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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923496/neural-correlates-of-rdoc-reward-constructs-in-adolescents-with-diverse-psychiatric-symptoms-a-reward-flanker-task-pilot-study
#1
Kailyn A L Bradley, Julia A C Case, Rachel D Freed, Emily R Stern, Vilma Gabbay
BACKGROUND: There has been growing interest under the Research Domain Criteria initiative to investigate behavioral constructs and their underlying neural circuitry. Abnormalities in reward processes are salient across psychiatric conditions and may precede future psychopathology in youth. However, the neural circuitry underlying such deficits has not been well defined. Therefore, in this pilot, we studied youth with diverse psychiatric symptoms and examined the neural underpinnings of reward anticipation, attainment, and positive prediction error (PPE, unexpected reward gain)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909103/habenula-induced-inhibition-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-is-diminished-by-lesions-of-the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus
#2
P Leon Brown, Heather Palacorolla, Dana Brady, Katelyn Riegger, Greg I Elmer, Paul D Shepard
: Neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) are transiently activated by aversive events and have been implicated in associative learning. Functional changes associated with tonic and phasic activation of the LHb are often attributed to a corresponding inhibition of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Activation of GABAergic neurons in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a region that receives dense projections from the LHb and projects strongly to midbrain monoaminergic nuclei, is believed to underlie the transient inhibition of DA neurons attributed to activation of the LHb...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909102/the-attraction-effect-modulates-reward-prediction-errors-and-intertemporal-choices
#3
Sebastian Gluth, Jared M Hotaling, Jörg Rieskamp
: Classical economic theory contends that the utility of a choice option should be independent of other options. This view is challenged by the attraction effect, in which the relative preference between two options is altered by the addition of a third, asymmetrically dominated option. Here, we leveraged the attraction effect in the context of intertemporal choices to test whether both decisions and reward prediction errors (RPE)-in the absence of choice-violate the independence of irrelevant alternatives principle...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891082/reward-and-behavioral-factors-contributing-to-the-tonic-activity-of-monkey-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-neurons-during-saccade-tasks
#4
Ken-Ichi Okada, Yasushi Kobayashi
The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) in the brainstem plays a role in controlling reinforcement learning and executing conditioned behavior. We previously examined the activity of PPTg neurons in monkeys during a reward-conditioned, visually guided saccade task, and reported that a population of these neurons exhibited tonic responses throughout the task period. These tonic responses might depend on prediction of the upcoming reward, successful execution of the task, or both. Here, we sought to further distinguish these factors and to investigate how each contributes to the tonic neuronal activity of the PPTg...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877100/striatal-and-tegmental-neurons-code-critical-signals-for-temporal-difference-learning-of-state-value-in-domestic-chicks
#5
Chentao Wen, Yukiko Ogura, Toshiya Matsushima
To ensure survival, animals must update the internal representations of their environment in a trial-and-error fashion. Psychological studies of associative learning and neurophysiological analyses of dopaminergic neurons have suggested that this updating process involves the temporal-difference (TD) method in the basal ganglia network. However, the way in which the component variables of the TD method are implemented at the neuronal level is unclear. To investigate the underlying neural mechanisms, we trained domestic chicks to associate color cues with food rewards...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867436/putamen-activation-represents-an-intrinsic-positive-prediction-error-signal-for-visual-search-in-repeated-configurations
#6
Susanne Sommer, Stefan Pollmann
We investigated fMRI responses to visual search targets appearing at locations that were predicted by the search context. Based on previous work in visual category learning we expected an intrinsic reward prediction error signal in the putamen whenever the target appeared at a location that was predicted with some degree of uncertainty. Comparing target appearance at locations predicted with 50% probability to either locations predicted with 100% probability or unpredicted locations, increased activation was observed in left posterior putamen and adjacent left posterior insula...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866796/interplay-between-hippocampal-sharp-wave-ripple-events-and-vicarious-trial-and-error-behaviors-in-decision-making
#7
Andrew E Papale, Mark C Zielinski, Loren M Frank, Shantanu P Jadhav, A David Redish
Current theories posit that memories encoded during experiences are subsequently consolidated into longer-term storage. Hippocampal sharp-wave-ripple (SWR) events have been linked to this consolidation process during sleep, but SWRs also occur during awake immobility, where their role remains unclear. We report that awake SWR rates at the reward site are inversely related to the prevalence of vicarious trial and error (VTE) behaviors, thought to be involved in deliberation processes. SWR rates were diminished immediately after VTE behaviors and an increase in the rate of SWR events at the reward site predicted a decrease in subsequent VTE behaviors at the choice point...
November 5, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859899/neural-signatures-of-trust-in-reciprocity-a-coordinate-based-meta-analysis
#8
Gabriele Bellucci, Sergey V Chernyak, Kimberly Goodyear, Simon B Eickhoff, Frank Krueger
Trust in reciprocity (TR) is defined as the risky decision to invest valued resources in another party with the hope of mutual benefit. Several fMRI studies have investigated the neural correlates of TR in one-shot and multiround versions of the investment game (IG). However, an overall characterization of the underlying neural networks remains elusive. Here, a coordinate-based meta-analysis was employed (activation likelihood estimation method, 30 articles) to investigate consistent brain activations in each of the IG stages (i...
November 17, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854448/ventral-striatal-lesions-disrupt-dopamine-neuron-signaling-of-differences-in-cue-value-caused-by-changes-in-reward-timing-but-not-number
#9
Yuji K Takahashi, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
We recently showed that ventral striatal (VS) lesions abolished reward prediction errors that reflect changes in reward timing while leaving relatively unaffected errors that reflect changes in reward number. Here we extended those results by examining whether normal learning-related changes in firing to the reward-predictive cues in the same dopamine neurons were also disrupted by VS lesions. This analysis revealed that dopamine neurons recorded in VS-lesioned rats failed to show value-related changes in firing to the cues in timing but showed normal changes in number blocks...
December 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852018/-functional-parcellation-of-frontal-higher-order-motor-cortex
#10
Hajime Mushiake, Keisetsu Shima
Motor areas in the frontal cortex are classified into medial and lateral functional groups. The dorsal premotor areas in the lateral groups are involved in motor guidance based on behavioral rules. The ventral premotor cortex contributes to motor guidance relying on spatial aspects of sensory information. The supplementary motor complex in the medial groups is related to the bimanual and temporal organization of multiple motor acts. The cingulate motor area is involved in motor control based on reward-prediction errors...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849004/performance-error-related-activity-in-monkey-striatum-during-social-interactions
#11
Raymundo Báez-Mendoza, Wolfram Schultz
Monitoring our performance is fundamental to motor control while monitoring other's performance is fundamental to social coordination. The striatum is hypothesized to play a role in action selection, action initiation, and action parsing, but we know little of its role in performance monitoring. Furthermore, the striatum contains neurons that respond to own and other's actions. Therefore, we asked if striatal neurons signal own and conspecific's performance errors. Two macaque monkeys sitting across a touch-sensitive table in plain view of each other took turns performing a simple motor task to obtain juice rewards while we recorded single striatal neurons from one monkey at a time...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833939/probabilistic-reinforcement-learning-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-relationships-to-anhedonia-and-avolition
#12
Erin C Dowd, Michael J Frank, Anne Collins, James M Gold, Deanna M Barch
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia (a reduced experience of pleasure) and avolition (a reduction in goal-directed activity) are common features of schizophrenia that have substantial effects on functional outcome, but are poorly understood and treated. Here, we examined whether alterations in reinforcement learning may contribute to these symptoms in schizophrenia by impairing the translation of reward information into goal-directed action. METHODS: 38 stable outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 37 healthy controls underwent fMRI during a probabilistic stimulus selection reinforcement learning task with dissociated choice- and feedback-related activation, followed by a behavioral transfer task allowing separate assessment of learning from positive versus negative outcomes...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831735/correction-to-butler-carello-and-maguin-2016
#13
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Trauma, Stress, and Self-Care in Clinical Training: Predictors of Burnout, Decline in Health Status, Secondary Traumatic Stress Symptoms, and Compassion Satisfaction" by Lisa D. Butler, Janice Carello and Eugene Maguin (Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, Advanced Online Publication, Sep 12, 2016, np). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-43766-001.) Objective: Courtois and Gold (2009) have called for the inclusion of trauma in the curriculum for all mental health training programs...
November 10, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793098/-proactive-use-of-cue-context-congruence-for-building-reinforcement-learning-s-reward-function
#14
Judit Zsuga, Klara Biro, Gabor Tajti, Magdolna Emma Szilasi, Csaba Papp, Bela Juhasz, Rudolf Gesztelyi
BACKGROUND: Reinforcement learning is a fundamental form of learning that may be formalized using the Bellman equation. Accordingly an agent determines the state value as the sum of immediate reward and of the discounted value of future states. Thus the value of state is determined by agent related attributes (action set, policy, discount factor) and the agent's knowledge of the environment embodied by the reward function and hidden environmental factors given by the transition probability...
October 28, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781362/spared-internal-but-impaired-external-reward-prediction-error-signals-in-major-depressive-disorder-during-reinforcement-learning
#15
Jasmina Bakic, Gilles Pourtois, Marieke Jepma, Romain Duprat, Rudi De Raedt, Chris Baeken
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) creates debilitating effects on a wide range of cognitive functions, including reinforcement learning (RL). In this study, we sought to assess whether reward processing as such, or alternatively the complex interplay between motivation and reward might potentially account for the abnormal reward-based learning in MDD. METHODS: A total of 35 treatment resistant MDD patients and 44 age matched healthy controls (HCs) performed a standard probabilistic learning task...
October 26, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766203/a-negative-relationship-between-ventral-striatal-loss-anticipation-response-and-impulsivity-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#16
Maike C Herbort, Joram Soch, Torsten Wüstenberg, Kerstin Krauel, Maia Pujara, Michael Koenigs, Jürgen Gallinat, Henrik Walter, Stefan Roepke, Björn H Schott
Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently exhibit impulsive behavior, and self-reported impulsivity is typically higher in BPD patients when compared to healthy controls. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between impulsivity, the ventral striatal response to reward anticipation, and prediction errors. Here we investigated the striatal neural response to monetary gain and loss anticipation and their relationship with impulsivity in 21 female BPD patients and 23 age-matched female healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766090/to-know-or-not-to-know-theta-and-delta-reflect-complementary-information-about-an-advanced-cue-before-feedback-in-decision-making
#17
Jing Wang, Zhaofeng Chen, Xiaozhe Peng, Tiantian Yang, Peng Li, Fengyu Cong, Hong Li
To investigate brain activity during the reinforcement learning process in social contexts is a topic of increasing research interest. Previous studies have mainly focused on using electroencephalograms (EEGs) for feedback evaluation in reinforcement learning tasks by measuring event-related potentials. Few studies have investigated the time-frequency (TF) profiles of a cue that manifested whether a following feedback is available or not after decision-making. Moreover, it remains unclear whether the TF profiles of the cue interact with different agents to whom the feedback related...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760002/midbrain-dopamine-neurons-signal-aversion-in-a-reward-context-dependent-manner
#18
Hideyuki Matsumoto, Ju Tian, Naoshige Uchida, Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida
Dopamine is thought to regulate learning from appetitive and aversive events. Here we examined how optogenetically-identified dopamine neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area of mice respond to aversive events in different conditions. In low reward contexts, most dopamine neurons were exclusively inhibited by aversive events, and expectation reduced dopamine neurons' responses to reward and punishment. When a single odor predicted both reward and punishment, dopamine neurons' responses to that odor reflected the integrated value of both outcomes...
October 19, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736881/forgetting-in-reinforcement-learning-links-sustained-dopamine-signals-to-motivation
#19
Ayaka Kato, Kenji Morita
It has been suggested that dopamine (DA) represents reward-prediction-error (RPE) defined in reinforcement learning and therefore DA responds to unpredicted but not predicted reward. However, recent studies have found DA response sustained towards predictable reward in tasks involving self-paced behavior, and suggested that this response represents a motivational signal. We have previously shown that RPE can sustain if there is decay/forgetting of learned-values, which can be implemented as decay of synaptic strengths storing learned-values...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716545/youth-with-substance-abuse-histories-exhibit-dysfunctional-representation-of-expected-value-during-a-passive-avoidance-task
#20
Stuart F White, Patrick Tyler, Mary L Botkin, Anna K Erway, Laura C Thornton, Venkata Kolli, Kayla Pope, Harma Meffert, R James Blair
Individuals with substance abuse (SA) histories show impairment in the computations necessary for decision-making, including expected value (EV) and prediction error (PE). Neuroimaging findings, however, have been inconsistent. Sixteen youth with (SApositive) and 29 youth without (SAnegative) substance abuse histories completed a passive avoidance task while undergoing functional MRI. The groups did not significantly differ on age, gender composition or IQ. Behavioral results indicated that SApositive youth showed significantly less learning than SAnegative youth over the task...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
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