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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193855/bmp-singling-controls-buckling-forces-to-modulate-looping-morphogenesis-of-the-gut
#1
Nandan L Nerurkar, L Mahadevan, Clifford J Tabin
Looping of the initially straight embryonic gut tube is an essential aspect of intestinal morphogenesis, permitting proper placement of the lengthy small intestine within the confines of the body cavity. The formation of intestinal loops is highly stereotyped within a given species and results from differential-growth-driven mechanical buckling of the gut tube as it elongates against the constraint of a thin, elastic membranous tissue, the dorsal mesentery. Although the physics of this process has been studied, the underlying biology has not...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188629/orthogonal-topography-in-the-parallel-input-architecture-of-songbird-hvc
#2
Kevin C Elliott, Wei Wu, Richard Bertram, Richard L Hyson, Frank Johnson
Neural activity within the cortical premotor nucleus HVC (acronym is name) encodes the learned songs of adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). HVC activity is driven and/or modulated by a group of five afferent nuclei (the Medial Magnocellular nucleus of the Anterior Nidopallium, MMAN; Nucleus Interface, NIf; nucleus Avalanche, Av; the Robust nucleus of the Arcopallium, RA; the Uvaeform nucleus, Uva). While earlier evidence suggested that HVC receives a uniformly distributed and non-topographic pattern of afferent input, recent evidence suggests this view is incorrect (Basista et al...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170164/perineuronal-nets-and-vocal-plasticity-in-songbirds-a-proposed-mechanism-to-explain-the-difference-between-closed-ended-and-open-ended-learning
#3
Gilles Cornez, Farrah N Madison, Annemie Van der Linden, Charlotte Cornil, Kathleen M Yoder, Gregory F Ball, Jacques Balthazart
Perineuronal nets (PNN) are aggregations of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans surrounding the soma and proximal processes of neurons, mostly GABAergic interneurons expressing parvalbumin. They limit the plasticity of their afferent synaptic connections. In zebra finches PNN develop in an experience-dependent manner in the song control nuclei HVC and RA (nucleus robustus arcopallialis) when young birds crystallize their song. Because songbird species that are open-ended learners tend to recapitulate each year the different phases of song learning until their song crystallizes at the beginning of the breeding season, we tested whether seasonal changes in PNN expression would be found in the song control nuclei of a seasonally breeding species such as the European starling...
February 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167135/long-term-effects-of-adolescent-stress-on-neophobic-behaviors-in-zebra-finches-are-modulated-by-social-context-when-in-adulthood
#4
Michael G Emmerson, Karen A Spencer
Experiencing stress during adolescence can increase neophobic behaviors in adulthood, but most tests have been conducted in the absence of conspecifics. Conspecifics can modulate responses to stressors, for example by acting as 'social buffers' to attenuate the aversive appraisal of stressors. Here, we investigate the long-term effects of adolescent stress on the behavioral responses to novel stimuli (a mild stressor) across social contexts in an affiliative passerine bird, the zebra finch. During early (days 40-60) or late (days 65-85) adolescence the birds (n=66) were dosed with either saline or the hormone corticosterone (CORT)...
February 3, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149319/effects-of-the-social-environment-during-adolescence-on-the-development-of-social-behaviour-hormones-and-morphology-in-male-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#5
Stefanie Bölting, Nikolaus von Engelhardt
BACKGROUND: Individual differences in behaviour are widespread in the animal kingdom and often influenced by the size or composition of the social group during early development. In many vertebrates the effects of social interactions early in life on adult behaviour are mediated by changes in maturation and physiology. Specifically, increases in androgens and glucocorticoids in response to social stimulation seem to play a prominent role in shaping behaviour during development. In addition to the prenatal and early postnatal phase, adolescence has more recently been identified as an important period during which adult behaviour and physiology are shaped by the social environment, which so far has been studied mostly in mammals...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143393/identification-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-zebra-finch
#6
Chih-Kuan Chen, Chun-Ping Yu, Sung-Chou Li, Siao-Man Wu, Mei-Yeh Jade Lu, Yi-Hua Chen, Di-Rong Chen, Chen Siang Ng, Chau-Ti Ting, Wen-Hsiung Li
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important in various biological processes, but very few studies on lncRNA have been conducted in birds. To identify IncRNAs expressed during feather development, we analyzed single-stranded RNA-seq (ssRNA-seq) data from the anterior and posterior dorsal regions during zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) embryonic development. Using published transcriptomic data, we further analyzed the evolutionary conservation of IncRNAs in birds and amniotes...
January 31, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129381/comparative-cytogenetics-between-two-important-songbird-models-the-zebra-finch-and-the-canary
#7
Michelly da Silva Dos Santos, Rafael Kretschmer, Carolina Frankl-Vilches, Antje Bakker, Manfred Gahr, Patricia C M O Brien, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Edivaldo H C de Oliveira
Songbird species (order Passeriformes, suborder Oscines) are important models in various experimental fields spanning behavioural genomics to neurobiology. Although the genomes of some songbird species were sequenced recently, the chromosomal organization of these species is mostly unknown. Here we focused on the two most studied songbird species in neuroscience, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and the canary (Serinus canaria). In order to clarify these issues and also to integrate chromosome data with their assembled genomes, we used classical and molecular cytogenetics in both zebra finch and canary to define their chromosomal homology, localization of heterochromatic blocks and distribution of rDNA clusters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123091/trade-off-between-carotenoid-based-sexual-ornamentation-and-sperm-resistance-to-oxidative-challenge
#8
Oldřich Tomášek, Jana Albrechtová, Martina Němcová, Pavlína Opatová, Tomáš Albrecht
It has been hypothesized that carotenoid-based sexual ornamentation signals male fertility and sperm competitive ability as both ornamentation and sperm traits may be co-affected by oxidative stress, resulting in positive covariation (the 'redox-based phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis'; redox-based PLFH). On the other hand, the 'sperm competition theory' (SCT) predicts a trade-off between precopulatory and postcopulatory traits. Here, we manipulate oxidative status (using diquat dibromide) and carotenoid availability in adult zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) males in order to test whether carotenoid-based beak ornamentation signals, or is traded off against, sperm resistance to oxidative challenge...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100011/association-mapping-of-morphological-traits-in-wild-and-captive-zebra-finches-reliable-within-but-not-between-populations
#9
Ulrich Knief, Holger Schielzeth, Niclas Backström, Georg Hemmrich-Stanisak, Michael Wittig, Andre Franke, Simon C Griffith, Hans Ellegren, Bart Kempenaers, Wolfgang Forstmeier
Identifying causal genetic variants underlying heritable phenotypic variation is a longstanding goal in evolutionary genetics. We previously identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for five morphological traits in a captive population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) by whole-genome linkage mapping. We here follow up on these studies with the aim to narrow down on the quantitative trait variants (QTN) in one wild and three captive populations. First, we performed an association study using 672 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within candidate genes located in the previously identified QTL regions in a sample of 939 wild-caught zebra finches...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078738/dorsal-pallidal-neurons-directly-link-the-nidopallium-and-midbrain-in-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#10
J Martin Wild
The dorsal pallidum in birds is considered similar, if not homologous, to the globus pallidus (GP) of mammals. The dorsal pallidum projects to both thalamic and midbrain targets similar to the direct and indirect pathways arising from the internal and external segments of the GP. In the present study retrograde and anterograde tracing studies revealed a previously undescribed projection of the avian dorsal pallidum. This arises from a specific dorsomedial component, which terminates in the intercollicular nucleus and partly surrounds the avian equivalent of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077286/assessment-of-neuroanatomical-and-behavioural-effects-of-in-ovo-methylmercury-exposure-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#11
Maria S Yu, Margaret L Eng, Tony D Williams, Mélanie F Guigueno, John E Elliott
Methylmercury (MeHg) readily crosses the blood brain barrier and is a known neuro-toxicant. MeHg accumulation in the brain causes histopathological alterations, neurobehavioral changes, and impairments to cognitive motor functions in mammalian models. However, in birds the neurotoxic effects of MeHg on the developing pre-hatching brain and consequent behavioral alterations in adult birds have not received much attention. Moreover, passerine birds are poorly represented in MeHg neurotoxicology studies in comparison to other avian orders...
January 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065606/neurons-responsive-to-global-visual-motion-have-unique-tuning-properties-in-hummingbirds
#12
Andrea H Gaede, Benjamin Goller, Jessica P M Lam, Douglas R Wylie, Douglas L Altshuler
Neurons in animal visual systems that respond to global optic flow exhibit selectivity for motion direction and/or velocity. The avian lentiformis mesencephali (LM), known in mammals as the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT), is a key nucleus for global motion processing [1-4]. In all animals tested, it has been found that the majority of LM and NOT neurons are tuned to temporo-nasal (back-to-front) motion [4-11]. Moreover, the monocular gain of the optokinetic response is higher in this direction, compared to naso-temporal (front-to-back) motion [12, 13]...
January 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060907/sex-differences-in-brain-thyroid-hormone-levels-during-early-post-hatching-development-in-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#13
Shinji Yamaguchi, Shin Hayase, Naoya Aoki, Akihiko Takehara, Jun Ishigohoka, Toshiya Matsushima, Kazuhiro Wada, Koichi J Homma
Thyroid hormones are closely linked to the hatching process in precocial birds. Previously, we showed that thyroid hormones in brain had a strong impact on filial imprinting, an early learning behavior in newly hatched chicks; brain 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) peaks around hatching and imprinting training induces additional T3 release, thus, extending the sensitive period for imprinting and enabling subsequent other learning. On the other hand, blood thyroid hormone levels have been reported to increase gradually after hatching in altricial species, but it remains unknown how the brain thyroid hormone levels change during post-hatching development of altricial birds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053061/food-availability-affects-adult-survival-trajectories-depending-on-early-developmental-conditions
#14
Michael Briga, Egbert Koetsier, Jelle J Boonekamp, Blanca Jimeno, Simon Verhulst
Food availability modulates survival in interaction with (for example) competition, disease and predators, but to what extent food availability in natural populations affects survival independent of these factors is not well known. We tested the effect of food availability on lifespan and actuarial senescence in a large population of captive zebra finches by increasing the effort required to obtain food, reflecting natural contrasts in food availability. Food availability may not affect all individuals equally and we therefore created heterogeneity in phenotypic quality by raising birds with different numbers of siblings...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045891/susceptibility-and-antibody-response-of-the-laboratory-model-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata-to-west-nile-virus
#15
Erik K Hofmeister, Melissa Lund, Valerie Shearn-Bochsler, Christopher N Balakrishnan
Since the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America in 1999 a number of passerine bird species have been found to play a role in the amplification of the virus. Arbovirus surveillance, observational studies and experimental studies have implicated passerine birds (songbirds, e.g., crows, American robins, house sparrows, and house finches) as significant reservoirs of WNV in North America, yet we lack a tractable passerine animal model for controlled studies of the virus. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) serves as a model system across a diversity of fields, and here we develop the zebra finch a songbird model for WNV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043844/the-roles-of-vocal-and-visual-interactions-in-social-learning-zebra-finches-a-video-playback-experiment
#16
Lauren M Guillette, Susan D Healy
The transmission of information from an experienced demonstrator to a naïve observer often depends on characteristics of the demonstrator, such as familiarity, success or dominance status. Whether or not the demonstrator pays attention to and/or interacts with the observer may also affect social information acquisition or use by the observer. Here we used a video-demonstrator paradigm first to test whether video demonstrators have the same effect as using live demonstrators in zebra finches, and second, to test the importance of visual and vocal interactions between the demonstrator and observer on social information use by the observer...
December 30, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031398/principles-of-auditory-processing-differ-between-sensory-and-premotor-structures-of-the-songbird-forebrain
#17
Efe Soyman, David S Vicario
Sensory and motor brain structures work in collaboration during perception. To evaluate their respective contributions, the present study recorded neural responses to auditory stimulation at multiple sites simultaneously in both the higher-order auditory area NCM and premotor area HVC of the songbird brain in awake zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Bird's own song (BOS) and various conspecific songs (CON) were presented in both blocked and shuffled sequences. Neural responses showed plasticity in the form of stimulus specific adaptation with markedly different dynamics between the two structures...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024154/robust-and-scalable-inference-of-population-history-from-hundreds-of-unphased-whole-genomes
#18
Jonathan Terhorst, John A Kamm, Yun S Song
It has recently been demonstrated that inference methods based on genealogical processes with recombination can uncover past population history in unprecedented detail. However, these methods scale poorly with sample size, limiting resolution in the recent past, and they require phased genomes, which contain switch errors that can catastrophically distort the inferred history. Here we present SMC++, a new statistical tool capable of analyzing orders of magnitude more samples than existing methods while requiring only unphased genomes (its results are independent of phasing)...
December 26, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013062/sex-and-pairing-status-impact-how-zebra-finches-use-social-information-in-foraging
#19
Christopher N Templeton, Katharine Philp, Lauren M Guillette, Kevin N Laland, Sarah Benson-Amram
Many factors, including the demonstrator's sex, status, and familiarity, shape the nature and magnitude of social learning. Given the important role of pair bonds in socially-monogamous animals, we predicted that these intimate relationships would promote the use of social information, and tested this hypothesis in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Observer birds witnessed either their mate or another familiar, opposite-sex bird eat from one, but not a second novel food source, before being allowed to feed from both food sources themselves...
December 21, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988976/adaptive-downregulation-of-pheomelanin-related-slc7a11-gene-expression-by-environmentally-induced-oxidative-stress
#20
Ismael Galván, Ângela Inácio, Ana Angela Romero-Haro, Carlos Alonso-Alvarez
Pheomelanin is a sulphur-containing yellow-to-reddish pigment whose synthesis consumes the main intracellular antioxidant (glutathione; GSH) and its precursor cysteine. Cysteine used for pheomelanogenesis cannot be used for antioxidant protection. We tested whether the expression of Slc7a11, the gene regulating the transport of cysteine to melanocytes for pheomelanogenesis, is environmentally influenced when cysteine/GSH are most required for antioxidant protection. We found that zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata developing pheomelanin-pigmented feathers during a 12-day exposure to the pro-oxidant diquat dibromide downregulated the expression of Slc7a11 in feather melanocytes, but not the expression of other genes that affect pheomelanogenesis by mechanisms different from cysteine transport such as MC1R and Slc45a2...
December 18, 2016: Molecular Ecology
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