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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780881/nucleus-accumbens-microcircuit-underlying-d2-msn-driven-increase-in-motivation
#1
Carina Soares-Cunha, Bárbara Coimbra, Ana Verónica Domingues, Nivaldo Vasconcelos, Nuno Sousa, Ana João Rodrigues
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in reinforcement and motivation. Around 95% of the NAc neurons are medium spiny neurons (MSNs), divided into those expressing dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) or dopamine receptor D2 (D2R). Optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increased motivation, whereas inhibition of these neurons produced the opposite effect. Yet, it is still unclear how activation of D2-MSNs affects other local neurons/interneurons or input terminals and how this contributes for motivation enhancement...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740595/dynamic-encoding-of-incentive-salience-in-the-ventral-pallidum-dependence-on-the-form-of-the-reward-cue
#2
Allison M Ahrens, Lindsay M Ferguson, Terry E Robinson, J Wayne Aldridge
Some rats are especially prone to attribute incentive salience to a cue (conditioned stimulus, CS) paired with food reward (sign-trackers, STs), but the extent they do so varies as a function of the form of the CS. Other rats respond primarily to the predictive value of a cue (goal-trackers, GTs), regardless of its form. Sign-tracking is associated with greater cue-induced activation of mesolimbic structures than goal-tracking; however, it is unclear how the form of the CS itself influences activity in neural systems involved in incentive salience attribution...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700637/lateral-preoptic-and-ventral-pallidal-roles-in-locomotion-and-other-movements
#3
Suriya Subramanian, Rhett A Reichard, Hunter S Stevenson, Zachary M Schwartz, Kenneth P Parsley, Daniel S Zahm
The lateral preoptic area (LPO) and ventral pallidum (VP) are structurally and functionally distinct territories in the subcommissural basal forebrain. It was recently shown that unilateral infusion of the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline, into the LPO strongly invigorates exploratory locomotion, whereas bicuculline infused unilaterally into the VP has a negligible locomotor effect, but when infused bilaterally, produces vigorous, abnormal pivoting and gnawing movements and compulsive ingestion. This study was done to further characterize these responses...
April 26, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626125/age-related-change-in-5-ht6-receptor-availability-in-healthy-male-volunteers-measured-with-11-c-gsk215083-pet
#4
Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Nabeel Nabulsi, Edward Gaiser, Jean-Dominique Gallezot, Shannan Henry, Beata Planeta, Shu-Fei Lin, Jim Ropchan, Wendol Williams, Evan Morris, Deepak Cyril D'Souza, Yiyun Huang, Richard E Carson, David Matuskey
Introduction: The serotonin receptor 6 (5-HT6) is a potential therapeutic target for central nervous system (CNS) disorders given its near exclusive localization in the CNS and distribution in regions that are important in depression, anxiety and cognition. This study sought to investigate the effects of age on 5-HT6 receptor availability using 11 C GSK215083, a PET ligand with affinity for 5-HT6 in the striatum and 5-HT2A in the cortex. Methods: Twenty eight healthy male subjects (age range: 23-52 years) were scanned with 11 C-GSK215083 on the HR+ PET scanner...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565248/ventral-pallidal-encoding-of-reward-seeking-behavior-depends-on-the-underlying-associative-structure
#5
Jocelyn M Richard, Nakura Stout, Deanna Acs, Patricia H Janak
Despite its being historically conceptualized as a motor expression site, emerging evidence suggests the ventral pallidum (VP) plays a more active role in integrating information to generate motivation. Here, we investigated whether rat VP cue responses would encode and contribute similarly to the vigor of reward-seeking behaviors trained under Pavlovian versus instrumental contingencies, when these behavioral responses consist of superficially similar locomotor response patterns but may reflect distinct underlying decision-making processes...
March 22, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559384/region-specific-expression-of-nmda-receptor-glun2c-subunit-in-parvalbumin-positive-neurons-and-astrocytes-analysis-of-glun2c-expression-using-a-novel-reporter-model
#6
Aparna Ravikrishnan, Pauravi J Gandhi, Gajanan P Shelkar, Jinxu Liu, Ratnamala Pavuluri, Shashank M Dravid
Hypofunction of NMDA receptors in parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons has been proposed as a potential mechanism for cortical abnormalities and symptoms in schizophrenia. GluN2C-containing receptors have been linked to this hypothesis due to the higher affinity of psychotomimetic doses of ketamine for GluN1/2C receptors. However, the precise cell-type expression of GluN2C subunit remains unknown. We describe the expression of the GluN2C subunit using a novel EGFP reporter model. We observed EGFP(GluN2C) localization in PV-positive neurons in the nucleus reticularis of the thalamus, globus pallidus externa and interna, ventral pallidum and substantia nigra...
March 17, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549795/ventral-pallidum-deep-brain-stimulation-attenuates-acute-partial-generalized-and-tonic-clonic-seizures-in-two-rat-models
#7
Emily C Mahoney, Andrew Zeng, Wilson Yu, Mackenzie Rowe, Siddhartha Sahai, Paul J Feustel, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Julie G Pilitsis, Damian S Shin
Approximately 30% of individuals with epilepsy are refractory to antiepileptic drugs and currently approved neuromodulatory approaches fall short of providing seizure freedom for many individuals with limited utility for generalized seizures. Here, we expand on previous findings and investigate whether ventral pallidum deep brain stimulation (VP-DBS) can be efficacious for various acute seizure phenotypes. For rats administered pilocarpine, we found that VP-DBS (50 Hz) decreased generalized stage 4/5 seizure median frequency from 9 to 6 and total duration from 1667 to 264 s even after generalized seizures emerged...
May 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540712/accumbens-dopamine-d2-receptors-increase-motivation-by-decreasing-inhibitory-transmission-to-the-ventral-pallidum
#8
Eduardo F Gallo, Jozsef Meszaros, Jeremy D Sherman, Muhammad O Chohan, Eric Teboul, Claire S Choi, Holly Moore, Jonathan A Javitch, Christoph Kellendonk
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) regulate motivated behavior, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unresolved. Here, we show that selective upregulation of D2Rs in the indirect pathway of the adult NAc enhances the willingness to work for food. Mechanistic studies in brain slices reveal that D2R upregulation attenuates inhibitory transmission at two main output projections of the indirect pathway, the classical long-range projections to the ventral pallidum (VP), as well as local collaterals to direct pathway medium spiny neurons...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487284/opponent-control-of-behavioral-reinforcement-by-inhibitory-and-excitatory-projections-from-the-ventral-pallidum
#9
Lauren Faget, Vivien Zell, Elizabeth Souter, Adam McPherson, Reed Ressler, Navarre Gutierrez-Reed, Ji Hoon Yoo, Davide Dulcis, Thomas S Hnasko
The ventral pallidum (VP) lies at the interface between sensory, motor, and cognitive processing-with a particular role in mounting behavioral responses to rewards. Though the VP is predominantly GABAergic, glutamate neurons were recently identified, though their relative abundances and respective roles are unknown. Here, we show that VP glutamate neurons are concentrated in the rostral ventromedial VP and project to qualitatively similar targets as do VP GABA neurons. At the functional level, we used optogenetics to show that activity in VP GABA neurons can drive positive reinforcement, particularly through projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
February 27, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452828/glutamatergic-ventral-pallidal-neurons-modulate-activity-of-the-habenula-tegmental-circuitry-and-constrain-reward-seeking
#10
Jessica Tooley, Lauren Marconi, Jason Bondoc Alipio, Bridget Matikainen-Ankney, Polymnia Georgiou, Alexxai V Kravitz, Meaghan C Creed
BACKGROUND: The ability to appropriately integrate and respond to rewarding and aversive stimuli is essential for survival. The ventral pallidum (VP) plays a critical role in processing both rewarding and aversive stimuli. However, the VP is a heterogeneous structure, and how VP subpopulations integrate into larger reward networks to ultimately modulate these behaviors is not known. We identify a noncanonical population of glutamatergic VP neurons that play a unique role in responding to aversive stimuli and constraining inappropriate reward seeking...
January 12, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441714/time-dependent-regional-brain-distribution-of-methadone-and-naltrexone-in-the-treatment-of-opioid-addiction
#11
Belin G Teklezgi, Annapurna Pamreddy, Sooraj Baijnath, Hendrik G Kruger, Tricia Naicker, Nirmala D Gopal, Thavendran Govender
Opioid addiction is a serious public health concern with severe health and social implications; therefore, extensive therapeutic efforts are required to keep users drug free. The two main pharmacological interventions, in the treatment of addiction, involve management with methadone an mu (μ)-opioid agonist and treatment with naltrexone, μ-opioid, kappa (κ)-opioid and delta (δ)-opioid antagonist. MET and NAL are believed to help individuals to derive maximum benefit from treatment and undergo a full recovery...
February 14, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408054/paradoxical-accentuation-of-motivation-following-accumbens-pallidum-disconnection
#12
Stephen E Chang, Travis P Todd, Kyle S Smith
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral pallidum (VP) are reciprocally connected, and activity within this circuit is thought to promote reward learning. Inconsistent with this notion, we find that disconnecting NAc medial shell and VP greatly enhances the attribution of value to a cue that is paired with reward. This result suggests that medial NAc shell and VP are both needed for attributing value to cues yet can also oppose one-another's functional contribution.
March 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362383/individual-variation-in-social-behaviours-of-male-lab-reared-prairie-voles-microtus-ochrogaster-is-non-heritable-and-weakly-associated-with-v1ar-density
#13
Andrea R Vogel, Heather B Patisaul, Sheryl E Arambula, Francesco Tiezzi, Lisa A McGraw
The genetic and environmental factors that contribute to pair bonding behaviour remain poorly understood. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) often, but not always, form stable pair bonds and present an ideal model species for investigating the genetic and environmental factors that influence monogamy. Here, we assessed variation in partner preference, a measure of pair bonding, and related social behaviours in a population of laboratory-reared prairie voles under controlled environmental conditions. We evaluated to what extent variation in these behaviours correlate with vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR) expression in the ventral pallidum (VP) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC), and estimated the heritability of these behaviours and V1aR expression...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346545/influence-of-nicotine-metabolism-ratio-on-11c-phno-pet-binding-in-tobacco-smokers
#14
Patricia Di Ciano, Rachel F Tyndale, Esmaeil Mansouri, Christian S Hendershot, Alan A Wilson, Dina Lagzdins, Sylvain Houle, Isabelle Boileau, Bernard Le Foll
Background: Identifying the biological basis of smoking cessation success is of growing interest. The rate of nicotine metabolism, measured by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), affects multiple aspects of nicotine dependence. Fast nicotine metabolizers (FM) tend to smoke more, experience more withdrawal and craving and have lower cessation rates as compared to slow metabolizers (SM). The NMR predicts treatment response, and differences in brain activation between FM and SM have been reported in fMRI studies...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305936/modeling-cocaine-relapse-in-rodents-behavioral-considerations-and-circuit-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Mitchell R Farrell, Hannah Schoch, Stephen V Mahler
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder, in that most addicted individuals who choose to quit taking drugs fail to maintain abstinence in the long-term. Relapse is especially likely when recovering addicts encounter risk factors like small "priming" doses of drug, stress, or drug-associated cues and locations. In rodents, these same factors reinstate cocaine seeking after a period of abstinence, and extensive preclinical work has used priming, stress, or cue reinstatement models to uncover brain circuits underlying cocaine reinstatement...
January 3, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274878/immunochemical-analysis-of-the-expression-of-sv2c-in-mouse-macaque-and-human-brain
#16
Amy R Dunn, Carlie A Hoffman, Kristen A Stout, Minagi Ozawa, Rohan K Dhamsania, Gary W Miller
The synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2C (SV2C) is an undercharacterized protein with enriched expression in phylogenetically old brain regions. Its precise role within the brain is unclear, though various lines of evidence suggest that SV2C is involved in the function of synaptic vesicles through the regulation of vesicular trafficking, calcium-induced exocytosis, or synaptotagmin function. SV2C has been linked to multiple neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease and psychiatric conditions. SV2C is expressed in various cell types-primarily dopaminergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic cells...
December 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237282/modulation-of-salience-network-intranetwork-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-women-with-chronic-migraine
#17
X Michelle Androulakis, Chris Rorden, B Lee Peterlin, Kaitlin Krebs
Objective To investigate the intranetwork resting state fMRI connectivity within the Salience Network of chronic migraine with and without medication overuse headache. Methods We compared 351 pairs of intranetwork connectivity in chronic migraine (n = 13) and chronic migraine with medication overuse headache (n = 16) compared to matched controls, and between each chronic migraine subgroup. Results Compared to controls, 17 pairs of intranetwork connections in chronic migraine and 27 pairs in chronic migraine with medication overuse headache were decreased...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992533/neural-correlates-of-affective-and-non-affective-cognition-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-imaging-studies
#18
A Rasgon, W H Lee, E Leibu, A Laird, D Glahn, W Goodman, S Frangou
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualistic behaviors and has been associated with diverse functional brain abnormalities. We sought to synthesize current evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and examine their alignment to pathogenetic models of OCD. Following systematic review, we identified 54 task-fMRI studies published in the last decade comparing adults with OCD (n=1186) to healthy adults (n=1159) using tasks of affective and non-affective cognition...
September 1, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981903/neural-correlates-of-inhibitory-spillover-in-adolescence-associations-with-internalizing-symptoms
#19
Sarah A Stoycos, Larissa Del Piero, Gayla Margolin, Jonas T Kaplan, Darby E Saxbe
This study used an emotional go/no-go task to explore inhibitory spillover (how intentional cognitive inhibition 'spills over' to inhibit neural responses to affective stimuli) within 23 adolescents. Adolescents were shown emotional faces and asked to press a button depending on the gender of the face. When asked to inhibit with irrelevant affective stimuli present, adolescents recruited prefrontal cognitive control regions (rIFG, ACC) and ventral affective areas (insula, amygdala). In support of the inhibitory spillover hypothesis, increased activation of the rIFG and down-regulation of the amygdala occurred during negative, but not positive, inhibition trials compared with go trials...
October 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972591/altered-activation-and-connectivity-in-a-hippocampal-basal-ganglia-midbrain-circuit-during-salience-processing-in-subjects-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#20
T Winton-Brown, A Schmidt, J P Roiser, O D Howes, A Egerton, P Fusar-Poli, N Bunzeck, A A Grace, E Duzel, S Kapur, P McGuire
Animal models of psychosis propose that abnormal hippocampal activity drives increased subcortical dopamine function, which is thought to contribute to aberrant salience processing and psychotic symptoms. These effects appear to be mediated through connections between the hippocampus, ventral striatum/pallidum and the midbrain. The aim of the present study was to examine the activity and connectivity in this pathway in people at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural responses in a hippocampal-basal ganglia-midbrain network during reward, novelty and aversion processing between 29 UHR subjects and 32 healthy controls...
October 3, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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