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Juvenile stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023523/the-role-of-glutamate-in-neuronal-ion-homeostasis-a-case-study-of-spreading-depolarization
#1
Niklas Hübel, Mahshid S Hosseini-Zare, Jokūbas Žiburkus, Ghanim Ullah
Simultaneous changes in ion concentrations, glutamate, and cell volume together with exchange of matter between cell network and vasculature are ubiquitous in numerous brain pathologies. A complete understanding of pathological conditions as well as normal brain function, therefore, hinges on elucidating the molecular and cellular pathways involved in these mostly interdependent variations. In this paper, we develop the first computational framework that combines the Hodgkin-Huxley type spiking dynamics, dynamic ion concentrations and glutamate homeostasis, neuronal and astroglial volume changes, and ion exchange with vasculature into a comprehensive model to elucidate the role of glutamate uptake in the dynamics of spreading depolarization (SD)-the electrophysiological event underlying numerous pathologies including migraine, ischemic stroke, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hematoma, and trauma...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835326/juvenile-stroke
#2
Florian Schöberl, Peter Arthur Ringleb, Reza Wakili, Sven Poli, Frank Arne Wollenweber, Lars Kellert
BACKGROUND: So-called juvenile stroke, i.e., stroke in a person aged 18 to 55, affects approximately 30 000 persons per year in Germany and is thus an important cause of mortality and permanent morbidity. The spectrum of causes of stroke is broader in this age group than in older patients and is also differently distributed. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and on current guideline recommendations...
August 7, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809039/juvenile-melanomas-western-australian-melanoma-advisory-service-experience
#3
Jie Xin Xu, Sharnice Koek, Samantha Lee, Mark Hanikeri, Mark Lee, Trevor Beer, Christobel Saunders
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Juvenile melanoma (before 20 years of age) is a rare condition with poorly defined risk factors. We describe features of juvenile melanoma in Western Australia over the last two decades. METHOD: A retrospective review of juvenile melanomas was conducted from prospectively maintained databases, reviewed for patients' characteristics, clinical information, histology, treatment, recurrence and survival data. RESULTS: Altogether 95 cases of juvenile melanoma were reported to the Western Australian Cancer Registry between 2000 and 2013...
August 15, 2017: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776186/home-sweet-home-the-neural-stem-cell-niche-throughout-development-and-after-injury
#4
REVIEW
Rebecca M Ruddy, Cindi M Morshead
Neural stem cells and their progeny reside in two distinct neurogenic niches within the mammalian brain: the subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus. The interplay between the neural stem cells and the niche in which they reside can have significant effects on cell kinetics and neurogenesis. A comprehensive understanding of the changes to the niche that occur through postnatal development and aging, as well as following injury, is relevant for developing therapeutics and interventions to promote neural repair...
August 3, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612259/apoptosis-following-cortical-spreading-depression-in-juvenile-rats
#5
Ali Jahanbazi Jahan-Abad, Leila Alizadeh, Sajad Sahab Negah, Parastoo Barati, Maryam Khaleghi Ghadiri, Sven G Meuth, Stjepana Kovac, Ali Gorji
Repetitive cortical spreading depression (CSD) can lead to cell death in immature brain tissue. Caspases are involved in neuronal cell death in several CSD-related neurological disorders, such as stroke and epilepsy. Yet, whether repetitive CSD itself can induce caspase activation in adult or juvenile tissue remains unknown. Inducing repetitive CSD in somatosensory cortices of juvenile and adult rats in vivo, we thus aimed to investigate the effect of repetitive CSD on the expression caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-12 in different brain regions using immunohistochemistry and western blotting techniques...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574627/ct-versus-mr-techniques-in-the-detection-of-cervical-artery-dissection
#6
Uta Hanning, Peter B Sporns, Meilin Schmiedel, Erich B Ringelstein, Walter Heindel, Heinz Wiendl, Thomas Niederstadt, Ralf Dittrich
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD) is an important etiology of juvenile stroke. The gold standard for the diagnosis of sCAD is convential angiography. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/MR angiography (MRA) and computed tomography (CT)/CT angiography (CTA) are frequently used alternatives. New developments such as multislice CT/CTA have enabled routine acquisition of thinner sections with rapid imaging times. The goal of this study was to compare the capability of recent developed 128-slice CT/CTA to MRI/MRA to detect radiologic features of sCAD...
November 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495871/embryonic-hypoxia-programmes-postprandial-cardiovascular-function-in-adult-common-snapping-turtles-chelydra-serpentina
#7
Oliver H Wearing, Justin Conner, Derek Nelson, Janna Crossley, Dane A Crossley
Reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) is a potent stressor during embryonic development, altering the trajectory of trait maturation and organismal phenotype. We previously documented that chronic embryonic hypoxia has a lasting impact on the metabolic response to feeding in juvenile snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). Turtles exposed to hypoxia as embryos (10% O2, H10) exhibited an earlier and increased peak postprandial oxygen consumption rate, compared to control turtles (21% O2, N21). In the current study, we measured central blood flow patterns to determine whether the elevated postprandial metabolic response in H10 turtles is linked to lasting impacts on convective transport...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330726/provision-of-physiological-data-and-reference-values-in-awake-and-anaesthetized-female-sheep-aged-6-12-months
#8
Tim Kampmeier, Philip Arnemann, Michael Heßler, Sebastian Rehberg, Andrea Morelli, Martin Westphal, Matthias Lange, Hugo Van Aken, Christian Ertmer
OBJECTIVE: To provide physiological data and reference values in awake and anaesthetized sheep aged 6-12 months. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. ANIMALS: Data from 260 female sheep of the species Ovis orientalis aries aged 6-12 months were extracted from 10 experimental trials. METHODS: Data from pulmonary arterial thermodilution in awake (cohort 1; n = 109) and anaesthetized animals (cohort 2; n = 81), and transpulmonary thermodilution in anaesthetized animals (cohort 3; n = 70) were analysed...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188400/-juvenile-stroke-what-is-important
#9
M Fischer, B Eckert, J Röther
Stroke in young adults is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for all persons involved. Approximately 15% of ischemic strokes occur in young adults. Lack of awareness of the symptoms in emergency departments often results in delayed diagnosis and access to specific therapeutic options, such as revascularization. The causes are often heterogeneous and necessitate specific investigations. The etiology of juvenile stroke includes drug abuse, vasculitis and arteriopathies, such as reversible vasoconstriction syndrome and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, although the prevalence of classical vascular risk factors is high...
February 10, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798324/intentional-subintimal-carotid-stenting-of-internal-carotid-dissection-in-a-patient-with-acute-ischaemic-stroke
#10
Nicola Limbucci, Sergio Nappini, Andrea Rosi, Leonardo Renieri, Arturo Consoli, Salvatore Mangiafico
Carotid artery dissection is a common cause of juvenile stroke. Endovascular treatment of acute stroke due to carotid dissection can be challenging, and endoluminal crossing of the dissection is sometimes impossible. We describe a case of intentional subintimal recanalisation of a cervical carotid dissection followed by intracranial thrombectomy and stenting. We report the case of a young woman with severe acute ischaemic stroke due to carotid artery dissection and intracranial embolism. After failure of endoluminal crossing of the dissected segment, intentional subintimal crossing with re-entry distally to the dissection was achieved and a stent was deployed...
February 2017: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768947/effects-of-crude-oil-on-in-situ-cardiac-function-in-young-adult-mahi-mahi-coryphaena-hippurus
#11
Derek Nelson, Rachael M Heuer, Georgina K Cox, John D Stieglitz, Ronald Hoenig, Edward M Mager, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell, Dane A Crossley
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) negatively impacts exercise performance in fish species but the physiological modifications that result in this phenotype are poorly understood. Prior studies have shown that embryonic and juvenile mahi-mahi (Coryphaeus hippurus) exposed to PAH exhibit morphological abnormalities, altered cardiac development and reduced swimming performance. It has been suggested that cardiovascular function inhibited by PAH exposure accounts for the compromised exercise performance in fish species...
November 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638923/sudden-neurologic-death-masquerading-as-out-of-hospital-sudden-cardiac-death
#12
Anthony S Kim, Ellen Moffatt, Philip C Ursell, Orrin Devinsky, Jeffrey Olgin, Zian H Tseng
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the frequency of and risk factors for out-of-hospital sudden neurologic deaths. METHODS: During the initial 25 months (February 1, 2011-March 1, 2013) of the San Francisco Postmortem Systematic Investigation of Sudden Cardiac Death Study, we captured incident WHO criteria sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs) through active surveillance of consecutive out-of-hospital deaths, which must be reported to the medical examiner by law. All cases were referred for full autopsy with detailed examination of the heart and cranial vault, toxicology, and histology...
October 18, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463063/juvenile-striatal-white-matter-is-resistant-to-ischemia-induced-damage
#13
Jared T Ahrendsen, Himmat S Grewal, Sean P Hickey, Cecilia M Culp, Elizabeth A Gould, Takeru Shimizu, Frank A Strnad, Richard J Traystman, Paco S Herson, Wendy B Macklin
White matter injury following ischemic stroke is a major cause of functional disability. Injury to both myelinated axons and oligodendrocytes, the myelin producing cells in the central nervous system, occurs in experimental models of ischemic stroke. Age-related changes in white matter vulnerability to ischemia have been extensively studied and suggest that both the perinatal and the aged periods are times of increased white matter vulnerability. However, sensitivity of white matter following stroke in the juvenile brain has not been evaluated...
November 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453332/acute-encephalopathy-of-the-temporal-lobes-leading-to-m-3243a-g-when-melas-is-not-always-melas
#14
Elena Caldarazzo Ienco, Daniele Orsucci, Costanza Simoncini, Vincenzo Montano, Annalisa LoGerfo, Gabriele Siciliano, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Michelangelo Mancuso
MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) is a rare genetic condition whose differential diagnosis is often posed with juvenile stroke, but more rarely even with inflammatory/infectious encephalitis, causing diagnostic challenges. Here we report the case of a young man harbouring the m.3243A>G MELAS mutation presenting an acute onset mimicking the clinical and neuroimaging features of infective encephalitis.
September 2016: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354222/stroke-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-a-retrospective-longitudinal-study-in-54-patients
#15
Martin Winterholler, Christian Holländer, Frank Kerling, Irina Weber, Sven Dittrich, Matthias Türk, Rolf Schröder
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent skeletal muscle myopathy. Nearly all patients develop cardiomyopathy in their second decade of life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency, cause, and outcome of stroke in a German cohort of patients with DMD. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of medical records of 54 DMD patients, who lived in a regional facility for handicapped people (Wichernhaus Altdorf, Germany) between 1963 and 2013...
August 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296531/the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-fifty-czech-m-3243a-g-carriers
#16
V Dvorakova, H Kolarova, M Magner, M Tesarova, H Hansikova, J Zeman, T Honzik
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes syndrome (MELAS) is a common mitochondrial disorder with varying multisystemic clinical manifestation. We present a comprehensive clinical picture of 50 Czech m.3243A>G carriers with emphasis on the sequence of symptoms in symptomatic patients. RESULTS: Symptoms developed in 33 patients (66%) and 17 carriers remained unaffected (34%). The age of onset varied from 1month to 47years of age, with juvenile presentation occurring in 53% of patients...
August 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100994/flapping-before-flight-high-resolution-three-dimensional-skeletal-kinematics-of-wings-and-legs-during-avian-development
#17
Ashley M Heers, David B Baier, Brandon E Jackson, Kenneth P Dial
Some of the greatest transformations in vertebrate history involve developmental and evolutionary origins of avian flight. Flight is the most power-demanding mode of locomotion, and volant adult birds have many anatomical features that presumably help meet these demands. However, juvenile birds, like the first winged dinosaurs, lack many hallmarks of advanced flight capacity. Instead of large wings they have small "protowings", and instead of robust, interlocking forelimb skeletons their limbs are more gracile and their joints less constrained...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26944503/juvenile-antarctic-rockcod-trematomus-bernacchii-are-physiologically-robust-to-co2-acidified-seawater
#18
Brittany E Davis, Nathan A Miller, Erin E Flynn, Anne E Todgham
To date, numerous studies have shown negative impacts of CO2-acidified seawater (i.e. ocean acidification, OA) on marine organisms, including calcifying invertebrates and fishes; however, limited research has been conducted on the physiological effects of OA on polar fishes and even less on the impact of OA on early developmental stages of polar fishes. We evaluated aspects of aerobic metabolism and cardiorespiratory physiology of juvenile emerald rockcod, ITALIC! Trematomus bernacchii, an abundant fish in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, to elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide ( ITALIC! PCO2 ) [420 (ambient), 650 (moderate) and 1050 (high) μatm ITALIC! PCO2 ] over a 1 month period...
April 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26930616/ocular-dominance-plasticity-after-stroke-was-preserved-in-psd-95-knockout-mice
#19
Franziska Greifzu, Daniel Parthier, Bianka Goetze, Oliver M Schlüter, Siegrid Löwel
Neuronal plasticity is essential to enable rehabilitation when the brain suffers from injury, such as following a stroke. One of the most established models to study cortical plasticity is ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in the primary visual cortex (V1) of the mammalian brain induced by monocular deprivation (MD). We have previously shown that OD-plasticity in adult mouse V1 is absent after a photothrombotic (PT) stroke lesion in the adjacent primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Exposing lesioned mice to conditions which reduce the inhibitory tone in V1, such as raising animals in an enriched environment or short-term dark exposure, preserved OD-plasticity after an S1-lesion...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26670026/low-prevalence-of-patients-with-mitochondrial-disease-in-the-german-austrian-dpv-diabetes-registry
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Christina Reinauer, Thomas Meissner, Michael Roden, Angelika Thon, Paul-Martin Holterhus, Holger Haberland, Elisabeth Binder, Wolfgang Marg, Esther Bollow, Reinhard Holl
UNLABELLED: The aim of this study was to characterize the phenotype and treatment of young patients (manifestation <30 years) with diabetes of mitochondrial origin (DMO), based on the German/Austrian DPV (Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation) registry. Only 13 (0.02 %) of all patients with diabetes in this cohort were identified with DMO, mainly due to the Kearns-Sayre (n = 5), Pearson (n = 3), or mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome (n = 2)...
May 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
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