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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045750/aging-and-hiv-related-caregiving-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-social-ecological-approach
#1
Jeon Small, Carolyn Aldwin, Paul Kowal, Somnath Chatterji, Rachel Pruchno
Background and Objectives: We reviewed the literature on older adults (OAs) who are caring for persons living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with the goal of adapting models of caregiver stress and coping to include culturally relevant and contextually appropriate factors specific to SSA, drawing on both life course and cultural capital theories. Research Design and Methods: A systematic literature search found 81 articles published between 1975 and 2016 which were reviewed using a narrative approach...
October 17, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045260/encopresis-plus
#2
DePorres Cormier, Marie Reilly, Amy Young, Marilyn Augustyn
Dexter is a 12-year-old boy who presents with his maternal grandmother for follow-up to primary care for secondary encopresis. Dexter presented, 18 months ago, with a 3-month history of secondary encopresis. At that time, a comprehensive assessment revealed functional constipation resulting in encopresis. Dexter's symptoms resolved with a combination of medication management and behavioral strategies; laxatives were discontinued 12 months ago.Dexter's grandmother reports that for the past 6 months, her grandson developed encopresis once again...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044320/drought-monitoring-in-the-brazilian-semiarid-region
#3
Regina C S Alvalá, Ana Paula M A Cunha, Sheila S B Brito, Marcelo E Seluchi, José A Marengo, Osvaldo L L Moraes, Magog A Carvalho
Drought is a natural and recurrent phenomenon. It is considered 'a natural disaster' whenever it occurs in an intensive manner in highly populated regions, resulting in significant damage (material and human) and loss (socioeconomic). This paper presents the efforts developed to monitor the impact of drought in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil. In this scope, information from different sources is compiled to support the evaluation and identification of impacted municipalities, with the main objective of supporting emergency actions to mitigate their impact...
October 16, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042878/the-evaluation-acute-traumatic-stress-level-in-close-relatives-of-stroke-patients
#4
Yasemin Ünal, Yes Im Ünal, Dilek A Öztürk, Gülser K Emir, Mustafa Yılmaz, Gulnihal Kutlu
OBJECTIVE: Stroke is the second most common cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. Both stroke patients and their family can therefore experience increased traumatic stress level. METHODS: The participants are close relatives of patients (n=65) who had a first time stroke (CRPWS) hospitalized. A control group (CG) (n=61), who had no history of chronic illness in their family and had at least one traumatic life event experience. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Modified Rankin Scale, Personal Information Form, Life Events Checklist, Traumatic Stress Symptom Scale, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, were used in the study...
September 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042513/distress-and-rumor-exposure-on-social-media-during-a-campus-lockdown
#5
Nickolas M Jones, Rebecca R Thompson, Christine Dunkel Schetter, Roxane Cohen Silver
During crisis events, people often seek out event-related information to stay informed of what is happening. However, when information from official channels is lacking or disseminated irregularly, people may be at risk for exposure to rumors that fill the information void. We studied information-seeking during a university lockdown following an active-shooter event. In study 1, students in the lockdown (n = 3,890) completed anonymous surveys 1 week later. Those who indicated receiving conflicting information about the lockdown reported greater acute stress [standardized regression coefficient (b) = 0...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042485/maternal-stress-during-pregnancy-and-allergic-diseases-in-children-during-the-first-year-of-life
#6
Katarzyna Smejda, Kinga Polanska, Dorota Merecz-Kot, Anna Krol, Wojciech Hanke, Joanna Jerzynska, Wlodzimierz Stelmach, Paweł Majak, Iwona Stelmach
BACKGROUND: Many recent studies indicate that prenatal maternal distress increases the risk of allergic diseases in children. The mechanisms that favor it are still unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the association between exposure to different kinds of prenatal stress and the occurrence of atopic dermatitis, food allergy, wheezing, and recurrent respiratory tract infections in children. METHODS: The study population consisted of 370 mother-child pairs from a Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL)...
October 17, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042341/pain-self-management-for-veterans-development-and-pilot-test-of-a-stage-based-mobile-optimized-intervention
#7
Sara S Johnson, Deborah A Levesque, Lynne E Broderick, Dustin G Bailey, Robert D Kerns
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a significant public health burden affecting more Americans than cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer combined. Veterans are disproportionately affected by chronic pain. Among previously deployed soldiers and veterans, the prevalence of chronic pain is estimated between 44% and 60%. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to develop and pilot-test Health eRide: Your Journey to Managing Pain, a mobile pain self-management program for chronic musculoskeletal pain for veterans...
October 17, 2017: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042248/the-antidepressant-and-anxiolytic-like-effects-of-fluoxetine-and-clozapine-in-chronically-isolated-rats-involve-inhibition-of-hippocampal-tnf-%C3%AE
#8
Nevena Todorović, Dragana Filipović
Brain oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are implicated in psychiatric disorders. Thus, it is important to investigate the effects of individual psychotropic agents on antioxidative defense and proinflammatory mediators in brain regions associated with these disorders. Psychosocial stress is recognized as a threat to mental health, and the hippocampus is a primary target of stress-related damage. Chronic social isolation (CSIS) is a mild psychosocial stress used to model the pathophysiology of depression...
October 14, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040891/acceptance-lowers-stress-reactivity-dismantling-mindfulness-training-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Emily K Lindsay, Shinzen Young, Joshua M Smyth, Kirk Warren Brown, J David Creswell
OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness interventions, which train practitioners to monitor their present-moment experience with a lens of acceptance, are known to buffer stress reactivity. Little is known about the active mechanisms driving these effects. We theorize that acceptance is a critical emotion regulation mechanism underlying mindfulness stress reduction effects. METHOD: In this three-arm parallel trial, mindfulness components were dismantled into three structurally equivalent 15-lesson smartphone-based interventions: (1) training in both monitoring and acceptance (Monitor+Accept), (2) training in monitoring only (Monitor Only), or (3) active control training (Coping control)...
October 8, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040776/self-reported-cognitive-biases-moderate-the-associations-between-social-stress-and-paranoid-ideation-in-a-virtual-reality-experimental-study
#10
Roos Pot-Kolder, Wim Veling, Jacqueline Counotte, Mark van der Gaag
Introduction: Cognitive biases are associated with psychosis liability and paranoid ideation. This study investigated the moderating relationship between pre-existing self-reported cognitive biases and the occurrence of paranoid ideation in response to different levels of social stress in a virtual reality environment. Methods: This study included 170 participants with different levels of psychosis liability (55 recent onset psychosis, 20 ultrahigh risk for psychosis, 42 siblings of psychotic patients, and 53 controls)...
October 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039706/associations-of-self-presentation-on-facebook-with-mental-health-and-personality-variables-a-systematic-review
#11
Conal Twomey, Gary O'Reilly
Many investigations of the associations of self-presentation on Facebook with mental health and personality variables exist, but their findings have not yet been synthetized. We therefore carried out a narrative synthesis of 21 observational studies (combined N = 7,573) obtained from a systematic search of four academic databases. Significant self-presentation associations were yielded for self-esteem, perceived social support, social anxiety, well-being, depression, bipolar/mania, stress, self-consciousness, and insecure attachment...
October 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039684/parenting-stress-in-parents-of-infants-with-congenital-heart-disease-and-parents-of-healthy-infants-the-first-year-of-life
#12
Nadya Golfenshtein, Alexandra L Hanlon, Janet A Deatrick, Barbara Medoff-Cooper
While we know that the parents of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD), the most prevalent group of congenital anomalies, experience increased parenting stress, the stress levels throughout infancy have yet to be studied. Stress experienced by parents beyond the normative stress of parenting can interfere with parenting processes, and bear adverse family outcomes. This prospective cohort study was conducted to describe and compare parenting stress levels during infancy between parents of infants with complex CHD and parents of healthy infants...
October 17, 2017: Compr Child Adolesc Nurs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038689/making-connections-exploring-the-centrality-of-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-and-covariates-after-a-terrorist-attack
#13
Marianne Skogbrott Birkeland, Trond Heir
Background: Posttraumatic stress symptoms are interconnected. Knowledge about which symptoms of posttraumatic stress are more strongly interconnected or central than others may have implications for the targeting of clinical interventions. Exploring whether symptoms of posttraumatic stress may be differentially related to covariates can contribute to our knowledge on how posttraumatic stress symptoms arise and are maintained. Objective: This study aimed to identify the most central symptoms of posttraumatic stress and their interconnections, and to explore how covariates such as exposure, sex, neuroticism, and social support are related to the network of symptoms of posttraumatic stress...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038687/mental-health-status-of-north-korean-refugees-in-south-korea-and-risk-and-protective-factors-a-10-year-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
Yeeun Lee, Minji Lee, Subin Park
Background: North Korean refugees (NKRs) are often exposed to traumatic events in North Korea and during their defection. Furthermore, they face sociocultural barriers in adapting to the new society to which they have defected. Objective: To integrate previous findings on this mentally vulnerable population, we systematically reviewed articles on the mental health of NKRs in South Korea. Method: We searched for empirical studies conducted in the last 10 years in six online databases (international journals: Embase, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science; Korean journals: DBPIA, KMbase) through June 2017...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038678/posttraumatic-growth-and-recovery-from-addiction
#15
Eyal Haroosh, Sara Freedman
Background: It is well documented that individuals coping with adverse events report both negative outcomes, such as posttraumatic stress symptoms, as well as positive changes, described as posttraumatic growth. Positive changes are also reported in people who have recovered from substance abuse. It seems plausible from the literature that both of these types of positive changes have elements in common. To date, no published studies have examined positive outcomes among people who have recovered from addiction...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038016/age-sex-mating-status-but-not-social-isolation-interact-to-shape-basal-immunity-in-a-group-living-insect
#16
Fanny Vogelweith, Susanne Foitzik, Joël Meunier
Immunity is a crucial but costly trait. Individuals should therefore adjust their investment into immunity to their condition and infection risks, which are often determined by their age, sex, mating status and social environment. However, whether and how these four key factors can interact to shape basal immunity remains poorly understood. Here, we tested the simultaneous effects of these factors on hemocyte concentration and phenoloxidase activity in adults of the European earwig. We found that hemocyte concentration increased with age, and that this increase was stronger in males...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037619/evidence-based-effects-of-yoga-practice-on-various-health-related-problems-of-elderly-people-a-review
#17
A Mooventhan, L Nivethitha
More than 50% of the elderly above 60 years of age suffer from chronic medical conditions, the prevalence of which increases with age. Though Yoga has been reported as an effective modality in improving various physical and psychological aspects of elderly populations, a comprehensive review of Yoga and its effects on various health related problems of elderly populations has not yet been reported. Hence, we performed PubMed/Medline search to review relevant articles, using keyword "yoga and elderly". Relevant articles published since inception till 6th October 2016 were included for the review...
October 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037266/is-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-more-effective-than-relaxation-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-anxiety-disorders-a-meta-analysis
#18
Jesus Montero-Marin, Javier Garcia-Campayo, Alba López-Montoyo, Edurne Zabaleta-Del-Olmo, Pim Cuijpers
BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether relaxation therapies are more or less effective than cognitive and behavioural therapies in the treatment of anxiety. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of relaxation techniques compared to cognitive and behavioural therapies in reducing anxiety symptoms, and whether they have comparable efficacy across disorders. METHOD: We conducted a meta-analysis of 50 studies (2801 patients) comparing relaxation training with cognitive and behavioural treatments of anxiety...
October 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037115/low-subjective-social-status-in-the-police-is-linked-to-health-relevant-changes-in-diurnal-salivary-alpha-amylase-activity-in-swiss-police-officers
#19
Stéphanie Habersaat, Sid Abdellaoui, Ashley M Geiger, Sébastien Urben, Jutta M Wolf
The objective of this study was to assess basal autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity as a pathway linking subjective social status to health in a high-demand work environment. It was hypothesized that officers with a lower status experienced more chronic stress (higher basal ANS activity) and that chronic stress was related to more health problems. Fifty-six male and female Swiss police officers self-reported on subjective social status (country, community, friends, police) and their health (depression, post-traumatic stress, physical symptoms) and collected 12 saliva samples over two days for basal α-amylase activation (sAA) assessment...
October 16, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037088/physical-fitness-and-prior-physical-activity-are-both-associated-with-less-cortisol-secretion-during-psychosocial-stress
#20
Carly J Wood, Angela Clow, Frank Hucklebridge, Robin Law, Nina Smyth
BACKGROUND: Evidence linking fitness and decreased psychosocial stress comes from studies of athletes and typically relies upon self-report measures. Furthermore, there is little evidence regarding the impact of physical activity (PA) prior to a stressor. The aims of this study were to determine whether fitness and prior PA influence cortisol concentrations during psychosocial stress. METHODS: Seventy-five non-athletic participants took part in a submaximal walk prior to the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G)...
October 16, 2017: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
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