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TBI brain injury stroke

Natalia Chmielewska, Janusz Szyndler, Karolina Makowska, Dawid Wojtyna, Piotr Maciejak, Adam Płaźnik
The role of blood brain barrier (BBB) is to preserve a precisely regulated environment for proper neuronal signaling. In many of the central nervous system (CNS) pathologies, the function of BBB is altered. Thus, there is a necessity to evaluate a fast, noninvasive and reliable method for monitoring of BBB condition. It seems that revealing the peripheral diagnostic biomarker whose release pattern (concentration, dynamics) will be correlated with clinical symptoms of neurological disorders offers significant hope...
February 13, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Flora M Hammond, William Sauve, Fred Ledon, Charles Davis, Andrea E Formella
BACKGROUND: Dextromethorphan 20mg /quinidine 10mg (DM/Q) was approved to treat pseudobulbar affect (PBA) based upon phase 3 trials conducted in participants with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or multiple sclerosis. PRISM II evaluated DM/Q effectiveness, safety and tolerability for PBA following stroke, dementia or traumatic brain injury (TBI). OBJECTIVE: To report results from the TBI cohort of PRISM II, including a TBI-specific functional scale. DESIGN: Open-label trial evaluating twice daily DM/Q over 90 days...
February 22, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Aditi Falnikar, Jarred Stratton, Ruihe Lin, Carrie E Andrews, Ashley Tyburski, Victoria A Trovillion, Chelsea Gottschalk, Biswarup Ghosh, Lorraine Iacovitti, Melanie B Elliott, Angelo C Lepore
Populations of neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in a number of defined niches in the adult CNS where they continually give rise to mature cell types throughout life, including newly-born neurons. In addition to prototypical niches of the subventricular zone and subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, novel stem cell niches that are also neurogenic have recently been identified in multiple midline structures, including circumventricular organs (CVOs) of the brain. These resident NSCs may have the potential for reparative processes in pathologies such as traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Jennifer M Boggs, Arne Beck, Sam Hubley, Edward L Peterson, Yong Hu, L Keoki Williams, Deepak Prabhakar, Rebecca C Rossom, Frances L Lynch, Christine Y Lu, Beth E Waitzfelder, Ashli A Owen-Smith, Gregory E Simon, Brian K Ahmedani
OBJECTIVE: Mitigation of suicide risk by reducing access to lethal means, such as firearms and potentially lethal medications, is a highly recommended practice. To better understand groups of patients at risk of suicide in medical settings, the authors compared demographic and clinical risk factors between patients who died by suicide by using firearms or other means with matched patients who did not die by suicide (control group). METHODS: In a case-control study in 2016 from eight health care systems within the Mental Health Research Network, 2,674 suicide cases from 2010-2013 were matched to a control group (N=267,400)...
February 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Kavelin Rumalla, Vijay Letchuman, Kyle A Smith, Paul M Arnold
BACKGROUND: Hydrocephalus is a life-threatening sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI) with poorly defined epidemiology in children. Here, we report the national incidence, risk factors, and outcomes associated with post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH). METHODS: The Kids Inpatient Database (2003, 2006, 2009, 2012) was queried using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes to identify all patients (age 0 to 20) with TBI (850...
December 11, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
George Fotakopoulos, Demosthenes Makris, Eleni Tsianaka, Polikceni Kotlia, Paulos Karakitsios, Charalabos Gatos, Alkiviadis Tzannis, Kostas Fountas
OBJECT: To identify the risk factors for post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) and to document the incidence of PTA after mild traumatic brain injuries. METHODS: This was a prospective study, affecting mild TBI (mTBI) (Glasgow Coma Scale 14-15) cases attending to the Emergency Department between January 2009 and April 2012 (40 months duration). Patients were divided into two groups (Group A: without PTA, and Group B: with PTA, and they were assessed according to the risk factors...
February 5, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Cindy Hunt, Alicja Michalak, Donna Ouchterlony, Shawn Marshall, Cheryl Masanic, Chantal Vaidyanath, Shree Bhalerao, Michael D Cusimano, Deanna Quon, Lisa K Fischer, Andrew Baker
BACKGROUND: Standardized data collection for traumatic brain injury (TBI) (including concussion) using common data elements (CDEs) has strengthened clinical care and research capacity in the United States and Europe. Currently, Ontario healthcare providers do not collect uniform data on adult patients diagnosed with concussion. OBJECTIVE: The Ontario Concussion Care Strategy (OCCS) is a collaborative network of multidisciplinary healthcare providers, brain injury advocacy groups, patient representatives, and researchers with a shared vision to improve concussion care across the province, starting with the collection of standardized data...
November 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Bilal Khokhar, Linda Simoni-Wastila, Julia F Slejko, Eleanor Perfetto, Min Zhan, Gordon S Smith
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between posttraumatic brain injury statin use and (1) mortality and (2) the incidence of associated morbidities, including stroke, depression, and Alzheimer's disease and related dementias following injury. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Nested cohort of all Medicare beneficiaries 65 years of age and older who survived a traumatic brain injury (TBI) hospitalization during 2006 through 2010. The final sample comprised 100 515 beneficiaries...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Gentian Toshkezi, Michele Kyle, Sharon L Longo, Lawrence S Chin, Li-Ru Zhao
OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of long-term disability and death in young adults. The lack of pharmaceutical therapy for post-acute TBI recovery remains a crucial medical challenge. Stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which are 2 key hematopoietic growth factors, have shown neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects in experimental stroke. The objective of this study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of combined treatment (SCF + G-CSF) in subacute TBI...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Rafael Badenes, Chiara Robba, Fabio S Taccone, Federico Bilotta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article revises the recent evidence on ICU admission criteria for acute neurological patients [traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, postoperative neurosurgical procedures and stroke]. RECENT FINDINGS: The appropriate utilization of ICU beds is essential, but it is complex and a challenge to attain. To date there are no widely accepted international guidelines for managing these acute brain-injured patients (stroke, TBI, postneurosurgery) in the ICU...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Yanlu Zhang, Michael Chopp, Zheng Gang Zhang, Yi Zhang, Li Zhang, Mei Lu, Talan Zhang, Stefan Winter, Hemma Brandstätter, Asim Mahmood, Ye Xiong
OBJECTIVE Cerebrolysin is a neuropeptide preparation that mimics the properties of neurotrophic factors and has had beneficial effects in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). To further evaluate treatment schemes, the authors assessed the dose-response of Cerebrolysin on functional improvement in a rat model of mild TBI (mTBI). METHODS This dose-response study was a prospective, randomized, blinded, and placebo-controlled preclinical experiment. Male Wistar adult rats, subjected to mTBI induced by a closed head impact, were treated randomly with 0 (saline as placebo), 0...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Melissa A Bradley-Whitman, Kelly N Roberts, Erin L Abner, Stephen W Scheff, Bert C Lynn, Mark A Lovell
BACKGROUND: Although elevated serum levels of visinin-like protein 1 (VILIP-1), a neuron-specific calcium sensor protein, are associated with ischaemic stroke, only a single study has evaluated VILIP-1 as a biomarker of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current proof-of-concept study was designed to determine whether serum VILIP-1 levels increase post-injury in a well-characterized rat unilateral cortical contusion model. METHODS: Lateral flow devices (LFDs) rapidly (< 20 min) detected trace serum levels (pg/mL) of VILIP-1 in a small input sample volume (10 µL)...
2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Ho-Yan Yvonne Chun, Richard Newman, William N Whiteley, Martin Dennis, Gillian E Mead, Alan J Carson
OBJECTIVE: There is little randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence to guide treatment for anxiety after stroke. We systematically reviewed RCTs of anxiety interventions in acquired brain injury (ABI) conditions including stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) in order to summarize efficacy and key aspects of trial design to help guide future RCTs. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane trial register, Medline, Embase, PsychInfo and CINAHL systematically up to August 2017...
January 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Thomas Beez, Hans-Jakob Steiger, Nima Etminan
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of pharmacological strategies exclusively targeting secondary brain damage (SBD) following ischemic stroke, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, aSAH, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), traumatic brain injury (TBI) and bacterial meningitis is unclear. This meta-analysis studied the effect of SBD targeted treatment on clinical outcome across the pathological entities. METHODS: Randomized, controlled, double-blinded trials on aforementioned entities with 'death' as endpoint were identified...
December 7, 2017: BMC Neurology
Jin Shup So, Jung-Ho Yun
Objective: To show the effect of dual monitoring including cardiac output (CO) and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patiens. We hypothesized that meticulous treatment using dual monitoring is effective to sustain maintain minimal intensive care unit (ICU) complications and maintain optimal ICP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) for severe TBI patiens. Methods: We included severe TBI, below Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 8 and head abbreviation injury scale (AIS) >4 and performed decompressive craniectomy at trauma ICU of our hospital...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
Li Shan Chiu, Ryan S Anderton, Jane L Cross, Vince W Clark, Adam B Edwards, Neville W Knuckey, Bruno P Meloni
Cationic arginine-rich and poly-arginine peptides (referred to as CARPs) have potent neuroprotective properties in in vitro excitotoxicity and in vivo models of stroke. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) shares many pathophysiological processes as stroke, including excitotoxicity. Therefore, we evaluated our lead peptide, poly-arginine R18, with the COG1410 and APP96-110 peptides, which have neuroprotective actions following TBI. In an in vitro cortical neuronal glutamic acid excitotoxicity injury model, R18 was highly neuroprotective and reduced neuronal calcium influx, while COG1410 and APP96-110 displayed modest neuroprotection and were less effective at reducing calcium influx...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
Samuel Daly, Maxwell Thorpe, Sarah B Rockswold, Molly Hubbard, Thomas A Bergman, Uzma Samadani, Gaylan Rockswold
There has been no major advancement in a quarter of a century for the treatment of acute severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). This review summarizes 40 years of clinical and pre-clinical research on the treatment of acute TBI with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2) in the context of an impending National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)-funded, multicenter, randomized, adaptive Phase II clinical trial - the Hyperbaric Oxygen Brain Injury Treatment (HOBIT) trial. Thirty studies (8 clinical and 22 pre-clinical) that administered HBO2 within 30 days of a TBI were identified from PubMed searches...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
Michael R Hamblin
There is a notable lack of therapeutic alternatives for what is fast becoming a global epidemic of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Photobiomodulation (PBM) employs red or near-infrared (NIR) light (600-1100nm) to stimulate healing, protect tissue from dying, increase mitochondrial function, improve blood flow, and tissue oxygenation. PBM can also act to reduce swelling, increase antioxidants, decrease inflammation, protect against apoptosis, and modulate microglial activation state. All these mechanisms of action strongly suggest that PBM delivered to the head should be beneficial in cases of both acute and chronic TBI...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Lisa-Maria Schönfeld, Dearbhaile Dooley, Ali Jahanshahi, Yasin Temel, Sven Hendrix
Damage to the motor cortex induced by stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in chronic motor deficits. For the development and improvement of therapies, animal models which possess symptoms comparable to the clinical population are used. However, the use of experimental animals raises valid ethical and methodological concerns. To decrease discomfort by experimental procedures and to increase the quality of results, non-invasive and sensitive rodent motor tests are needed. A broad variety of rodent motor tests are available to determine deficits after stroke or TBI...
October 28, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Sigal Tal, Amir Hadanny, Efrat Sasson, Gil Suzin, Shai Efrati
Background: Recent clinical studies in stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) victims suffering chronic neurological injury present evidence that hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) can induce neuroplasticity. Objective: To assess the neurotherapeutic effect of HBOT on prolonged post-concussion syndrome (PPCS) due to TBI, using brain microstructure imaging. Methods: Fifteen patients afflicted with PPCS were treated with 60 daily HBOT sessions. Imaging evaluation was performed using Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast-Enhanced (DSC) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) MR sequences...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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