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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093370/a-comparison-of-locomotor-therapy-interventions-partial-body-weight-supported-treadmill-lokomat%C3%A2-and-g-eo%C3%A2-training-in-persons-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Alberto Esquenazi, Stella Lee, Amanda Wikoff, Andrew Packel, Theresa Toczylowski, John Feeley
BACKGROUND: Literature in the application of gait training techniques in persons with traumatic brain injury is limited. Current techniques require of multiple staff and are physically demanding. The use of a robotic locomotor training may provide improved training capacity for this population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of three different modes of locomotor therapy on gait velocity and spatiotemporal symmetry using: an end effector robot (G-EO™); a robotic exoskeleton (Lokomat®) and manual assisted partial-body weight supported treadmill training (PBWSTT) in participants with traumatic brain injury...
January 13, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048972/astaxanthin-improves-cognitive-performance-in-mice-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Xinran Ji, Dayong Peng, Yiling Zhang, Jun Zhang, Yuning Wang, Yuan Gao, Ning Lu, Peifu Tang
[BACKGROUND]: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces lasting neurological deficits that plague patients and physicians. To date, there is no effective method to combat the source of this problem. Here, we utilized a mild, closed head TBI model to determine the modulatory effects of a natural dietary compound, astaxanthin (AST). AST is centrally active following oral administration and is neuroprotective in experimental brain ischemia/stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) models. We examined the effects of oral AST on the long-term neurological functional recovery and histological outcomes following moderate TBI in a mice model...
December 31, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001759/transcranial-low-level-laser-light-therapy-for-brain-injury
#3
Connor Thunshelle, Michael R Hamblin
BACKGROUND: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) is a possible treatment for brain injury, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We review the fundamental mechanisms at the cellular and molecular level and the effects on the brain are discussed. There are several contributing processes that have been proposed to lead to the beneficial effects of PBM in treating TBI such as stimulation of neurogenesis, a decrease in inflammation, and neuroprotection...
December 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982555/how-to-manage-blood-pressure-after-brain-injury
#4
Laurent Carteron, Fabio S Taccone, Mauro Oddo
Manipulation of blood pressure (BP) is a mainstay of therapy in patients with acute brain injury (ABI). In the early emergent phase (first hours from injury), depending on intracranial pathology, BP manipulation aims to 1) limit the progression of parenchymal hematomas or hemorrhagic transformation (in patients with ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH]), and 2) attenuate hypoperfusion and secondary cerebral ischemic insults (in patients with traumatic brain injury [TBI])...
December 16, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911071/severe-brain-injury-in-massachusetts-assessing-the-continuum-of-care
#5
Laura Lorenz, Gabrielle Katz
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a major public health problem in Massachusetts (Hackman et al, 2014) and includes traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, ABI-related infectious diseases, metabolic disorders affecting the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and brain tumor. Advances in emergency medical care and neurosurgery mean that more people are surviving severe traumatic brain injury (Trexler et al, 2014). Yet many patients with severe TBI in particular, are not receiving inpatient services after initial treatment (Hackman et al, 2014; CDC, 2014) or later that are known to be effective (Malec & Kean, 2015; Lewis & Horn, 2015; BI Commission, 2011; Kolakowsky-Hayner et al, 2000; Interviews)...
December 10, 2015: Issue Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905046/in-hospital-mortality-with-use-of-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-in-traumatic-brain-injury-patients-results-of-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#6
Rabail Chaudhry, Sachin Batra, Omar L Mancillas, Robert Wegner, Navneet Grewal, George W Williams
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a frequently performed invasive procedure that has been associated with high short-term mortality. Its use of special interest in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients as nutrition support constitutes important issues in intensive care of this group. We used a national database to determine the incidence of, and factors associated with, in-hospital mortality among TBI patients undergoing PEG. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using the US nationwide inpatient sample to analyze data from all hospitalizations in 2008 with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnostic and procedure codes identifying patients with TBI and hemorrhagic stroke who received PEG...
November 30, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870453/do-microglia-play-a-role-in-sex-differences-in-tbi
#7
REVIEW
Henry W Caplan, Charles S Cox, Supinder S Bedi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for both males and females and is, thus, a major focus of current study. Although the overall death rate of TBI for males is roughly three times higher than that for females, males have been disproportionately represented in clinical and preclinical studies. Gender differences are known to exist in many neurologic disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and stroke, and differences appear to exist in TBI. Furthermore, it is known that microglia have sexually dimorphic roles in CNS development and other neurologic conditions; however, most animal studies of microglia and TBI have focused on male subjects...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867476/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-for-traumatic-brain-injury-bench-to-bedside
#8
REVIEW
Qin Hu, Anatol Manaenko, Ting Xu, Zhenni Guo, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem in the United States. Survivors of TBI are often left with significant cognitive, behavioral, and communicative disabilities. So far there is no effective treatment/intervention in the daily clinical practice for TBI patients. The protective effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) have been proved in stroke; however, its efficiency in TBI remains controversial. In this review, we will summarize the results of HBOT in experimental and clinical TBI, elaborate the mechanisms, and bring out our current understanding and opinions for future studies...
April 2016: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865980/aging-of-cerebral-white-matter
#9
REVIEW
Huan Liu, Yuanyuan Yang, Yuguo Xia, Wen Zhu, Rehana K Leak, Zhishuo Wei, Jianyi Wang, Xiaoming Hu
White matter (WM) occupies a large volume of the human cerebrum and is mainly composed of myelinated axons and myelin-producing glial cells. The myelinated axons within WM are the structural foundation for efficient neurotransmission between cortical and subcortical areas. Similar to neuron-enriched gray matter areas, WM undergoes a series of changes during the process of aging. WM malfunction can induce serious neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments. Thus, age-related changes in WM may contribute to the functional decline observed in the elderly...
November 16, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859797/in-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-effects-of-a-novel-dimeric-inhibitor-of-psd-95-on-excitotoxicity-and-functional-recovery-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Jens Bak Sommer, Anders Bach, Hana Malá, Kristian Strømgaard, Jesper Mogensen, Darryl S Pickering
PSD-95 inhibitors have been shown to be neuroprotective in stroke, but have only to a very limited extent been evaluated in the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that has pathophysiological mechanisms in common with stroke. The aims of the current study were to assess the effects of a novel dimeric inhibitor of PSD-95, UCCB01-147, on histopathology and long-term cognitive outcome after controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rats. As excitotoxic cell death is thought to be a prominent part of the pathophysiology of TBI, we also investigated the neuroprotective effects of UCCB01-147 and related compounds on NMDA-induced cell death in cultured cortical neurons...
January 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844291/peptide-pharmacological-approaches-to-treating-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-for-arginine-rich-peptides
#11
REVIEW
Li Shan Chiu, Ryan S Anderton, Neville W Knuckey, Bruno P Meloni
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has a devastating effect on victims and their families, and has profound negative societal and economic impacts, a situation that is further compounded by the lack of effective treatments to minimise injury after TBI. The current strategy for managing TBI is partly through preventative measures and partly through surgical and rehabilitative interventions. Secondary brain damage remains the principal focus for the development of a neuroprotective therapeutic. However, the complexity of TBI pathophysiology has meant that single-action pharmacological agents have been largely unsuccessful in combatting the associated brain injury cascades, while combination therapies to date have proved equally ineffective...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814304/a-systematic-review-of-the-effect-of%C3%A2-physical%C3%A2-exercise-on-cognition-in%C3%A2-stroke%C3%A2-and-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#12
Ines Vanderbeken, Eric Kerckhofs
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether physical exercise enhances cognition following TBI or stroke. DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified through searches of PubMed, ScienceDirect and the reference lists of papers that were included for full-text evaluation. Medical subject headings from three concepts, i.e. brain injury, physical exercise and cognition, were used to incorporate related search terms. STUDY SELECTION: Included were all trials published in English that assessed cognition before and after an exercise intervention in human adults with TBI or stroke...
October 31, 2016: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800660/treatment-of-severe-adult-traumatic-brain-injury-using-bone-marrow-mononuclear-cells
#13
Charles S Cox, Robert A Hetz, George P Liao, Benjamin M Aertker, Linda Ewing-Cobbs, Jenifer Juranek, Sean I Savitz, Margaret L Jackson, Anna M Romanowska-Pawliczek, Fabio Triolo, Pramod K Dash, Claudia Pedroza, Dean A Lee, Laura Worth, Imoigele P Aisiku, Huimahn A Choi, John B Holcomb, Ryan S Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: Numerous pre-clinical studies using bone marrow derived cells for the treatment of traumatic brain injury and stroke have demonstrated efficacy in terms of blood-brain barrier preservation, neurogenesis, and other functional outcomes. Phase 1 clinical trials using bone marrow mononuclear cells infused intravenously in children with severe TBI demonstrated safety and potentially a CNS structural preservation treatment effect. This study sought to confirm the safety, logistic feasibility, and potential treatment effect size of structural preservation/inflammatory biomarker mitigation in adults to guide Phase 2 clinical trial design...
November 1, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780722/gsno-promotes-functional-recovery-in-experimental-tbi-by-stabilizing-hif-1%C3%AE
#14
Mushfiquddin Khan, Tajinder S Dhammu, Mauhamad Baarine, Jinsu Kim, Manjeet K Paintlia, Inderjit Singh, Avtar K Singh
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes sustained disability due to compromised neurorepair mechanisms. Crucial to neurorepair and functional recovery following both TBI and stroke is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Based on reports that HIF-1α could be stabilized via S-nitrosylation, we tested the hypothesis that the S-nitrosylating agent S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) would stabilize HIF-1α, thereby stimulating neurorepair mechanisms and aiding in functional recovery. TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) in adult rats...
October 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780506/differences-in-cognitive-profiles-between-traumatic-brain-injury-and-stroke-a-comparison-of-the-montreal-cognitive-assessment-and-mini-mental-state-examination
#15
Hao Zhang, Xiao-Nian Zhang, Hui-Li Zhang, Liang Huang, Qian-Qian Chi, Xin Zhang, Xiao-Ping Yun
PURPOSE: To investigate the profiles of cognitive impairment through Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in patients with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI) or stroke and to evaluate the sensitivity of the two scales in patients with TBI. METHODS: In this cohort study, a total of 230 patients were evaluated, including TBI group (n = 103) and stroke group (n = 127). The cognitive functions of two groups were evaluated by designated specialists using MoCA (Beijing version) and MMSE (Chinese version)...
October 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778395/complement-c3-on-microglial-clusters-in-multiple-sclerosis-occur-in-chronic-but-not-acute-disease-implication-for-disease-pathogenesis
#16
Iliana Michailidou, Daphne M P Naessens, Simon Hametner, Willemijn Guldenaar, Evert-Jan Kooi, Jeroen J G Geurts, Frank Baas, Hans Lassmann, Valeria Ramaglia
Microglial clusters with C3d deposits are observed in the periplaque of multiple sclerosis (MS) brains and were proposed as early stage of lesion formation. As such they should appear in the brain of MS donors with acute disease but thus far this has not been shown. Using postmortem brain tissue from acute (n = 10) and chronic (n = 15) MS cases we investigated whether C3d+ microglial clusters are part of an acute attack against myelinated axons, which could have implications for disease pathogenesis...
February 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676969/french-translation-and-psychometric-properties-of-high-level-mobility-assessment-tool-for-people-with-neurological-diseases-preliminary-results
#17
Antoine Zaczyk, Mathilde Prestini, Juliette Martel, Marjorie Deplanque, Céline Ramspacher, Samantha Demaille
OBJECTIVE: The high-level mobility assessment tool (HiMAT) was developed to quantify balance and mobility problems after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The revised HiMAT is valid for people with neurological diseases. The aim of this cohort study was to translate and investigate the internal consistency, reliability of the French version in people with neurological conditions. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: The original version of HiMAT was translated into French, cross-culturally adapted and field tested...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676819/consciousness-assessment-by-activated-cerebral-18f-fdg-pet-complemented-with-the-wessex-head-injury-matrix-whim-in-patients-with-disorder-of-consciousness-doc
#18
Laurent Collombier, Vincent Boudousq, Marion Belorgeot, Francesa Ramella, Frédéric Pellas
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral 18F-FDG PET complements bedside examination with behavioural scales in patients with DOC enabling better functional categorization. We realized a resting PET, then another after motor/visual activation, in patients with DOC according to their clinical course. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: It is a retrospective mono central study in our acute inpatients rehabilitation unit between 2011 and 2014. Our group consists of 14 patients (whom 5 women) with DOC, 18-70 years old at moment of brain injury (6 severe TBI, 4 anoxia, 3 hemorrhagic and 1 ischemic major strokes)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659107/regulation-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-on-inflammatory-cytokines-microglia-polarization-migration-and-functional-recovery-after-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#19
Jin Hwan Lee, Zheng Z Wei, Wenyuan Cao, Soonmi Won, Xiaohuan Gu, Megan Winter, Thomas A Dix, Ling Wei, Shan Ping Yu
Stroke is a leading threat to human life and health in the US and around the globe, while very few effective treatments are available for stroke patients. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a potential treatment for stroke. Using novel neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) agonists, we have demonstrated pharmacologically induced hypothermia and protective effects against brain damages after ischemic stroke, hemorrhage stroke, and traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rodent models...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650924/neuronal-networks-provide-rapid-neuroprotection-against-spreading-toxicity
#20
Andrew J Samson, Graham Robertson, Michele Zagnoni, Christopher N Connolly
Acute secondary neuronal cell death, as seen in neurodegenerative disease, cerebral ischemia (stroke) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), drives spreading neurotoxicity into surrounding, undamaged, brain areas. This spreading toxicity occurs via two mechanisms, synaptic toxicity through hyperactivity, and excitotoxicity following the accumulation of extracellular glutamate. To date, there are no fast-acting therapeutic tools capable of terminating secondary spreading toxicity within a time frame relevant to the emergency treatment of stroke or TBI patients...
2016: Scientific Reports
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