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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430588/chronic-grouped-social-restriction-triggers-long-lasting-immune-system-adaptations
#1
Rui Tian, Gonglin Hou, Liuwei Song, Jianming Zhang, Ti-Fei Yuan
Chronic stress triggers rigorous psychological and physiological changes, including immunological system adaptations. However, the effects of long-term social restriction on human immune system have not been investigated. The present study is to investigate the effect of chronic stress on immune changes in human blood, with the stress stimuli controlled.10 male volunteers were group isolated from the modern society in a 50-meter-square room for 150 days, with enriched nutrition and good living conditions provided...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429376/daily-crying-prevalence-and-associated-factors-in-older-adult-persons-living-in-nursing-homes-findings-from-a-regional-study
#2
Alvisa Palese, Arianna Simeoni, Antonio Ranieri Zuttion, Barbara Ferrario, Sandra Ponta, Elisa Ambrosi
OBJECTIVES: The study aims to evaluate the prevalence of nursing home (NH) resident crying and associated factors at the individual and NH levels. DESIGN: A regional retrospective study design has been used. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A total of 8875 residents, living in 105 NHs, were included. MEASUREMENTS: The occurrence of an episode of crying on at least a daily basis in the last month was the dependent variable; independent variables were set at individual and at the NH levels as reported in the Val...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428763/adhd-lifestyles-and-comorbidities-a-call-for-an-holistic-perspective-from-medical-to-societal-intervening-factors
#3
REVIEW
Simon Weissenberger, Radek Ptacek, Martina Klicperova-Baker, Andreja Erman, Katerina Schonova, Jiri Raboch, Michal Goetz
The review examines Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in its Child and Adult form) and its various presentations (Hyperactive Impulsive, Inattentive, and Combined) with a particular focus on environmental (incl. social factors), lifestyles and comorbidities. It is argued that ADHD is best understood in a holistic and interactive context and a vast empirical literature is presented to illustrate the point: Environmental factors include stress in general as well as exposure to toxins (phthalates, bisphenol A)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428676/behavioral-problems-and-emotional-difficulties-at-children-and-early-adolescents-of-the-veterans-of-war-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#4
Zihnet Selimbasic, Osman Sinanovic, Esmina Avdibegovic, Maja Brkic, Jasmin Hamidovic
INTRODUCTION: Behavioral problems and emotional difficulties at children of the veterans of war with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have not been researched entirely. In our country, which has a lot of persons suffering from some psychological traumas, this trauma seems to continue. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the exposure, manifestations of behavioral problems and emotional difficulties at children and early adolescents, whose fathers were the veterans of war demonstrating post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms...
February 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428501/job-stress-and-behavioral-characteristics-in-relation-to-coronary-heart-disease-risk-among-japanese-police-officers
#5
Maki Shiozaki, Nobuyuki Miyai, Ikuharu Morioka, Miyoko Utsumi, Sonomi Hattori, Hiroaki Koike, Mikio Arita, Kazuhisa Miyashita
This study examined the association between job-related behavioral characteristics and the risk of coronary heart diseases (CHD) in Japanese male police officers. Compared to office clerks, police officers exhibited greater age-related increases of the prevalence of CHD risk factors, and a clustering number of CHD risk factors was significantly higher in the group of those over 45 years of age. Among the police officers, coronary-prone behavior was more frequent than that seen in office clerks. The police officers with coronary-prone behavior tended to engage in shift work and to work overtime more; yet they were less likely to perceive job stress and to express the relevant physical and psychological symptoms than those without coronary-prone behavior...
April 20, 2017: Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428145/prior-treadmill-exercise-promotes-resilience-to-vicarious-trauma-in-rats
#6
Camila Kochi, Hesong Liu, Safiyya Zaidi, Fatin Atrooz, Phoebe Dantoin, Samina Salim
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious psychological condition, which can develop both from physically experiencing and also from witnessing traumatic events. There is evidence that physical exercise can have a positive impact on the symptoms of PTSD. Relevant to this, in our previous pre-clinical work, beneficial effects of treadmill exercise were reported on PTSD-like behaviors in a social defeat paradigm, a rat model of direct physical trauma. However, the role of exercise on vicariously acquired PTSD-like phenotype was not examined...
April 17, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426909/nursing-and-pharmacy-students-use-of-emotionally-intelligent-behaviours-to-manage-challenging-interpersonal-situations-with-staff-during-clinical-placement-a-qualitative-study
#7
Andrea McCloughen, Kim Foster
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify challenging interpersonal interactions experienced by nursing and pharmacy students during clinical placement, and strategies used to manage those situations. BACKGROUND: Healthcare students and staff experience elevated stress when exposed to dynamic clinical environments, complex care, and challenging professional relationships. Emotionally intelligent behaviours are associated with appropriate recognition and management of emotions evoked by stressful experiences, and development of effective relationships...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426397/a-successful-debrief-program-for-house-staff
#8
Victoria Leff, Adrienne Klement, Anthony Galanos
Challenging end-of-life encounters can be stressful and may lead to burnout. Monthly debriefing sessions are led by a physician and clinical social worker (LCSW). Sessions focus on experiences and emotional reactions rather than case details. Themes identified included; feeling unsupported after difficult deaths, identifying with patients emotionally, and conceptualizing a "good" versus "bad" death. Debriefing provides opportunities for residency physicians to reflect on the affective side of their work and helps promote resiliency...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Social Work in End-of-life & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426378/ostracism-and-physiological-arousal-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Michelle Kelly, Skye McDonald, Jacqueline Rushby
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the psychological and physiological effects of ostracism in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). RESEARCH DESIGN: A within-subject, counterbalanced design was used. The two conditions, inclusion and ostracism, were examined across two groups (between subjects). METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A group of 21 adults with TBI and 17 matched controls participated in the Cyberball paradigm. This task is a computerised task that exposes participants to a game of catch and throw...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425891/teaching-psychology-in-medicine-the-context-methodologies-and-doctor-s-professional-identity
#10
REVIEW
Silvia Ouakinin
INTRODUCTION: Teaching Psychology in medical curriculum has been the subject of numerous dissertations that focus on the relevance of this knowledge for doctors, at a general level. METHODS: A non-systematic review of the relevant literature, particularly from the last decade, as well as national and international recommendations addressing the need for integration of behavioural and social sciences in medical training, was performed. RESULTS: The literature supports the existence of preconceptions and negative attitudes towards the role of psychology in medical education, demonstrated by research in various european and american universities...
December 30, 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424575/contribution-of-autonomic-reflexes-to-the-hyperadrenergic-state-in-heart-failure
#11
REVIEW
Edgar Toschi-Dias, Maria Urbana P B Rondon, Chiara Cogliati, Nazareno Paolocci, Eleonora Tobaldini, Nicola Montano
Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome representing the clinical endpoint of many cardiovascular diseases of different etiology. Given its prevalence, incidence and social impact, a better understanding of HF pathophysiology is paramount to implement more effective anti-HF therapies. Based on left ventricle (LV) performance, HF is currently classified as follows: (1) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF); (2) with mid-range EF (HFmrEF); and (3) with preserved EF (HFpEF). A central tenet of HFrEF pathophysiology is adrenergic hyperactivity, featuring increased sympathetic nerve discharge and a progressive loss of rhythmical sympathetic oscillations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423145/brief-behavioral-therapy-for-pediatric-anxiety-and-depression-in-primary-care-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
V Robin Weersing, David A Brent, Michelle S Rozenman, Araceli Gonzalez, Megan Jeffreys, John F Dickerson, Frances L Lynch, Giovanna Porta, Satish Iyengar
Importance: Anxiety and depression affect 30% of youth but are markedly undertreated compared with other mental disorders, especially in Hispanic populations. Objective: To examine whether a pediatrics-based behavioral intervention targeting anxiety and depression improves clinical outcome compared with referral to outpatient community mental health care. Design, Setting, and Participants: This 2-center randomized clinical trial with masked outcome assessment conducted between brief behavioral therapy (BBT) and assisted referral to care (ARC) studied 185 youths (aged 8...
April 19, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422615/understanding-how-sexual-and-gender-minority-stigmas-influence-depression-among-trans-women-and-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-india
#13
Venkatesan Chakrapani, Pandara Purayil Vijin, Carmen H Logie, Peter A Newman, Murali Shunmugam, Murugesan Sivasubramanian, Miriam Samuel
PURPOSE: Few studies have assessed how sexual and gender minority stigmas affect the mental health of trans women and self-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) in India, populations with a high HIV burden. We tested whether social support and resilient coping act as mediators of the effect of sexual and gender minority stigmas on depression as proposed by Hatzenbuehler's psychological mediation framework, or as moderators based on Meyer's minority stress theory. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among trans women (n = 300) and MSM (n = 300) recruited from urban and rural sites in India...
April 19, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421427/community-violence-exposure-and-risk-taking-behaviors-among-black-emerging-adults-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Robert Motley, Whitney Sewell, Yu-Chih Chen
Black emerging adults ages 18-29, particularly those residing in predominantly black urban communities, are at risk for community violence exposure (CVE). This potentially traumatic event may induce traumatic stress reactions for black emerging adults that contribute to their engagement in violence perpetration, substance use and/or sexual risk-taking behaviors as a way to cope with their experiences. To address these identified concerns and make recommendations for future research, this article identifies and synthesizes results from studies that have examined CVE and its association with violence perpetration, substance use, and sexual risk-taking behaviors among black emerging adults...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421026/keeping-the-spirits-up-the-effect-of-teachers-and-parents-emotional-support-on-children-s-working-memory-performance
#15
Loren Vandenbroucke, Jantine Spilt, Karine Verschueren, Dieter Baeyens
Working memory, used to temporarily store and mentally manipulate information, is important for children's learning. It is therefore valuable to understand which (contextual) factors promote or hinder working memory performance. Recent research shows positive associations between positive parent-child and teacher-student interactions and working memory performance and development. However, no study has yet experimentally investigated how parents and teachers affect working memory performance. Based on attachment theory, the current study investigated the role of parent and teacher emotional support in promoting working memory performance by buffering the negative effect of social stress...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421012/moderated-online-social-therapy-a-model-for-reducing-stress-in-carers-of-young-people-diagnosed-with-mental-health-disorders
#16
John Gleeson, Reeva Lederman, Peter Koval, Greg Wadley, Sarah Bendall, Sue Cotton, Helen Herrman, Kingsley Crisp, Mario Alvarez-Jimenez
Family members caring for a young person diagnosed with the onset of mental health problems face heightened stress, depression, and social isolation. Despite evidence for the effectiveness of family based interventions, sustaining access to specialist family interventions is a major challenge. The availability of the Internet provides possibilities to expand and sustain access to evidence-based psychoeducation and personal support for family members. In this paper we describe the therapeutic model and the components of our purpose-built moderated online social therapy (MOST) program for families...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420596/the-behaviors-and-experiences-of-the-community-pharmacy-team-on-the-provision-of-multi-compartment-compliance-aids
#17
Derek Stewart, Craig McDonald, Joan MacLeod, Katie MacLure, Gwen Gray, Trudi McIntosh
BACKGROUND: Multi-compartment compliance aids (MCAs) are repackaging systems for solid dosage form medicines. Acknowledging the lack of evidence that MCAs improve adherence or clinical outcomes, the Royal Pharmaceutical Society has expressed concern that MCAs have 'become regarded as a panacea for medicines use'. OBJECTIVES: To determine the behaviors and experiences of the community pharmacy team around MCA provision. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 26 community pharmacies in the north east of Scotland...
April 9, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419649/a-paradigm-for-examining-stress-effects-on-alcohol-motivated-behaviors-in-participants-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#18
Mary E McCaul, Gary S Wand, Elise M Weerts, Xiaoqiang Xu
Although epidemiological research has shown an increase in drinking following stressors and trauma, limited paradigms have been validated to study the relationship between stress and drinking in the human laboratory. The current study developed a progressive ratio (PR) operant procedure to examine the effects of psychosocial stress on alcohol craving and several alcohol-motivated behaviors in persons with alcohol use disorder. Current heavy, nontreatment-seeking drinkers (N = 30) were media-recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment of recent drinking, mood and health...
April 17, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418714/more-than-a-physical-burden-women-s-mental-and-emotional-work-in-preventing-pregnancy
#19
Katrina Kimport
In the United States, responsibility for preventing pregnancy in heterosexual relationships disproportionately falls on women. While the biotechnological landscape of available methods may explain the assignment of the physical burden for contraception to women, this does not mean the concomitant time, attention, and stress that preventing pregnancy requires must also be primarily assumed by women. Building on work identifying health care providers as contributors to the construction of normative ideas about reproduction, this study analyzed 52 contraceptive counseling visits with women who reported they did not want future children for the construction of responsibility for the mental and emotional aspects of contraception...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418323/the-personality-profile-of-tinnitus-sufferers-and-a-nontinnitus-control-group
#20
Mithila Durai, Mary G O'Keeffe, Grant D Searchfield
BACKGROUND: Chronic tinnitus (phantom perception of sound) significantly disrupts quality of life in 15-20% of those who experience it. Understanding how certain personality traits impact tinnitus perception and distress can be beneficial for the development of interventions to improve the lives of tinnitus sufferers. PURPOSE: Four key self-reported personality traits (social closeness, stress reaction, alienation, and self-control) were identified from previous research as being associated with tinnitus...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
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