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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330588/whole-body-3d-kinematics-of-bird-take-off-key-role-of-the-legs-to-propel-the-trunk
#1
Pauline Provini, Anick Abourachid
Previous studies showed that birds primarily use their hindlimbs to propel themselves into the air in order to take-off. Yet, it remains unclear how the different parts of their musculoskeletal system move to produce the necessary acceleration. To quantify the relative motions of the bones during the terrestrial phase of take-off, we used biplanar fluoroscopy in two species of birds, diamond dove (Geopelia cuneata) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). We obtained a detailed 3D kinematics analysis of the head, the trunk and the three long bones of the left leg...
January 6, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313303/ecologically-relevant-exposure-to-methylmercury-during-early-development-does-not-affect-adult-phenotype-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#2
Spencer A M Morran, John E Elliott, Jessica M L Young, Margaret L Eng, Niladri Basu, Tony D Williams
Methylmercury causes behavioural and reproductive effects in adult mammals via early developmental exposure. Similar studies in birds are limited and mostly focussed on aquatic systems, but recent work has reported high blood mercury concentrations in terrestrial, passerine songbirds. We used the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) as a model to explore the long-term effects of early developmental exposure to methylmercury exposure. Chicks were dosed orally with either the vehicle control, 0.0315 µg Hg/g bw/day, or 0...
January 8, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313093/baseline-glucose-level-is-an-individual-trait-that-is-negatively-associated-with-lifespan-and-increases-due-to-adverse-environmental-conditions-during-development-and-adulthood
#3
Bibiana Montoya, Michael Briga, Blanca Jimeno, Sander Moonen, Simon Verhulst
High baseline glucose levels are associated with pathologies and shorter lifespan in humans, but little is known about causes and consequences of individual variation in glucose levels in other species. We tested to what extent baseline blood glucose level is a repeatable trait in adult zebra finches, and whether glucose levels were associated with age, manipulated environmental conditions during development (rearing brood size) and adulthood (foraging cost), and lifespan. We found that: (1) repeatability of glucose levels was 30%, both within and between years...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298939/environmental-conditions-shape-the-temporal-pattern-of-investment-in-reproduction-and-survival
#4
Valeria Marasco, Winnie Boner, Kate Griffiths, Britt Heidinger, Pat Monaghan
The relationship between environmental stress exposure and ageing is likely to vary with stressor severity, life-history stage and the time scale over which effects are measured. Such factors could influence whether stress exposure accelerates or slows the ageing process, but their interactions have not previously been experimentally investigated. We found that experimental exposure of zebra finches to mildly challenging environmental circumstances from young to old adulthood, which increased exposure to stress hormones, reduced breeding performance during early adulthood, but had positive effects when individuals were bred in old adulthood...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287798/lowering-prolactin-reduces-post-hatch-parental-care-in-male-and-female-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#5
Kristina O Smiley, Elizabeth Adkins-Regan
Parental care is a widespread phenomenon observed in many diverse taxa. Neuroendocrine systems have long been thought to play an important role in stimulating the onset of parental behavior. In most birds with altricial young, circulating prolactin (PRL) levels are low during non-breeding times and significantly increase during late incubation and early post-hatch chick care. Because of this pattern, PRL has been suggested to be involved in the initiation of parental care in birds, but rarely has this hypothesis been causally tested...
December 26, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284502/reciprocal-interactions-between-prostaglandin-e2-and-estradiol-dependent-signaling-pathways-in-the-injured-zebra-finch-brain
#6
Alyssa L Pedersen, Colin J Saldanha
BACKGROUND: Astrocytic aromatization and consequent increases in estradiol are neuroprotective in the injured brain. In zebra finches, cyclooxygenase-activity is necessary for injury-induced aromatase expression, and increased central estradiol lowers neuroinflammation. The mechanisms underlying these influences are unknown. Here, we document injury-induced, cyclooxygenase-dependent increases in glial aromatase expression and replicate previous work in our lab showing increases in central prostaglandin E2 and estradiol following brain damage...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274763/the-neural-response-of-female-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata-to-conspecific-heterospecific-and-isolate-song-depends-on-early-life-song-exposure
#7
Adriana Diez, Alice Cui, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton
The auditory forebrain regions caudo-medial nidopallium (NCM) and caudo-medial mesopallium (CMM) of songbirds exhibit differential expression of the immediate-early gene ZENK in response to playback of different song stimuli, and dependent on early-life auditory experience. Similarly, song preferences depend both on auditory experience and unlearned biases for particular song features. We explored the contributions of early-life auditory experience and the type of song stimuli on the Zenk response in the auditory forebrain of female zebra finches...
December 21, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247695/neural-activity-associated-with-rhythmicity-of-song-in-juvenile-male-and-female-zebra-finches
#8
Jennifer Lampen, J Devin McAuley, Soo-Eun Chang, Juli Wade
Rhythm is an important aspect of both human speech and birdsong. Adult zebra finches show increased neural activity following exposure to arrhythmic compared to rhythmic song in regions similar to the mammalian auditory association cortex and amygdala. This pattern may indicate that birds are detecting errors in the arrhythmic song relative to their learned song template or to more general expectations of song structure. Here we exposed juvenile zebra finches to natural conspecific song (rhythmic) or song with altered inter-syllable intervals (arrhythmic) prior to or during template formation, or afterward as males are matching vocal production to a memorized song template (sensorimotor integration)...
December 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236156/experimental-infection-and-clearance-of-coccidian-parasites-in-mercury-exposed-zebra-finches
#9
Jessica H Ebers Smith, Daniel A Cristol, John P Swaddle
Mercury is a globally distributed, persistent environmental contaminant that affects the health of many taxa. It can suppress the immune system, which often plays a role in defense against parasites. However, there have been few investigations of whether mercury affects the abilities of animals to resist parasitic infection. Here, we exposed zebra finches to a lifetime dietary exposure of methylmercury (1.2 μg/g wet weight) and experimentally infected them with coccidian parasites to examine the effect of methylmercury exposure on parasitic infection...
December 13, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234861/neural-coding-of-sound-envelope-structure-in-songbirds
#10
Santiago Boari, Ana Amador
Songbirds are a well-established animal model to study the neural basis of learning, perception and production of complex vocalizations. In this system, telencephalic neurons in HVC present a state-dependent, highly selective response to auditory presentations of the bird's own song (BOS). This property provides an opportunity to study the neural code behind a complex motor behavior. In this work, we explore whether changes in the temporal structure of the sound envelope can drive changes in the neural responses of highly selective HVC units...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230900/expression-of-a-carotenoid-modifying-gene-and-evolution-of-red-colouration-in-weaverbirds-ploceidae
#11
Hanlu Twyman, Maria Prager, Nicholas I Mundy, Staffan Andersson
Red carotenoid colours in birds are widely assumed to be sexually selected quality indicators, but this rests on a very incomplete understanding of genetic mechanisms and honesty-mediating costs. Recent progress was made by the implication of the gene CYP2J19 as an avian carotenoid ketolase, catalysing the synthesis of red C4-ketocarotenoids from yellow dietary precursors, and potentially a major mechanism behind red coloration in birds. Here we investigate the role of CYP2J19 in the spectacular colour diversification of African weaverbirds (Ploceidae), represented by five genera and 16 species; eight red, seven yellow, and one without carotenoid coloration...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218745/expression-of-the-potassium-chloride-co-transporter-kcc2-within-the-avian-song-system
#12
Christopher E Vaaga, Kimberly E Miller, Agnes L Bodor, David J Perkel
Songbirds learn to produce vocalizations early in life by listening to, then copying the songs of conspecific males. The anterior forebrain pathway, homologous to a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit, is essential for song learning. The projection between the striato-pallidal structure, Area X, and the medial portion of the dorsolateral thalamic nucleus (DLM) is strongly hyperpolarizing in adults, due to a very negative chloride reversal potential (Person and Perkel, 2005). The chloride reversal potential is determined, in part, by the expression level of a neuron-specific potassium-chloride cotransporter, KCC2, which is developmentally upregulated in mammals...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212920/phasic-and-tonic-cell-types-in-the-zebra-finch-auditory-caudal-mesopallium
#13
Andrew N Chen, C Daniel Meliza
The caudal mesopallium (CM) is a cortical-level area in the songbird auditory pathway where selective, invariant responses to familiar songs emerge. To characterize the cell types that perform this computation, we made whole-cell recordings from brain slices in juvenile zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) of both sexes. We found three groups of putatively excitatory neurons with distinct firing patterns. Tonic cells produced sustained responses to depolarizing step currents, phasic cells produced only a few spikes at the onset, and an intermediate group was also phasic but responded for up to a few hundred ms...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202116/developmental-corticosterone-treatment-does-not-program-immune-responses-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#14
Jennifer L Grindstaff, Loren Merrill
Developmental conditions may impact the expression of immune traits throughout an individual's life. Early-life challenges may lead to immunological constraints that are mediated by endocrine-immune interactions. In particular, individual differences in the ability to mount immune responses may be programmed by exposure to stressors or glucocorticoid hormones during development. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally elevated levels of the glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone during the nestling and fledgling periods in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197553/evidence-for-condition-mediated-trade-offs-between-the-hpa-and-hpg-axes-in-the-wild-zebra-finch
#15
Ondi L Crino, Sophia M Jensen, Katherine L Buchanan, Simon C Griffith
Opportunistic breeding is a strategy used to maximize reproductive success in unpredictable environments. Birds that breed opportunistically are thought to maintain partial activation of the reproductive axis in order to rapidly initiate breeding when environmental conditions become suitable. The physiological mechanisms that modulate reproduction in seasonally breeding birds have been well explored. In contrast, the physiological mechanisms that allow opportunistic breeding birds to maintain a continued state of reproductive readiness has not been well established...
November 29, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190647/the-influence-of-inherited-plumage-colour-morph-on-morphometric-traits-and-breeding-investment-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#16
E Tobias Krause, Oliver Krüger, Joseph I Hoffman
Melanin-based plumage polymorphism occurs in many wild bird populations and has been linked to fitness variation in several species. These fitness differences often arise as a consequence of variation in traits such as behaviour, immune responsiveness, body size and reproductive investment. However, few studies have controlled for genetic differences between colour morphs that could potentially generate artefactual associations between plumage colouration and trait variation. Here, we used zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) as a model system in order to evaluate whether life-history traits such as adult body condition and reproductive investment could be influenced by plumage morph...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189019/across-sex-and-age-learning-and-memory-and-patterns-of-avian-hippocampal-gene-expression
#17
Saritha Kosarussavadi, Zachary T Pennington, Jeremy Covell, Aaron P Blaisdell, Barney A Schlinger
Age-related decrements in cognitive ability have been proposed to stem from deteriorating function of the hippocampus. Many birds are long lived, especially for their relatively small body mass and elevated metabolism, making them a unique model of resilience to aging. Nevertheless, little is known about avian age-related changes in cognition and hippocampal physiology. We studied spatial cognition and hippocampal expression of the age-related gene, Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), and the immediate early gene Egr-1 in zebra finches at various developmental time points...
December 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174890/learning-biases-underlie-universals-in-avian-vocal-sequencing
#18
Logan S James, Jon T Sakata
Biological predispositions in vocal learning have been proposed to underlie commonalities in vocal sequences, including for speech and birdsong, but cultural propagation could also account for such commonalities [1-4]. Songbirds such as the zebra finch learn the sequencing of their acoustic elements ("syllables") during development [5-8]. Zebra finches are not constrained to learn a specific sequence of syllables, but significant consistencies in the positioning and sequencing of syllables have been observed between individuals within populations and between populations [8-10]...
November 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170980/from-electromyographic-activity-to-frequency-modulation-in-zebra-finch-song
#19
Juan F Döppler, Alan Bush, Franz Goller, Gabriel B Mindlin
Behavior emerges from the interaction between the nervous system and peripheral devices. In the case of birdsong production, a delicate and fast control of several muscles is required to control the configuration of the syrinx (the avian vocal organ) and the respiratory system. In particular, the syringealis ventralis muscle is involved in the control of the tension of the vibrating labia and thus affects the frequency modulation of the sound. Nevertheless, the translation of the instructions (which are electrical in nature) into acoustical features is complex and involves nonlinear, dynamical processes...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162376/developmental-song-learning-as-a-model-to-understand-neural-mechanisms-that-limit-and-promote-the-ability-to-learn
#20
REVIEW
Sarah E London
Songbirds famously learn their vocalizations. Some species can learn continuously, others seasonally, and still others just once. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) learns to sing during a single developmental "Critical Period," a restricted phase during which a specific experience has profound and permanent effects on brain function and behavioral patterns. The zebra finch can therefore provide fundamental insight into features that promote and limit the ability to acquire complex learned behaviors. For example, what properties permit the brain to come "on-line" for learning? How does experience become encoded to prevent future learning? What features define the brain in receptive compared to closed learning states? This piece will focus on epigenomic, genomic, and molecular levels of analysis that operate on the timescales of development and complex behavioral learning...
November 20, 2017: Behavioural Processes
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