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reward prediction error

Arjun Sethi, Valerie Voon, Hugo D Critchley, Mara Cercignani, Neil A Harrison
Computational models of reinforcement learning have helped dissect discrete components of reward-related function and characterize neurocognitive deficits in psychiatric illnesses. Stimulus novelty biases decision-making, even when unrelated to choice outcome, acting as if possessing intrinsic reward value to guide decisions toward uncertain options. Heightened novelty seeking is characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, yet how this influences reward-related decision-making is computationally encoded, or is altered by stimulant medication, is currently uncertain...
March 13, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Poornima Kumar, Franziska Goer, Laura Murray, Daniel G Dillon, Miranda L Beltzer, Andrew L Cohen, Nancy H Brooks, Diego A Pizzagalli
Anhedonia (hyposensitivity to rewards) and negative bias (hypersensitivity to punishments) are core features of major depressive disorder (MDD), which could stem from abnormal reinforcement learning. Emerging evidence highlights blunted reward learning and reward prediction error (RPE) signaling in the striatum in MDD, although inconsistencies exist. Preclinical studies have clarified that ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons encode RPE and habenular neurons encode punishment prediction error (PPE), which are then transmitted to the striatum and cortex to guide goal-directed behavior...
February 26, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Christine Stubbendorff, Manuel Molano-Mazon, Andrew Mj Young, Todor V Gerdjikov
Rodent striatum is involved in sensory-motor transformations and reward-related learning. Lesion studies suggest dorsolateral striatum, dorsomedial striatum, and nucleus accumbens underlie stimulus-response transformations, goal-directed behaviour and reward expectation respectively. In addition, prefrontal inputs likely control these functions. Here we set out to study how reward-driven behaviour is mediated by the coordinated activity of these structures in the intact brain. We implemented a discrimination task requiring rats to either respond or suppress responding on a lever after the presentation of auditory cues in order to obtain rewards...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Samuel P L Veissière, Moriah Stendel
We present a deflationary account of smartphone addiction by situating this purportedly antisocial phenomenon within the fundamentally social dispositions of our species. While we agree with contemporary critics that the hyper-connectedness and unpredictable rewards of mobile technology can modulate negative affect, we propose to place the locus of addiction on an evolutionarily older mechanism: the human need to monitor and be monitored by others. Drawing from key findings in evolutionary anthropology and the cognitive science of religion, we articulate a hypernatural monitoring model of smartphone addiction grounded in a general social rehearsal theory of human cognition...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
W R Stauffer
Phasic dopamine responses demonstrate remarkable simplicity; they code for the differences between received and predicted reward values. Yet this simplicity belies the subtle complexity of the psychological, computational, and contextual factors that influence this signal. Advances in behavioral paradigms and models, in monkeys and rodents, have demonstrated that phasic dopamine responses reflect numerous behavioral computations and factors including choice, subjective value, confidence, and context. The application of optogenetics has provided evidence that dopamine reward prediction error responses cause value learning...
March 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Darin R Brown, James F Cavanagh
Increasing evidence suggests that the reward positivity conforms to an axiomatic reward prediction error - that is, it closely follows the rule-like encoding of surprising reinforcers. However, a major limitation in these EEG studies is the over-reliance on a single class of secondary rewards like points or money, constraining dimensionality and limiting generalizability. In the current suite of studies we address this limitation by leveraging different classes of rewards outcomes, specifically emotionally pleasant pictures...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Richard W Morris, Chad Cyrzon, Melissa J Green, Mike E Le Pelley, Bernard W Balleine
Learning the causal relation between actions and their outcomes (AO learning) is critical for goal-directed behavior when actions are guided by desire for the outcome. This can be contrasted with habits that are acquired by reinforcement and primed by prevailing stimuli, in which causal learning plays no part. Recently, we demonstrated that goal-directed actions are impaired in schizophrenia; however, whether this deficit exists alongside impairments in habit or reinforcement learning is unknown. The present study distinguished deficits in causal learning from reinforcement learning in schizophrenia...
March 3, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
James A Waltz, Ziye Xu, Elliot C Brown, Rebecca R Ruiz, Michael J Frank, James M Gold
BACKGROUND: The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that motivational deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) are tied to a reduced ability to differentially signal gains and instances of loss-avoidance in the brain, leading to reduced ability to form adaptive representations of expected value. METHODS: We administered a reinforcement learning paradigm to 27 medicated SZ patients and 27 control subjects in which participants learned three probabilistic discriminations...
March 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Kenji Morita, Ayaka Kato
Dopamine has been suggested to be crucially involved in effort-related choices. Key findings are that dopamine depletion (i) changed preference for a high-cost, large-reward option to a low-cost, small-reward option, (ii) but not when the large-reward option was also low-cost or the small-reward option gave no reward, (iii) while increasing the latency in all the cases but only transiently, and (iv) that antagonism of either dopamine D1 or D2 receptors also specifically impaired selection of the high-cost, large-reward option...
January 2018: ENeuro
Jeroen P H Verharen, Johannes W de Jong, Theresia J M Roelofs, Christiaan F M Huffels, Ruud van Zessen, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Ralph Hamelink, Ingo Willuhn, Hanneke E M den Ouden, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Roger A H Adan, Louk J M J Vanderschuren
Hyperdopaminergic states in mental disorders are associated with disruptive deficits in decision making. However, the precise contribution of topographically distinct mesencephalic dopamine pathways to decision-making processes remains elusive. Here we show, using a multidisciplinary approach, how hyperactivity of ascending projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) contributes to impaired flexible decision making in rats. Activation of the VTA-nucleus accumbens pathway leads to insensitivity to loss and punishment due to impaired processing of negative reward prediction errors...
February 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Lucy D Vanes, Elias Mouchlianitis, Tracy Collier, Bruno B Averbeck, Sukhi S Shergill
BACKGROUND: The significant proportion of schizophrenia patients refractory to treatment, primarily directed at the dopamine system, suggests that multiple mechanisms may underlie psychotic symptoms. Reinforcement learning tasks have been employed in schizophrenia to assess dopaminergic functioning and reward processing, but these have not directly compared groups of treatment-refractory and non-refractory patients. METHODS: In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 21 patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), 21 patients with non-treatment-resistant schizophrenia (NTR), and 24 healthy controls (HC) performed a probabilistic reinforcement learning task, utilizing emotionally valenced face stimuli which elicit a social bias toward happy faces...
February 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Thomas A Stalnaker, Tzu-Lan Liu, Yuji K Takahashi, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) fire in anticipation of and during rewards. Such firing has been suggested to encode reward predictions and account in some way for the role of this area in adaptive behavior and learning. However, it has also been reported that neural activity in OFC reflects reward prediction errors, which might drive learning directly. Here we tested this question by analyzing the firing of OFC neurons recorded in an odor discrimination task in which rats were trained to sample odor cues and respond left or right on each trial for reward...
January 30, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Ravi K Das, Grace Gale, Vanessa Hennessy, Sunjeev K Kamboj
Maladaptive reward memories (MRMs) can become unstable following retrieval under certain conditions, allowing their modification by subsequent new learning. However, robust (well-rehearsed) and chronologically old MRMs, such as those underlying substance use disorders, do not destabilize easily when retrieved. A key determinate of memory destabilization during retrieval is prediction error (PE). We describe a retrieval procedure for alcohol MRMs in hazardous drinkers that specifically aims to maximize the generation of PE and therefore the likelihood of MRM destabilization...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Michelle G Craske, Dirk Hermans, Bram Vervliet
Through advances in both basic and clinical scientific research, Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction have become an exemplary translational model for understanding and treating anxiety disorders. Discoveries in associative and neurobiological mechanisms underlying extinction have informed techniques for optimizing exposure therapy that enhance the formation of inhibitory associations and their consolidation and retrieval over time and context. Strategies that enhance formation include maximizing prediction-error correction by violating expectancies, deepened extinction, occasional reinforced extinction, attentional control and removal of safety signals/behaviours...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Anne G E Collins
Learning to make rewarding choices in response to stimuli depends on a slow but steady process, reinforcement learning, and a fast and flexible, but capacity-limited process, working memory. Using both systems in parallel, with their contributions weighted based on performance, should allow us to leverage the best of each system: rapid early learning, supplemented by long-term robust acquisition. However, this assumes that using one process does not interfere with the other. We use computational modeling to investigate the interactions between the two processes in a behavioral experiment and show that working memory interferes with reinforcement learning...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Ema Tanovic, Dylan G Gee, Jutta Joormann
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) reflects the perception of uncertainty as threatening, regardless of the true probability of threat. IU is elevated in various forms of psychopathology, uniquely associated with anxiety and depression symptoms after controlling for related constructs, and prospectively predicts symptoms. Given the ubiquity of uncertainty in daily life and the clinical implications of IU, recent work has begun to investigate the neural and psychophysiological correlates of IU. This review summarizes the existing literature and integrates findings within a mechanistic neural model of responding to uncertainty...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
Rosalyn J Moran, Kenneth T Kishida, Terry Lohrenz, Ignacio Saez, Adrian W Laxton, Mark R Witcher, Stephen B Tatter, Thomas L Ellis, Paul Em Phillips, Peter Dayan, P Read Montague
The role of serotonin in human brain function remains elusive due, at least in part, to our inability to measure rapidly the local concentration of this neurotransmitter. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to infer serotonergic signaling from the striatum of fourteen brains of human patients with Parkinson's disease. Here we report these novel measurements and show that they correlate with outcomes and decisions in a sequential investment game. We find that serotonergic concentrations transiently increase as a whole following negative reward prediction errors, while reversing when counterfactual losses predominate...
January 3, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
R Becket Ebitz, Eddy Albarran, Tirin Moore
In uncertain environments, decision-makers must balance two goals: they must "exploit" rewarding options but also "explore" in order to discover rewarding alternatives. Exploring and exploiting necessarily change how the brain responds to identical stimuli, but little is known about how these states, and transitions between them, change how the brain transforms sensory information into action. To address this question, we recorded neural activity in a prefrontal sensorimotor area while monkeys naturally switched between exploring and exploiting rewarding options...
December 27, 2017: Neuron
Jana Kube, David Mathar, Annette Horstmann, Sonja A Kotz, Arno Villringer, Jane Neumann
Individuals with obesity are often characterized by alterations in reward processing. This may affect how new information is used to update stimulus values during reinforcement-based learning. Here, we investigated obesity-related changes in non-food reinforcement processing, their impact on learning performance as well as the neural underpinnings of reinforcement-based learning in obesity. Nineteen individuals with obesity (BMI > = 30 kg/m2, 10 female) and 23 lean control participants (BMI 18.5-24...
December 29, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Kevin Jarbo, Rory Flemming, Timothy D Verstynen
When making risky spatial decisions, humans incorporate estimates of sensorimotor variability and costs on outcomes to bias their spatial selections away from regions that incur feedback penalties. Since selection variability depends on the reliability of sensory signals, increasing the spatial variance of targets during visually guided actions should increase the degree of this avoidance. Healthy adult participants (N = 20) used a computer mouse to indicate their selection of the mean of a target, represented as a 2D Gaussian distribution of dots presented on a computer display...
December 14, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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