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Juvenile stroke

Ali Jahanbazi Jahan-Abad, Leila Alizadeh, Sajad Sahab Negah, Parastoo Barati, Maryam Khaleghi Ghadiri, Sven G Meuth, Stjepana Kovac, Ali Gorji
Repetitive cortical spreading depression (CSD) can lead to cell death in immature brain tissue. Caspases are involved in neuronal cell death in several CSD-related neurological disorders, such as stroke and epilepsy. Yet, whether repetitive CSD itself can induce caspase activation in adult or juvenile tissue remains unknown. Inducing repetitive CSD in somatosensory cortices of juvenile and adult rats in vivo, we thus aimed to investigate the effect of repetitive CSD on the expression caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-12 in different brain regions using immunohistochemistry and western blotting techniques...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
Uta Hanning, Peter B Sporns, Meilin Schmiedel, Erich B Ringelstein, Walter Heindel, Heinz Wiendl, Thomas Niederstadt, Ralf Dittrich
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD) is an important etiology of juvenile stroke. The gold standard for the diagnosis of sCAD is convential angiography. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/MR angiography (MRA) and computed tomography (CT)/CT angiography (CTA) are frequently used alternatives. New developments such as multislice CT/CTA have enabled routine acquisition of thinner sections with rapid imaging times. The goal of this study was to compare the capability of recent developed 128-slice CT/CTA to MRI/MRA to detect radiologic features of sCAD...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Oliver H Wearing, Justin Conner, Derek Nelson, Janna Crossley, Dane A Crossley
Reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) is a potent stressor during embryonic development, altering the trajectory of trait maturation and organismal phenotype. We previously documented that chronic embryonic hypoxia has a lasting impact on the metabolic response to feeding in juvenile snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). Turtles exposed to hypoxia as embryos (10% O2, H10) exhibited an earlier and increased peak postprandial oxygen consumption rate, compared to control turtles (21% O2, N21). In the current study, we measured central blood flow patterns to determine whether the elevated postprandial metabolic response in H10 turtles is linked to lasting impacts on convective transport...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Tim Kampmeier, Philip Arnemann, Michael Heßler, Sebastian Rehberg, Andrea Morelli, Martin Westphal, Matthias Lange, Hugo Van Aken, Christian Ertmer
OBJECTIVE: To provide physiological data and reference values in awake and anaesthetized sheep aged 6-12 months. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. ANIMALS: Data from 260 female sheep of the species Ovis orientalis aries aged 6-12 months were extracted from 10 experimental trials. METHODS: Data from pulmonary arterial thermodilution in awake (cohort 1; n = 109) and anaesthetized animals (cohort 2; n = 81), and transpulmonary thermodilution in anaesthetized animals (cohort 3; n = 70) were analysed...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
M Fischer, B Eckert, J Röther
Stroke in young adults is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for all persons involved. Approximately 15% of ischemic strokes occur in young adults. Lack of awareness of the symptoms in emergency departments often results in delayed diagnosis and access to specific therapeutic options, such as revascularization. The causes are often heterogeneous and necessitate specific investigations. The etiology of juvenile stroke includes drug abuse, vasculitis and arteriopathies, such as reversible vasoconstriction syndrome and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, although the prevalence of classical vascular risk factors is high...
February 10, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
Nicola Limbucci, Sergio Nappini, Andrea Rosi, Leonardo Renieri, Arturo Consoli, Salvatore Mangiafico
Carotid artery dissection is a common cause of juvenile stroke. Endovascular treatment of acute stroke due to carotid dissection can be challenging, and endoluminal crossing of the dissection is sometimes impossible. We describe a case of intentional subintimal recanalisation of a cervical carotid dissection followed by intracranial thrombectomy and stenting. We report the case of a young woman with severe acute ischaemic stroke due to carotid artery dissection and intracranial embolism. After failure of endoluminal crossing of the dissected segment, intentional subintimal crossing with re-entry distally to the dissection was achieved and a stent was deployed...
February 2017: Interventional Neuroradiology
Derek Nelson, Rachael M Heuer, Georgina K Cox, John D Stieglitz, Ronald Hoenig, Edward M Mager, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell, Dane A Crossley
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) negatively impacts exercise performance in fish species but the physiological modifications that result in this phenotype are poorly understood. Prior studies have shown that embryonic and juvenile mahi-mahi (Coryphaeus hippurus) exposed to PAH exhibit morphological abnormalities, altered cardiac development and reduced swimming performance. It has been suggested that cardiovascular function inhibited by PAH exposure accounts for the compromised exercise performance in fish species...
November 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Anthony S Kim, Ellen Moffatt, Philip C Ursell, Orrin Devinsky, Jeffrey Olgin, Zian H Tseng
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the frequency of and risk factors for out-of-hospital sudden neurologic deaths. METHODS: During the initial 25 months (February 1, 2011-March 1, 2013) of the San Francisco Postmortem Systematic Investigation of Sudden Cardiac Death Study, we captured incident WHO criteria sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs) through active surveillance of consecutive out-of-hospital deaths, which must be reported to the medical examiner by law. All cases were referred for full autopsy with detailed examination of the heart and cranial vault, toxicology, and histology...
October 18, 2016: Neurology
Jared T Ahrendsen, Himmat S Grewal, Sean P Hickey, Cecilia M Culp, Elizabeth A Gould, Takeru Shimizu, Frank A Strnad, Richard J Traystman, Paco S Herson, Wendy B Macklin
White matter injury following ischemic stroke is a major cause of functional disability. Injury to both myelinated axons and oligodendrocytes, the myelin producing cells in the central nervous system, occurs in experimental models of ischemic stroke. Age-related changes in white matter vulnerability to ischemia have been extensively studied and suggest that both the perinatal and the aged periods are times of increased white matter vulnerability. However, sensitivity of white matter following stroke in the juvenile brain has not been evaluated...
November 2016: Glia
Elena Caldarazzo Ienco, Daniele Orsucci, Costanza Simoncini, Vincenzo Montano, Annalisa LoGerfo, Gabriele Siciliano, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Michelangelo Mancuso
MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) is a rare genetic condition whose differential diagnosis is often posed with juvenile stroke, but more rarely even with inflammatory/infectious encephalitis, causing diagnostic challenges. Here we report the case of a young man harbouring the m.3243A>G MELAS mutation presenting an acute onset mimicking the clinical and neuroimaging features of infective encephalitis.
September 2016: Mitochondrion
Martin Winterholler, Christian Holländer, Frank Kerling, Irina Weber, Sven Dittrich, Matthias Türk, Rolf Schröder
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent skeletal muscle myopathy. Nearly all patients develop cardiomyopathy in their second decade of life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency, cause, and outcome of stroke in a German cohort of patients with DMD. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of medical records of 54 DMD patients, who lived in a regional facility for handicapped people (Wichernhaus Altdorf, Germany) between 1963 and 2013...
August 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
V Dvorakova, H Kolarova, M Magner, M Tesarova, H Hansikova, J Zeman, T Honzik
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes syndrome (MELAS) is a common mitochondrial disorder with varying multisystemic clinical manifestation. We present a comprehensive clinical picture of 50 Czech m.3243A>G carriers with emphasis on the sequence of symptoms in symptomatic patients. RESULTS: Symptoms developed in 33 patients (66%) and 17 carriers remained unaffected (34%). The age of onset varied from 1month to 47years of age, with juvenile presentation occurring in 53% of patients...
August 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Ashley M Heers, David B Baier, Brandon E Jackson, Kenneth P Dial
Some of the greatest transformations in vertebrate history involve developmental and evolutionary origins of avian flight. Flight is the most power-demanding mode of locomotion, and volant adult birds have many anatomical features that presumably help meet these demands. However, juvenile birds, like the first winged dinosaurs, lack many hallmarks of advanced flight capacity. Instead of large wings they have small "protowings", and instead of robust, interlocking forelimb skeletons their limbs are more gracile and their joints less constrained...
2016: PloS One
Brittany E Davis, Nathan A Miller, Erin E Flynn, Anne E Todgham
To date, numerous studies have shown negative impacts of CO2-acidified seawater (i.e. ocean acidification, OA) on marine organisms, including calcifying invertebrates and fishes; however, limited research has been conducted on the physiological effects of OA on polar fishes and even less on the impact of OA on early developmental stages of polar fishes. We evaluated aspects of aerobic metabolism and cardiorespiratory physiology of juvenile emerald rockcod, ITALIC! Trematomus bernacchii, an abundant fish in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, to elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide ( ITALIC! PCO2 ) [420 (ambient), 650 (moderate) and 1050 (high) μatm ITALIC! PCO2 ] over a 1 month period...
April 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Franziska Greifzu, Daniel Parthier, Bianka Goetze, Oliver M Schlüter, Siegrid Löwel
Neuronal plasticity is essential to enable rehabilitation when the brain suffers from injury, such as following a stroke. One of the most established models to study cortical plasticity is ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in the primary visual cortex (V1) of the mammalian brain induced by monocular deprivation (MD). We have previously shown that OD-plasticity in adult mouse V1 is absent after a photothrombotic (PT) stroke lesion in the adjacent primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Exposing lesioned mice to conditions which reduce the inhibitory tone in V1, such as raising animals in an enriched environment or short-term dark exposure, preserved OD-plasticity after an S1-lesion...
2016: PloS One
Christina Reinauer, Thomas Meissner, Michael Roden, Angelika Thon, Paul-Martin Holterhus, Holger Haberland, Elisabeth Binder, Wolfgang Marg, Esther Bollow, Reinhard Holl
UNLABELLED: The aim of this study was to characterize the phenotype and treatment of young patients (manifestation <30 years) with diabetes of mitochondrial origin (DMO), based on the German/Austrian DPV (Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation) registry. Only 13 (0.02 %) of all patients with diabetes in this cohort were identified with DMO, mainly due to the Kearns-Sayre (n = 5), Pearson (n = 3), or mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome (n = 2)...
May 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Laura Fancellu, Walter Borsini, Ilaria Romani, Angelo Pirisi, Giovanni Andrea Deiana, Elia Sechi, Pietro Emiliano Doneddu, Anna Laura Rassu, Rita Demurtas, Anna Scarabotto, Pamela Cassini, Eloisa Arbustini, GianPietro Sechi
BACKGROUND: The etiologic determinants of stroke in young adults remain a diagnostic challenge in up to one-fourth of cases. Increasing evidences led to consider Fabry's disease (FD) as a possible cause to check up. We aimed at evaluating the prevalence of unrecognized FD in a cohort of patients with juvenile stroke in northern Sardinia. METHODS: For this study, we enrolled 178 patients consecutively admitted to our Neurological Ward for ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, intracerebral haemorrhage, neuroradiological evidence of silent infarcts, or white matter lesions possibly related to cerebral vasculopathy at brain MRI, and cerebral venous thrombosis...
December 12, 2015: BMC Neurology
Shiyong Huang, Kristen Hokenson, Sabita Bandyopadhyay, Shelley J Russek, Alfredo Kirkwood
Tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors (GABARs) sensing ambient levels of GABA can profoundly alter the membrane input resistance to affect cellular excitability. Therefore, regulation of tonic inhibition is an attractive mechanism to control the levels of cortical firing. In cortical pyramidal cells, tonic inhibition is regulated by age and several neurotransmitters and is affected by stroke and epilepsy. However, the possible role of sensory experience has not been examined. Here, we report that a brief 2-day exposure to dark reduces by 1/3 the inhibitory tonic conductance recorded in layer II/III pyramidal cells of the mouse juvenile (postnatal day 12-27) visual cortex...
December 2, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Justyna Pielecka-Fortuna, Evgenia Kalogeraki, Michal G Fortuna, Siegrid Löwel
The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery...
November 26, 2015: ELife
Hidehiro Takekawa, Keisuke Suzuki, Takahito Nishihira, Akio Iwasaki, Eisei Hoshiyama, Madoka Okamura, Ayaka Numao, Shiho Suzuki, Koichi Hirata
Bow hunter's stroke (BHS) is a rare cause of vertebrobasilar insufficiency due to rotational vertebral artery (VA) occlusion associated with head turning. We report a juvenile patient presenting with recurrent ischemic stroke caused by BHS, which was revealed by carotid duplex ultrasonography. Carotid duplex ultrasonography performed in the neutral position showed normal findings. However, disappearance of end-diastolic blood flow of contralateral VAs was observed with head rotation. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed occlusion at C1/2 levels in the VA contralateral to the head rotation, bilaterally...
July 2015: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
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