250 K by using T-step reaction initiation and time-resolved, full-spectrum electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
S Fili, S Seddig, E Papadopoulou, M Kohlhaas
BACKGROUND: The Cypass Microstent (Transcend Medical, Menlo Park, CA, USA) is a biocompatible polyamide implant that is implanted in the suprachoroidal space and improves the flow of the aqueous humour via the uveoscleral pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a retrospective clinical study 162 patients (220 eyes) with an average age of 71.8 (±14.2) years with a mild to moderate glaucoma were treated with a Cypass implant. In the study three groups of patients (group 1, group 2 and group 3) were formed...
June 19, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Frederic von Wegner, Helmut Laufs
We present an open-source Python package to compute information-theoretical quantities for electroencephalographic data. Electroencephalography (EEG) measures the electrical potential generated by the cerebral cortex and the set of spatial patterns projected by the brain's electrical potential on the scalp surface can be clustered into a set of representative maps called EEG microstates. Microstate time series are obtained by competitively fitting the microstate maps back into the EEG data set, i.e., by substituting the EEG data at a given time with the label of the microstate that has the highest similarity with the actual EEG topography...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Kevin Gillmann, Kaweh Mansouri, Giorgio Enrico Bravetti, André Mermoud
INTRODUCTION: In recent years microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) has risen in popularity. Amongst MIGS options is the XEN gel stent (Allergan Plc, Dublin, Ireland), a 45▒μm wide ab-interno microstent. It has proven effective in lowering IOP with low complication rates. However, XEN gel stents can become obstructed and cause postoperative rise in IOP. The causes and predicting factors for such obstructions still requires further research. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 69-year old male patient, with traumatic glaucoma and chronic intraocular inflammation demonstrated by laser flare photometry, following childhood trauma and anterior segment surgery...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Corrado Gizzi, Jibran Mohamed-Noriega, Ahmed Elkarmouty, Andrew Scott
PURPOSE: To describe the outcomes of mitomycin C (MMC)-augmented trabeculectomy performed following a failed MMC-augmented XEN-45 implantation. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: all consecutive cases of MMC-augmented trabeculectomy performed after MMC-augmented XEN-45 in the Glaucoma Service at Moorfields Eye Hospital between April 2015 and June 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: We identified 8 patients who had a trabeculectomy following a failed XEN-45 implantation...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Andrei-Alexandru Szigiato, Simrenjeet Sandhu, Gokulan Ratnarajan, Michael W Dorey, Iqbal Ike K Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the surgeon's learning experience with an ab-interno gelatin microstent (XEN-45, Allergan) to other glaucoma surgeries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey study. METHODS: All surgeons in Canada who used the gelatin microstent were identified and given an anonymous online survey (FluidSurveys, Survey Monkey) designed to evaluate key factors associated with the device, including prior surgical experience, patient selection criteria, analysis of each surgical step, and postoperative care...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
M I Tomescu, T A Rihs, V Rochas, M Hardmeier, J Britz, G Allali, P Fuhr, S Eliez, C M Michel
While many insights on brain development and aging have been gained by studying resting-state networks with fMRI, relating these changes to cognitive functions is limited by the temporal resolution of fMRI. In order to better grasp short-lasting and dynamically changing mental activities, an increasing number of studies utilize EEG to define resting-state networks, thereby often using the concept of EEG microstates. These are brief (around 100 ms) periods of stable scalp potential fields that are influenced by cognitive states and are sensitive to neuropsychiatric diseases...
April 30, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Michael J Ho, Sophia L Göricke, Petra Mummel, Christoph Mönninghoff, Karsten Wrede, Isabel Wanke
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of patients with ruptured aneurysms who were treated with a specific microstent in the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: Data from patients with acutely-ruptured intracranial aneurysm treated with the Neuroform stent in the period between 2003 and 2016 were retrospectively assessed, addressing aneurysm occlusion and clinical outcome with a focus on periprocedural complications. Results: Twenty-nine consecutive patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms were included in the analysis...
March 2018: ENeurologicalSci
Pierpaolo Croce, Filippo Zappasodi, Spadone Sara, Paolo Capotosto
Different electrophysiological (EEG) correlates may provide specific important assessment of the period that anticipates an imperative stimulus. Previous study of our group showed that a local (i.e. parietal) anticipatory EEG marker (i.e. the event related de-synchronization of the alpha rhythms; ERD) is selectively affected when transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is delivered over crucial nodes belonging to well-known human networks involved in different cognitive domains. Here, we investigated whether such distinction is also present in the whole brain activity as seen through the pre-stimulus microstate's topography, representing a global and reference-free measure of the neural activity...
April 30, 2018: NeuroImage
Christian Ulfert, Mirko Pham, Michael Sonnberger, Franco Amaya, Johannes Trenkler, Martin Bendszus, Markus A Möhlenbruch
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical safety and efficacy of the Atlas microstent in stent-assisted coil embolization of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. METHODS: Single-center observational study in 36 patients (24 female, 12 male, mean age 56 years) with 37 aneurysms for the endovascular treatment of wide-necked aneurysms. After giving informed consent, patients were included according to the following criteria: aneurysm dome-to-neck ratio <2 or neck diameter >4 mm, and a parent vessel diameter of ≤4...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
A G M Jünemann, R Rejdak, B Hohberger
The management of glaucoma therapy to reduce intraocular pressure commonly consists of a gradual approach with local monotherapy, combined therapy, laser surgery and finally filtration surgery. The local side effects of glaucoma medications and the lack of adherence and persistence to the medical therapy as well as the complication profile of the established glaucoma surgical techniques justify the introduction of new surgical procedures. Micro-invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) is a promising new surgical approach...
May 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Sabina Stefan, Barbara Schorr, Alex Lopez-Rolon, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Jonathan P Shock, Martin Rosenfelder, Suzette Heck, Andreas Bender
We applied the following methods to resting-state EEG data from patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) for consciousness indexing and outcome prediction: microstates, entropy (i.e. approximate, permutation), power in alpha and delta frequency bands, and connectivity (i.e. weighted symbolic mutual information, symbolic transfer entropy, complex network analysis). Patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) were classified into these two categories by fitting and testing a generalised linear model...
April 17, 2018: Brain Topography
Nathan M Kerr, Jing Wang, Lucia Perucho, Keith Barton
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of supraciliary stenting following failed glaucoma surgery. DESIGN: Interventional case series. METHODS: Setting: Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom. STUDY POPULATION: Twenty eyes from 20 patients with glaucoma refractory to prior glaucoma surgery. INTERVENTION: Ab interno microstent (CyPass Micro-Stent; Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas, USA) implantation into the supraciliary space...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Michael Murphy, Robert Stickgold, Mittie Elaine Parr, Cameron Callahan, Erin J Wamsley
Offline reactivation of task-related neural activity has been demonstrated in animals but is difficult to directly observe in humans. We sought to identify potential electroencephalographic (EEG) markers of offline memory processing in human subjects by identifying a set of characteristic EEG topographies ("microstates") that occurred as subjects learned to navigate a virtual maze. We hypothesized that these task-related microstates would appear during post-task periods of rest and sleep. In agreement with this hypothesis, we found that one task-related microstate was increased in post-training rest and sleep compared to baseline rest, selectively for subjects who actively learned the maze, and not in subjects performing a non-learning control task...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matteo Aldeghi, Joseph P Bluck, Philip C Biggin
Many thermodynamic quantities can be extracted from computer simulations that generate an ensemble of microstates according to the principles of statistical mechanics. Among these quantities is the free energy of binding of a small molecule to a macromolecule, such as a protein. Here, we present an introductory overview of a protocol that allows for the estimation of ligand binding free energies via molecular dynamics simulations. While we focus on the binding of organic molecules to proteins, the approach is in principle transferable to any pair of molecules...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Frederic von Wegner, Helmut Laufs, Enzo Tagliazucchi
Long-range memory in time series is often quantified by the Hurst exponent H, a measure of the signal's variance across several time scales. We analyze neurophysiological time series from electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting state experiments with two standard Hurst exponent estimators and with the time-lagged mutual information function applied to discretized versions of the signals. A confidence interval for the mutual information function is obtained from surrogate Markov processes with equilibrium distribution and transition matrix identical to the underlying signal...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Ariane Nunes-Alves, Daniel M Zuckerman, Guilherme Menegon Arantes
The T4 lysozyme L99A mutant is often used as a model system to study small-molecule binding to proteins, but pathways for ligand entry and exit from the buried binding site and the associated protein conformational changes have not been fully resolved. Here, molecular dynamics simulations were employed to model benzene exit from its binding cavity using the weighted ensemble (WE) approach to enhance sampling of low-probability unbinding trajectories. Independent WE simulations revealed four pathways for benzene exit, which correspond to transient tunnels spontaneously formed in previous simulations of apo T4 lysozyme...
March 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
M Lenzhofer, M Hohensinn, C Strohmaier, H A Reitsamer
Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) has been developed for all drainage pathways in glaucoma treatment. Besides implants overriding the resistance in the trabecular meshwork (iStent®, iStent Inject® [both Glaukos Germany GmbH, Wiesbaden, Germany], Hydrus Microstent® [Ivantis, Irvine, CA, USA]) and draining to the suprachoroidal space (Cypass Micro Stent® [Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX, USA], iStent Supra® [Glaukos Germany GmbH]), surgeons can further drain aqueous humor into the subconjunctival space with a transscleral MIGS implant (XEN45® [Allergan Plc...
May 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Damien Wright, Claire Mitchell, Benjamin R Dering, Elena Gheorghiu
Electrophysiological studies of symmetry have found a difference wave termed the Sustained Posterior Negativity (SPN) related to the presence of symmetry. Yet the extent to which the SPN is modulated by luminance-polarity and colour content is unknown. Here we examine how luminance-polarity distribution across the symmetry axis, grouping by luminance polarity, and the number of colours in the stimuli, modulate the SPN. Stimuli were dot patterns arranged either symmetrically or quasi-randomly. There were several arrangements: 'segregated'-symmetric dots were of one polarity and randomly-positioned dots were of the other; 'unsegregated'-symmetric dots were of both polarities in equal proportions; 'anti-symmetric'-dots were of opposite polarity across the symmetry axis; 'polarity-grouped anti-symmetric'-this is the same as anti-symmetric but with half the pattern of one polarity and the other half of opposite polarity; multi-colour symmetric patterns made of two, three to four colours...
June 2018: NeuroImage
Erin A Boese, Manjool Shah
PURPOSE: To report a case of spontaneous dislocation of a gelatin microstent 6 months after the initial uncomplicated surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We describe a 73-year-old man with a history of advanced primary open-angle glaucoma who had previously undergone an unsuccessful micropulse transcleral cyclophotocoagulation of the left eye. He underwent an uncomplicated combined phacoemulsification with an ab interno gelatin microstent, but was noted to have a spontaneous dislocation of the microstent 6 months postoperatively...
April 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
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