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reward prediction error

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536046/neural-substrates-of-updating-the-prediction-through-prediction-error-during-decision-making
#1
Ying Wang, Ning Ma, Xiaosong He, Nan Li, Zhengde Wei, Lizhuang Yang, Rujing Zha, Long Han, Xiaoming Li, Daren Zhang, Ying Liu, Xiaochu Zhang
Learning of prediction error (PE), including reward PE and risk PE, is crucial for updating the prediction in reinforcement learning (RL). Neurobiological and computational models of RL have reported extensive brain activations related to PE. However, the occurrence of PE does not necessarily predict updating the prediction, e.g., in a probability-known event. Therefore, the brain regions specifically engaged in updating the prediction remain unknown. Here, we conducted two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments, the probability-unknown Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the probability-known risk decision task (RDT)...
May 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535383/reward-prediction-error
#2
Wolfram Schultz
In this quick guide, Wolfram Schultz provides an introduction of reward prediction error, exploring the signal of dopamine neurons and describing its potential role in reward accumulation, decision-making and everyday life.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506437/association-between-interleukin-6-and-striatal-prediction-error-signals-following-acute-stress-in-healthy-female-participants
#3
Michael T Treadway, Roee Admon, Amanda R Arulpragasam, Malavika Mehta, Samuel Douglas, Gordana Vitaliano, David P Olson, Jessica A Cooper, Diego A Pizzagalli
BACKGROUND: Stress is widely known to alter behavioral responses to rewards and punishments. It is believed that stress may precipitate these changes through modulation of corticostriatal circuitry involved in reinforcement learning and motivation, although the intervening mechanisms remain unclear. One candidate is inflammation, which can rapidly increase following stress and can disrupt dopamine-dependent reward pathways. METHODS: Here, in a sample of 88 healthy female participants, we first assessed the effect of an acute laboratory stress paradigm on levels of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine known to be both responsive to stress and elevated in depression...
March 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504523/decomposition-of-a-sensory-prediction-error-signal-for-visuomotor-adaptation
#4
Peter A Butcher, Jordan A Taylor
To accomplish effective motor control, the brain contains an internal forward model that predicts the expected sensory consequence of a motor command. When this prediction is inaccurate, a sensory prediction error is produced which adapts the forward model to make more accurate predictions of future movements. Other types of errors, such as task performance errors or reward, play less of a role in adapting a forward model. This raises the following question: What unique information is conveyed by the sensory prediction error that results in forward model adaptation? sensory prediction errors typically contain both the magnitude and direction of the error, but it is unclear if both components are necessary for adaptation or a single component is sufficient...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495371/detecting-joint-pausiness-in-parallel-spike-trains
#5
Matthias Gärtner, Sevil Duvarci, Jochen Roeper, Gaby Schneider
BACKGROUND: Transient periods with reduced neuronal discharge - called 'pauses' - have recently gained increasing attention. In dopamine neurons, pauses are considered important teaching signals, encoding negative reward prediction errors. Particularly simultaneous pauses are likely to have increased impact on information processing. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: Available methods for detecting joint pausing analyze temporal overlap of pauses across spike trains...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491495/dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-contributes-to-the-impaired-behavioral-adaptation-in-alcohol-dependence
#6
Sinem Balta Beylergil, Anne Beck, Lorenz Deserno, Robert C Lorenz, Michael A Rapp, Florian Schlagenhauf, Andreas Heinz, Klaus Obermayer
Substance-dependent individuals often lack the ability to adjust decisions flexibly in response to the changes in reward contingencies. Prediction errors (PEs) are thought to mediate flexible decision-making by updating the reward values associated with available actions. In this study, we explored whether the neurobiological correlates of PEs are altered in alcohol dependence. Behavioral, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were simultaneously acquired from 34 abstinent alcohol-dependent patients (ADP) and 26 healthy controls (HC) during a probabilistic reward-guided decision-making task with dynamically changing reinforcement contingencies...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484422/cortical-and-striatal-reward-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis
#7
Sara Garofalo, Azucena Justicia, Gonzalo Arrondo, Anna O Ermakova, Pranathi Ramachandra, Carina Tudor-Sfetea, Trevor W Robbins, Roger A Barker, Paul C Fletcher, Graham K Murray
Psychotic symptoms frequently occur in Parkinson's disease (PD), but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. According to the National Institute of Health RDoc programme, the pathophysiological basis of neuropsychiatric symptoms may be better understood in terms of dysfunction of underlying domains of neurocognition in a trans-diagnostic fashion. Abnormal cortico-striatal reward processing has been proposed as a key domain contributing to the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. This theory has received empirical support in the study of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and preclinical models of psychosis, but has not been tested in the psychosis associated with PD...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479985/sampling-and-tracking-a-changing-environment-persistence-and-reward-in-the-foraging-decisions-of-bumblebees
#8
Aimee S Dunlap, Daniel R Papaj, Anna Dornhaus
The question of when to collect new information and how to apply that information is central to much of behaviour. Theory suggests that the value of collecting information, or sampling, depends on environmental persistence and on the relative costs of making wrong decisions. However, empirical tests of how these variables interact are lacking. We tested whether bumblebee foraging decisions are indeed influenced by these two factors. We gave bees repeated choices between a resource providing a steady, mediocre reward and a resource fluctuating between a low reward and a high reward...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461491/optimal-incentives-for-collective-intelligence
#9
Richard P Mann, Dirk Helbing
Collective intelligence is the ability of a group to perform more effectively than any individual alone. Diversity among group members is a key condition for the emergence of collective intelligence, but maintaining diversity is challenging in the face of social pressure to imitate one's peers. Through an evolutionary game-theoretic model of collective prediction, we investigate the role that incentives may play in maintaining useful diversity. We show that market-based incentive systems produce herding effects, reduce information available to the group, and restrain collective intelligence...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441114/neural-circuitry-of-reward-prediction-error
#10
Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida, Neir Eshel, Naoshige Uchida
Dopamine neurons facilitate learning by calculating reward prediction error, or the difference between expected and actual reward. Despite two decades of research, it remains unclear how dopamine neurons make this calculation. Here we review studies that tackle this problem from a diverse set of approaches, from anatomy to electrophysiology to computational modeling and behavior. Several patterns emerge from this synthesis: that dopamine neurons themselves calculate reward prediction error, rather than inherit it passively from upstream regions; that they combine multiple separate and redundant inputs, which are themselves interconnected in a dense recurrent network; and that despite the complexity of inputs, the output from dopamine neurons is remarkably homogeneous and robust...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421669/misfortune-may-be-a-blessing-in-disguise-fairness-perception-and-emotion-modulate-decision-making
#11
Hong-Hsiang Liu, Yin-Dir Hwang, Ming H Hsieh, Yung-Fong Hsu, Wen-Sung Lai
Fairness perception and equality during social interactions frequently elicit affective arousal and affect decision making. By integrating the dictator game and a probabilistic gambling task, this study aimed to investigate the effects of a negative experience induced by perceived unfairness on decision making using behavioral, model fitting, and electrophysiological approaches. Participants were randomly assigned to the neutral, harsh, or kind groups, which consisted of various asset allocation scenarios to induce different levels of perceived unfairness...
April 19, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417291/reward-prediction-errors-in-drug-addiction-and-parkinson-s-disease-from-neurophysiology-to-neuroimaging
#12
REVIEW
Isabel García-García, Yashar Zeighami, Alain Dagher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Surprises are important sources of learning. Cognitive scientists often refer to surprises as "reward prediction errors," a parameter that captures discrepancies between expectations and actual outcomes. Here, we integrate neurophysiological and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results addressing the processing of reward prediction errors and how they might be altered in drug addiction and Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: By increasing phasic dopamine responses, drugs might accentuate prediction error signals, causing increases in fMRI activity in mesolimbic areas in response to drugs...
June 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408878/reward-based-motor-adaptation-mediated-by-basal-ganglia
#13
Taegyo Kim, Khaldoun C Hamade, Dmitry Todorov, William H Barnett, Robert A Capps, Elizaveta M Latash, Sergey N Markin, Ilya A Rybak, Yaroslav I Molkov
It is widely accepted that the basal ganglia (BG) play a key role in action selection and reinforcement learning. However, despite considerable number of studies, the BG architecture and function are not completely understood. Action selection and reinforcement learning are facilitated by the activity of dopaminergic neurons, which encode reward prediction errors when reward outcomes are higher or lower than expected. The BG are thought to select proper motor responses by gating appropriate actions, and suppressing inappropriate ones...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406682/overcoming-indecision-by-changing-the-decision-boundary
#14
Gaurav Malhotra, David S Leslie, Casimir J H Ludwig, Rafal Bogacz
The dominant theoretical framework for decision making asserts that people make decisions by integrating noisy evidence to a threshold. It has recently been shown that in many ecologically realistic situations, decreasing the decision boundary maximizes the reward available from decisions. However, empirical support for decreasing boundaries in humans is scant. To investigate this problem, we used an ideal observer model to identify the conditions under which participants should change their decision boundaries with time to maximize reward rate...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390863/the-phasic-dopamine-signal-maturing-from-reward-via-behavioural-activation-to-formal-economic-utility
#15
REVIEW
Wolfram Schultz, Wiliam R Stauffer, Armin Lak
The phasic dopamine reward prediction error response is a major brain signal underlying learning, approach and decision making. This dopamine response consists of two components that reflect, initially, stimulus detection from physical impact and, subsequenttly, reward valuation; dopamine activations by punishers reflect physical impact rather than aversiveness. The dopamine reward signal is distinct from earlier reported and recently confirmed phasic changes with behavioural activation. Optogenetic activation of dopamine neurones in monkeys causes value learning and biases economic choices...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379939/re-evaluation-of-learned-information-in-drosophila
#16
Johannes Felsenberg, Oliver Barnstedt, Paola Cognigni, Suewei Lin, Scott Waddell
Animals constantly assess the reliability of learned information to optimize their behaviour. On retrieval, consolidated long-term memory can be neutralized by extinction if the learned prediction was inaccurate. Alternatively, retrieved memory can be maintained, following a period of reconsolidation during which it is labile. Although extinction and reconsolidation provide opportunities to alleviate problematic human memories, we lack a detailed mechanistic understanding of memory updating. Here we identify neural operations underpinning the re-evaluation of memory in Drosophila...
April 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379542/neurocultural-evidence-that-ideal-affect-match-promotes-giving
#17
BoKyung Park, Elizabeth Blevins, Brian Knutson, Jeanne L Tsai
Why do people give to strangers? We propose that people trust and give more to those whose emotional expressions match how they ideally want to feel ("ideal affect match"). European Americans and Koreans played multiple trials of the Dictator Game with recipients who varied in emotional expression (excited, calm), race (White, Asian), and sex (male, female). Consistent with their culture's valued affect, European Americans trusted and gave more to excited than calm recipients, whereas Koreans trusted and gave more to calm than excited recipients...
March 31, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373569/parietal-neurons-encode-expected-gains-in-instrumental-information
#18
Nicholas C Foley, Simon P Kelly, Himanshu Mhatre, Manuel Lopes, Jacqueline Gottlieb
In natural behavior, animals have access to multiple sources of information, but only a few of these sources are relevant for learning and actions. Beyond choosing an appropriate action, making good decisions entails the ability to choose the relevant information, but fundamental questions remain about the brain's information sampling policies. Recent studies described the neural correlates of seeking information about a reward, but it remains unknown whether, and how, neurons encode choices of instrumental information, in contexts in which the information guides subsequent actions...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371807/nicotine-withdrawal-induces-neural-deficits-in-reward-processing
#19
Jason A Oliver, David E Evans, Merideth A Addicott, Geoffrey F Potts, Thomas H Brandon, David J Drobes
Introduction: Nicotine withdrawal reduces neurobiological responses to nonsmoking rewards. Insight into these reward deficits could inform the development of targeted interventions. This study examined the effect of withdrawal on neural and behavioral responses during a reward prediction task. Methods: Smokers (N = 48) attended two laboratory sessions following overnight abstinence. Withdrawal was manipulated by having participants smoke three regular nicotine (0...
June 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368385/dopamine-transients-are-sufficient-and-necessary-for-acquisition-of-model-based-associations
#20
Melissa J Sharpe, Chun Yun Chang, Melissa A Liu, Hannah M Batchelor, Lauren E Mueller, Joshua L Jones, Yael Niv, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Associative learning is driven by prediction errors. Dopamine transients correlate with these errors, which current interpretations limit to endowing cues with a scalar quantity reflecting the value of future rewards. We tested whether dopamine might act more broadly to support learning of an associative model of the environment. Using sensory preconditioning, we show that prediction errors underlying stimulus-stimulus learning can be blocked behaviorally and reinstated by optogenetically activating dopamine neurons...
May 2017: Nature Neuroscience
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