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Microstates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216191/transcription-factors-coregulators-and-epigenetic-marks-are-linearly-correlated-and-highly-redundant
#1
Tobias Ahsendorf, Franz-Josef Müller, Ved Topkar, Jeremy Gunawardena, Roland Eils
The DNA microstates that regulate transcription include sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs), coregulatory complexes, nucleosomes, histone modifications, DNA methylation, and parts of the three-dimensional architecture of genomes, which could create an enormous combinatorial complexity across the genome. However, many proteins and epigenetic marks are known to colocalize, suggesting that the information content encoded in these marks can be compressed. It has so far proved difficult to understand this compression in a systematic and quantitative manner...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212344/results-obtained-by-combining-different-estimators-of-eeg-connectivity-become-uninterpretable-if-the-underlying-models-are-incompatible
#2
Thomas Koenig, Pedro A Valdes-Sosa
We comment on a recent paper published in Brain Connectivity (Hatz et al. 2016) that combined EEG microstate analysis with the phase locking index and found that the test-retest reliability of connectivity patterns as obtained by the phase locking index increased when the data had been previously parcellated into microstates. While we acknowledge the need to parcellate the continuous data into periods that supposedly correspond to transiently stable patterns of connectivity, we believe that the approach chosen by the authors is seriously mistaken...
December 6, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196270/eeg-microstates-as-a-tool-for-studying-the-temporal-dynamics-of-whole-brain-neuronal-networks-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Christoph M Michel, Thomas Koenig
The present review discusses a well-established method for characterizing resting-state activity of the human brain using multichannel electroencephalography (EEG). This method involves the examination of electrical microstates in the brain, which are defined as successive short time periods during which the configuration of the scalp potential field remains semi-stable, suggesting quasi-simultaneity of activity among the nodes of large-scale networks. A few prototypic microstates, which occur in a repetitive sequence across time, can be reliably identified across participants...
November 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188992/tracking-the-catalytic-cycle-of-adenylate-kinase-by-ultraviolet-photodissociation-mass-spectrometry
#4
M Rachel Mehaffey, Michael B Cammarata, Jennifer S Brodbelt
The complex interplay of dynamic protein plasticity and specific side-chain interactions with substrate molecules that allows enzymes to catalyze reactions has yet to be fully unraveled. Top-down ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) mass spectrometry is used to track conformational fluctuations of phosphotransferase adenylate kinase (AK) throughout its active reaction cycle by characterization of complexes containing AK and one of four adenosine phosphate ligands. Variations in efficiencies of UVPD backbone cleavages were consistently observed for three α-helices and the adenosine binding regions for AK complexes representing different steps of the catalytic cycle, implying that these stretches of the protein sample various structural microstates as the enzyme undergoes global open-to-closed transitions...
November 30, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172013/the-association-between-brain-activity-and-motor-imagery-during-motor-illusion-induction-by-vibratory-stimulation
#5
Takayuki Kodama, Hideki Nakano, Osamu Katayama, Shin Murata
BACKGROUND: The association between motor imagery ability and brain neural activity that leads to the manifestation of a motor illusion remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined the association between the ability to generate motor imagery and brain neural activity leading to the induction of a motor illusion by vibratory stimulation. METHODS: The sample consisted of 20 healthy individuals who did not have movement or sensory disorders...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163110/modeling-uncertainties-in-eeg-microstates-analysis-of-real-and-imagined-motor-movements-using-probabilistic-clustering-driven-training-of-probabilistic-neural-networks
#6
Martin Dinov, Robert Leech
Part of the process of EEG microstate estimation involves clustering EEG channel data at the global field power (GFP) maxima, very commonly using a modified K-means approach. Clustering has also been done deterministically, despite there being uncertainties in multiple stages of the microstate analysis, including the GFP peak definition, the clustering itself and in the post-clustering assignment of microstates back onto the EEG timecourse of interest. We perform a fully probabilistic microstate clustering and labeling, to account for these sources of uncertainty using the closest probabilistic analog to KM called Fuzzy C-means (FCM)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163017/electrical-neuroimaging-of-music-processing-reveals-mid-latency-changes-with-level-of-musical-expertise
#7
Clara E James, Mathias S Oechslin, Christoph M Michel, Michael De Pretto
This original research focused on the effect of musical training intensity on cerebral and behavioral processing of complex music using high-density event-related potential (ERP) approaches. Recently we have been able to show progressive changes with training in gray and white matter, and higher order brain functioning using (f)MRI [(functional) Magnetic Resonance Imaging], as well as changes in musical and general cognitive functioning. The current study investigated the same population of non-musicians, amateur pianists and expert pianists using spatio-temporal ERP analysis, by means of microstate analysis, and ERP source imaging...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158603/realization-of-ground-state-in-artificial-kagome-spin-ice-via-topological-defect-driven-magnetic-writing
#8
Jack C Gartside, Daan M Arroo, David M Burn, Victoria L Bemmer, Andy Moskalenko, Lesley F Cohen, Will R Branford
Arrays of non-interacting nanomagnets are widespread in data storage and processing. As current technologies approach fundamental limits on size and thermal stability, enhancing functionality through embracing the strong interactions present at high array densities becomes attractive. In this respect, artificial spin ices are geometrically frustrated magnetic metamaterials that offer vast untapped potential due to their unique microstate landscapes, with intriguing prospects in applications from reconfigurable logic to magnonic devices or hardware neural networks...
November 20, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119612/are-you-surprised-to-hear-this-longitudinal-spectral-speech-exposure-in-older-compared-to-middle-aged-normal-hearing-adults
#9
Nathalie Giroud, Ulrike Lemke, Philip Reich, Julia Bauer, Susann Widmer, Martin Meyer
Cognitive abilities such as attention or working memory can support older adults during speech perception. However, cognitive abilities as well as speech perception decline with age, leading to the expenditure of effort during speech processing. This longitudinal study therefore investigated age-related differences in electrophysiological processes during speech discrimination, and assessed the extent of enhancement to such cognitive auditory processes through repeated auditory exposure. For that purpose, accuracy and reaction time were compared between 13 older adults (62-76y) and 15 middle-aged (28-52y) controls in an active oddball paradigm which was administered at three consecutive measurement time points at an interval of two weeks, while EEG was recorded...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119281/-swarm-relaxation-equilibrating-a-large-ensemble-of-computer-simulations-%C3%A2
#10
Shahrazad M A Malek, Richard K Bowles, Ivan Saika-Voivod, Francesco Sciortino, Peter H Poole
It is common practice in molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo computer simulations to run multiple, separately-initialized simulations in order to improve the sampling of independent microstates. Here we examine the utility of an extreme case of this strategy, in which we run a large ensemble of M independent simulations (a "swarm"), each of which is relaxed to equilibrium. We show that if M is of order [Formula: see text], we can monitor the swarm's relaxation to equilibrium, and confirm its attainment, within [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the equilibrium relaxation time...
November 10, 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110122/-suprachoroidal-minimally-invasive-glaucoma-surgery-procedures-and-clinical-outcome
#11
REVIEW
C Erb
The uveoscleral outflow route is via the ciliary muscles into the suprachoroidal spaces and then to the orbital blood and lymph systems. The main driving force behind this uveoscleral outflow is the high oncotic pressure in the choroidal vessels. Currently, the CyPass microstent is the only available suprachoroidal device for ab interno minimally invasive glaucoma surgery. The CyPass achieves a maximum reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) to 16-17 mm Hg over 12-24 months and is approved for mild to moderate primary open-angle glaucoma...
November 6, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096552/exploring-differences-between-left-and-right-hand-motor-imagery-via-spatio-temporal-eeg-microstate
#12
Weifeng Liu, Xiaoming Liu, Ruomeng Dai, Xiaoying Tang
EEG-based motor imagery is very useful in brain-computer interface. How to identify the imaging movement is still being researched. Electroencephalography (EEG) microstates reflect the spatial configuration of quasi-stable electrical potential topographies. Different microstates represent different brain functions. In this paper, microstate method was used to process the EEG-based motor imagery to obtain microstate. The single-trial EEG microstate sequences differences between two motor imagery tasks - imagination of left and right hand movement were investigated...
November 3, 2017: Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055363/something-old-trabeculectomy-something-new-ab-interno-gelatin-microstent-finally-a-marriage-of-innovation-and-outcome-data-without-concurrent-cataract-surgery
#13
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038516/eeg-topographies-provide-subject-specific-correlates-of-motor-control
#14
Elvira Pirondini, Martina Coscia, Jesus Minguillon, José Del R Millán, Dimitri Van De Ville, Silvestro Micera
Electroencephalography (EEG) of brain activity can be represented in terms of dynamically changing topographies (microstates). Notably, spontaneous brain activity recorded at rest can be characterized by four distinctive topographies. Despite their well-established role during resting state, their implication in the generation of motor behavior is debated. Evidence of such a functional role of spontaneous brain activity would provide support for the design of novel and sensitive biomarkers in neurological disorders...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035546/gradient-adaptive-decomposition-grad-method-optimized-refinement-along-macrostate-borders-in-markov-state-models
#15
P G Romano, M G Guenza
Markov state models (MSM) are used to model the kinetics of processes sampled by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. MSM reduce the high dimensionality inherent to MD simulations as they partition the free energy landscape into discrete states, generating a kinetic model as a series of uncorrelated jumps between states. Here, we detail a new method, called GRadient Adaptive Decomposition, which optimizes coarse-grained MSM by refining borders with respect to the gradient along the free energy surface. The proposed method requires only a small number of initial microstates because it corrects for errors produced by limited sampling...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957659/stem-cell-differentiation-as-a-non-markov-stochastic-process
#16
Patrick S Stumpf, Rosanna C G Smith, Michael Lenz, Andreas Schuppert, Franz-Josef Müller, Ann Babtie, Thalia E Chan, Michael P H Stumpf, Colin P Please, Sam D Howison, Fumio Arai, Ben D MacArthur
Pluripotent stem cells can self-renew in culture and differentiate along all somatic lineages in vivo. While much is known about the molecular basis of pluripotency, the mechanisms of differentiation remain unclear. Here, we profile individual mouse embryonic stem cells as they progress along the neuronal lineage. We observe that cells pass from the pluripotent state to the neuronal state via an intermediate epiblast-like state. However, analysis of the rate at which cells enter and exit these observed cell states using a hidden Markov model indicates the presence of a chain of unobserved molecular states that each cell transits through stochastically in sequence...
September 27, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941875/face-and-gaze-perception-in-borderline-personality-disorder-an-electrical-neuroimaging-study
#17
Cristina Berchio, Camille Piguet, Kornelia Gentsch, Anne-Lise Küng, Tonia A Rihs, Roland Hasler, Jean-Michel Aubry, Alexandre Dayer, Christoph M Michel, Nader Perroud
Humans are sensitive to gaze direction from early life, and gaze has social and affective values. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a clinical condition characterized by emotional dysregulation and enhanced sensitivity to affective and social cues. In this study we wanted to investigate the temporal-spatial dynamics of spontaneous gaze processing in BPD. We used a 2-back-working-memory task, in which neutral faces with direct and averted gaze were presented. Gaze was used as an emotional modulator of event-related-potentials to faces...
September 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938855/electroencephalographic-resting-state-networks-source-localization-of-microstates
#18
Anna Custo, Dimitri Van De Ville, William M Wells, Miralena I Tomescu, Denis Brunet, Christoph M Michel
Using electroencephalography (EEG) to elucidate the spontaneous activation of brain resting-state networks (RSNs) is nontrivial as the signal of interest is of low amplitude and it is difficult to distinguish the underlying neural sources. Using the principles of electric field topographical analysis, it is possible to estimate the meta-stable states of the brain (i.e., the resting-state topographies, so-called microstates). We estimated seven resting-state topographies explaining the EEG data set with k-means clustering (N = 164, 256 electrodes)...
November 17, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936168/mining-time-resolved-functional-brain-graphs-to-an-eeg-based-chronnectomic-brain-aged-index-cbai
#19
Stavros I Dimitriadis, Christos I Salis
The brain at rest consists of spatially and temporal distributed but functionally connected regions that called intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs). Resting state electroencephalography (rs-EEG) is a way to characterize brain networks without confounds associated with task EEG such as task difficulty and performance. A novel framework of how to study dynamic functional connectivity under the notion of functional connectivity microstates (FCμstates) and symbolic dynamics is further discussed. Furthermore, we introduced a way to construct a single integrated dynamic functional connectivity graph (IDFCG) that preserves both the strength of the connections between every pair of sensors but also the type of dominant intrinsic coupling modes (DICM)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931182/-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#20
Esther M Hoffmann, Verena Prokosch-Willing
Glaucoma leads to blindness but there are diagnostic and therapeutic developments that aid ophthalmologists in the improved mangement of the disease compared to the past. Known risk factors such as age, myopia, dark pigmented skin, genetics, and elevated intraocular pressure play an important role for the individual patient's prognosis, and many yet unknown or not sufficiently investigated risk factors come along. The structured examination of the optic nerve head is crucial for the clincial diagnosis by the ophthalmologist...
September 20, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
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