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Juvenile stroke

Derek Nelson, Rachael M Heuer, Georgina K Cox, John D Stieglitz, Ronald Hoenig, Edward M Mager, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell, Dane A Crossley
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) negatively impacts exercise performance in fish species but the physiological modifications that result in this phenotype are poorly understood. Prior studies have shown that embryonic and juvenile mahi-mahi (Coryphaeus hippurus) exposed to PAH exhibit morphological abnormalities, altered cardiac development and reduced swimming performance. It has been suggested that cardiovascular function inhibited by PAH exposure accounts for the compromised exercise performance in fish species...
October 14, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Anthony S Kim, Ellen Moffatt, Philip C Ursell, Orrin Devinsky, Jeffrey Olgin, Zian H Tseng
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the frequency of and risk factors for out-of-hospital sudden neurologic deaths. METHODS: During the initial 25 months (February 1, 2011-March 1, 2013) of the San Francisco Postmortem Systematic Investigation of Sudden Cardiac Death Study, we captured incident WHO criteria sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs) through active surveillance of consecutive out-of-hospital deaths, which must be reported to the medical examiner by law. All cases were referred for full autopsy with detailed examination of the heart and cranial vault, toxicology, and histology...
October 18, 2016: Neurology
Jared T Ahrendsen, Himmat S Grewal, Sean P Hickey, Cecilia M Culp, Elizabeth A Gould, Takeru Shimizu, Frank A Strnad, Richard J Traystman, Paco S Herson, Wendy B Macklin
White matter injury following ischemic stroke is a major cause of functional disability. Injury to both myelinated axons and oligodendrocytes, the myelin producing cells in the central nervous system, occurs in experimental models of ischemic stroke. Age-related changes in white matter vulnerability to ischemia have been extensively studied and suggest that both the perinatal and the aged periods are times of increased white matter vulnerability. However, sensitivity of white matter following stroke in the juvenile brain has not been evaluated...
November 2016: Glia
Elena Caldarazzo Ienco, Daniele Orsucci, Costanza Simoncini, Vincenzo Montano, Annalisa LoGerfo, Gabriele Siciliano, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Michelangelo Mancuso
MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) is a rare genetic condition whose differential diagnosis is often posed with juvenile stroke, but more rarely even with inflammatory/infectious encephalitis, causing diagnostic challenges. Here we report the case of a young man harbouring the m.3243A>G MELAS mutation presenting an acute onset mimicking the clinical and neuroimaging features of infective encephalitis.
September 2016: Mitochondrion
Martin Winterholler, Christian Holländer, Frank Kerling, Irina Weber, Sven Dittrich, Matthias Türk, Rolf Schröder
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent skeletal muscle myopathy. Nearly all patients develop cardiomyopathy in their second decade of life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency, cause, and outcome of stroke in a German cohort of patients with DMD. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of medical records of 54 DMD patients, who lived in a regional facility for handicapped people (Wichernhaus Altdorf, Germany) between 1963 and 2013...
August 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
V Dvorakova, H Kolarova, M Magner, M Tesarova, H Hansikova, J Zeman, T Honzik
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes syndrome (MELAS) is a common mitochondrial disorder with varying multisystemic clinical manifestation. We present a comprehensive clinical picture of 50 Czech m.3243A>G carriers with emphasis on the sequence of symptoms in symptomatic patients. RESULTS: Symptoms developed in 33 patients (66%) and 17 carriers remained unaffected (34%). The age of onset varied from 1month to 47years of age, with juvenile presentation occurring in 53% of patients...
August 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Ashley M Heers, David B Baier, Brandon E Jackson, Kenneth P Dial
Some of the greatest transformations in vertebrate history involve developmental and evolutionary origins of avian flight. Flight is the most power-demanding mode of locomotion, and volant adult birds have many anatomical features that presumably help meet these demands. However, juvenile birds, like the first winged dinosaurs, lack many hallmarks of advanced flight capacity. Instead of large wings they have small "protowings", and instead of robust, interlocking forelimb skeletons their limbs are more gracile and their joints less constrained...
2016: PloS One
Brittany E Davis, Nathan A Miller, Erin E Flynn, Anne E Todgham
To date, numerous studies have shown negative impacts of CO2-acidified seawater (i.e. ocean acidification, OA) on marine organisms, including calcifying invertebrates and fishes; however, limited research has been conducted on the physiological effects of OA on polar fishes and even less on the impact of OA on early developmental stages of polar fishes. We evaluated aspects of aerobic metabolism and cardiorespiratory physiology of juvenile emerald rockcod, ITALIC! Trematomus bernacchii, an abundant fish in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, to elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide ( ITALIC! PCO2 ) [420 (ambient), 650 (moderate) and 1050 (high) μatm ITALIC! PCO2 ] over a 1 month period...
April 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Franziska Greifzu, Daniel Parthier, Bianka Goetze, Oliver M Schlüter, Siegrid Löwel
Neuronal plasticity is essential to enable rehabilitation when the brain suffers from injury, such as following a stroke. One of the most established models to study cortical plasticity is ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in the primary visual cortex (V1) of the mammalian brain induced by monocular deprivation (MD). We have previously shown that OD-plasticity in adult mouse V1 is absent after a photothrombotic (PT) stroke lesion in the adjacent primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Exposing lesioned mice to conditions which reduce the inhibitory tone in V1, such as raising animals in an enriched environment or short-term dark exposure, preserved OD-plasticity after an S1-lesion...
2016: PloS One
Christina Reinauer, Thomas Meissner, Michael Roden, Angelika Thon, Paul-Martin Holterhus, Holger Haberland, Elisabeth Binder, Wolfgang Marg, Esther Bollow, Reinhard Holl
UNLABELLED: The aim of this study was to characterize the phenotype and treatment of young patients (manifestation <30 years) with diabetes of mitochondrial origin (DMO), based on the German/Austrian DPV (Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation) registry. Only 13 (0.02 %) of all patients with diabetes in this cohort were identified with DMO, mainly due to the Kearns-Sayre (n = 5), Pearson (n = 3), or mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome (n = 2)...
May 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Laura Fancellu, Walter Borsini, Ilaria Romani, Angelo Pirisi, Giovanni Andrea Deiana, Elia Sechi, Pietro Emiliano Doneddu, Anna Laura Rassu, Rita Demurtas, Anna Scarabotto, Pamela Cassini, Eloisa Arbustini, GianPietro Sechi
BACKGROUND: The etiologic determinants of stroke in young adults remain a diagnostic challenge in up to one-fourth of cases. Increasing evidences led to consider Fabry's disease (FD) as a possible cause to check up. We aimed at evaluating the prevalence of unrecognized FD in a cohort of patients with juvenile stroke in northern Sardinia. METHODS: For this study, we enrolled 178 patients consecutively admitted to our Neurological Ward for ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, intracerebral haemorrhage, neuroradiological evidence of silent infarcts, or white matter lesions possibly related to cerebral vasculopathy at brain MRI, and cerebral venous thrombosis...
2015: BMC Neurology
Shiyong Huang, Kristen Hokenson, Sabita Bandyopadhyay, Shelley J Russek, Alfredo Kirkwood
Tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors (GABARs) sensing ambient levels of GABA can profoundly alter the membrane input resistance to affect cellular excitability. Therefore, regulation of tonic inhibition is an attractive mechanism to control the levels of cortical firing. In cortical pyramidal cells, tonic inhibition is regulated by age and several neurotransmitters and is affected by stroke and epilepsy. However, the possible role of sensory experience has not been examined. Here, we report that a brief 2-day exposure to dark reduces by 1/3 the inhibitory tonic conductance recorded in layer II/III pyramidal cells of the mouse juvenile (postnatal day 12-27) visual cortex...
December 2, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Justyna Pielecka-Fortuna, Evgenia Kalogeraki, Michal G Fortuna, Siegrid Löwel
The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery...
2016: ELife
Hidehiro Takekawa, Keisuke Suzuki, Takahito Nishihira, Akio Iwasaki, Eisei Hoshiyama, Madoka Okamura, Ayaka Numao, Shiho Suzuki, Koichi Hirata
Bow hunter's stroke (BHS) is a rare cause of vertebrobasilar insufficiency due to rotational vertebral artery (VA) occlusion associated with head turning. We report a juvenile patient presenting with recurrent ischemic stroke caused by BHS, which was revealed by carotid duplex ultrasonography. Carotid duplex ultrasonography performed in the neutral position showed normal findings. However, disappearance of end-diastolic blood flow of contralateral VAs was observed with head rotation. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed occlusion at C1/2 levels in the VA contralateral to the head rotation, bilaterally...
July 2015: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
Rajika Roy, Tobias Haase, Nan Ma, Andreas Bader, Matthias Becker, Martina Seifert, Yeong-Hoon Choi, Volkmar Falk, Christof Stamm
BACKGROUND: Placenta and amnion have been suggested as sources of juvenile cells and tissues for use in surgical regenerative medicine. We previously determined the impact of amniotic epithelial cells induced to undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) on myocardial remodeling processes and now evaluated the effects of naïve and processed amniotic membrane (AM) on postischemic left ventricular (LV) geometry and function. METHODS: Human AM was used in unmodified form (AM), after EMT induction by transforming growth factor β (EMT-AM), and after decellularization (Decell-AM)...
February 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Jaylyn Waddell, Marie Hanscom, N Shalon Edwards, Mary C McKenna, Margaret M McCarthy
Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) of the brain in near-term and term infants is a leading cause of infant mortality and lifelong disability but current therapeutic approaches remain limited. Males consistently display greater vulnerability to the deleterious consequences of HI in both humans and animal models. Neurogenesis increases after neonatal HI and offers a potential therapeutic target for recovery. The steroid hormone estradiol has been extensively explored as a neuroprotectant in adult models of stroke but with mixed results...
January 2016: Experimental Neurology
Ramesh C Mishra, Jamie R Mitchell, Carol Gibbons-Kroeker, Heike Wulff, Israel Belenkie, John V Tyberg, Andrew P Braun
SKA-31, an activator of endothelial KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels, reduces systemic blood pressure in mice and dogs, however, its effects in larger mammals are not well known. We therefore examined the hemodynamic effects of SKA-31, along with sodium nitroprusside (SNP), in anesthetized, juvenile male domestic pigs. Experimentally, continuous measurements of left ventricular (LV), aortic and inferior vena cava (IVC) pressures, along with flows in the ascending aorta, carotid artery, left anterior descending coronary artery and renal artery, were performed during acute administration of SKA-31 (0...
April 2016: Vascular Pharmacology
Daniele Linaro, João Couto, Michele Giugliano
Experimental neuroscience is witnessing an increased interest in the development and application of novel and often complex, closed-loop protocols, where the stimulus applied depends in real-time on the response of the system. Recent applications range from the implementation of virtual reality systems for studying motor responses both in mice and in zebrafish, to control of seizures following cortical stroke using optogenetics. A key advantage of closed-loop techniques resides in the capability of probing higher dimensional properties that are not directly accessible or that depend on multiple variables, such as neuronal excitability and reliability, while at the same time maximizing the experimental throughput...
2015: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Rachel A Menegaz, David B Baier, Keith A Metzger, Susan W Herring, Elizabeth L Brainerd
Like humans, domestic pigs are omnivorous and thus are a common model for human masticatory function. Prior attempts to characterize food-tooth interactions and jaw movements associated with mastication have been limited to aspects of the oral apparatus that are visible externally (with videography) and/or to 2D movements of oral structures (with monoplanar videofluoroscopy). We used XROMM, a 3D technique that combines CT-based morphology with biplanar videofluoroscopy, to quantify mandibular kinematics, tooth occlusion and mandibular condylar displacements within the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) during feeding...
August 2015: Journal of Experimental Biology
Leyla Baysal Kirac, Ibrahim Aydogdu, Ahmet Acarer, Sezin Alpaydin, Fatma Ece Bayam, Habibe Onbasi, Fikret Bademkiran
Myoclonic status epilepticus (MSE) is defined as prolonged period of myoclonic jerks that are correlated with epileptiform discharges on EEG. We here describe clinical features and video-EEG records of six adult patients with MSE who did not have a prior diagnosis of epilepsy. In four out of six patients, MSE was precipitated by drugs. Two out of four patients had chronic renal disease and received beta lactam group antibiotics. Two other patients, who described chronic pain, developed MSE while taking pregabalin...
2013: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
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