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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923360/when-theory-and-biology-differ-the-relationship-between-reward-prediction-errors-and-expectancy
#1
Chad C Williams, Cameron D Hassall, Robert Trska, Clay B Holroyd, Olave E Krigolson
Comparisons between expectations and outcomes are critical for learning. Termed prediction errors, the violations of expectancy that occur when outcomes differ from expectations are used to modify value and shape behaviour. In the present study, we examined how a wide range of expectancy violations impacted neural signals associated with feedback processing. Participants performed a time estimation task in which they had to guess the duration of one second while their electroencephalogram was recorded. In a key manipulation, we varied task difficulty across the experiment to create a range of different feedback expectancies - reward feedback was either very expected, expected, 50/50, unexpected, or very unexpected...
September 15, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918313/learning-with-three-factors-modulating-hebbian-plasticity-with-errors
#2
REVIEW
Łukasz Kuśmierz, Takuya Isomura, Taro Toyoizumi
Synaptic plasticity is a central theme in neuroscience. A framework of three-factor learning rules provides a powerful abstraction, helping to navigate through the abundance of models of synaptic plasticity. It is well-known that the dopamine modulation of learning is related to reward, but theoretical models predict other functional roles of the modulatory third factor; it may encode errors for supervised learning, summary statistics of the population activity for unsupervised learning or attentional feedback...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910622/dopamine-neurons-respond-to-errors-in-the-prediction-of-sensory-features-of-expected-rewards
#3
Yuji K Takahashi, Hannah M Batchelor, Bing Liu, Akash Khanna, Marisela Morales, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Midbrain dopamine neurons have been proposed to signal prediction errors as defined in model-free reinforcement learning algorithms. While these algorithms have been extremely powerful in interpreting dopamine activity, these models do not register any error unless there is a difference between the value of what is predicted and what is received. Yet learning often occurs in response to changes in the unique features that characterize what is received, sometimes with no change in its value at all. Here, we show that classic error-signaling dopamine neurons also respond to changes in value-neutral sensory features of an expected reward...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894291/neural-predictors-of-12-month-weight-loss-outcomes-following-bariatric-surgery
#4
L M Holsen, P Davidson, H Cerit, T Hye, P Moondra, F Haimovici, S Sogg, S Shikora, J M Goldstein, A E Evins, L E Stoeckel
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Despite the effectiveness of bariatric surgery, there is still substantial variability in long-term weight outcomes and few factors with predictive power to explain this variability. Neuroimaging may provide a novel biomarker with utility beyond other commonly used variables in bariatric surgery trials to improve prediction of long-term weight-loss outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on reward and cognitive control circuitry postsurgery and determine the extent to which baseline brain activity predicts weight loss at 12-month postsurgery...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887626/probability-differently-modulating-the-effects-of-reward-and-punishment-on-visuomotor-adaptation
#5
Yanlong Song, Ann L Smiley-Oyen
Recent human motor learning studies revealed that punishment seemingly accelerated motor learning but reward enhanced consolidation of motor memory. It is not evident how intrinsic properties of reward and punishment modulate the potentially dissociable effects of reward and punishment on motor learning and motor memory. It is also not clear what causes the dissociation of the effects of reward and punishment. By manipulating probability of distribution, a critical property of reward and punishment, the present study demonstrated that probability had distinct modulation on the effects of reward and punishment in adapting to a sudden visual rotation and consolidation of the adaptation memory...
September 8, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842409/time-of-day-differences-in-neural-reward-functioning-in-healthy-young-men
#6
Jamie E M Byrne, Matthew E Hughes, Susan L Rossell, Sheri L Johnson, Greg Murray
Reward function appears to be modulated by the circadian system, but little is known about the neural basis of this interaction. Previous research suggests that the neural reward response may be different in the afternoon; however the direction of this effect is contentious. Reward response may follow the diurnal rhythm in self-reported positive affect, peaking in the early afternoon. An alternative is that daily reward response represents a type of prediction error, with neural reward activation relatively high at times of day when rewards are unexpected (i...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833254/temporal-dissociation-of-salience-and-prediction-error-responses-to-appetitive-and-aversive-taste
#7
E J Hird, W El-Deredy, A Jones, D Talmi
The feedback-related negativity (FRN), a frontocentral ERP occurring 200-350 ms after emotionally valued outcomes, has been posited as the neural correlate of reward prediction error, a key component of associative learning. Recent evidence challenged this interpretation and has led to the suggestion that this ERP expresses salience instead. Here, we distinguish between utility prediction error and salience by delivering or withholding hedonistically matched appetitive and aversive tastes, and measure ERPs to cues signaling each taste...
August 18, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819323/excessive-body-fat-linked-to-blunted-somatosensory-cortex-response-to-general-reward-in-adolescents
#8
J F Navas, A Barros-Loscertales, V Costumero-Ramos, J Verdejo-Román, R Vilar-López, A Verdejo-García
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The brain reward system is key to understanding adolescent obesity in the current obesogenic environment, rich in highly appetising stimuli, to which adolescents are particularly sensitive. We aimed to examine the association between body fat levels and brain reward system responsivity to general (monetary) rewards in male and female adolescents. METHOD: Sixty-eight adolescents (34 females; mean age [standard deviation]=16.56 [1.35]) were measured for body fat levels with bioelectric impedance, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan during the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808037/separate-mesocortical-and-mesolimbic-pathways-encode-effort-and-reward-learning-signals
#9
Tobias U Hauser, Eran Eldar, Raymond J Dolan
Optimal decision making mandates organisms learn the relevant features of choice options. Likewise, knowing how much effort we should expend can assume paramount importance. A mesolimbic network supports reward learning, but it is unclear whether other choice features, such as effort learning, rely on this same network. Using computational fMRI, we show parallel encoding of effort and reward prediction errors (PEs) within distinct brain regions, with effort PEs expressed in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and reward PEs in ventral striatum...
August 29, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804467/learning-about-expectation-violation-from-prediction-error-paradigms-a-meta-analysis-on-brain-processes-following-a-prediction-error
#10
Lisa D'Astolfo, Winfried Rief
Modifying patients' expectations by exposing them to expectation violation situations (thus maximizing the difference between the expected and the actual situational outcome) is proposed to be a crucial mechanism for therapeutic success for a variety of different mental disorders. However, clinical observations suggest that patients often maintain their expectations regardless of experiences contradicting their expectations. It remains unclear which information processing mechanisms lead to modification or persistence of patients' expectations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755237/uncertainty-quantification-and-sensitivity-analysis-of-an-arterial-wall-mechanics-model-for-evaluation-of-vascular-drug-therapies
#11
Maarten H G Heusinkveld, Sjeng Quicken, Robert J Holtackers, Wouter Huberts, Koen D Reesink, Tammo Delhaas, Bart Spronck
Quantification of the uncertainty in constitutive model predictions describing arterial wall mechanics is vital towards non-invasive assessment of vascular drug therapies. Therefore, we perform uncertainty quantification to determine uncertainty in mechanical characteristics describing the vessel wall response upon loading. Furthermore, a global variance-based sensitivity analysis is performed to pinpoint measurements that are most rewarding to be measured more precisely. We used previously published carotid diameter-pressure and intima-media thickness (IMT) data (measured in triplicate), and Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden models...
July 28, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753634/dissociating-error-based-and-reinforcement-based-loss-functions-during-sensorimotor-learning
#12
Joshua G A Cashaback, Heather R McGregor, Ayman Mohatarem, Paul L Gribble
It has been proposed that the sensorimotor system uses a loss (cost) function to evaluate potential movements in the presence of random noise. Here we test this idea in the context of both error-based and reinforcement-based learning. In a reaching task, we laterally shifted a cursor relative to true hand position using a skewed probability distribution. This skewed probability distribution had its mean and mode separated, allowing us to dissociate the optimal predictions of an error-based loss function (corresponding to the mean of the lateral shifts) and a reinforcement-based loss function (corresponding to the mode)...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739583/tonic-or-phasic-stimulation-of-dopaminergic-projections-to-prefrontal-cortex-causes-mice-to-maintain-or-deviate-from-previously-learned-behavioral-strategies
#13
Ian T Ellwood, Tosha Patel, Varun Wadia, Anthony T Lee, Alayna T Liptak, Kevin J Bender, Vikaas S Sohal
Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) encode reward prediction errors and can drive reinforcement learning through their projections to striatum, but much less is known about their projections to prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here, we studied these projections and observed phasic VTA-PFC fiber photometry signals after the delivery of rewards. Next, we studied how optogenetic stimulation of these projections affects behavior using conditioned place preference and a task in which mice learn associations between cues and food rewards and then use those associations to make choices...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736133/knockdown-of-zif268-in-the-posterior-dorsolateral-striatum-does-not-enduringly-disrupt-a-response-memory-of-a-rewarded-t-maze-task
#14
Emma N Cahill, George H Vousden, Marc T J Exton-McGuinness, Ian R C Beh, Casey B Swerner, Matej Macak, Sameera Abas, Cameron C Cole, Brian F Kelleher, Barry J Everitt, Amy L Milton
Under certain conditions pavlovian memories undergo reconsolidation, whereby the reactivated memory can be disrupted by manipulations such as knockdown of zif268. For instrumental memories, reconsolidation disruption is less well established. Our previous, preliminary data identified that there was an increase in Zif268 in the posterior dorsolateral striatum (pDLS) after expression of an instrumental habit-like 'response' memory, but not an instrumental goal-directed 'place' memory on a T-maze task. Here, the requirement for Zif268 in the reconsolidation of a response memory was tested by knockdown of Zif268, using antisense oligodeoxynucleotide infusion into the pDLS, at memory reactivation...
July 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699296/long-lasting-contribution-of-dopamine-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-but-not-dorsal-lateral-striatum-to-sign-tracking
#15
Kurt M Fraser, Patricia H Janak
The attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues is dependent on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC). These dopamine signals conform to traditional reward-prediction error signals and have been shown to diminish with time. Here we examined whether the diminishing dopamine signal in the NAcC has functional implications for the expression of sign-tracking, a Pavlovian conditioned response indicative of the attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues. Food-restricted male Sprague Dawley rats were trained in a Pavlovian paradigm in which an insertable lever predicted delivery of food reward in a nearby food cup...
August 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689983/a-novel-neural-prediction-error-found-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-ensembles
#16
James Michael Hyman, Clay Brian Holroyd, Jeremy Keith Seamans
The function of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) remains controversial, yet many theories suggest a role in behavioral adaptation, partly because a robust event-related potential, the feedback-related negativity (FN), is evoked over the ACC whenever expectations are violated. We recorded from the ACC as rats performed a task identical to one that reliably evokes an FN in humans. A subset of neurons was found that encoded expected outcomes as abstract outcome representations. The degree to which a reward/non-reward outcome representation emerged during a trial depended on the history of outcomes that preceded it...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684734/spatiotemporal-neural-characterization-of-prediction-error-valence-and-surprise-during-reward-learning-in-humans
#17
Elsa Fouragnan, Filippo Queirazza, Chris Retzler, Karen J Mullinger, Marios G Philiastides
Reward learning depends on accurate reward associations with potential choices. These associations can be attained with reinforcement learning mechanisms using a reward prediction error (RPE) signal (the difference between actual and expected rewards) for updating future reward expectations. Despite an extensive body of literature on the influence of RPE on learning, little has been done to investigate the potentially separate contributions of RPE valence (positive or negative) and surprise (absolute degree of deviation from expectations)...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678984/association-of-neural-and-emotional-impacts-of-reward-prediction-errors-with-major-depression
#18
Robb B Rutledge, Michael Moutoussis, Peter Smittenaar, Peter Zeidman, Tanja Taylor, Louise Hrynkiewicz, Jordan Lam, Nikolina Skandali, Jenifer Z Siegel, Olga T Ousdal, Gita Prabhu, Peter Dayan, Peter Fonagy, Raymond J Dolan
Importance: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with deficits in representing reward prediction errors (RPEs), which are the difference between experienced and predicted reward. Reward prediction errors underlie learning of values in reinforcement learning models, are represented by phasic dopamine release, and are known to affect momentary mood. Objective: To combine functional neuroimaging, computational modeling, and smartphone-based large-scale data collection to test, in the absence of learning-related concerns, the hypothesis that depression attenuates the impact of RPEs...
August 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676744/trace-conditioning-in-drosophila-induces-associative-plasticity-in-mushroom-body-kenyon-cells-and-dopaminergic-neurons
#19
Kristina V Dylla, Georg Raiser, C Giovanni Galizia, Paul Szyszka
Dopaminergic neurons (DANs) signal punishment and reward during associative learning. In mammals, DANs show associative plasticity that correlates with the discrepancy between predicted and actual reinforcement (prediction error) during classical conditioning. Also in insects, such as Drosophila, DANs show associative plasticity that is, however, less understood. Here, we study associative plasticity in DANs and their synaptic partners, the Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom bodies (MBs), while training Drosophila to associate an odorant with a temporally separated electric shock (trace conditioning)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654358/predicting-motivation-computational-models-of-pfc-can-explain-neural-coding-of-motivation-and-effort-based-decision-making-in-health-and-disease
#20
Eliana Vassena, James Deraeve, William H Alexander
Human behavior is strongly driven by the pursuit of rewards. In daily life, however, benefits mostly come at a cost, often requiring that effort be exerted to obtain potential benefits. Medial PFC (MPFC) and dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) are frequently implicated in the expectation of effortful control, showing increased activity as a function of predicted task difficulty. Such activity partially overlaps with expectation of reward and has been observed both during decision-making and during task preparation. Recently, novel computational frameworks have been developed to explain activity in these regions during cognitive control, based on the principle of prediction and prediction error (predicted response-outcome [PRO] model [Alexander, W...
October 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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