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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633363/development-initial-testing-and-challenges-of-an-ecologically-valid-reward-prediction-error-fmri-task-for-alcoholism
#1
Anita Cservenka, Kelly E Courtney, Dara G Ghahremani, Kent E Hutchison, Lara A Ray
Aims: To advance translational studies of the role of reward prediction error (PE) in alcohol use disorder, the present study sought to develop and conduct an initial test of an alcohol-specific PE task paradigm using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans. Methods: Alcohol dependent or social drinkers received small tastes of their preferred alcohol beverage or control beverage, with preceding visual cues indicating whether alcohol (or water) would be delivered...
June 14, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601965/event-related-potentials-reflect-impaired-temporal-interval-learning-following-haloperidol-administration
#2
Sarah E Forster, Patrick Zirnheld, Anantha Shekhar, Stuart R Steinhauer, Brian F O'Donnell, William P Hetrick
BACKGROUND: Signals carried by the mesencephalic dopamine system and conveyed to anterior cingulate cortex are critically implicated in probabilistic reward learning and performance monitoring. A common evaluative mechanism purportedly subserves both functions, giving rise to homologous medial frontal negativities in feedback- and response-locked event-related brain potentials (the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the error-related negativity (ERN), respectively), reflecting dopamine-dependent prediction error signals to unexpectedly negative events...
June 10, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579691/does-prediction-error-drive-one-shot-declarative-learning
#3
Andrea Greve, Elisa Cooper, Alexander Kaula, Michael C Anderson, Richard Henson
The role of prediction error (PE) in driving learning is well-established in fields such as classical and instrumental conditioning, reward learning and procedural memory; however, its role in human one-shot declarative encoding is less clear. According to one recent hypothesis, PE reflects the divergence between two probability distributions: one reflecting the prior probability (from previous experiences) and the other reflecting the sensory evidence (from the current experience). Assuming unimodal probability distributions, PE can be manipulated in three ways: (1) the distance between the mode of the prior and evidence, (2) the precision of the prior, and (3) the precision of the evidence...
June 2017: Journal of Memory and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575424/association-between-habenula-dysfunction-and-motivational-symptoms-in-unmedicated-major-depressive-disorder
#4
Wen-Hua Liu, Vincent Valton, Ling-Zhi Wang, Yu-Hua Zhu, Jonathan P Roiser
The lateral habenula plays a central role in reward and punishment processing and has been suggested to drive the cardinal symptom of anhedonia in depression. This hypothesis is largely based on observations of habenula hypermetabolism in animal models of depression, but the activity of habenula and its relationship with clinical symptoms in patients with depression remains unclear. High-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and computational modelling were used to investigate the activity of the habenula during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task with rewarding and punishing outcomes in 21 unmedicated patients with major depression and 17 healthy participants...
May 29, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547127/the-relationship-between-outcome-prediction-and-cognitive-fatigue-a-convergence-of-paradigms
#5
G R Wylie, H M Genova, J DeLuca, E Dobryakova
Cognitive fatigue is common after strenuous cognitive effort. A large body of literature has implicated a network of brain areas in fatigue, including the basal ganglia and cortical areas including ventro-medal prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Furthermore, the ACC has been shown to be involved in processes such as error and conflict monitoring, outcome prediction, and effort processing. Thus, the ACC appears to be one common denominator between clinical work on fatigue and research on outcome prediction and effort...
May 25, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536046/neural-substrates-of-updating-the-prediction-through-prediction-error-during-decision-making
#6
Ying Wang, Ning Ma, Xiaosong He, Nan Li, Zhengde Wei, Lizhuang Yang, Rujing Zha, Long Han, Xiaoming Li, Daren Zhang, Ying Liu, Xiaochu Zhang
Learning of prediction error (PE), including reward PE and risk PE, is crucial for updating the prediction in reinforcement learning (RL). Neurobiological and computational models of RL have reported extensive brain activations related to PE. However, the occurrence of PE does not necessarily predict updating the prediction, e.g., in a probability-known event. Therefore, the brain regions specifically engaged in updating the prediction remain unknown. Here, we conducted two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments, the probability-unknown Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the probability-known risk decision task (RDT)...
May 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535383/reward-prediction-error
#7
Wolfram Schultz
In this quick guide, Wolfram Schultz provides an introduction of reward prediction error, exploring the signal of dopamine neurons and describing its potential role in reward accumulation, decision-making and everyday life.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506437/association-between-interleukin-6-and-striatal-prediction-error-signals-following-acute-stress-in-healthy-female-participants
#8
Michael T Treadway, Roee Admon, Amanda R Arulpragasam, Malavika Mehta, Samuel Douglas, Gordana Vitaliano, David P Olson, Jessica A Cooper, Diego A Pizzagalli
BACKGROUND: Stress is widely known to alter behavioral responses to rewards and punishments. It is believed that stress may precipitate these changes through modulation of corticostriatal circuitry involved in reinforcement learning and motivation, although the intervening mechanisms remain unclear. One candidate is inflammation, which can rapidly increase following stress and can disrupt dopamine-dependent reward pathways. METHODS: Here, in a sample of 88 healthy female participants, we first assessed the effect of an acute laboratory stress paradigm on levels of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine known to be both responsive to stress and elevated in depression...
March 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504523/decomposition-of-a-sensory-prediction-error-signal-for-visuomotor-adaptation
#9
Peter A Butcher, Jordan A Taylor
To accomplish effective motor control, the brain contains an internal forward model that predicts the expected sensory consequence of a motor command. When this prediction is inaccurate, a sensory prediction error is produced which adapts the forward model to make more accurate predictions of future movements. Other types of errors, such as task performance errors or reward, play less of a role in adapting a forward model. This raises the following question: What unique information is conveyed by the sensory prediction error that results in forward model adaptation? sensory prediction errors typically contain both the magnitude and direction of the error, but it is unclear if both components are necessary for adaptation or a single component is sufficient...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495371/detecting-joint-pausiness-in-parallel-spike-trains
#10
Matthias Gärtner, Sevil Duvarci, Jochen Roeper, Gaby Schneider
BACKGROUND: Transient periods with reduced neuronal discharge - called 'pauses' - have recently gained increasing attention. In dopamine neurons, pauses are considered important teaching signals, encoding negative reward prediction errors. Particularly simultaneous pauses are likely to have increased impact on information processing. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: Available methods for detecting joint pausing analyze temporal overlap of pauses across spike trains...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491495/dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-contributes-to-the-impaired-behavioral-adaptation-in-alcohol-dependence
#11
Sinem Balta Beylergil, Anne Beck, Lorenz Deserno, Robert C Lorenz, Michael A Rapp, Florian Schlagenhauf, Andreas Heinz, Klaus Obermayer
Substance-dependent individuals often lack the ability to adjust decisions flexibly in response to the changes in reward contingencies. Prediction errors (PEs) are thought to mediate flexible decision-making by updating the reward values associated with available actions. In this study, we explored whether the neurobiological correlates of PEs are altered in alcohol dependence. Behavioral, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were simultaneously acquired from 34 abstinent alcohol-dependent patients (ADP) and 26 healthy controls (HC) during a probabilistic reward-guided decision-making task with dynamically changing reinforcement contingencies...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484422/cortical-and-striatal-reward-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis
#12
Sara Garofalo, Azucena Justicia, Gonzalo Arrondo, Anna O Ermakova, Pranathi Ramachandra, Carina Tudor-Sfetea, Trevor W Robbins, Roger A Barker, Paul C Fletcher, Graham K Murray
Psychotic symptoms frequently occur in Parkinson's disease (PD), but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. According to the National Institute of Health RDoc programme, the pathophysiological basis of neuropsychiatric symptoms may be better understood in terms of dysfunction of underlying domains of neurocognition in a trans-diagnostic fashion. Abnormal cortico-striatal reward processing has been proposed as a key domain contributing to the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. This theory has received empirical support in the study of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and preclinical models of psychosis, but has not been tested in the psychosis associated with PD...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479985/sampling-and-tracking-a-changing-environment-persistence-and-reward-in-the-foraging-decisions-of-bumblebees
#13
Aimee S Dunlap, Daniel R Papaj, Anna Dornhaus
The question of when to collect new information and how to apply that information is central to much of behaviour. Theory suggests that the value of collecting information, or sampling, depends on environmental persistence and on the relative costs of making wrong decisions. However, empirical tests of how these variables interact are lacking. We tested whether bumblebee foraging decisions are indeed influenced by these two factors. We gave bees repeated choices between a resource providing a steady, mediocre reward and a resource fluctuating between a low reward and a high reward...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461491/optimal-incentives-for-collective-intelligence
#14
Richard P Mann, Dirk Helbing
Collective intelligence is the ability of a group to perform more effectively than any individual alone. Diversity among group members is a key condition for the emergence of collective intelligence, but maintaining diversity is challenging in the face of social pressure to imitate one's peers. Through an evolutionary game-theoretic model of collective prediction, we investigate the role that incentives may play in maintaining useful diversity. We show that market-based incentive systems produce herding effects, reduce information available to the group, and restrain collective intelligence...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441114/neural-circuitry-of-reward-prediction-error
#15
Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida, Neir Eshel, Naoshige Uchida
Dopamine neurons facilitate learning by calculating reward prediction error, or the difference between expected and actual reward. Despite two decades of research, it remains unclear how dopamine neurons make this calculation. Here we review studies that tackle this problem from a diverse set of approaches, from anatomy to electrophysiology to computational modeling and behavior. Several patterns emerge from this synthesis: that dopamine neurons themselves calculate reward prediction error, rather than inherit it passively from upstream regions; that they combine multiple separate and redundant inputs, which are themselves interconnected in a dense recurrent network; and that despite the complexity of inputs, the output from dopamine neurons is remarkably homogeneous and robust...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421669/misfortune-may-be-a-blessing-in-disguise-fairness-perception-and-emotion-modulate-decision-making
#16
Hong-Hsiang Liu, Yin-Dir Hwang, Ming H Hsieh, Yung-Fong Hsu, Wen-Sung Lai
Fairness perception and equality during social interactions frequently elicit affective arousal and affect decision making. By integrating the dictator game and a probabilistic gambling task, this study aimed to investigate the effects of a negative experience induced by perceived unfairness on decision making using behavioral, model fitting, and electrophysiological approaches. Participants were randomly assigned to the neutral, harsh, or kind groups, which consisted of various asset allocation scenarios to induce different levels of perceived unfairness...
April 19, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417291/reward-prediction-errors-in-drug-addiction-and-parkinson-s-disease-from-neurophysiology-to-neuroimaging
#17
REVIEW
Isabel García-García, Yashar Zeighami, Alain Dagher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Surprises are important sources of learning. Cognitive scientists often refer to surprises as "reward prediction errors," a parameter that captures discrepancies between expectations and actual outcomes. Here, we integrate neurophysiological and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results addressing the processing of reward prediction errors and how they might be altered in drug addiction and Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: By increasing phasic dopamine responses, drugs might accentuate prediction error signals, causing increases in fMRI activity in mesolimbic areas in response to drugs...
June 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408878/reward-based-motor-adaptation-mediated-by-basal-ganglia
#18
Taegyo Kim, Khaldoun C Hamade, Dmitry Todorov, William H Barnett, Robert A Capps, Elizaveta M Latash, Sergey N Markin, Ilya A Rybak, Yaroslav I Molkov
It is widely accepted that the basal ganglia (BG) play a key role in action selection and reinforcement learning. However, despite considerable number of studies, the BG architecture and function are not completely understood. Action selection and reinforcement learning are facilitated by the activity of dopaminergic neurons, which encode reward prediction errors when reward outcomes are higher or lower than expected. The BG are thought to select proper motor responses by gating appropriate actions, and suppressing inappropriate ones...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406682/overcoming-indecision-by-changing-the-decision-boundary
#19
Gaurav Malhotra, David S Leslie, Casimir J H Ludwig, Rafal Bogacz
The dominant theoretical framework for decision making asserts that people make decisions by integrating noisy evidence to a threshold. It has recently been shown that in many ecologically realistic situations, decreasing the decision boundary maximizes the reward available from decisions. However, empirical support for decreasing boundaries in humans is scant. To investigate this problem, we used an ideal observer model to identify the conditions under which participants should change their decision boundaries with time to maximize reward rate...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390863/the-phasic-dopamine-signal-maturing-from-reward-via-behavioural-activation-to-formal-economic-utility
#20
REVIEW
Wolfram Schultz, Wiliam R Stauffer, Armin Lak
The phasic dopamine reward prediction error response is a major brain signal underlying learning, approach and decision making. This dopamine response consists of two components that reflect, initially, stimulus detection from physical impact and, subsequenttly, reward valuation; dopamine activations by punishers reflect physical impact rather than aversiveness. The dopamine reward signal is distinct from earlier reported and recently confirmed phasic changes with behavioural activation. Optogenetic activation of dopamine neurones in monkeys causes value learning and biases economic choices...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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