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Kateki Vinod, Steven J Gedde
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent studies evaluating the efficacy and complication profiles of novel glaucoma procedures promoting aqueous outflow. RECENT FINDINGS: Literature from the 2015 to 2016 review period includes abundant data regarding new and emerging glaucoma procedures. Notable findings from recent randomized clinical trials include titratability of intraocular pressure with multiple trabecular microbypass stents (iStent; Glaukos, Laguna Hills, California, USA) and greater reduction in intraocular pressure and medication usage following intracanalicular scaffolding (Hydrus Microstent; Ivantis Inc...
October 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Youfang Cao, Anna Terebus, Jie Liang
The discrete chemical master equation (dCME) provides a fundamental framework for studying stochasticity in mesoscopic networks. Because of the multi-scale nature of many networks where reaction rates have large disparity, directly solving dCMEs is intractable due to the exploding size of the state space. It is important to truncate the state space effectively with quantified errors, so accurate solutions can be computed. It is also important to know if all major probabilistic peaks have been computed. Here we introduce the Accurate CME (ACME) algorithm for obtaining direct solutions to dCMEs...
2016: Multiscale Modeling & Simulation: a SIAM Interdisciplinary Journal
Ke Liao, Bruce D McCandliss, Susan E Carlson, John Colombo, D Jill Shaddy, Elizabeth H Kerling, Rebecca J Lepping, Wichian Sittiprapaporn, Carol L Cheatham, Kathleen M Gustafson
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) have been shown to be necessary for early retinal and brain development, but long-term cognitive benefits of LCPUFA in infancy have not been definitively established. The present study sought to determine whether LCPUFA supplementation during the first year of life would result in group differences in behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) while performing a task requiring response inhibition (Go/No-Go) at 5.5 years of age. As newborns, 69 children were randomly assigned to infant formulas containing either no LCPUFA (control) or formula with 0...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
Benjamin A Seitzman, Malene Abell, Samuel C Bartley, Molly A Erickson, Amanda R Bolbecker, William P Hetrick
EEG studies of wakeful rest have shown that there are brief periods in which global electrical brain activity on the scalp remains semi-stable (so-called microstates). Topographical analyses of this activity have revealed that much of the variance is explained by four distinct microstates that occur in a repetitive sequence. A recent fMRI study showed that these four microstates correlated with four known functional systems, each of which is activated by specific cognitive functions and sensory inputs. The present study used high density EEG to examine the degree to which spatial and temporal properties of microstates may be altered by manipulating cognitive task (a serial subtraction task vs...
October 11, 2016: NeuroImage
Daniele Malpetti, Tommaso Roscilde
Nonlocality is a fundamental trait of quantum many-body systems, both at the level of pure states, as well as at the level of mixed states. Because of nonlocality, mixed states of any two subsystems are correlated in a stronger way than what can be accounted for by considering the correlated probabilities of occupying some microstates. In the case of equilibrium mixed states, we explicitly build two-point quantum correlation functions, which capture the specific, superior correlations of quantum systems at finite temperature, and which are directly accessible to experiments when correlating measurable properties...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Per Rogne, Magnus Wolf-Watz
Proteins are often functionally dependent on conformational changes that allow them to sample structural states that are sparsely populated in the absence of a substrate or binding partner. The distribution of such structural microstates is governed by their relative stability, and the kinetics of their interconversion is governed by the magnitude of associated activation barriers. Here, we have explored the interplay among structure, stability, and function of a selected enzyme, adenylate kinase (Adk), by monitoring changes in its enzymatic activity in response to additions of urea...
October 4, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Victor May, Rodney L Parsons
Our understanding of G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) mechanisms and functions have evolved considerably. Among the many conceptual realignments, GPCRs can exist in an ensemble of active microstates that have the potential to differentially engage specific downstream signaling events. Furthermore, among GPCR dynamics, GPCR internalization and vesicular trafficking are no longer solely mechanisms for desensitization, but now appreciated to form intricate endosomal signaling complexes that can potentially target second messengers to intracellular compartments with high temporal and spatial resolution...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Evaldas Pipinis, Sigita Melynyte, Thomas Koenig, Lina Jarutyte, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen, Osvaldas Ruksenas, Inga Griskova-Bulanova
There is a gap in understanding on how physiologically observed activity is related to the subjective, internally oriented experience during resting state. Microstate analysis is a frequent approach to evaluate resting-state EEG. But the relationship of commonly observed resting-state microstates to psychological domains of resting is not clear. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ) was recently introduced, offering an effective way to quantify subjective states after a period of resting and associate these quantifiers to psychological and physiological variables...
September 19, 2016: Brain Topography
Fei Gao, Huibin Jia, Xiangci Wu, Dongchuan Yu, Yi Feng
The aim of this study was to investigate the resting-state EEG microstate parameters and spatial complexity in male adolescent patients with mild spastic diplegia (MSD). Resting-state EEG data were collected from male adolescent patients with MSD and healthy controls with eyes closed. EEG microstate and omega complexity analysis were performed. Microstate analysis revealed that the occurrence rate of microstate class A and D were significantly higher and the duration of microstate class B was significantly lower in the patients compared to healthy controls, which indicated that the temporal complexity may be higher and certain cognitive functions may be impaired in these patients...
September 17, 2016: Brain Topography
Andrew Abi Mansour, Peter J Ortoleva
Constructing atom-resolved states from low-resolution data is of practical importance in many areas of science and engineering. This problem is addressed in this paper in the context of multiscale factorization methods for molecular dynamics. These methods capture the crosstalk between atomic and coarse-grained scales arising in macromolecular systems. This crosstalk is accounted for by Trotter factorization, which is used to separate the all-atom from the coarse-grained phases of the computation. In this approach, short molecular dynamics runs are used to advance in time the coarse-grained variables, which in turn guide the all-atom state...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Markus Gschwind, Martin Hardmeier, Dimitri Van De Ville, Miralena I Tomescu, Iris-Katharina Penner, Yvonne Naegelin, Peter Fuhr, Christoph M Michel, Margitta Seeck
Spontaneous fluctuations of neuronal activity in large-scale distributed networks are a hallmark of the resting brain. In relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) several fMRI studies have suggested altered resting-state connectivity patterns. Topographical EEG analysis reveals much faster temporal fluctuations in the tens of milliseconds time range (termed "microstates"), which showed altered properties in a number of neuropsychiatric conditions. We investigated whether these microstates were altered in patients with RRMS, and if the microstates' temporal properties reflected a link to the patients' clinical features...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
José E Cohen, Samuel Moscovici, Hosni Abu El Hassan, Omer Doron, Eyal Itshayek
Anterior communicating artery aneurysms frequently present wide necks and incorporate parent vessels. They are associated with significant variations in vascular anatomy, especially hypoplasia or aplasia of one of the proximal anterior cerebral arteries. Safe and complete endovascular occlusion of these aneurysms usually requires the assistance of complex approaches including dual stenting. We describe a technique for T-configured stent-assisted coiling in the management of ruptured wide-necked AcomA aneurysms by means of two simultaneous microsystems that allowed placement of two nitinol self-expandable Leo+ Baby stents (Balt Therapeutics, Montmorency, France) followed by coiling...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Natasha M Drissi, Attila Szakács, Suzanne T Witt, Anna Wretman, Martin Ulander, Henriettae Ståhlbrandt, Niklas Darin, Tove Hallböök, Anne-Marie Landtblom, Maria Engström
Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder caused by a loss of hypocretin-1 producing neurons in the hypothalamus. Previous neuroimaging studies have investigated brain function in narcolepsy during rest using positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In addition to hypothalamic and thalamic dysfunction they showed aberrant prefrontal perfusion and glucose metabolism in narcolepsy. Given these findings in brain structure and metabolism in narcolepsy, we anticipated that changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting state network (RSN) dynamics might also be apparent in patients with narcolepsy...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Suriya-Prakash Muthukrishnan, Navdeep Ahuja, Nalin Mehta, Ratna Sharma
Humans have limited capacity of processing just up to 4 integrated items of information in the working memory. Thus, it is inevitable to commit more errors when challenged with high memory loads. However, the neural mechanisms that determine the accuracy of response at high memory loads still remain unclear. High temporal resolution of Electroencephalography (EEG) technique makes it the best tool to resolve the temporal dynamics of brain networks. EEG-defined microstate is the quasi-stable scalp electrical potential topography that represents the momentary functional state of brain...
November 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Steven Vold, Iqbal Ike K Ahmed, E Randy Craven, Cynthia Mattox, Robert Stamper, Mark Packer, Reay H Brown, Tsontcho Ianchulev
PURPOSE: We evaluated 2-year safety and efficacy of supraciliary microstenting (CyPass Micro-Stent; Transcend Medical, Inc., Menlo Park, CA) for treating mild-to-moderate primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in patients undergoing cataract surgery. DESIGN: Multicenter (24 US sites), interventional randomized clinical trial (RCT) ( identifier, NCT01085357). PARTICIPANTS: Subjects were enrolled beginning July 2011, with study completion in March 2015...
October 2016: Ophthalmology
Rajanikant Panda, Rose D Bharath, Neeraj Upadhyay, Sandhya Mangalore, Srivas Chennu, Shobini L Rao
Current research suggests that human consciousness is associated with complex, synchronous interactions between multiple cortical networks. In particular, the default mode network (DMN) of the resting brain is thought to be altered by changes in consciousness, including the meditative state. However, it remains unclear how meditation alters the fast and ever-changing dynamics of brain activity within this network. Here we addressed this question using simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the spatial extents and temporal dynamics of the DMN during rest and meditation...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
F von Wegner, E Tagliazucchi, V Brodbeck, H Laufs
We analyze temporal autocorrelations and the scaling behaviour of EEG microstate sequences during wakeful rest. We use the recently introduced random walk approach and compute its fluctuation function analytically under the null hypothesis of a short-range correlated, first-order Markov process. The empirical fluctuation function and the Hurst parameter H as a surrogate parameter of long-range correlations are computed from 32 resting state EEG recordings and for a set of first-order Markov surrogate data sets with equilibrium distribution and transition matrices identical to the empirical data...
November 1, 2016: NeuroImage
Evie Malaia, Erik Bates, Benjamin Seitzman, Katherine Coppess
The heterogeneity of behavioral manifestation of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) requires a model which incorporates understanding of dynamic differences in neural processing between ASD and typically developing (TD) populations. We use network approach to characterization of spatiotemporal dynamics of EEG data in TD and ASD youths. EEG recorded during both wakeful rest (resting state) and a social-visual task was analyzed using cross-correlation analysis of the 32-channel time series to produce weighted, undirected graphs corresponding to functional brain networks...
July 27, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Antonio M Fea, Iqbal Ike K Ahmed, Carlo Lavia, Pietro Mittica, Giulia Consolandi, Ilaria Motolese, Giulia Pignata, Eduardo Motolese, Teresa Rolle, Paolo Frezzotti
BACKGROUND: To compare the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma medications following selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) versus stand-alone placement of the Hydrus microstent, a microinvasive glaucoma surgery device. DESIGN: Prospective interventional case-series. University practice. PARTICIPANTS: 56 eyes (56 patients) with uncontrolled primary open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: patients received either SLT (n = 25) or Hydrus implantation (n = 31) in two centers...
July 23, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Xiao Xu, Matej Kanduč, Jianzhong Wu, Joachim Dzubiella
The pair association between two polyelectrolytes (PEs) of the same size but opposite charge is systematically studied in terms of the potential of mean force (PMF) along their center-of-mass reaction coordinate via coarse-grained, implicit-solvent, explicit-salt computer simulations. The focus is set on the onset and the intermediate transient stages of complexation. At conditions above the counterion-condensation threshold, the PE association process exhibits a distinct sliding-rod-like behavior where the polymer chains approach each other by first stretching out at a critical distance close to their contour length, then "shaking hand" and sliding along each other in a parallel fashion, before eventually folding into a neutral complex...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
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