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Phase amplitude coupling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632051/quantifying-coordination-among-the-rearfoot-midfoot-and-forefoot-segments-during-running
#1
Tomoya Takabayashi, Mutsuaki Edama, Erika Yokoyama, Chiaki Kanaya, Masayoshi Kubo
Because previous studies have suggested that there is a relationship between injury risk and inter-segment coordination, quantifying coordination between the segments is essential. Even though the midfoot and forefoot segments play important roles in dynamic tasks, previous studies have mostly focused on coordination between the shank and rearfoot segments. This study aimed to quantify coordination among rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot segments during running. Eleven healthy young men ran on a treadmill. The coupling angle, representing inter-segment coordination, was calculated using a modified vector coding technique...
February 28, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621980/converting-quasiclassical-states-into-arbitrary-fock-state-superpositions-in-a-superconducting-circuit
#2
W Wang, L Hu, Y Xu, K Liu, Y Ma, Shi-Biao Zheng, R Vijay, Y P Song, L-M Duan, L Sun
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new method to generate arbitrary Fock state superpositions in a superconducting quantum circuit, where a qubit is dispersively coupled to a microwave cavity mode. Here, the qubit is used to conditionally modulate the probability amplitudes of the Fock state components of a coherent state to those of the desired superposition state, instead of pumping photons one by one into the cavity as in previous schemes. Our method does not require the adjustment of the qubit frequency during the cavity state preparation and is more robust to noise and accumulation of experimental errors compared to previous ones...
June 2, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612156/reduction-of-sr-ca-2-leak-and-arrhythmogenic-cellular-correlates-by-smp-114-a-novel-camkii-inhibitor-with-oral-bioavailability
#3
Stefan Neef, Christian Mann, Anne Zwenger, Nataliya Dybkova, Lars S Maier
Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak induced by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is centrally involved in atrial and ventricular arrhythmogenesis as well as heart failure remodeling. Consequently, treating SR Ca(2+) leak has been proposed as a novel therapeutic paradigm, but compounds for use in humans are lacking. SMP-114 ("Rimacalib") is a novel, orally available CaMKII inhibitor developed for human use that has already entered clinical phase II trials to treat rheumatoid arthritis...
July 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610902/post-stimulus-fmri-and-eeg-responses-evidence-for-a-neuronal-origin-hypothesised-to-be-inhibitory
#4
K J Mullinger, M T Cherukara, R B Buxton, S T Francis, S D Mayhew
Post-stimulus undershoots, negative responses following cessation of stimulation, are widely observed in functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) data. However, the debate surrounding whether the origin of this response phase is neuronal or vascular, and whether it provides functionally relevant information, that is additional to what is contained in primary response, means that undershoots are widely overlooked. We simultaneously recorded electroencephalography (EEG), BOLD and cerebral blood-flow (CBF) [obtained from arterial spin labelled (ASL) fMRI] fMRI responses to hemifield checkerboard stimulation to test the potential neural origin of the fMRI post-stimulus undershoot...
June 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608044/parametric-sensitivity-analysis-of-oscillatory-delay-systems-with-an-application-to-gene-regulation
#5
Brian Ingalls, Maya Mincheva, Marc R Roussel
A parametric sensitivity analysis for periodic solutions of delay-differential equations is developed. Because phase shifts cause the sensitivity coefficients of a periodic orbit to diverge, we focus on sensitivities of the extrema, from which amplitude sensitivities are computed, and of the period. Delay-differential equations are often used to model gene expression networks. In these models, the parametric sensitivities of a particular genotype define the local geometry of the evolutionary landscape. Thus, sensitivities can be used to investigate directions of gradual evolutionary change...
June 12, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596820/neural-synchronization-deficits-linked-to-cortical-hyper-excitability-and-auditory-hypersensitivity-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#6
Lauren E Ethridge, Stormi P White, Matthew W Mosconi, Jun Wang, Ernest V Pedapati, Craig A Erickson, Matthew J Byerly, John A Sweeney
BACKGROUND: Studies in the fmr1 KO mouse demonstrate hyper-excitability and increased high-frequency neuronal activity in sensory cortex. These abnormalities may contribute to prominent and distressing sensory hypersensitivities in patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS). The current study investigated functional properties of auditory cortex using a sensory entrainment task in FXS. METHODS: EEG recordings were obtained from 17 adolescents and adults with FXS and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592690/dynamics-of-human-subthalamic-neuron-phase-locking-to-motor-and-sensory-cortical-oscillations-during-movement
#7
Witold J Lipski, Thomas A Wozny, Ahmad Alhourani, Efstathios Kondylis, Robert S Turner, Donald J Crammond, Robert Mark Richardson
Coupled oscillatory activity recorded between sensorimotor regions of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop is thought to reflect information transfer relevant to movement. A neuronal firing-rate model of basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry, however, has dominated thinking about basal ganglia function for the past three decades, without knowledge of the relationship between basal ganglia single neuron firing and cortical population activity during movement itself. We recorded activity from 34 subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons, simultaneously with cortical local field potentials and motor output, in eleven subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) undergoing awake deep brain stimulator lead placement...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579102/wideband-frequency-swept-excitation-in-pulsed-epr-spectroscopy
#8
Andrin Doll, Gunnar Jeschke
Excitation of electron spins with monochromatic rectangular pulses is limited to bandwidths that are smaller than the spectral widths of most organic radicals and much smaller than the spectral widths of transition and rare earth metal ions. With frequency-swept pulses, bandwidths of up to 800MHz have previously been attained for excitation and detection of spin packets at frequencies of about 9.6GHz and bandwidths of up to 2.5GHz in a polarization transfer experiment at frequencies of about 34GHz. The remaining limitations, mainly due to resonator bandwidth and due to pulse length restrictions are discussed...
July 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555125/determinants-of-motion-sickness-in-tilting-trains-coriolis-cross-coupling-stimuli-and-tilt-delay
#9
Giovanni Bertolini, Meek Angela Durmaz, Kim Ferrari, Alexander Küffer, Charlotte Lambert, Dominik Straumann
Faster trains require tilting of the cars to counterbalance the centrifugal forces during curves. Motion sensitive passengers, however, complain of discomfort and overt motion sickness. A recent study comparing different control systems in a tilting train, suggested that the delay of car tilts relative to the curve of the track contributes to motion sickness. Other aspects of the motion stimuli, like the lateral accelerations and the car jitters, differed between the tested conditions and prevented a final conclusion on the role of tilt delay...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536507/dopamine-modulates-delta-gamma-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-behaving-rats
#10
Victoria Andino-Pavlovsky, Annie C Souza, Robson Scheffer-Teixeira, Adriano B L Tort, Roberto Etchenique, Sidarta Ribeiro
Dopamine release and phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (CFC) have independently been implicated in prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning. To causally investigate whether dopamine release affects phase-amplitude comodulation between different frequencies in local field potentials (LFP) recorded from the medial PFC (mPFC) of behaving rats, we used RuBiDopa, a light-sensitive caged compound that releases the neurotransmitter dopamine when irradiated with visible light. LFP power did not change in any frequency band after the application of light-uncaged dopamine, but significantly strengthened phase-amplitude comodulation between delta and gamma oscillations...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532653/hippocampal-ca1-local-field-potential-oscillations-induced-by-olfactory-cue-of-liked-food
#11
Nifareeda Samerphob, Dania Cheaha, Surapong Chatpun, Ekkasit Kumarnsit
Eating motivation is induced not only by negative energy balance but also food related cues. However, neural processing for acquisition of learned food preference remains to be established. This study aimed to identify hippocampal neural signaling in response to olfactory cue (chocolate scent) after completion of repetitive chocolate sessions. Male Swiss albino mice implanted with intracranial electrode into the hippocampus were used for local field potential (LFP) recording. Animals were given chocolate sessions (a piece of 2g chocolate per each mouse to eat on day 1, 3, 5 and 7)...
May 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522816/dynamical-dispersion-engineering-in-coupled-vertical-cavities-employing-a-high-contrast-grating
#12
Alireza Taghizadeh, Il-Sug Chung
Photon's effective mass is an important parameter of an optical cavity mode, which determines the strength of light-matter interaction. Here, we propose a novel method for controlling the photon's effective mass by using coupled photonic cavities and designing the angular dependence of the coupling strength. This can be implemented by employing a high-contrast grating (HCG) as the coupling reflector in a system of two coupled vertical cavities, and engineering both the HCG reflection phase and amplitude response...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520976/pattern-formation-in-multiphase-models-of-chemotactic-cell-aggregation
#13
J E F Green, J P Whiteley, J M Oliver, H M Byrne, S L Waters
We develop a continuum model for the aggregation of cells cultured in a nutrient-rich medium in a culture well. We consider a 2D geometry, representing a vertical slice through the culture well, and assume that the cell layer depth is small compared with the typical lengthscale of the culture well. We adopt a continuum mechanics approach, treating the cells and culture medium as a two-phase mixture. Specifically, the cells and culture medium are treated as fluids. Additionally, the cell phase can generate forces in response to environmental cues, which include the concentration of a chemoattractant that is produced by the cells within the culture medium...
May 16, 2017: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515446/phase-channel-dynamics-reveal-the-role-of-impurities-and-screening-in-a-quasi-one-dimensional-charge-density-wave-system
#14
M D Thomson, K Rabia, F Meng, M Bykov, S van Smaalen, H G Roskos
Charge density waves (CDWs), i.e. the periodic spatial modulation of coupled electronic and lattice density, are ubiquitous in low-dimensional conductors and have taken on renewed relevance due their role in state-of-the-art materials, e.g. high-T c superconductors, topological insulators and low-dimensional carbon. As CDWs are described by a complex order parameter to represent both the amplitude and phase, they are formally analogous to BCS superconductors and spin-waves, providing a prototype of collective phenomena for the further development of field theories and ab-initio calculations of complex solids...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505829/control-of-amplitude-chimeras-by-time-delay-in-oscillator-networks
#15
Aleksandar Gjurchinovski, Eckehard Schöll, Anna Zakharova
We investigate the influence of time-delayed coupling in a ring network of nonlocally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators upon chimera states, i.e., space-time patterns with coexisting partially coherent and partially incoherent domains. We focus on amplitude chimeras, which exhibit incoherent behavior with respect to the amplitude rather than the phase and are transient patterns, and we show that their lifetime can be significantly enhanced by coupling delay. To characterize their transition to phase-lag synchronization (coherent traveling waves) and other coherent structures, we generalize the Kuramoto order parameter...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482160/photoinduced-intra-and-intermolecular-energy-transfer-in-chlorophyll-a-dimer
#16
Fulu Zheng, Sebastian Fernandez-Alberti, Sergei Tretiak, Yang Zhao
Applying nonadiabatic excited-state molecular dynamics, we investigate excitation energy transfer and exciton localization dynamics in a chlorophyll a (Chla) dimer system at the interface of two monomers of light-harvesting complex II trimer. After its optical excitation at the red edge of the Soret (B) band, the Chla dimer experiences an ultrafast intra- and intermolecular nonradiative relaxation process to the lowest band (Qy). The energy relaxation is found to run faster in the Chla dimer than in the Chla monomer...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480817/plasticity-in-the-period-of-the-circadian-pacemaker-induced-by-phase-dispersion-of-its-constituent-cellular-clocks
#17
Domien G M Beersma, Kim A Gargar, Serge Daan
The mammalian circadian pacemaker is commonly thought to be a rigid oscillator that generates output under a variety of circumstances that differ only in phase, period, and/or amplitude. Yet the pacemaker is composed of many cells that each can respond to varying circumstances in different ways. Computer simulations demonstrate that networks of such pacemaker cells behave differently under a light-dark cycle compared with constant darkness. The differences demonstrate that the circadian pacemaker is plastic: The pacemaker shapes its properties in response to the circumstances...
June 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476919/v%C3%AC-o2-kinetics-associated-with-moderate-intensity-exercise-in-heart-failure-impact-of-intrathecal-fentanyl-inhibition-of-group-iii-iv-locomotor-muscle-afferents
#18
Erik H Van Iterson, Bruce D Johnson, Michael J Joyner, Timothy B Curry, Thomas P Olson
Heart failure (HF) patients demonstrate impaired pulmonary, circulatory, and nervous system responses to exercise. While HF demonstrate prolonged (time-constant, τ) pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇O2) on-kinetics contributing to exercise intolerance, it is unknown if abnormal V̇O2 kinetics couple with ventilatory and circulatory dysfunction secondary to impaired group III/IV afferents in HF. Because lower-lumbar intrathecal fentanyl inhibits locomotor muscle afferents resulting in improved exercise ventilation and hemodynamics, we tested the hypotheses, HF will demonstrate: 1) rapid V̇O2 on-kinetics, and 2) attenuated steady-state V̇O2 amplitude and oxygen deficit (O2def) during exercise with fentanyl versus placebo...
May 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468351/local-modulation-of-double-optomechanically-induced-transparency-and-amplification
#19
Q Yang, B P Hou, D G Lai
We consider the probe absorption properties in a mechanically coupled optomechanical system in which the two coupled nanomechanical oscillators are driven by the time-dependent forces, respectively. It is found that the mechanical interaction splits the transparency window for a usual single-mode optomechanical system into two parts and then leads to appearance of the double optomechanically induced transparency. The distance between the two transparency positions (the frequency for the maximal transparency) is determined by the mechanical interaction amplitude...
May 1, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467703/simulation-of-vibronic-spectra-of-flexible-systems-hybrid-dvr-harmonic-approaches
#20
Alberto Baiardi, Julien Bloino, Vincenzo Barone
Our general framework for the simulation of vibrational signatures in electronic spectra has been extended to treat one large-amplitude motion (LAM) at the anharmonic level, coupled to the other small-amplitude motions (SAM) treated as harmonic. The coupling between LAM and SAM is minimized thanks to the use of delocalized internal coordinates, which are built automatically from the molecular topology. General LAMs can be employed, ranging from intrinsic reaction coordinates to rigid or flexible paths based on the distinguished coordinate approach...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
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