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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668020/adolescent-sexual-health-and-education-where-does-the-pediatrician-s-responsibility-fall
#1
Rachel S Dawson
Adolescence is a stressful time with a considerable amount of change, not only physically, with all the changes expected throughout puberty, but also emotionally, spiritually, and psychosocially. Teens are learning how to build and sustain relationships, learning boundaries in all areas of their lives, experimenting, as well as setting values that will sustain them throughout their lives. Home, school, various social settings, and places of worship all contribute to where adolescents learn what their values are, what they want their values to be, and how they start to make choices about their personal beliefs, which may not always align with their family values...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667715/gender-differences-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#2
Maya Asher, Idan M Aderka
OBJECTIVE:  Despite the ample literature on gender differences in anxiety and mood disorders, gender differences in social anxiety disorder (SAD) have received little empirical attention. The aim of the present study is to examine gender differences in 12-months prevalence, patterns of comorbidity, clinical presentation, subjective distress and functional impairment, age of onset, and treatment seeking, and discuss their clinical implications. METHOD: We used data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R; n = 652, 63...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667698/chronic-stress-social-isolation-and-perceived-loneliness-in-dementia-caregivers
#3
Mariya Kovaleva, Sydney Spangler, Carolyn Clevenger, Kenneth Hepburn
Caregivers of individuals with dementia are at risk for chronic stress and social isolation. These exogenous factors may lead to perceived stress and perceived loneliness-psychosocial endogenous (subjective) elements of caregiving experience. Chronic stress and perceived loneliness may disrupt neuroendocrine and neuroimmunological regulation, creating low-grade systemic inflammation, promoting proinflammatory gene expression, and expediting cellular aging (endogenous physiological factors). These disturbances may enhance caregivers' risk for chronic conditions of inflammatory pathogenesis...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666573/psychosocial-stress-and-immunity-what-can-we-learn-from-pig-studies
#4
Ulrike Gimsa, Margret Tuchscherer, Ellen Kanitz
Psychosocial stress may impair immune functions and provoke the development of pathologies. The underlying communication between the brain and the immune system is being studied predominantly in rodents. However, pigs offer several advantages as preclinical models for humans because pigs are more similar to humans than rodents in many anatomical and physiological characteristics. Unlike in rodents, the main stress-induced glucocorticoid in humans and pigs is cortisol with a similar circadian rhythm. In this study, we summarize data on short-term and long-term effects of social stress in pigs for their immunity and neuroendocrine regulation with consequences for their health and well-being...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666428/social-thermoregulation-as-a-potential-mechanism-linking-sociality-and-fitness-barbary-macaques-with-more-social-partners-form-larger-huddles
#5
Liz A D Campbell, Patrick J Tkaczynski, Julia Lehmann, Mohamed Mouna, Bonaventura Majolo
Individuals with more or stronger social bonds experience enhanced survival and reproduction in various species, though the mechanisms mediating these effects are unclear. Social thermoregulation is a common behaviour across many species which reduces cold stress exposure, body heat loss, and homeostatic energy costs, allowing greater energetic investment in growth, reproduction, and survival, with larger aggregations providing greater benefits. If more social individuals form larger thermoregulation aggregations due to having more potential partners, this would provide a direct link between sociality and fitness...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665873/impact-of-paternal-deployment-to-the-conflicts-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-and-paternal-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-on-the-children-of-military-fathers
#6
Nicola T Fear, Ruth V Reed, Sarah Rowe, Howard Burdett, David Pernet, Alyson Mahar, Amy C Iversen, Paul Ramchandani, Alan Stein, Simon Wessely
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the social and emotional well-being of children whose fathers have been deployed to the conflicts in Iraq/Afghanistan or who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).AimsTo examine the emotional and behavioural well-being of children whose fathers are or have been in the UK armed forces, in particular the effects of paternal deployment to the conflicts in Iraq or Afghanistan and paternal PTSD. METHOD: Fathers who had taken part in a large tri-service cohort and had children aged 3-16 years were asked about the emotional and behavioural well-being of their child(ren) and assessed for symptoms of PTSD via online questionnaires and telephone interview...
April 18, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665163/lowered-quality-of-life-in-mood-disorders-is-associated-with-increased-neuro-oxidative-stress-and-basal-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-levels-and-use-of-anticonvulsant-mood-stabilizers
#7
Caroline Sampaio Nunes, Michael Maes, Chutima Roomruangwong, Juliana Brum Moraes, Kamila Landucci Bonifacio, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, George Anderson, Luiz Gustavo Piccoli de Melo, Stoyanov Drozdstoj, Estefania Moreira, André F Carvalho, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes
RATIONALE, AIMS: Major affective disorders including bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Oxidative stress and subtle thyroid abnormalities may play a pathophysiological role in both disorders. Thus, the current study was performed to examine whether neuro-oxidative biomarkers and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels could predict HRQoL in BD and MDD. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 68 BD and 37 MDD patients and 66 healthy controls...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665073/suicidal-ideation-in-lung-transplant-recipients-a-case-series
#8
Lauren Z Rynar, Mekhala S Merchant, Daniel F Dilling
BACKGROUND: Suicidality, a term referring to suicidal ideation and/or suicide attempts, has been understudied in lung transplant recipients, despite the well-documented period of high-stress following transplantation. Understanding the full clinical picture of psychiatric morbidity before and after lung transplant is vital to supporting survival. METHODS: Suicidality among lung transplant recipients was examined through case studies of five lung transplant recipients at Loyola University Medical Center in Chicago, IL...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664812/health-related-quality-of-life-and-body-image-disturbance-of-adolescents-with-severe-untreated-idiopathic-early-onset-scoliosis-in-a-developing-country
#9
Hany Abdel Gawwad Soliman
STUDY DESIGN: A cross sectional study OBJECTIVE.: This study aimed to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and body image disturbance of adolescents with untreated severe idiopathic early-onset scoliosis (IEOS) in a developing country. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: IEOS has the potential to progress rapidly and may lead to significant disability if left untreated. Moreover, it can lead to significant body image changes that may lead to social and psychological stresses on developing adolescents...
April 16, 2018: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663559/sex-differences-in-hippocampal-mineralocorticoid-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-mrna-expression-in-response-to-acute-mate-pair-separation-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#10
Farrah N Madison, Andrew J Kesner, Beau A Alward, Gregory F Ball
Mate separation has been shown to mediate changes in physiological and behavioral processes via activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in both mammalian and avian species. In order to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with changes in the HPA axis in response to social stress, we investigated the effects of mate pair separation on circulating corticosterone concentrations as well as gene expression levels of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of both male and female zebra finches, a species that forms strong pair bonds...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663553/rapid-evidence-assessment-of-approaches-to-community-neurological-nursing-care-for-people-with-neurological-conditions-post-discharge-from-acute-care-hospital
#11
REVIEW
Judith Dianne Pugh, Kathleen McCoy, Anne M Williams, Brenda Bentley, Leanne Monterosso
Neurological conditions represent leading causes of non-fatal burden of disease that will consume a large proportion of projected healthcare expenditure. Inconsistent access to integrated healthcare and other services for people with long-term neurological conditions stresses acute care services. The purpose of this rapid evidence assessment, conducted February-June 2016, was to review the evidence supporting community neurological nursing approaches for patients with neurological conditions post-discharge from acute care hospitals...
April 16, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663065/-individual-activation-of-dementia-sufferers-in-a-home-setting-a-randomized-controlled-study
#12
Renate Stemmer, Elmar Gräßel, Martin Schmid
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The present project investigated the hypothesis that a multimodal individual activation of people with mild to moderate dementia in the home setting during a 6-month intervention period leads to improved everyday practice and cognitive abilities compared to the control group. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Intervention: a practical activation was performed by relatives 6 days per week. Cognitive stimulation took place once a week and was done by an external person...
April 16, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662948/reduced-orexin-system-function-contributes-to-resilience-to-repeated-social-stress
#13
Laura A Grafe, Darrell Eacret, Jane Dobkin, Seema Bhatnagar
Exposure to stress increases the risk of developing affective disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, these disorders occur in only a subset of individuals, those that are more vulnerable to the effects of stress, whereas others remain resilient. The coping style adopted to deal with the stressor, either passive or active coping, is related to vulnerability or resilience, respectively. Important neural substrates that mediate responses to a stressor are the orexins. These neuropeptides are altered in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with stress-related illnesses such as depression and PTSD...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661524/expressed-emotion-as-a-predictor-of-the-first-psychotic-episode-results-of-the-european-prediction-of-psychosis-study
#14
Theresa Haidl, Marlene Rosen, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Dorien Nieman, Susanne Eggers, Markus Heinimaa, Georg Juckel, Andreas Heinz, Anthony Morrison, Don Linszen, Raimo Salokangas, Joachim Klosterkötter, Max Birchwood, Paul Patterson, Stephan Ruhrmann
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of expressed emotion (EE) on the risk of developing the first psychotic episode (FEP). METHOD: The European Prediction of Psychosis Study (EPOS) investigated 245 patients who were at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis. The predictive value of EE alone and as a part of the multivariate EPOS model was evaluated. RESULTS: "Perceived irritability", a domain of the Level of Expressed Emotion Scale (LEE), was found to be predictive for the First Psychotic Episode (FEP), even as an individual variable...
April 13, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661486/pre-encoding-stress-induced-changes-in-perceived-stress-blood-pressure-and-cortisol-are-differentially-associated-with-recollection-and-familiarity
#15
Uta S Wiemers, Tanja C Hamacher-Dang, Andrew P Yonelinas, Oliver T Wolf
Stress before encoding is often linked to impaired memory. Further influences of stress on memory are arousal of the to be learned material and memory retrieval type (free recall vs. recognition). In the current study we tested the influence of stress on memory encoding for neutral and negative arousing pictures in healthy young adults. A total of 80 participants (40 men) were subjected either to the socially evaluated cold pressure test or a control condition before encoding of arousing and neutral pictures...
April 13, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661194/association-of-neighborhood-greenness-with-self-perceived-stress-depression-and-anxiety-symptoms-in-older-u-s-adults
#16
Vivian C Pun, Justin Manjourides, Helen H Suh
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood environment, such as green vegetation, has been shown to play a role in coping with stress and mental ill health. Yet, epidemiological evidence of the association between greenness and mental health is inconsistent. METHODS: We examined whether living in green space is associated with self-perceived stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms in a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 4118; aged 57-85 years) in the United States...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661005/ethopathology-and-civilization-diseases-niko-and-elisabeth-tinbergen-on-autism
#17
Marga Vicedo
The idea that some diseases result from a poor fit between modern life and our biological make-up is part of the long history of what historian of medicine Charles Rosenberg has called the "progress-and-pathology narrative." This article examines a key episode in that history: 1973 Nobel laureate Niko Tinbergen's use of an evolutionary framework to identify autism as a pathogenic effect of progress. Influenced by British psychiatrist John Bowlby's work, Tinbergen and his wife Elisabeth saw autistic children as victims of environmental stress caused mainly by mothers' failure to bond with their children and to protect them from conflicting situations...
April 16, 2018: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660975/synergistic-effects-of-psychosocial-stress-and-mild-peripheral-infection-on-inducing-microglial-activation-in-the-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-and-long-lasting-deficits-in-hippocampus-related-memory
#18
Wen-Yu Tzeng, Chien-Chou Su, Li-Han Sun, Chianfang G. Cherng, Lung Yu
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment and stress may cause immune activation in the brain, an event which has been thought to play a role in mediating stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. However, the enduring impact of psychosocial stress on brain immune activation or cognitive deficits has not been well investigated. Likewise, it remains unexplored whether there exist synergistic effects of psychosocial stress and a weak systemic LPS treatment on brain immune activation and/or cognitive function. In this work, a 10-day social defeat regimen was used to model psychosocial stress and the number and density of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1)-stained microglia was used to reveal brain immune activation in male Balb/C mice...
April 17, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660571/emotional-intelligence-in-patients-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-borderline-personality-disorder-and-healthy-controls
#19
Katrin Janke, Martin Driessen, Behnoush Behnia, Katja Wingenfeld, Stefan Roepke
Emotional intelligence as a part of social cognition has, to our knowledge, never been investigated in patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), though the disorder is characterized by aspects of emotional dysfunctioning. PTSD often occurs with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) as a common comorbidity. Studies about social cognition and emotional intelligence in patients with BPD propose aberrant social cognition, but produced inconsistent results regarding emotional intelligence. The present study aims to assess emotional intelligence in patients with PTSD without comorbid BPD, PTSD with comorbid BPD, and BPD patients without comorbid PTSD, as well as in healthy controls...
March 30, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660314/nrf2-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-rheumatic-diseases
#20
REVIEW
María Luisa Ferrándiz, Josep Nacher-Juan, Maria José Alcaraz
Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a master regulator of cellular protective processes. Rheumatic diseases are chronic conditions characterized by inflammation, pain, tissue damage and limitations in function. Main examples are rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Their high prevalence constitutes a major health problem with an important social and economic impact. A wide range of evidence indicates that Nrf2 may control different mechanisms involved in the physiopathology of rheumatic conditions...
April 13, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
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