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ventral pallidum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550642/post-heroin-dose-tissue-distribution-of-6-monoacetylmorphine-6-mam-with-maldi-imaging
#1
Belin G Teklezgi, Annapurna Pamreddy, Sooraj Baijnath, Nirmala D Gopal, Tricia Naicker, Hendrik G Kruger, Thavendran Govender
Heroin is an illicit opioid drug which is commonly abused and leads to dependence and addiction. Heroin is considered a pro-drug and is rapidly converted to its major active metabolite 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) which mediates euphoria and reward through the stimulation of opioid receptors in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and localization of 6-MAM in the healthy Sprague Dawley rat brain following intraperitoneal (i.p) administration of heroin (10 mg/kg), using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI), in combination with quantification via liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536045/toward-defining-deep-brain-stimulation-targets-in-mni-space-a-subcortical-atlas-based-on-multimodal-mri-histology-and-structural-connectivity
#2
REVIEW
Siobhan Ewert, Philip Plettig, Ningfei Li, M Mallar Chakravarty, D Louis Collins, Todd M Herrington, Andrea A Kühn, Andreas Horn
Three-dimensional atlases of subcortical brain structures are valuable tools to reference anatomy in neuroscience and neurology. For instance, they can be used to study the position and shape of the three most common deep brain stimulation (DBS) targets, the subthalamic nucleus (STN), internal part of the pallidum (GPi) and ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (VIM) in spatial relationship to DBS electrodes. Here, we present a composite atlas based on manual segmentations of a multimodal high resolution brain template, histology and structural connectivity...
May 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502844/a-novel-approach-to-map-induced-activation-of-neuronal-networks-using-chemogenetics-and-functional-neuroimaging-in-rats-a-proof-of-concept-study-on-the-mesocorticolimbic-system
#3
Theresia J M Roelofs, Jeroen P H Verharen, Geralda A F van Tilborg, Linde Boekhoudt, Annette van der Toorn, Johannes W de Jong, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Willem M Otte, Roger A H Adan, Rick M Dijkhuizen
Linking neural circuit activation at whole-brain level to neuronal activity at cellular level remains one of the major challenges in neuroscience research. We set up a novel functional neuroimaging approach to map global effects of locally induced activation of specific midbrain projection neurons using chemogenetics (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD)-technology) combined with pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) in the rat mesocorticolimbic system. Chemogenetic activation of DREADD-targeted mesolimbic or mesocortical pathways, i...
May 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498277/influence-of-visceral-interoceptive-experience-on-the-brain-s-response-to-food-images-in-anorexia-nervosa
#4
Kara L Kerr, Scott E Moseman, Jason A Avery, Jerzy Bodurka, W Kyle Simmons
OBJECTIVE: To determine how visceral sensations affect responses to food stimuli in anorexia nervosa (AN). METHODS: Twenty weight-restored, unmedicated adolescent and young adult women with AN and twenty healthy control participants completed an interoceptive attention task during which they focused on sensations from the heart, stomach, and bladder and made ratings of these sensations. They then underwent fMRI scanning while viewing pictures of food and non-food objects...
May 12, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495976/optogenetic-inhibition-of-ventral-pallidum-neurons-impairs-context-driven-salt-seeking
#5
Stephen E Chang, Elizabeth B Smedley, Katherine J Stansfield, Jeffrey J Stott, Kyle S Smith
Salt appetite, in which animals can immediately seek out salt when under a novel state of sodium deprivation, is a classic example of how homeostatic systems interface with learned associations to produce an on-the-fly updating of motivated behavior. Neural activity in the ventral pallidum (VP) has been shown to encode changes in the value of salt under such conditions, both the value of salt itself (Tindell et al., 2006) and the motivational value of its predictive cues (Tindell et al., 2009; Robinson and Berridge, 2013)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432009/the-lateral-hypothalamus-to-lateral-habenula-projection-but-not-the-ventral-pallidum-to-lateral-habenula-projection-regulates-voluntary-ethanol-consumption
#6
Chandni Sheth, Teri M Furlong, Kristen A Keefe, Sharif A Taha
The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic brain region implicated in aversive processing via negative modulation of midbrain dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) systems. Given the role of the LHb in inhibiting DA and 5-HT systems, it is thought to be involved in various psychiatric pathologies, including drug addiction. In support, it has been shown that LHb plays a critical role in cocaine- and ethanol-related behaviors, most likely by mediating drug-induced aversive conditioning. In our previous work, we showed that LHb lesions increased voluntary ethanol consumption and operant ethanol self-administration and blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol self-administration...
April 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427841/localized-shape-abnormalities-in-the-thalamus-and-pallidum-are-associated-with-secondarily-generalized-seizures-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Linglin Yang, Hong Li, Lujia Zhu, Xinfeng Yu, Bo Jin, Cong Chen, Shan Wang, Meiping Ding, Minming Zhang, Zhong Chen, Shuang Wang
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a common type of drug-resistant epilepsy and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (sGTCS) have devastating consequences for patients' safety and quality of life. To probe the mechanism underlying the genesis of sGTCS, we investigated the structural differences between patients with and without sGTCS in a cohort of mTLE with radiologically defined unilateral hippocampal sclerosis. We performed voxel-based morphometric analysis of cortex and vertex-wise shape analysis of subcortical structures (the basal ganglia and thalamus) on MRI of 39 patients (21 with and 18 without sGTCS)...
May 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421623/a-preliminary-investigation-of-the-effect-of-acute-alcohol-on-dopamine-transmission-as-assessed-by-11-c-phno
#8
Thulasi Thiruchselvam, Alan A Wilson, Isabelle Boileau, Bernard Le Foll
BACKGROUND: Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies exploring the effect of acute alcohol on dopamine (DA) levels have yielded inconsistent results, with only some studies suggesting increased synaptic DA levels after an alcohol challenge. The D2 /D3 agonist radiotracer, [(11) C]-(+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin ([(11) C]-(+)-PHNO), has greater sensitivity to synaptic DA fluctuation than previously used antagonist radiotracers and is in principle more suitable for imaging alcohol-induced changes in DA...
April 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415166/holmes-tremor-with-shoulder-pain-treated-by-deep-brain-stimulation-of-unilateral-ventral-intermediate-thalamic-nucleus-and-globus-pallidus-internus
#9
Sabri Aydın, Huseyin Canaz, Ezgi Tuna Erdogan, Nazlı Durmaz, Barıs Topcular
A 21-year-old male was admitted with severe right arm and hand tremors after a thalamic hemorrhage caused by a traffic accident. He was also suffering from agonizing pain in his right shoulder that manifested after the tremor. Neurologic examination revealed a disabling, severe, and irregular kinetic and postural tremor in the right arm during target-directed movements. There was also an irregular ipsilateral rest tremor and dystonic movements in the distal part of the right arm. The amplitude was moderate at rest and extremely high during kinetic and intentional movements...
May 2017: Journal of Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411158/intrinsic-membrane-properties-and-cholinergic-modulation-of-mouse-basal-forebrain-glutamatergic-neurons-in-vitro
#10
Chun Yang, James T McKenna, Ritchie E Brown
The basal forebrain (BF) controls sleep-wake cycles, attention and reward processing. Compared to cholinergic and GABAergic neurons, BF glutamatergic neurons are less well understood, due to difficulties in identification. Here, we use vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2)-tdTomato mice, expressing a red fluorescent protein (tdTomato) in the major group of BF glutamatergic neurons (vGluT2+) to characterize their intrinsic electrical properties and cholinergic modulation. Whole-cell, patch-clamp recordings were made from vGluT2+ neurons in coronal BF slices...
June 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400717/listening-to-rhythmic-music-reduces-connectivity-within-the-basal-ganglia-and-the-reward-system
#11
Hans P Brodal, Berge Osnes, Karsten Specht
Music can trigger emotional responses in a more direct way than any other stimulus. In particular, music-evoked pleasure involves brain networks that are part of the reward system. Furthermore, rhythmic music stimulates the basal ganglia and may trigger involuntary movements to the beat. In the present study, we created a continuously playing rhythmic, dance floor-like composition where the ambient noise from the MR scanner was incorporated as an additional instrument of rhythm. By treating this continuous stimulation paradigm as a variant of resting-state, the data was analyzed with stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM), which was used for exploring functional dependencies and interactions between core areas of auditory perception, rhythm processing, and reward processing...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259088/the-cerebellum-in-drug-craving
#12
REVIEW
Josep Moreno-Rius, Marta Miquel
Craving has been considered one of the core features of addiction. It can be defined as the urge or conscious desire to use a drug elicited by the drug itself, drug-associated cues or stressors. Craving plays a major role in relapse, even after prolonged periods of abstinence, as well as in the maintenance of drug seeking in non-abstinent addicts. The circuitry of craving includes medial parts of the prefrontal cortex, ventral striatal zones, ventral tegmental area, ventral pallidum, and limbic regions. Interestingly, the cerebellum shows reciprocal loops with many of these areas...
April 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123013/loss-of-plasticity-in-the-d2-accumbens-pallidal-pathway-promotes-cocaine-seeking
#13
Jasper A Heinsbroek, Daniela N Neuhofer, William C Griffin, Griffin S Siegel, Ana-Clara Bobadilla, Yonatan M Kupchik, Peter W Kalivas
Distinct populations of D1- and D2-dopamine receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs) comprise the nucleus accumbens, and activity in D1-MSNs promotes, whereas activity in D2-MSNs inhibits, motivated behaviors. We used chemogenetics to extend D1-/D2-MSN cell specific regulation to cue-reinstated cocaine seeking in a mouse model of self-administration and relapse, and found that either increasing activity in D1-MSNs or decreasing activity in D2-MSNs augmented cue-induced reinstatement. Both D1- and D2-MSNs provide substantial GABAergic innervation to the ventral pallidum, and chemogenetic inhibition of ventral pallidal neurons blocked the augmented reinstatement elicited by chemogenetic regulation of either D1- or D2-MSNs...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072384/impact-of-cerebellar-atrophy-on-cortical-gray-matter-and-cerebellar-peduncles-as-assessed-by-voxel-based-morphometry-and-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging
#14
Michael Dayan, G Olivito, M Molinari, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali, M Leggio
In recent years the cerebellum has been attributed amore important role in higher-level functions than previously believed. We examined a cohort of patients suffering from cerebellar atrophy resulting in ataxia, with two main objectives: first to investigate which regions of the cerebrum were affected by the cerebellar degeneration, and second to assess whether diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) metrics within the medial (MCP) and superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) - namely fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) - could be used as a biomarker in patients with this condition...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057528/role-of-d2-dopamine-receptors-of-the-ventral-pallidum-in-inhibitory-avoidance-learning
#15
László Lénárd, Tamás Ollmann, Kristóf László, Anita Kovács, Rita Gálosi, Veronika Kállai, Tóth Attila, Erika Kertes, Olga Zagoracz, Zoltán Karádi, László Péczely
In our present experiments, the role of D2 dopamine (DA) receptors of the ventral pallidum (VP) was investigated in one trial step-through inhibitory avoidance paradigm. Animals were shocked 3 times in the conditioning trial, with 0.5mA current for 1s. Subsequently bilateral microinjection of the D2 DA receptor agonist quinpirole was administered into the VP in three doses (0.1μg, 1.0μg or 5.0μg in 0.4μl saline). We also applied the D2 DA receptor antagonist sulpiride (0.4μg in 0.4μl saline) alone or 15min prior to the agonist treatment to elucidate whether the agonist effect was specific for the D2 DA receptors...
March 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042871/acute-d3-antagonist-gsk598809-selectively-enhances-neural-response-during-monetary-reward-anticipation-in-drug-and-alcohol-dependence
#16
Anna Murphy, Liam J Nestor, John McGonigle, Louise Paterson, Venkataramana Boyapati, Karen D Ersche, Remy Flechais, Shankar Kuchibatla, Antonio Metastasio, Csaba Orban, Filippo Passetti, Laurence Reed, Dana Smith, John Suckling, Eleanor Taylor, Trevor W Robbins, Anne Lingford-Hughes, David J Nutt, John Fw Deakin, Rebecca Elliott
Evidence suggests that disturbances in neurobiological mechanisms of reward and inhibitory control maintain addiction and provoke relapse during abstinence. Abnormalities within the dopamine system may contribute to these disturbances and pharmacologically targeting the D3 dopamine receptor (DRD3) is therefore of significant clinical interest. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the acute effects of the DRD3 antagonist GSK598809 on anticipatory reward processing, using the monetary incentive delay task (MIDT), and response inhibition using the Go/No-Go task (GNGT)...
April 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998997/differential-functional-connectivity-of-rostral-anterior-cingulate-cortex-during-emotional-interference
#17
Akos Szekely, Rebecca L Silton, Wendy Heller, Gregory A Miller, Aprajita Mohanty
The rostral-ventral subdivision of the anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) plays a key role in the regulation of emotional processing. Although rACC has strong anatomical connections with anterior insular cortex (AIC), amygdala, prefrontal cortex and striatal brain regions, it is unclear whether the functional connectivity of rACC with these regions changes when regulating emotional processing. Furthermore, it is not known whether this connectivity changes with deficits in emotion regulation seen in different kinds of anxiety and depression...
March 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989846/cortical-areas-involved-in-behavioral-expression-of-external-pallidum-dysfunctions-a-pet-imaging-study-in-non-human-primates
#18
Laurent Galineau, Aurélie Kas, Yulia Worbe, Marion Chaigneau, Anne-Sophie Herard, Martine Guillermier, Thierry Delzescaux, Jean Féger, Philippe Hantraye, Léon Tremblay
The external pallidum (GPe) is a component of the indirect pathway centrally placed in the basal ganglia. Studies already demonstrated that the pharmacological disinhibition of the sensorimotor, associative, and limbic GPe produced dyskinesia, hyperactivity, and compulsive behaviors, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the cortical regions altered by the disinhibition of each GPe functional territory. Thus, 5 macaques were injected with bicuculline in sensorimotor, associative, and limbic sites of the GPe producing dyskinesia, hyperactivity, and compulsive behaviors, and underwent in vivo positron tomography with (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose to identify cortical dysfunctions related to GPe disinhibition...
February 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976722/ventral-tegmental-area-glutamate-neurons-co-release-gaba-and-promote-positive-reinforcement
#19
Ji Hoon Yoo, Vivien Zell, Navarre Gutierrez-Reed, Johnathan Wu, Reed Ressler, Mohammad Ali Shenasa, Alexander B Johnson, Kathryn H Fife, Lauren Faget, Thomas S Hnasko
In addition to dopamine neurons, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) contains GABA-, glutamate- and co-releasing neurons, and recent reports suggest a complex role for the glutamate neurons in behavioural reinforcement. We report that optogenetic stimulation of VTA glutamate neurons or terminals serves as a positive reinforcer on operant behavioural assays. Mice display marked preference for brief over sustained VTA glutamate neuron stimulation resulting in behavioural responses that are notably distinct from dopamine neuron stimulation and resistant to dopamine receptor antagonists...
December 15, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920666/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-the-evolution-of-the-amygdalar-hippocampal-habenular-connectivity-in-vertebrates
#20
Anton J M Loonen, Svetlana A Ivanova
Appetitive-searching (reward-seeking) and distress-avoiding (misery-fleeing) behavior are essential for all free moving animals to stay alive and to have offspring. Therefore, even the oldest ocean-dwelling animal creatures, living about 560 million years ago and human ancestors, must have been capable of generating these behaviors. The current article describes the evolution of the forebrain with special reference to the development of the misery-fleeing system. Although, the earliest vertebrate ancestor already possessed a dorsal pallium, which corresponds to the human neocortex, the structure and function of the neocortex was acquired quite recently within the mammalian evolutionary line...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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