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ventral pallidum

Caroline M Hostetler, Katherine Hinde, Nicole Maninger, Sally P Mendoza, William A Mason, Douglas J Rowland, Guobao B Wang, David Kukis, Simon R Cherry, Karen L Bales
Pair bonding leads to increases in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) binding in the nucleus accumbens of monogamous prairie voles. In the current study, we hypothesized that there is similar up-regulation of D1R in a monogamous primate, the titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus). Receptor binding of the D1R antagonist [(11) C]-SCH23390 was measured in male titi monkeys using PET scans before and after pairing with a female. We found that within-subject analyses of pairing show significant increases in D1R binding in the lateral septum, but not the nucleus accumbens, caudate, putamen, or ventral pallidum...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Yoshiro Tomimatsu, Diana Cash, Motohisa Suzuki, Kazunori Suzuki, Michel Bernanos, Camilla Simmons, Steven C R Williams, Haruhide Kimura
TAK-063 is a selective phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor that produces potent antipsychotic-like and pro-cognitive effects at 0.3mg/kg (26% PDE10A occupancy in rats) or higher in rodents through the balanced activation of the direct and indirect pathways of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In this study, we evaluated the specific binding of TAK-063 using in vitro autoradiography (ARG) and the modulation of brain activity using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG)...
October 8, 2016: Neuroscience
Morgan H James, Gary Aston-Jones
In this issue of Neuron, Creed et al. (2016) describe how cocaine produces divergent forms of plasticity at synapses between specific neurons in nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum, and how these changes are associated with positive and negative reward behaviors.
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Meaghan Creed, Niels R Ntamati, Ramesh Chandra, Mary Kay Lobo, Christian Lüscher
Addiction is a disorder of behavioral symptoms including enhanced incentive salience of drug-associated cues, but also a negative affective state. Cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity in the reward system, particularly the nucleus accumbens (NAc), drives drug-adaptive behavior. However, how information is integrated downstream of the NAc remains unclear. Here, we identify the ventral pallidum (VP) as a site of convergence of medium spiny neurons expressing dopamine (DA) receptor type 1 (D1-MSNs) and type 2 (D2-MSNs) of the NAc...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Kanwar Virdee, Jiska Kentrop, Bianca Jupp, Bethany Venus, Daniel Hensman, Simon McArthur, James Wilkinson, Trevor W Robbins, Glenda Gillies, Jeffrey W Dalley
RATIONALE: Antenatal exposure to the glucocorticoid dexamethasone dramatically increases the number of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in rat offspring. However, the consequences of this expansion in midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons for behavioural processes in adulthood are poorly understood, including working memory that depends on DA transmission in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). OBJECTIVES: We therefore investigated the influence of antenatal glucocorticoid treatment (AGT) on the modulation of spatial working memory by a D1 receptor agonist and on D1 receptor binding and DA content in the PFC and striatum...
October 2016: Psychopharmacology
Audrey Maillet, Paul Krack, Eugénie Lhommée, Elise Météreau, Hélène Klinger, Emilie Favre, Didier Le Bars, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Amélie Bichon, Pierre Pelissier, Valérie Fraix, Anna Castrioto, Véronique Sgambato-Faure, Emmanuel Broussolle, Léon Tremblay, Stéphane Thobois
SEE SCHRAG AND POLITIS DOI101093/AWW190 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Apathy, which can occur separately or in combination with depression and anxiety, is one of the most frequently encountered neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Pathophysiological evidence suggests that parkinsonian apathy is primarily due to a mesolimbic dopaminergic denervation, but the role of the serotonergic alteration has never been examined, despite its well-known involvement in the pathogenesis of depression and anxiety...
September 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Malvindar K Singh-Bains, Henry J Waldvogel, Richard L M Faull
Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by pronounced pathology of the basal ganglia, with numerous studies documenting the pattern of striatal neurodegeneration in the human brain. However, a principle target of striatal outflow, the globus pallidus (GP), has received limited attention in comparison, despite being a core component of the basal ganglia. The external segment (GPe) is a major output of the dorsal striatum, connecting widely to other basal ganglia nuclei via the indirect motor pathway. The internal segment (GPi) is a final output station of both the direct and indirect motor pathways of the basal ganglia...
August 16, 2016: Brain Pathology
Kristen Ann Stout, Amy R Dunn, Kelly M Lohr, Shawn P Alter, Rachel A Cliburn, Thomas S Guillot, Gary W Miller
Drugs of abuse induce sensitization, which is defined as enhanced response to additional drug following a period of withdrawal. Sensitization occurs in both humans and animal models of drug reinforcement and contributes substantially to the addictive nature of drugs of abuse, as it is thought to represent enhanced motivational wanting for drug. The ventral pallidum, a key member of the reward pathway, contributes to behaviors associated with reward, such as sensitization. Dopamine inputs to the ventral pallidum have not been directly characterized...
August 8, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Allison M Ahrens, Paul J Meyer, Lindsay M Ferguson, Terry E Robinson, J Wayne Aldridge
UNLABELLED: There is considerable individual variation in the extent to which reward cues are attributed with incentive salience. For example, a food-predictive conditioned stimulus (CS; an illuminated lever) becomes attractive, eliciting approach toward it only in some rats ("sign trackers," STs), whereas others ("goal trackers," GTs) approach the food cup during the CS period. The purpose of this study was to determine how individual differences in Pavlovian approach responses are represented in neural firing patterns in the major output structure of the mesolimbic system, the ventral pallidum (VP)...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Noah M Ledbetter, Charles D Chen, Ilya E Monosov
UNLABELLED: The ability to use information about the uncertainty of future outcomes is critical for adaptive behavior in an uncertain world. We show that the basal forebrain (BF) contains at least two distinct neural-coding strategies to support this capacity. The dorsal-lateral BF, including the ventral pallidum (VP), contains reward-sensitive neurons, some of which are selectively suppressed by uncertain-reward predictions (U(-)). In contrast, the medial BF (mBF) contains reward-sensitive neurons, some of which are selectively enhanced (U(+)) by uncertain-reward predictions...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
A R Chappell, S M Freeman, Y K Lin, J L LaPrairie, K Inoue, L J Young, L D Hayes
Social monogamy is a mating strategy rarely employed by mammalian species. Laboratory studies in socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) demonstrate that oxytocin and vasopressin act within the mesolimbic dopamine pathway to facilitate pair-bond formation. Species differences in oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR) distribution in this pathway are associated with species differences in mating strategy. Here we characterize the neuroanatomical distribution of OTR and V1aR binding sites in naturally occurring populations of Taiwan voles (M...
June 2016: Journal of Zoology: Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London
Rong-Jun Ni, Peng-Hao Luo, Yu-Mian Shu, Ju-Tao Chen, Jiang-Ning Zhou
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) plays an important role in integrating and relaying input information to other brain regions in response to stress. The cytoarchitecture of the BST in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has been comprehensively described in our previous publications. However, the inputs to the BST have not been described in previous reports. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sources of afferent projections to the BST throughout the brain of tree shrews using the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG)...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
Jason A Avery, Kaiping Burrows, Kara L Kerr, Jerzy Bodurka, Sahib Khalsa, Martin P Paulus, W Kyle Simmons
Discontinuing unhealthy behaviors, such as overeating or drug use, depends upon an individual's ability to overcome the influence of environmental reward cues. The strength of that influence, however, varies greatly depending upon the internal state of the body. Characterizing the relationship between interoceptive signaling and shifting drug cue valuation provides an opportunity for understanding the neural bases of how changing internal states alter reward processing more generally. Seventeen cigarette smokers rated the pleasantness of cigarette pictures when they were nicotine-sated or nicotine-abstinent...
July 18, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
László Péczely, Tamás Ollmann, Kristóf László, Anita Kovács, Rita Gálosi, Erika Kertes, Olga Zagorácz, Veronika Kállai, Zoltán Karádi, László Lénárd
The role of dopamine (DA) receptors in spatial memory consolidation has been demonstrated in numerous brain regions, among others in the nucleus accumbens which innervates the ventral pallidum (VP). The VP contains both D1 and D2 DA receptors. We have recently shown that the VP D1 DA receptor activation facilitates consolidation of spatial memory in Morris water maze test. In the present study, the role of VP D2 DA receptors was investigated in the same paradigm. In the first experiment, the D2 DA receptor agonist quinpirole was administered into the VP of male Wistar rats in three doses (0...
October 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Edward C Gaiser, Jean-Dominique Gallezot, Patrick D Worhunsky, Ania M Jastreboff, Brian Pittman, Lauren Kantrovitz, Gustavo A Angarita, Kelly P Cosgrove, Marc N Potenza, Robert T Malison, Richard E Carson, David Matuskey
Most prior work with positron emission tomography (PET) dopamine subtype 2/3 receptor (D2/3R) non-selective antagonist tracers suggests obese (OB) individuals exhibit lower D2/3Rs when compared to normal weight (NW) individuals. A D3-preferring D2/3R agonist tracer, [(11)C](+)PHNO, has demonstrated that body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with D2/3R availability within striatal reward regions. To date, OB individuals have not been studied with [(11)C](+)PHNO. We assessed D2/3R availability in striatal and extrastriatal reward regions in fourteen OB and fourteen age- and gender-matched NW individuals with [(11)C](+)PHNO PET utilizing High Resolution Research Tomograph...
July 4, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Angeline Xiong, Daniel W Wesson
Modern neuroscience often relies upon artistic renderings to illustrate key aspects of anatomy. These renderings can be in 2 or even 3 dimensions. Three-dimensional renderings are especially helpful in conceptualizing highly complex aspects of neuroanatomy which otherwise are not visually apparent in 2 dimensions or even intact biological samples themselves. Here, we provide 3 dimensional renderings of the gross- and cellular-anatomy of the rodent olfactory tubercle. Based upon standing literature and detailed investigations into rat brain specimens, we created biologically inspired illustrations of the olfactory tubercle in 3 dimensions as well as its connectivity with olfactory bulb projection neurons, the piriform cortex association fiber system, and ventral pallidum medium spiny neurons...
September 2016: Chemical Senses
Catherine S Hubbard, Jane M Karpowicz, Andrew J Furman, Joyce Teixeira da Silva, David A Seminowicz, Richard J Traub
We used functional MRI and a longitudinal design to investigate the brain mechanisms in a previously reported estrogen-dependent visceral hypersensitivity model. We hypothesized that noxious visceral stimulation would be associated with activation of the insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala, and that estrogen-dependent, stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity would both enhance activation of these regions and recruit activation of other brain areas mediating affect and reward processing. Ovariectomized rats were treated with estrogen (17 β-estradiol, E2) or vehicle (n = 5 per group) and scanned in a 7T MRI at three different time points: pre-stress (baseline), 2 days post-stress, and 18 days post-stress...
2016: Molecular Pain
Griet Vervoort, Inge Leunissen, Michael Firbank, Elke Heremans, Evelien Nackaerts, Wim Vandenberghe, Alice Nieuwboer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD) and tremor dominant (TD) subtypes of Parkinson's disease (PD) show different patterns of alterations in functional connectivity (FC) between specific brain regions. This study aimed to investigate the relation between symptomatic heterogeneity in PD and structural alterations underlying these FC changes. METHODS: 68 PD patients classified as PIGD (n = 41) or TD (n = 19) and 19 age-matched controls underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)...
2016: PloS One
Lauren Faget, Fumitaka Osakada, Jinyi Duan, Reed Ressler, Alexander B Johnson, James A Proudfoot, Ji Hoon Yoo, Edward M Callaway, Thomas S Hnasko
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays a central role in the neural circuit control of behavioral reinforcement. Though considered a dopaminergic nucleus, the VTA contains substantial heterogeneity in neurotransmitter type, containing also GABA and glutamate neurons. Here, we used a combinatorial viral approach to transsynaptically label afferents to defined VTA dopamine, GABA, or glutamate neurons. Surprisingly, we find that these populations received qualitatively similar inputs, with dominant and comparable projections from the lateral hypothalamus, raphe, and ventral pallidum...
June 21, 2016: Cell Reports
Malvindar K Singh-Bains, Lynette J Tippett, Virginia M Hogg, Beth J Synek, Richard H Roxburgh, Henry J Waldvogel, Richard L M Faull
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have focused on striatal neurodegeneration in Huntington disease (HD). In comparison, the globus pallidus (GP), a main striatal output nucleus, has received less focus in HD research. This study characterizes the pattern of neurodegeneration in 3 subdivisions of the human GP, and its relation to clinical symptomatology. METHODS: Stereology was used to measure regional atrophy, neuronal loss, and soma neuronal atrophy in 3 components of the GP-the external segment (GPe), internal segment (GPi), and ventral pallidum (VP)-in 8 HD cases compared with 7 matched control cases...
August 2016: Annals of Neurology
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