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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992533/neural-correlates-of-affective-and-non-affective-cognition-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-imaging-studies
#1
A Rasgon, W H Lee, E Leibu, A Laird, D Glahn, W Goodman, S Frangou
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualistic behaviors and has been associated with diverse functional brain abnormalities. We sought to synthesize current evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and examine their alignment to pathogenetic models of OCD. Following systematic review, we identified 54 task-fMRI studies published in the last decade comparing adults with OCD (n=1186) to healthy adults (n=1159) using tasks of affective and non-affective cognition...
September 1, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981903/neural-correlates-of-inhibitory-spillover-in-adolescence-associations-with-internalizing-symptoms
#2
Sarah A Stoycos, Larissa Del Piero, Gayla Margolin, Jonas T Kaplan, Darby E Saxbe
The current study used an emotional go/no-go task (Berkman et al., 2009) to explore inhibitory spillover (how intentional cognitive inhibition "spills over" to inhibit neural responses to affective stimuli) within 23 adolescents. Adolescents were shown emotional faces and asked to press a button depending on the gender of the face. When asked to inhibit with irrelevant affective stimuli present, adolescents recruited prefrontal cognitive control regions (rIFG, ACC) and ventral affective areas (insula, amygdala)...
August 17, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972591/altered-activation-and-connectivity-in-a-hippocampal-basal-ganglia-midbrain-circuit-during-salience-processing-in-subjects-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#3
T Winton-Brown, A Schmidt, J P Roiser, O D Howes, A Egerton, P Fusar-Poli, N Bunzeck, A A Grace, E Duzel, S Kapur, P McGuire
Animal models of psychosis propose that abnormal hippocampal activity drives increased subcortical dopamine function, which is thought to contribute to aberrant salience processing and psychotic symptoms. These effects appear to be mediated through connections between the hippocampus, ventral striatum/pallidum and the midbrain. The aim of the present study was to examine the activity and connectivity in this pathway in people at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural responses in a hippocampal-basal ganglia-midbrain network during reward, novelty and aversion processing between 29 UHR subjects and 32 healthy controls...
October 3, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972576/the-effects-of-ketamine-on-dopaminergic-function-meta-analysis-and-review-of-the-implications-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#4
REVIEW
M Kokkinou, A H Ashok, O D Howes
Ketamine is a non-competitive antagonist at the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. It has recently been found to have antidepressant effects and is a drug of abuse, suggesting it may have dopaminergic effects. To examine the effect of ketamine on the dopamine systems, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of dopamine measures in the rodent, human and primate brain following acute and chronic ketamine administration relative to a drug-free baseline or control condition. Systematic search of PubMed and PsychInfo electronic databases yielded 40 original peer-reviewed studies...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963505/slow-wave-sleep-is-controlled-by-a-subset-of-nucleus-accumbens-core-neurons-in-mice
#5
Yo Oishi, Qi Xu, Lu Wang, Bin-Jia Zhang, Koji Takahashi, Yohko Takata, Yan-Jia Luo, Yoan Cherasse, Serge N Schiffmann, Alban de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Yoshihiro Urade, Wei-Min Qu, Zhi-Li Huang, Michael Lazarus
Sleep control is ascribed to a two-process model, a widely accepted concept that posits homoeostatic drive and a circadian process as the major sleep-regulating factors. Cognitive and emotional factors also influence sleep-wake behaviour; however, the precise circuit mechanisms underlying their effects on sleep control are unknown. Previous studies suggest that adenosine has a role affecting behavioural arousal in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain area critical for reinforcement and reward. Here, we show that chemogenetic or optogenetic activation of excitatory adenosine A2A receptor-expressing indirect pathway neurons in the core region of the NAc strongly induces slow-wave sleep...
September 29, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951832/advancing-functional-dysconnectivity-and-atrophy-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#6
Jesse A Brown, Alice Y Hua, Andrew Trujllo, Suneth Attygalle, Richard J Binney, Salvatore Spina, Suzee E Lee, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, Howard J Rosen, Adam L Boxer, William W Seeley
Progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSP-S) results from neurodegeneration within a network of brainstem, subcortical, frontal and parietal cortical brain regions. It is unclear how network dysfunction progresses and relates to longitudinal atrophy and clinical decline. In this study, we evaluated patients with PSP-S (n = 12) and healthy control subjects (n = 20) at baseline and 6 months later. Subjects underwent structural MRI and task-free functional MRI (tf-fMRI) scans and clinical evaluations at both time points...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944096/sensory-motor-and-intrinsic-mechanisms-of-thalamic-activity-related-to-organic-and-psychogenic-dystonia
#7
K Kobayashi, J H Chien, J H Kim, F A Lenz
The thalamus is a critical module in the circuit which has been associated with movement disorders including dystonia. This circuit extends from cortex to striatum to pallidum to the thalamic nucleus Ventral Lateral anterior (VLa) to cortex and can be studied by activity recorded during thalamic stereotactic surgery for the treatment of dystonia. Neuronal recordings in the VLa nucleus show low frequency modulation of firing that is correlated with and leads the low frequency modulation of EMG activity; this EMG activity is characteristic of dystonia...
June 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870407/striatal-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-mediated-neurotransmission-in-major-depression-implications-for-anhedonia-anxiety-and-treatment-response
#8
Marta Peciña, Magdalena Sikora, Erich T Avery, Joseph Heffernan, Susana Peciña, Brian J Mickey, Jon-Kar Zubieta
Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission within the brain's reward circuit has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and in both, cognitive and pharmacological mechanisms of treatment response. Still, a direct relationship between measures of DA neurotransmission and reward-related deficits in patients with depression has not been demonstrated. To gain insight into the symptom-specific alterations in the DA system in patients with depression, we used positron emission tomography (PET) and the D2/3 receptor-selective radiotracer [(11)C]raclopride in twenty-three non-smoking un-medicated Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients and sixteen healthy controls (HC)...
October 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802898/neurochemical-evidence-that-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-55-102-peptide-modulates-the-dopaminergic-reward-system-by-decreasing-the-dopamine-release-in-the-mouse-nucleus-accumbens
#9
Angelina Rakovska, Maria Baranyi, Katalin Windisch, Polina Petkova-Kirova, Hristo Gagov, Reni Kalfin
CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) peptide is a neurotransmitter naturally occurring in the CNS and found mostly in nucleus accumbens, ventrotegmental area, ventral pallidum, amygdalae and striatum, brain regions associated with drug addiction. In the nucleus accumbens, known for its significant role in motivation, pleasure, reward and reinforcement learning, CART peptide inhibits cocaine and amphetamine-induced dopamine-mediated increases in locomotor activity and behavior, suggesting a CART peptide interaction with the dopaminergic system...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711813/multi-site-exploration-of-sex-differences-in-brain-reactivity-to-smoking-cues-consensus-across-sites-and-methodologies
#10
Kelly M Dumais, Teresa R Franklin, Kanchana Jagannathan, Nathan Hager, Michael Gawrysiak, Jennifer Betts, Stacey Farmer, Emily Guthier, Heather Pater, Amy C Janes, Reagan R Wetherill
BACKGROUND: Biological sex influences cigarette smoking behavior. More men than women smoke, but women have a harder time quitting. Sex differences in smoking cue (SC) reactivity may underlie such behavioral differences. However, the influence of sex on brain reactivity to SCs has yielded inconsistent findings suggesting the need for continued study. Here, we investigated the effect of sex on SC reactivity across two sites using different imaging modalities and SC stimulus types. METHODS: Pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labeled (pCASL) perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess brain responses to SC versus non-SC videos in 40 smokers (23 females) at the University of Pennsylvania...
September 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689640/distinct-ventral-pallidal-neural-populations-mediate-separate-symptoms-of-depression
#11
Daniel Knowland, Varoth Lilascharoen, Christopher Pham Pacia, Sora Shin, Eric Hou-Jen Wang, Byung Kook Lim
Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients display a common but often variable set of symptoms making successful, sustained treatment difficult to achieve. Separate depressive symptoms may be encoded by differential changes in distinct circuits in the brain, yet how discrete circuits underlie behavioral subsets of depression and how they adapt in response to stress has not been addressed. We identify two discrete circuits of parvalbumin-positive (PV) neurons in the ventral pallidum (VP) projecting to either the lateral habenula or ventral tegmental area contributing to depression...
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659792/the-serotonin-receptor-6-antagonist-idalopirdine-and-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-donepezil-have-synergistic-effects-on-brain-activity-a-functional-mri-study-in-the-awake-rat
#12
Craig F Ferris, Praveen Kulkarni, Jason R Yee, Mark Nedelman, Inge E M de Jong
The 5-HT6 receptor is a promising target for cognitive disorders, in particular for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other CNS disorders. The high-affinity and selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist idalopirdine (Lu AE58054) is currently in development for mild-moderate AD as adjunct therapy to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). We studied the effects of idalopirdine alone and in combination with the AChEI donepezil on brain activity using BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the awake rat...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646260/salt-appetite-and-the-influence-of-opioids
#13
Craig M Smith, Andrew J Lawrence
Due to the biological importance of sodium and its relative scarcity within many natural environments, 'salt appetite' has evolved whereby dietary salt is highly sought after and palatable when tasted. In addition to peripheral responses, salt depletion is detected within the brain via circumventricular organs and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2) neurons to increase salt appetite. Salt appetite is comprised of two main components. One component is the incentive salience or motivation for salt (i...
June 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550642/post-heroin-dose-tissue-distribution-of-6-monoacetylmorphine-6-mam-with-maldi-imaging
#14
Belin G Teklezgi, Annapurna Pamreddy, Sooraj Baijnath, Nirmala D Gopal, Tricia Naicker, Hendrik G Kruger, Thavendran Govender
Heroin is an illicit opioid drug which is commonly abused and leads to dependence and addiction. Heroin is considered a pro-drug and is rapidly converted to its major active metabolite 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) which mediates euphoria and reward through the stimulation of opioid receptors in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and localization of 6-MAM in the healthy Sprague Dawley rat brain following intraperitoneal (i.p) administration of heroin (10 mg/kg), using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI), in combination with quantification via liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536045/toward-defining-deep-brain-stimulation-targets-in-mni-space-a-subcortical-atlas-based-on-multimodal-mri-histology-and-structural-connectivity
#15
REVIEW
Siobhan Ewert, Philip Plettig, Ningfei Li, M Mallar Chakravarty, D Louis Collins, Todd M Herrington, Andrea A Kühn, Andreas Horn
Three-dimensional atlases of subcortical brain structures are valuable tools to reference anatomy in neuroscience and neurology. For instance, they can be used to study the position and shape of the three most common deep brain stimulation (DBS) targets, the subthalamic nucleus (STN), internal part of the pallidum (GPi) and ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (VIM) in spatial relationship to DBS electrodes. Here, we present a composite atlas based on manual segmentations of a multimodal high resolution brain template, histology and structural connectivity...
May 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502844/a-novel-approach-to-map-induced-activation-of-neuronal-networks-using-chemogenetics-and-functional-neuroimaging-in-rats-a-proof-of-concept-study-on-the-mesocorticolimbic-system
#16
Theresia J M Roelofs, Jeroen P H Verharen, Geralda A F van Tilborg, Linde Boekhoudt, Annette van der Toorn, Johannes W de Jong, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Willem M Otte, Roger A H Adan, Rick M Dijkhuizen
Linking neural circuit activation at whole-brain level to neuronal activity at cellular level remains one of the major challenges in neuroscience research. We set up a novel functional neuroimaging approach to map global effects of locally induced activation of specific midbrain projection neurons using chemogenetics (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD)-technology) combined with pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) in the rat mesocorticolimbic system. Chemogenetic activation of DREADD-targeted mesolimbic or mesocortical pathways, i...
May 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498277/influence-of-visceral-interoceptive-experience-on-the-brain-s-response-to-food-images-in-anorexia-nervosa
#17
Kara L Kerr, Scott E Moseman, Jason A Avery, Jerzy Bodurka, W Kyle Simmons
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine how visceral sensations affect responses to food stimuli in anorexia nervosa (AN). METHODS: Twenty weight-restored, unmedicated adolescent and young adult women with AN and twenty healthy control participants completed an interoceptive attention task during which they focused on sensations from the heart, stomach, and bladder and made ratings of these sensations. They then underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning while viewing pictures of food and nonfood objects...
September 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495976/optogenetic-inhibition-of-ventral-pallidum-neurons-impairs-context-driven-salt-seeking
#18
Stephen E Chang, Elizabeth B Smedley, Katherine J Stansfield, Jeffrey J Stott, Kyle S Smith
Salt appetite, in which animals can immediately seek out salt when under a novel state of sodium deprivation, is a classic example of how homeostatic systems interface with learned associations to produce an on-the-fly updating of motivated behavior. Neural activity in the ventral pallidum (VP) has been shown to encode changes in the value of salt under such conditions, both the value of salt itself (Tindell et al., 2006) and the motivational value of its predictive cues (Tindell et al., 2009; Robinson and Berridge, 2013)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432009/the-lateral-hypothalamus-to-lateral-habenula-projection-but-not-the-ventral-pallidum-to-lateral-habenula-projection-regulates-voluntary-ethanol-consumption
#19
Chandni Sheth, Teri M Furlong, Kristen A Keefe, Sharif A Taha
The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic brain region implicated in aversive processing via negative modulation of midbrain dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) systems. Given the role of the LHb in inhibiting DA and 5-HT systems, it is thought to be involved in various psychiatric pathologies, including drug addiction. In support, it has been shown that LHb plays a critical role in cocaine- and ethanol-related behaviors, most likely by mediating drug-induced aversive conditioning. In our previous work, we showed that LHb lesions increased voluntary ethanol consumption and operant ethanol self-administration and blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol self-administration...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427841/localized-shape-abnormalities-in-the-thalamus-and-pallidum-are-associated-with-secondarily-generalized-seizures-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Linglin Yang, Hong Li, Lujia Zhu, Xinfeng Yu, Bo Jin, Cong Chen, Shan Wang, Meiping Ding, Minming Zhang, Zhong Chen, Shuang Wang
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a common type of drug-resistant epilepsy and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (sGTCS) have devastating consequences for patients' safety and quality of life. To probe the mechanism underlying the genesis of sGTCS, we investigated the structural differences between patients with and without sGTCS in a cohort of mTLE with radiologically defined unilateral hippocampal sclerosis. We performed voxel-based morphometric analysis of cortex and vertex-wise shape analysis of subcortical structures (the basal ganglia and thalamus) on MRI of 39 patients (21 with and 18 without sGTCS)...
May 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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