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Susanne Bartel, Heike Ohlbrecht
OBJECTIVE: This study focuses on the theory-practice transfer in the field of research on participation in working life (LTA). The aim was to determine what expectations are prevalent on the part of service providers, how they access scientific knowledge, how the transfer into practice takes place and what research gaps exist. At the same time, representatives of the German Statutory Pension Insurance were asked about internal structures for identifying research topics and evaluating research results as well as for knowledge transfer...
June 2018: Die Rehabilitation
Bronwyn McGill, Blythe J O'Hara, Philayrath Phongsavan
Objectives and importance of study: Low program completion rates can undermine the public health impact of even the most effective program. Participant experiences with lifestyle programs are not well reported, but are important for program improvement and retention. The purpose of this study was to understand participant perceptions of the Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service (GHS), a 6-month telephone-based health coaching program to promote lifestyle change. We were particularly interested in participants' initial expectations, their actual experience and, for those who did not complete the program, what influenced their withdrawal...
June 14, 2018: Public Health Research & Practice
Yue-Yue Chang, Hai-Long Wu, Huan Fang, Tong Wang, Zhi Liu, Yang-Zi Ouyang, Yu-Jie Ding, Ru-Qin Yu
In this study, a smart and green analytical method based on the second-order calibration algorithm coupled with excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence was developed for the determination of rhodamine dyes illegally added into chilli samples. The proposed method not only has the advantage of high sensitivity over the traditional fluorescence method but also fully displays the "second-order advantage". Pure signals of analytes were successfully extracted from severely interferential EEMs profiles via using alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithm even in the presence of common fluorescence problems such as scattering, peak overlaps and unknown interferences...
June 15, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Justin A Drake, B Montgomery Pettitt
Conformational entropy is expected to contribute significantly to the thermodynamics of structural transitions in intrinsically disordered proteins or regions in response to protein/ligand binding, posttranslational modifications, and environmental changes. We calculated the backbone (dihedral) conformational entropy of oligoglycine (GlyN ), a protein backbone mimic and model intrinsically disordered region, as a function of chain length (N=3, 4, 5, 10, and 15) from simulations using three different approaches...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Sylvie Oddou-Muratorio, Julie Gauzere, Aurore Bontemps, Jean-François Rey, Etienne K Klein
Inter-individual variation in fecundities has major consequences on population evolutionary potential, through genetic drift and selection. Using two spatially explicit mating models that analyze the genotypes of seeds and seedlings, we investigated the variation of male and female fecundities within and among three European beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands situated along an altitudinal gradient. Female and male individual fecundity distributions were both skewed in this monoecious species, and we found a higher variance in female as compared to male fecundities...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Isadora Antoniano-Villalobos, Emanuele Borgonovo, Sumeda Siriwardena
In probabilistic risk assessment, attention is often focused on the expected value of a risk metric. The sensitivity of this expectation to changes in the parameters of the distribution characterizing uncertainty in the inputs becomes of interest. Approaches based on differentiation encounter limitations when (i) distributional parameters are expressed in different units or (ii) the analyst wishes to transfer sensitivity insights from individual parameters to parameter groups, when alternating between different levels of a probabilistic safety assessment model...
June 20, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Susan C Weller, Ben Vickers, H Russell Bernard, Alyssa M Blackburn, Stephen Borgatti, Clarence C Gravlee, Jeffrey C Johnson
Sample size determination for open-ended questions or qualitative interviews relies primarily on custom and finding the point where little new information is obtained (thematic saturation). Here, we propose and test a refined definition of saturation as obtaining the most salient items in a set of qualitative interviews (where items can be material things or concepts, depending on the topic of study) rather than attempting to obtain all the items. Salient items have higher prevalence and are more culturally important...
2018: PloS One
Karen Uhde, Helena T A van Tol, Tom A E Stout, Bernard A J Roelen
Chronically high blood glucose concentrations are a characteristic of diabetes mellitus. Maternal diabetes affects the metabolism of early embryos and can cause a delay in development. To mimic maternal diabetes, bovine in vitro fertilization and embryo culture were performed in fertilization medium and culture medium containing 0.5, 2, 3, and 5 mM, glucose whereas under control conditions, the medium was glucose free (0 mM). Compared to control conditions (0 mM, 31%), blastocyst development was decreased to 23% with 0...
2018: PloS One
Daniele Quercia, Luca Maria Aiello, Rossano Schifanella
Over the last few decades, public life has taken center stage in urban studies, but that is about to change. At times, indoor activities have been shown to matter more than what is publicly visible (they have been found to be more predictive of future crimes, for example). Until recently, however, data has not been available to study indoor activities at city scale. To that end, we propose a new methodology that relies on tagging information of geo-referenced pictures and unfolds in three main steps. First, we collected and classified a comprehensive set of activity-related words, creating the first dictionary of urban activities...
2018: PloS One
Clara Selva, Aniol Recordà
Recent years have witnessed the emigration of young Spanish people searching for labor opportunities. A decade after the beginning of the worldwide economic crisis in 2007, the rapid deterioration of living conditions and lack of opportunities for personal development combined with the breakdown of professional expectations have led thousands of young people to emigrate from Spain, creating the so-called youth exodus. The press has paid recurrent attention to this phenomenon, often using eye-catching headlines such as 'Brain Drain'...
2018: PloS One
Katharina Wiedemeyer, Liubov Kyrpychova, Özlem Tanas Işikci, Dominic V Spagnolo, Heinz Kutzner, Arno Rütten, Maria T Fernandez-Figueras, Natalja Denisjuk, Saul Suster, Michal Pavlovsky, Fredrik Petersson, Michal Michal, Joyce Lee, Katrin Kerl, Dmitry V Kazakov
Sebaceous neoplasms with an organoid pattern (rippled, labyrinthine/sinusoidal, carcinoid-like, and petaloid) are rare. Previous studies suggested that the above patterns likely represent variations along a morphological continuum. The objectives of this study were to (1) validate this proposition by studying a large number of cases, (2) determine whether there are specific associations with clinical features, (3) establish their frequency, and (4) determine whether they have any association with Muir-Torre syndrome...
July 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Glen Gawarkiewicz, Anna Malek Mercer
Engaging ocean users, including fishing fleets, in oceanographic and ecological research is a valuable method for collecting high-quality data, improving cost efficiency, and increasing societal appreciation for scientific research. As research partners, fishing fleets provide broad access to and knowledge of the ocean, and fishers are highly motivated to use the data collected to better understand the ecosystems in which they harvest. Here, we discuss recent trends in collaborative research that have increased the capacity of and access to scientific data collection...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Volker Müller, Nilanjan Pal Chowdhury, Mirko Basen
A decade ago, a novel mechanism to drive thermodynamically unfavorable redox reactions was discovered that is used in prokaryotes to drive endergonic electron transfer reactions by a direct coupling to an exergonic redox reaction in one soluble enzyme complex. This process is referred to as flavinbased electron bifurcation, or FBEB. An important function of FBEB is that it allows the generation of reduced low-potential ferredoxin (Fdred ) from comparably high-potential electron donors such as NADH or molecular hydrogen (H2 )...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Microbiology
Gareth Bloomfield
Sex in social amoebae (or dictyostelids) has a number of striking features. Dictyostelid zygotes do not proliferate but grow to a large size by feeding on other cells of the same species, each zygote ultimately forming a walled structure called a macrocyst. The diploid macrocyst nucleus undergoes meiosis, after which a single meiotic product survives to restart haploid vegetative growth. Meiotic recombination is generally initiated by the Spo11 enzyme, which introduces DNA double-strand breaks. Uniquely, as far as is known among sexual eukaryotes, dictyostelids lack a SPO11 gene...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Microbiology
Titiksha Srivastava, Marine Schott, Roméo Juge, Viola Krizakova, M Belmeguenai, Yves Roussigné, Anne Bernand-Mantel, Laurent Ranno, Stéfania Pizzini, Salim-Mourad Cherif, Andrei Stashkevich, Stéphane Auffret, Olivier Boulle, Gilles Gaudin, Mairbek Chshiev, Claire Baraduc, Hélène Béa
Electric field control of interfacial magnetism promises low power consuming and versatile spintronic devices. More specifically, in ultra thin heavy metal/ferromagnet/insulator heterostructures, voltage gating has been shown to locally and dynamically tune properties like perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and saturation magnetization. However its effect on the nowadays widely explored antisymmetric exchange property called interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction (DMI) has not been addressed yet. This DMI plays a fundamental role in stabilizing magnetic textures known as skyrmions envisaged for memory and logic based spintronic devices...
June 20, 2018: Nano Letters
Francesca Maria Russo, Anne-Gael Cordier, Luc De Catte, Julien Saada, Alexandra Benachi, Jan Deprest
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a rare disease associated with high mortality and morbidity. Antenatal ultrasound screening identifies more than 70% of cases, providing the opportunity for in-utero referral to a tertiary care center for expert assessment and perinatal management. Additional genetic and morphologic assessment may be used to rule out associated anomalies. In isolated cases, the outcome may be predicted prenatally by medical imaging. The combination of lung size and liver herniation is a widely accepted method to stratify fetuses into groups with an increasing degree of pulmonary hypoplasia and corresponding mortality rates...
June 20, 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
Stephanie J Spielman, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond
The relative evolutionary rates at individual sites in proteins are informative measures of conservation or adaptation. Often used as evolutionarily-aware conservation scores, relative rates reveal key functional or strongly-selected residues. Estimating rates in a phylogenetic context requires specifying a protein substitution model, which is typically a phenomenological model trained on a large empirical dataset. A strong emphasis has traditionally been placed on selecting the "best-fit" model, with the implicit understanding that suboptimal or otherwise ill-fitting models might bias inferences...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Kim Scribner, Iyob Tsehaye, Travis Brenden, Wendylee Stott, Jeannette Kanefsky, James Bence
Recent assessments indicate the emergence of naturally produced lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) recruitment throughout Lake Huron in the North American Laurentian Great Lakes (>50% of fish <7 yrs). Because naturally produced fish derived from different stocked hatchery strains are unmarked, managers cannot distinguish strains contributing to natural recruitment. We used 15 microsatellite loci to identify strains of naturally produced lake trout (N=1567) collected in assessment fisheries during early (2002-2004) and late (2009-2012) sampling periods...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Raúl Gomero-Cuadra, José Francia-Romero
Regulations regarding health at the workplace have generated expectations in the role played by sanitary authorities in Peru. Healthcare based on the treatment with biological agents may be a result of the lack of understanding of workplace health promotion (WHP). WHP is still a new concept that requires deepening; nevertheless, it is expected to give way to properly managed health and safety programs, reduced absenteeism, increased productivity, reduced healthcare costs, reduced legal problems, and safe and healthy work environments...
January 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Pilar Ramon Pardo, Hatim Sati, Marcelo Galas
Antimicrobial resistance is a complex epidemiology problem worldwide which calls for a wide and integrated approach such as "One Health." Resistant organisms are present in humans, animals, food, and the environment, and the main impeller of this resistance is the use of antimicrobial agents. The occurrence and propagation of antimicrobial resistance continue incessantly in the world, leaving devastating economic and health consequences behind. In 2015, the WHO, in collaboration with key partners such as the FAO and the OIE, developed the World Action Plan in Antimicrobial Resistance, under the perspective of "One Health...
January 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
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