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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699296/long-lasting-contribution-of-dopamine-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-but-not-dorsal-lateral-striatum-to-sign-tracking
#1
Kurt M Fraser, Patricia H Janak
The attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues is dependent on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core. These dopamine signals conform to traditional reward-prediction error signals and have been shown to diminish with time. Here we examined if the diminishing dopamine signal in the nucleus accumbens core has functional implications for the expression of sign-tracking, a Pavlovian conditioned response indicative of the attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues. Food-restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a Pavlovian paradigm in which an insertable lever predicted delivery of food reward in a nearby food cup...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689983/a-novel-neural-prediction-error-found-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-ensembles
#2
James Michael Hyman, Clay Brian Holroyd, Jeremy Keith Seamans
The function of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) remains controversial, yet many theories suggest a role in behavioral adaptation, partly because a robust event-related potential, the feedback-related negativity (FN), is evoked over the ACC whenever expectations are violated. We recorded from the ACC as rats performed a task identical to one that reliably evokes an FN in humans. A subset of neurons was found that encoded expected outcomes as abstract outcome representations. The degree to which a reward/non-reward outcome representation emerged during a trial depended on the history of outcomes that preceded it...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684734/spatiotemporal-neural-characterization-of-prediction-error-valence-and-surprise-during-reward-learning-in-humans
#3
Elsa Fouragnan, Filippo Queirazza, Chris Retzler, Karen J Mullinger, Marios G Philiastides
Reward learning depends on accurate reward associations with potential choices. These associations can be attained with reinforcement learning mechanisms using a reward prediction error (RPE) signal (the difference between actual and expected rewards) for updating future reward expectations. Despite an extensive body of literature on the influence of RPE on learning, little has been done to investigate the potentially separate contributions of RPE valence (positive or negative) and surprise (absolute degree of deviation from expectations)...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678984/association-of-neural-and-emotional-impacts-of-reward-prediction-errors-with-major-depression
#4
Robb B Rutledge, Michael Moutoussis, Peter Smittenaar, Peter Zeidman, Tanja Taylor, Louise Hrynkiewicz, Jordan Lam, Nikolina Skandali, Jenifer Z Siegel, Olga T Ousdal, Gita Prabhu, Peter Dayan, Peter Fonagy, Raymond J Dolan
Importance: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with deficits in representing reward prediction errors (RPEs), which are the difference between experienced and predicted reward. Reward prediction errors underlie learning of values in reinforcement learning models, are represented by phasic dopamine release, and are known to affect momentary mood. Objective: To combine functional neuroimaging, computational modeling, and smartphone-based large-scale data collection to test, in the absence of learning-related concerns, the hypothesis that depression attenuates the impact of RPEs...
July 5, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676744/trace-conditioning-in-drosophila-induces-associative-plasticity-in-mushroom-body-kenyon-cells-and-dopaminergic-neurons
#5
Kristina V Dylla, Georg Raiser, C Giovanni Galizia, Paul Szyszka
Dopaminergic neurons (DANs) signal punishment and reward during associative learning. In mammals, DANs show associative plasticity that correlates with the discrepancy between predicted and actual reinforcement (prediction error) during classical conditioning. Also in insects, such as Drosophila, DANs show associative plasticity that is, however, less understood. Here, we study associative plasticity in DANs and their synaptic partners, the Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom bodies (MBs), while training Drosophila to associate an odorant with a temporally separated electric shock (trace conditioning)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654358/predicting-motivation-computational-models-of-pfc-can-explain-neural-coding-of-motivation-and-effort-based-decision-making-in-health-and-disease
#6
Eliana Vassena, James Deraeve, William H Alexander
Human behavior is strongly driven by the pursuit of rewards. In daily life, however, benefits mostly come at a cost, often requiring that effort be exerted to obtain potential benefits. Medial pFC (MPFC) and dorsolateral pFC (DLPFC) are frequently implicated in the expectation of effortful control, showing increased activity as a function of predicted task difficulty. Such activity partially overlaps with expectation of reward and has been observed both during decision-making and during task preparation. Recently, novel computational frameworks have been developed to explain activity in these regions during cognitive control, based on the principle of prediction and prediction error (predicted response-outcome [PRO] model [Alexander, W...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638322/neural-signals-related-to-outcome-evaluation-are-stronger-in-ca1-than-ca3
#7
Sung-Hyun Lee, Namjung Huh, Jong Won Lee, Jeong-Wook Ghim, Inah Lee, Min W Jung
We have shown previously that CA1 conveys significant neural signals necessary to update value of the chosen target, namely chosen value and reward signals. To better understand hippocampal neural processes related to valuation, we compared chosen value- and reward-related neural activity between the CA3 and CA1 regions. Single units were recorded with tetrodes from the dorsal CA3 and CA1 regions of rats performing a dynamic foraging task, and chosen value- and reward-related neural activity was estimated using a reinforcement learning model and multiple regression analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633363/development-initial-testing-and-challenges-of-an-ecologically-valid-reward-prediction-error-fmri-task-for-alcoholism
#8
Anita Cservenka, Kelly E Courtney, Dara G Ghahremani, Kent E Hutchison, Lara A Ray
Aims: To advance translational studies of the role of reward prediction error (PE) in alcohol use disorder, the present study sought to develop and conduct an initial test of an alcohol-specific PE task paradigm using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans. Methods: Alcohol dependent or social drinkers received small tastes of their preferred alcohol beverage or control beverage, with preceding visual cues indicating whether alcohol (or water) would be delivered...
June 14, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601965/event-related-potentials-reflect-impaired-temporal-interval-learning-following-haloperidol-administration
#9
Sarah E Forster, Patrick Zirnheld, Anantha Shekhar, Stuart R Steinhauer, Brian F O'Donnell, William P Hetrick
BACKGROUND: Signals carried by the mesencephalic dopamine system and conveyed to anterior cingulate cortex are critically implicated in probabilistic reward learning and performance monitoring. A common evaluative mechanism purportedly subserves both functions, giving rise to homologous medial frontal negativities in feedback- and response-locked event-related brain potentials (the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the error-related negativity (ERN), respectively), reflecting dopamine-dependent prediction error signals to unexpectedly negative events...
June 10, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579691/does-prediction-error-drive-one-shot-declarative-learning
#10
Andrea Greve, Elisa Cooper, Alexander Kaula, Michael C Anderson, Richard Henson
The role of prediction error (PE) in driving learning is well-established in fields such as classical and instrumental conditioning, reward learning and procedural memory; however, its role in human one-shot declarative encoding is less clear. According to one recent hypothesis, PE reflects the divergence between two probability distributions: one reflecting the prior probability (from previous experiences) and the other reflecting the sensory evidence (from the current experience). Assuming unimodal probability distributions, PE can be manipulated in three ways: (1) the distance between the mode of the prior and evidence, (2) the precision of the prior, and (3) the precision of the evidence...
June 2017: Journal of Memory and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575424/association-between-habenula-dysfunction-and-motivational-symptoms-in-unmedicated-major-depressive-disorder
#11
Wen-Hua Liu, Vincent Valton, Ling-Zhi Wang, Yu-Hua Zhu, Jonathan P Roiser
The lateral habenula plays a central role in reward and punishment processing and has been suggested to drive the cardinal symptom of anhedonia in depression. This hypothesis is largely based on observations of habenula hypermetabolism in animal models of depression, but the activity of habenula and its relationship with clinical symptoms in patients with depression remains unclear. High-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and computational modelling were used to investigate the activity of the habenula during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task with rewarding and punishing outcomes in 21 unmedicated patients with major depression and 17 healthy participants...
May 29, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547127/the-relationship-between-outcome-prediction-and-cognitive-fatigue-a-convergence-of-paradigms
#12
G R Wylie, H M Genova, J DeLuca, E Dobryakova
Cognitive fatigue is common after strenuous cognitive effort. A large body of literature has implicated a network of brain areas in fatigue, including the basal ganglia and cortical areas including ventro-medal prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Furthermore, the ACC has been shown to be involved in processes such as error and conflict monitoring, outcome prediction, and effort processing. Thus, the ACC appears to be one common denominator between clinical work on fatigue and research on outcome prediction and effort...
May 25, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536046/neural-substrates-of-updating-the-prediction-through-prediction-error-during-decision-making
#13
Ying Wang, Ning Ma, Xiaosong He, Nan Li, Zhengde Wei, Lizhuang Yang, Rujing Zha, Long Han, Xiaoming Li, Daren Zhang, Ying Liu, Xiaochu Zhang
Learning of prediction error (PE), including reward PE and risk PE, is crucial for updating the prediction in reinforcement learning (RL). Neurobiological and computational models of RL have reported extensive brain activations related to PE. However, the occurrence of PE does not necessarily predict updating the prediction, e.g., in a probability-known event. Therefore, the brain regions specifically engaged in updating the prediction remain unknown. Here, we conducted two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments, the probability-unknown Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the probability-known risk decision task (RDT)...
May 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535383/reward-prediction-error
#14
Wolfram Schultz
In this quick guide, Wolfram Schultz provides an introduction of reward prediction error, exploring the signal of dopamine neurons and describing its potential role in reward accumulation, decision-making and everyday life.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506437/association-between-interleukin-6-and-striatal-prediction-error-signals-following-acute-stress-in-healthy-female-participants
#15
Michael T Treadway, Roee Admon, Amanda R Arulpragasam, Malavika Mehta, Samuel Douglas, Gordana Vitaliano, David P Olson, Jessica A Cooper, Diego A Pizzagalli
BACKGROUND: Stress is widely known to alter behavioral responses to rewards and punishments. It is believed that stress may precipitate these changes through modulation of corticostriatal circuitry involved in reinforcement learning and motivation, although the intervening mechanisms remain unclear. One candidate is inflammation, which can rapidly increase following stress and can disrupt dopamine-dependent reward pathways. METHODS: Here, in a sample of 88 healthy female participants, we first assessed the effect of an acute laboratory stress paradigm on levels of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine known to be both responsive to stress and elevated in depression...
March 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504523/decomposition-of-a-sensory-prediction-error-signal-for-visuomotor-adaptation
#16
Peter A Butcher, Jordan A Taylor
To accomplish effective motor control, the brain contains an internal forward model that predicts the expected sensory consequence of a motor command. When this prediction is inaccurate, a sensory prediction error is produced which adapts the forward model to make more accurate predictions of future movements. Other types of errors, such as task performance errors or reward, play less of a role in adapting a forward model. This raises the following question: What unique information is conveyed by the sensory prediction error that results in forward model adaptation? sensory prediction errors typically contain both the magnitude and direction of the error, but it is unclear if both components are necessary for adaptation or a single component is sufficient...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495371/detecting-joint-pausiness-in-parallel-spike-trains
#17
Matthias Gärtner, Sevil Duvarci, Jochen Roeper, Gaby Schneider
BACKGROUND: Transient periods with reduced neuronal discharge - called 'pauses' - have recently gained increasing attention. In dopamine neurons, pauses are considered important teaching signals, encoding negative reward prediction errors. Particularly simultaneous pauses are likely to have increased impact on information processing. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: Available methods for detecting joint pausing analyze temporal overlap of pauses across spike trains...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491495/dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-contributes-to-the-impaired-behavioral-adaptation-in-alcohol-dependence
#18
Sinem Balta Beylergil, Anne Beck, Lorenz Deserno, Robert C Lorenz, Michael A Rapp, Florian Schlagenhauf, Andreas Heinz, Klaus Obermayer
Substance-dependent individuals often lack the ability to adjust decisions flexibly in response to the changes in reward contingencies. Prediction errors (PEs) are thought to mediate flexible decision-making by updating the reward values associated with available actions. In this study, we explored whether the neurobiological correlates of PEs are altered in alcohol dependence. Behavioral, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were simultaneously acquired from 34 abstinent alcohol-dependent patients (ADP) and 26 healthy controls (HC) during a probabilistic reward-guided decision-making task with dynamically changing reinforcement contingencies...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484422/cortical-and-striatal-reward-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis
#19
Sara Garofalo, Azucena Justicia, Gonzalo Arrondo, Anna O Ermakova, Pranathi Ramachandra, Carina Tudor-Sfetea, Trevor W Robbins, Roger A Barker, Paul C Fletcher, Graham K Murray
Psychotic symptoms frequently occur in Parkinson's disease (PD), but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. According to the National Institute of Health RDoc programme, the pathophysiological basis of neuropsychiatric symptoms may be better understood in terms of dysfunction of underlying domains of neurocognition in a trans-diagnostic fashion. Abnormal cortico-striatal reward processing has been proposed as a key domain contributing to the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. This theory has received empirical support in the study of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and preclinical models of psychosis, but has not been tested in the psychosis associated with PD...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479985/sampling-and-tracking-a-changing-environment-persistence-and-reward-in-the-foraging-decisions-of-bumblebees
#20
Aimee S Dunlap, Daniel R Papaj, Anna Dornhaus
The question of when to collect new information and how to apply that information is central to much of behaviour. Theory suggests that the value of collecting information, or sampling, depends on environmental persistence and on the relative costs of making wrong decisions. However, empirical tests of how these variables interact are lacking. We tested whether bumblebee foraging decisions are indeed influenced by these two factors. We gave bees repeated choices between a resource providing a steady, mediocre reward and a resource fluctuating between a low reward and a high reward...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
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