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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437870/assessing-the-likelihood-and-magnitude-of-a-population-health-benefit-following-the-market-introduction-of-a-modified-risk-tobacco-product-enhancements-to-the-dynamic-population-modeler-dpm-1
#1
Annette M Bachand, Sandra I Sulsky, Geoffrey M Curtin
Researchers and those responsible for evaluating and implementing policies intended to reduce population harm must assess the potential for both intended and unintended consequences associated with those policies. Such assessments should be based on the combined dimensions of magnitude, and thus likelihood, of shifts in exposure patterns needed to produce a population benefit or harm, and magnitude of the expected population benefit or harm. In response to this assessment need, we provide a conceptual description of the dynamic population modeler, DPM(+1), as well as illustrative analyses that estimate the effects on all-cause mortality, life expectancy, and quality of life-adjusted life expectancy if exposure patterns in the population shift from a higher risk product (e...
April 24, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437825/-quality-of-life-and-functional-outcome-after-microsurgical-decompression-in-lumbar-spinal-stenosis-a-register-study
#2
Kourosh Zarghooni, Frank Beyer, Joanna Papadaki, Christoph Kolja Boese, Jan Siewe, Gereon Schiffer, Peer Eysel, Jan Bredow
Introduction Because of recent increases in life expectancy, lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) has become one of the most common degenerative changes in the spine. In patients not responding to conservative therapy, microsurgical decompression is the gold standard of operative treatment for degenerative LSS. The goal of the current study is to evaluate quality of life after microsurgical decompression for LSS, using data from the DWG Register (previously Spine Tango). Methods 36 patients were included in this single-center, prospective, observational study from January 2013 to June 2014...
April 24, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437817/-challenges-of-diversity-sensitive-care-in-medical-rehabilitation
#3
P Brzoska, O Razum
Diversity markers such as sex, migration background and socioeconomic status are associated with different needs and expectations in health care. In rehabilitation these needs and expectations are often not adequately accounted for. This may affect health care outcomes. In order to improve rehabilitative care, it is not sufficient to only focus on selected diversity criteria such as migration background. This has two reasons: First, health care users are defined by a wide range of different diversity markers; second, diversity markers are closely interrelated...
April 24, 2017: Die Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437741/use-of-nuclear-receptor-luciferase-based-bioassays-to-detect-endocrine-active-chemicals-in-a-biosolids-biochar-amended-soil
#4
Carolyn G Anderson, Geetika Joshi, Daniel A Bair, Charlotte Oriol, Guochun He, Sanjai J Parikh, Michael S Denison, Kate M Scow
Biosolids are a potentially valuable source of carbon and nutrients for agricultural soils; however, potential unintended impacts on human health and the environment must be considered. Virtually all biosolids contain trace amounts endocrine-disrupting chemicals derived from human use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). One potential way to reduce the bioavailability of PPCPs is to co-apply biosolids with biochar to soil, because biochar's chemical (e.g., aromaticity) and physical properties (e...
April 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437698/coupled-elasticity-in-soft-solid-foams
#5
F Gorlier, Y Khidas, O Pitois
Elasticity of soft materials can be greatly influenced by the presence of air bubbles. Such a capillary effect is expected for a wide range of materials, from polymer gels to concentrated emulsions and colloidal suspensions. Whereas experimental results and theory exist for describing the elasto-capillary behavior of bubbly materials (i.e. with moderate gas volume fractions), foamy systems still require a dedicated study in order to increase our understanding of elasticity in aerated materials over the full range of gas volume fractions...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437693/an-assessment-of-the-social-cognitive-predictors-of-exclusive-breastfeeding-behavior-using-the-health-action-process-approach
#6
J L Martinez-Brockman, F M Shebl, N Harari, R Pérez-Escamilla
RATIONALE: In the United States rates of exclusive breastfeeding duration remain exceedingly low. Exclusive breastfeeding is a complex learned behavior that is influenced by social cognitive, interpersonal, and structural factors. Interventions are needed that address factors at multiple levels of the social-ecological model. This study was designed to examine the social cognitive predictors of exclusive breastfeeding behavior in a sample of low-income women attending the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) breastfeeding peer counseling program and enrolled in the Lactation Advice Through Texting Can Help (LATCH) study...
April 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437681/predicting-wellbeing-among-people-with-epilepsy-using-illness-cognitions
#7
Kirstie A Salter, Kirsty N Prior, Malcolm J Bond
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine the synergistic contribution of illness-related perceptions (stigma, severity, and threat) and illness behavior to wellbeing among people with epilepsy. Poorer wellbeing was expected among those who perceived greater stigma, illness severity, and threat and had more extreme illness behavior. METHODS: Individuals with a diagnosis of epilepsy (N=210), recruited through local and online support groups, completed a questionnaire comprising demographic and epilepsy-specific information, and validated measures of illness perceptions and behavior, epilepsy-related quality of life, and general psychological health...
April 21, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437666/attentional-control-of-emotional-interference-in-children-with-adhd-and-typically-developing-children-an-emotional-n-back-study
#8
Thomas Villemonteix, Ivo Marx, Mathilde Septier, Christoph Berger, Thomas Hacker, Sara Bahadori, Eric Acquaviva, Isabelle Massat
Emotional interference control refers to the ability to remain focused on goal-oriented processes when confronted with disrupting but irrelevant emotional stimuli, a process that may be impaired in children and adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, emotional interference levels are known to be associated with trait anxiety, and patients with ADHD often display elevated levels of trait anxiety, such as these may have confounded previous findings of decreased emotional interference control in this population...
April 18, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437645/facile-modification-of-nanoscale-zero-valent-iron-with-high-stability-for-cr-vi-remediation
#9
Ziling Peng, Chunmei Xiong, Wei Wang, Fatang Tan, Yang Xu, Xinyun Wang, Xueliang Qiao
In this study, a highly stable nanoscale zero-valent iron composite (HS-NZVI) was obtained via modifying nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTMOS), and used for Cr(VI) remediation in aqueous solution. The obtained HS-NZVI remained stable in water without being oxidized for over 12h. After four consecutive runs, the Cr(VI) removal efficiency of HS-NZVI maintained a value of more than 82%. Moreover, the Cr(VI) removal capacity per unit weight of NZVI in HS-NZVI reached 292...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437565/relaxed-ordered-subset-preconditioned-alternating-projection-algorithm-for-pet-reconstruction-with-automated-penalty-weight-selection
#10
C Ross Schmidtlein, Yizun Lin, Si Li, Andrzej Krol, Bradley J Beattie, John L Humm, Yuesheng Xu
PURPOSE: Performance of the preconditioned alternating projection algorithm (PAPA) using relaxed ordered subsets (ROS) with a non-smooth penalty function was investigated in positron emission tomography (PET). A higher order total variation (HOTV) regularizer was applied and a method for unsupervised selection of penalty weights based on the measured data is introduced. METHODS: A ROS version of PAPA with HOTV penalty (ROS-HOTV-PAPA) for PET image reconstruction was developed and implemented...
April 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437562/no-post-copulatory-selection-against-mhc-homozygous-offspring-evidence-from-a-pedigreed-captive-rhesus-macaque-colony
#11
E H M Sterck, R E Bontrop, N de Groot, A J M de Vos-Rouweler, G G M Doxiadis
The heterozygosity status of polymorphic elements of the immune system, such as the Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC), are known to increase the potential to cope with a wider variety of pathogens. Pre- and post-copulatory processes may regulate MHC heterozygosity. In a population where mating occurs among individuals that share identical MHC-haplotypes, post-copulatory selection may disfavour homozygous offspring or ones with two MHC-haplotypes identical to its mother. We tested these ideas by determining the incidence of MHC-heterozygous and MHC-homozygous individuals in a pedigreed, partially consanguineous captive rhesus monkey colony...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437561/semiparametric-probit-models-with-univariate-and-bivariate-current-status-data
#12
Hao Liu, Jing Qin
Multivariate current-status data are frequently encountered in biomedical and public health studies. Semiparametric regression models have been extensively studied for univariate current-status data, but most existing estimation procedures are computationally intensive, involving either penalization or smoothing techniques. It becomes more challenging for the analysis of multivariate current-status data. In this article, we study the maximum likelihood estimations for univariate and bivariate current-status data under the semiparametric probit regression models...
April 24, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437547/concordance-of-patient-and-physician-perceptions-of-care-in-an-orthopedic-clinic
#13
Kelly Zhang, Charles Day, Matthew L Iorio
It is essential to study whether physicians' perceptions align with their patients' views, as understanding patient perception leads to superior satisfaction and health outcomes. Previous studies have established differences in physician-patient perceptions, but no studies have been conducted in orthopedic clinics. The authors' primary goal was to evaluate differences in physician and patient perceptions of an orthopedic clinic visit. Their secondary objective was to determine the influence of visit length, demographics, and depression risk-level on patient satisfaction...
April 24, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437523/emergency-department-query-for-patient-centered-approaches-to-sexual-orientation-and-gender-identity-the-equality-study
#14
Adil H Haider, Eric B Schneider, Lisa M Kodadek, Rachel R Adler, Anju Ranjit, Maya Torain, Ryan Y Shields, Claire Snyder, Jeremiah D Schuur, Laura Vail, Danielle German, Susan Peterson, Brandyn D Lau
Importance: The Institute of Medicine and The Joint Commission recommend routine documentation of patients' sexual orientation in health care settings. Currently, very few health care systems collect these data since patient preferences and health care professionals' support regarding collection of data about patient sexual orientation are unknown. Objective: To identify the optimal patient-centered approach to collect sexual orientation data in the emergency department (ED) in the Emergency Department Query for Patient-Centered Approaches to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity study...
April 24, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437515/a-new-equation-for-predicting-evolution-of-oral-pain-in-orthodontic-treatment-a-longitudinal-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Monica Larrea, Rosario Salvador, Rosa Cibrian, Jose Luis Gandia, Vanessa Paredes-Gallardo
AIMS: To develop an equation capable of relating the evolution of oral pain to the time elapsed, measured from the moment of dental archwire fitting and identifying when pain begins, peaks, and ends; and secondly, to compare pain during orthodontic treatment in relation to archwire material (steel or nickel-titanium [Ni-Ti]) and position (maxillary or mandibular) and patient age (child, teenager, or adult) and gender (male or female). METHODS: A longitudinal prospective cohort study was conducted of 112 patients who filled in a scale to evaluate pain, noting the times when the pain occurred...
April 2017: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437501/pronator-teres-myotendinous-tear
#16
Usama Qayyum, Diego Villacis, Charles M Jobin
Pronator teres muscle strain is a rare sporting injury reported thus far only in cricket and golf players. The injury appears to occur when the sporting club or racket strikes the ground during a forceful swing and causes the elbow to experience an eccentric force during resisted elbow flexion and pronation. On initial presentation, this injury can be mistaken for injury to the medial ulnar collateral ligament, or exacerbation of medial epicondylitis. On examination, bruising and tenderness distal to the elbow over the course of the pronator teres are often present...
March 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437496/novel-solution-for-massive-glenoid-defects-in-shoulder-arthroplasty-a-patient-specific-glenoid-vault-reconstruction-system
#17
David M Dines, Lawrence Gulotta, Edward V Craig, Joshua S Dines
Complex glenoid deformities present the most difficult challenges in shoulder arthroplasty. These deformities may be caused by severe degenerative or congenital deformity, posttraumatic anatomy, tumor, or, in most cases, bone loss after glenoid failure in anatomical total shoulder arthroplasty. Methods of treating severe bone loss have included inlay and onlay bone-graft options with augmented fixation and, in severe cases, salvage hemiarthroplasty with limited goal expectations. Unfortunately, none of these methods has provided consistently satisfactory reproducible results...
March 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437470/respiratory-syncytial-virus-neutralizing-serum-antibody-titers-in-infants-following-palivizumab-prophylaxis-with-an-abbreviated-dosing-regimen
#18
Jennifer Claydon, Amitava Sur, Allison Callejas, Mihoko Ladd, Eddie Kwan, Richard Taylor, Stuart E Turvey, Alfonso Solimano, Pascal M Lavoie, Nico Marr
BACKGROUND: Monthly injections of palivizumab during the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) season in at-risk infants reduces RSV-associated hospitalizations. However, the additive effect of naturally acquired immunity remains unclear. The objective of this study was to assess total neutralizing serum antibodies (NAb) against RSV in at-risk infants who had received an abbreviated course of palivizumab prophylaxis. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from infants enrolled in the RSV Immunoprophylaxis Program in British Columbia, Canada over 2 consecutive RSV seasons (2013 to 2015)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437369/ethical-challenges-and-the-donation-physician-specialist-a-scoping-review
#19
Shavaun I MacDonald, Sam D Shemie
Deceased donation medicine involves unique ethical challenges. Physicians who are focused on deceased donation medicine as part of their practice can expect to encounter these challenges. The goal of this review is to identify and describe these challenges, highlight existing guidelines and policy regarding the management of these challenges and to describe how the donation physician role might promote ethical practice in deceased donation medicine. Themes of discussion include: communication with families, interprofessional conflict, donation physician personal characteristics, donation clinical processes, health resource allocation, research and education, and remuneration...
May 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437367/-effective-requesting-a-scoping-review-of-the-literature-on-asking-families-to-consent-to-organ-and-tissue-donation
#20
Jennifer A Chandler, Matthew Connors, Giles Holland, Sam D Shemie
BACKGROUND: Families are often asked to consent to the donation of their deceased relative's organs or tissues. These end-of-life conversations are important because they affect consent rates as well as the psychological impact of the decision for families. This scoping review of the literature on requesting family consent was prepared to support of the development of leading practice recommendations for end-of-life conversations with families of potential donors. A scoping review maps research activity in a field across a range of commentary and empirical study designs but does not attempt meta-synthesis of empirical data or quality assessment...
May 2017: Transplantation
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