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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103483/dynamic-interaction-between-reinforcement-learning-and-attention-in-multidimensional-environments
#1
Yuan Chang Leong, Angela Radulescu, Reka Daniel, Vivian DeWoskin, Yael Niv
Little is known about the relationship between attention and learning during decision making. Using eye tracking and multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data, we measured participants' dimensional attention as they performed a trial-and-error learning task in which only one of three stimulus dimensions was relevant for reward at any given time. Analysis of participants' choices revealed that attention biased both value computation during choice and value update during learning. Value signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and prediction errors in the striatum were similarly biased by attention...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095006/can-the-structure-of-motor-variability-predict-learning-rate
#2
David Barbado Murillo, Carla Caballero Sánchez, Janice Moreside, Francisco J Vera-García, Francisco J Moreno
Recent studies show that motor variability is actively regulated as an exploration tool to promote learning in reward-based tasks. However, its role in learning processes during error-based tasks, when a reduction of the motor variability is required to achieve good performance, is still unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that error-based learning not only depends on exploration but also on the individuals' ability to measure and predict the motor error. Previous studies identified a less auto-correlated motor variability as a higher ability to perform motion adjustments...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077716/the-attraction-effect-modulates-reward-prediction-errors-and-intertemporal-choices
#3
Sebastian Gluth, Jared M Hotaling, Jörg Rieskamp
: Classical economic theory contends that the utility of a choice option should be independent of other options. This view is challenged by the attraction effect, in which the relative preference between two options is altered by the addition of a third, asymmetrically dominated option. Here, we leveraged the attraction effect in the context of intertemporal choices to test whether both decisions and reward prediction errors (RPE) in the absence of choice violate the independence of irrelevant alternatives principle...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071747/deficits-in-reinforcement-learning-but-no-link-to-apathy-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#4
Matthias N Hartmann-Riemer, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Magdalena Bossert, Celina Westermann, Erich Seifritz, Philippe N Tobler, Matthias Weisbrod, Stefan Kaiser
Negative symptoms in schizophrenia have been linked to selective reinforcement learning deficits in the context of gains combined with intact loss-avoidance learning. Fundamental mechanisms of reinforcement learning and choice are prediction error signaling and the precise representation of reward value for future decisions. It is unclear which of these mechanisms contribute to the impairments in learning from positive outcomes observed in schizophrenia. A recent study suggested that patients with severe apathy symptoms show deficits in the representation of expected value...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065182/increased-fronto-striatal-reward-prediction-errors-moderate-decision-making-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
T U Hauser, R Iannaccone, R J Dolan, J Ball, J Hättenschwiler, R Drechsler, M Rufer, D Brandeis, S Walitza, S Brem
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been linked to functional abnormalities in fronto-striatal networks as well as impairments in decision making and learning. Little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms causing these decision-making and learning deficits in OCD, and how they relate to dysfunction in fronto-striatal networks. METHOD: We investigated neural mechanisms of decision making in OCD patients, including early and late onset of disorder, in terms of reward prediction errors (RPEs) using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
January 9, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054919/opposite-initialization-to-novel-cues-in-dopamine-signaling-in-ventral-and-posterior-striatum-in-mice
#6
William Menegas, Benedicte M Babayan, Naoshige Uchida, Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida
Dopamine neurons are thought to encode novelty in addition to reward prediction error (the discrepancy between actual and predicted values). In this study, we compared dopamine activity across the striatum using fiber fluorometry in mice. During classical conditioning, we observed opposite dynamics in dopamine axon signals in the ventral striatum ('VS dopamine') and the posterior tail of the striatum ('TS dopamine'). TS dopamine showed strong excitation to novel cues, whereas VS dopamine showed no responses to novel cues until they had been paired with reward...
January 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053043/habenula-induced-inhibition-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-is-diminished-by-lesions-of-the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus
#7
P Leon Brown, Heather Palacorolla, Dana Brady, Katelyn Riegger, Greg I Elmer, Paul D Shepard
: Neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) are transiently activated by aversive events and have been implicated in associative learning. Functional changes associated with tonic and phasic activation of the LHb are often attributed to a corresponding inhibition of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Activation of GABAergic neurons in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a region that receives dense projections from the LHb and projects strongly to midbrain monoaminergic nuclei, is believed to underlie the transient inhibition of DA neurons attributed to activation of the LHb...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050805/electrophysiological-correlates-reflect-the-integration-of-model-based-and-model-free-decision-information
#8
Ben Eppinger, Maik Walter, Shu-Chen Li
In this study, we investigated the interplay of habitual (model-free) and goal-directed (model-based) decision processes by using a two-stage Markov decision task in combination with event-related potentials (ERPs) and computational modeling. To manipulate the demands on model-based decision making, we applied two experimental conditions with different probabilities of transitioning from the first to the second stage of the task. As we expected, when the stage transitions were more predictable, participants showed greater model-based (planning) behavior...
January 3, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043892/genetic-influences-on-functional-connectivity-associated-with-feedback-processing-and-prediction-error-phase-coupling-of-theta-band-oscillations-in-twins
#9
Şükrü Barış Demiral, Simon Golosheykin, Andrey P Anokhin
Detection and evaluation of the mismatch between the intended and actually obtained result of an action (reward prediction error) is an integral component of adaptive self-regulation of behavior. Extensive human and animal research has shown that evaluation of action outcome is supported by a distributed network of brain regions in which the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a central role, and the integration of distant brain regions into a unified feedback-processing network is enabled by long-range phase synchronization of cortical oscillations in the theta band...
December 31, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018160/a-sliced-inverse-regression-sir-decoding-the-forelimb-movement-from-neuronal-spikes-in-the-rat-motor-cortex
#10
Shih-Hung Yang, You-Yin Chen, Sheng-Huang Lin, Lun-De Liao, Henry Horng-Shing Lu, Ching-Fu Wang, Po-Chuan Chen, Yu-Chun Lo, Thanh Dat Phan, Hsiang-Ya Chao, Hui-Ching Lin, Hsin-Yi Lai, Wei-Chen Huang
Several neural decoding algorithms have successfully converted brain signals into commands to control a computer cursor and prosthetic devices. A majority of decoding methods, such as population vector algorithms (PVA), optimal linear estimators (OLE), and neural networks (NN), are effective in predicting movement kinematics, including movement direction, speed and trajectory but usually require a large number of neurons to achieve desirable performance. This study proposed a novel decoding algorithm even with signals obtained from a smaller numbers of neurons...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989513/category-specific-features-and-valence-in-action-effect-prediction-an-eeg-study
#11
Romain Vincent, Yi-Fang Hsu, Florian Waszak
Despite extensive research on action-effect anticipation, little attention has been paid to the anticipation of different attributes of an event. An action-effect is not only a sensory event; it is often also an event of emotional value which can be pleasant or aversive. This latter attribute of action-effect prediction is similar to anticipation of reward versus punishment. To date the neural systems controlling sensory and reward anticipation have not been systematically compared. To this end, we designed an experiment to manipulate the sensory content and the emotional valence of the stimuli in an orthogonal fashion...
December 15, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986430/computational-approaches-to-schizophrenia-a-perspective-on-negative-symptoms
#12
REVIEW
Lorenz Deserno, Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf
Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous spectrum disorder often associated with detrimental negative symptoms. In recent years, computational approaches to psychiatry have attracted growing attention. Negative symptoms have shown some overlap with general cognitive impairments and were also linked to impaired motivational processing in brain circuits implementing reward prediction. In this review, we outline how computational approaches may help to provide a better understanding of negative symptoms in terms of the potentially underlying behavioural and biological mechanisms...
December 13, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974615/interaction-of-instrumental-and-goal-directed-learning-modulates-prediction-error-representations-in-the-ventral-striatum
#13
Rong Guo, Wendelin Böhmer, Martin Hebart, Samson Chien, Tobias Sommer, Klaus Obermayer, Jan Gläscher
: Goal-directed and instrumental learning are both important controllers of human behavior. Learning about which stimulus event occurs in the environment and the reward associated with them allows humans to seek out the most valuable stimulus and move through the environment in a goal-directed manner. Stimulus-response associations are characteristic of instrumental learning, whereas response-outcome associations are the hallmark of goal-directed learning. Here we provide behavioral, computational, and neuroimaging results from a novel task in which stimulus-response and response-outcome associations are learned simultaneously but dominate behavior at different stages of the experiment...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940871/dopamine-neurons-encode-performance-error-in-singing-birds
#14
Vikram Gadagkar, Pavel A Puzerey, Ruidong Chen, Eliza Baird-Daniel, Alexander R Farhang, Jesse H Goldberg
Many behaviors are learned through trial and error by matching performance to internal goals. Yet neural mechanisms of performance evaluation remain poorly understood. We recorded basal ganglia-projecting dopamine neurons in singing zebra finches as we controlled perceived song quality with distorted auditory feedback. Dopamine activity was phasically suppressed after distorted syllables, consistent with a worse-than-predicted outcome, and was phasically activated at the precise moment of the song when a predicted distortion did not occur, consistent with a better-than-predicted outcome...
December 9, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933672/single-neuron-activity-and-theta-modulation-in-the-posterior-parietal-cortex-in-a-visuospatial-attention-task
#15
Fang-Chi Yang, T K Jacobson, R D Burwell
The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is implicated in directing and maintaining visual attention to locations in space. We hypothesized that the PPC also engages other cognitive processes in the transformation of behaviorally relevant visual inputs into appropriate actions, for example, monitoring of multiple locations, selection of responses to locations in space, and monitoring the outcome of response selections. We recorded single cells and local field potentials in the rat PPC during performance on a novel visuospatial attention (VSA) task that requires visually monitoring locations in space in order to make appropriate stimulus-guided locomotor responses...
December 9, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923496/neural-correlates-of-rdoc-reward-constructs-in-adolescents-with-diverse-psychiatric-symptoms-a-reward-flanker-task-pilot-study
#16
Kailyn A L Bradley, Julia A C Case, Rachel D Freed, Emily R Stern, Vilma Gabbay
BACKGROUND: There has been growing interest under the Research Domain Criteria initiative to investigate behavioral constructs and their underlying neural circuitry. Abnormalities in reward processes are salient across psychiatric conditions and may precede future psychopathology in youth. However, the neural circuitry underlying such deficits has not been well defined. Therefore, in this pilot, we studied youth with diverse psychiatric symptoms and examined the neural underpinnings of reward anticipation, attainment, and positive prediction error (PPE, unexpected reward gain)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909103/habenula-induced-inhibition-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-is-diminished-by-lesions-of-the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus
#17
P Leon Brown, Heather Palacorolla, Dana Brady, Katelyn Riegger, Greg I Elmer, Paul D Shepard
: Neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) are transiently activated by aversive events and have been implicated in associative learning. Functional changes associated with tonic and phasic activation of the LHb are often attributed to a corresponding inhibition of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Activation of GABAergic neurons in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a region that receives dense projections from the LHb and projects strongly to midbrain monoaminergic nuclei, is believed to underlie the transient inhibition of DA neurons attributed to activation of the LHb...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909102/the-attraction-effect-modulates-reward-prediction-errors-and-intertemporal-choices
#18
Sebastian Gluth, Jared M Hotaling, Jörg Rieskamp
: Classical economic theory contends that the utility of a choice option should be independent of other options. This view is challenged by the attraction effect, in which the relative preference between two options is altered by the addition of a third, asymmetrically dominated option. Here, we leveraged the attraction effect in the context of intertemporal choices to test whether both decisions and reward prediction errors (RPE)-in the absence of choice-violate the independence of irrelevant alternatives principle...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891082/reward-and-behavioral-factors-contributing-to-the-tonic-activity-of-monkey-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-neurons-during-saccade-tasks
#19
Ken-Ichi Okada, Yasushi Kobayashi
The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) in the brainstem plays a role in controlling reinforcement learning and executing conditioned behavior. We previously examined the activity of PPTg neurons in monkeys during a reward-conditioned, visually guided saccade task, and reported that a population of these neurons exhibited tonic responses throughout the task period. These tonic responses might depend on prediction of the upcoming reward, successful execution of the task, or both. Here, we sought to further distinguish these factors and to investigate how each contributes to the tonic neuronal activity of the PPTg...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877100/striatal-and-tegmental-neurons-code-critical-signals-for-temporal-difference-learning-of-state-value-in-domestic-chicks
#20
Chentao Wen, Yukiko Ogura, Toshiya Matsushima
To ensure survival, animals must update the internal representations of their environment in a trial-and-error fashion. Psychological studies of associative learning and neurophysiological analyses of dopaminergic neurons have suggested that this updating process involves the temporal-difference (TD) method in the basal ganglia network. However, the way in which the component variables of the TD method are implemented at the neuronal level is unclear. To investigate the underlying neural mechanisms, we trained domestic chicks to associate color cues with food rewards...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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