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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232576/effects-of-oxytocin-on-cortisol-reactivity-and-conflict-resolution-behaviors-among-couples-with-substance-misuse
#1
Julianne C Flanagan, Melanie S Fischer, Paul J Nietert, Sudie E Back, Megan Moran-Santa Maria, Alexandra Snead, Kathleen T Brady
Social stress, particularly in the form of dyadic conflict, is a well-established correlate of substance use disorders (SUD). The neuropeptide oxytocin can enhance prosocial behavior and mitigate addictive behaviors. These effects may be, in part, a result of oxytocin's ability to attenuate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation. However, only one study to date has examined the effects of oxytocin on neuroendocrine reactivity or conflict resolution behavior among couples. Participants (N = 33 couples or 66 total participants) were heterosexual couples in which one or both partners endorsed substance misuse...
December 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232329/cortisol-and-subjective-stress-responses-to-acute-psychosocial-stress-in-fibromyalgia-patients-and-control-participants
#2
Eline Coppens, Stefan Kempke, Peter Van Wambeke, Stephan Claes, Bart Morlion, Patrick Luyten, Lukas Van Oudenhove
OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction may play a role in fibromyalgia (FM) pathogenesis, but remains understudied in this disorder. Furthermore, early childhood adversities (ECA) are common in FM, but whether they moderate stress reactivity is unknown. Hence, we investigated cortisol and subjective responses to acute psychosocial stress in FM and controls, while adjusting for ECA. METHODS: Twenty-seven female FM patients and 24 age-matched female controls were recruited in a tertiary care center and through advertisements, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231071/the-mental-health-of-married-immigrant-women-in-south-korea-and-its-risk-and-protective-factors-a-literature-review
#3
Yeeun Lee, Subin Park
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Married immigrant women in South Korea undergo a wide array of psychosocial challenges in the process of adapting to a new culture and marriage with a Korean husband. For an integrative understanding of women's mental health status and to determine the key risk and protective factors, we systematically reviewed empirical articles about the mental health of married immigrant women. METHODS: We searched and reviewed articles from nine online databases: PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, Embase, DBpia, KISS, KMbase, KoreaMed and RISS, which were published up until January 2017...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229655/new-zealand-policy-experts-appraisal-of-interventions-to-reduce-smoking-in-young-adults-a-qualitative-investigation
#4
Jude Ball, Janet Hoek, El Shadan Tautolo, Heather Gifford
OBJECTIVES: Reducing smoking in young adults, particularly young Māori and Pacific, is vital for reducing tobacco harm and health inequalities in New Zealand (NZ). We investigated how NZ policy experts appraised the feasibility and likely effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce smoking prevalence among 18-24 year olds. DESIGN: We used a qualitative design, conducting semistructured interviews and applying thematic analysis. PARTICIPANTS: We interviewed 15 key informants, including politicians, senior policy analysts and leading tobacco control advocates...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229589/the-effect-of-group-support-psychotherapy-delivered-by-trained-lay-health-workers-for-depression-treatment-among-people-with-hiv-in-uganda-protocol-of-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomized-trial
#5
Etheldreda Nakimuli-Mpungu, Seggane Musisi, Kizito Wamala, James Okello, Sheila Ndyanabangi, Ramin Mojtabai, Jean Nachega, Ofir Harari, Edward Mills
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the effectiveness of task shifting of mental health services in populations with HIV. OBJECTIVE: This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of group support psychotherapy delivered by trained lay health workers to persons living with HIV (PLWH) with depression in primary care. METHODS: Thirty eligible primary care health centers across three districts were randomly allocated to have their lay health workers trained to deliver group support psychotherapy (intervention arm) or group HIV education and treatment as usual (control arm) to PLWH with depression...
December 11, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229044/the-commercialization-of-patient-related-decision-making-in-hospitals
#6
Karl-Heinz Wehkamp, Heinz Naegler
BACKGROUND: Hospitals must make a profit to ensure their continued existence. The observed rises in case numbers and case-mix indices lead us to suspect that the admission, treatment, and discharge of patients are now being influenced not just by purely medical factors, but also by economic considerations with a view toward making a profit-i.e., that decision-making has become partially commercialized. In this study, we investigated whether doctors and hospital chief executive officers (CEOs) share this perception of their professional environment...
November 24, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229018/prenatal-influences-on-temperament-development-the-role-of-environmental-epigenetics
#7
Maria A Gartstein, Michael K Skinner
This review summarizes current knowledge and outlines future directions relevant to questions concerning environmental epigenetics and the processes that contribute to temperament development. Links between prenatal adversity, epigenetic programming, and early manifestations of temperament are important in their own right, also informing our understanding of biological foundations for social-emotional development. In addition, infant temperament attributes represent key etiological factors in the onset of developmental psychopathology, and studies elucidating their prenatal foundations expand our understanding of developmental origins of health and disease...
December 12, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228293/providing-mental-health-care-for-the-complex-older-veteran-implications-for-social-work-practice
#8
Gayle Clark, Susan Rouse, Heather Spangler, Jennifer Moye
Mental health conditions are underdiagnosed and undertreated in older veterans, as with all older adults. Social workers bring an important perspective to the interdisciplinary team for the care of older veterans with mental health conditions. In this study authors assessed 50 older veterans referred for mental health treatment (mean age = 74.52 years, SD = 6.48) with standardized measures of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and cognitive impairment. At initial assessment, 24 percent had moderate depression, 30 percent had PTSD, and 62 percent (n = 31) had (mostly mild) cognitive impairment based on cut scores...
December 8, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227889/nursing-and-midwifery-students-stress-and-coping-during-their-undergraduate-education-programmes-an-integrative-review
#9
REVIEW
Bridie McCarthy, Anna Trace, Moira O'Donovan, Caroline Brady-Nevin, Margaret Murphy, Maria O'Shea, Patricia O'Regan
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to examine the literature related to the sources of stress, coping mechanisms and interventions to support undergraduate nursing and midwifery students to cope with stress during their undergraduate education. DESIGN: Integrative literature review. DATA SOURCES: The databases CINAHL, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for articles published between 2010 and 2016. Search terms in various combinations were used for example; student nurse, student midwife, undergraduate, stress, coping and interventions...
November 28, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227584/npas4-deficiency-and-prenatal-stress-interact-to-affect-social-recognition-in-mice
#10
Kelsey Heslin, Laurence Coutellier
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia have an expansive array of reported genetic and environmental contributing factors. However, none of these factors alone can account for a substantial proportion of cases of either disorder. Instead, many gene-by-environment interactions are responsible for neurodevelopmental disturbances that lead to these disorders. The current experiment used heterozygous knock-out mice to examine a potential interaction between two factors commonly linked to neurodevelopmental disorders and cognitive deficit: imbalanced excitatory/inhibitory signaling in the cortex and prenatal stress (PNS) exposure...
December 11, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226791/counting-the-cost-of-afrophobia-post-migration-adaptation-and-mental-health-challenges-of-african-refugees-in-south-africa
#11
Lindokuhle Thela, Andrew Tomita, Varsha Maharaj, Mpho Mhlongo, Jonathan K Burns
There are few studies on the role of migration within sub-Saharan Africa and its relation to the development of mental illness. We investigated post-resettlement adaptation and mental health challenges of African refugees/migrants in Durban, South Africa. We interviewed 335 African help-seeking refugees/migrants for anxiety, depression (25-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (30-item Harvard Trauma Questionnaire). Socio-demographic and migration history, focusing on post-migration circumstances and experiences of discrimination in the host country, were obtained...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226443/lessons-from-analyzing-the-medical-costs-of-civilian-terror-victims-planning-resources-allocation-for-a-new-era-of-confrontations
#12
Eytan Ellenberg, Mark I Taragin, Jay R Hoffman, Osnat Cohen, Daniella Luft-Afik, Zvia Bar-On, Ishay Ostfeld
Policy Points: Across the globe, the threat from terrorist attacks is rising, which requires a careful assessment of long-term medical support. We found 3 major sources of costs: hospital expenditures, mental health services dedicated to acute stress reactions, and ambulatory follow-up. During the first year, most of the costs were related to hospitalization and support for stress relief. During the second year, ambulatory and rehabilitation costs continued to grow. Public health specialists should consider these major components of costs and their evolution over time to properly advise the medical and social authorities on allocating resources for the medical and nonmedical support of civilian casualties resulting from war or terror...
December 2017: Milbank Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226256/general-and-proximal-associations-between-unpaid-eldercare-time-constraints-and-subjective-well-being
#13
Jack Lam, Joan Garcia
Using 2012/13 American Time Use Survey, we find as compared to non-caregivers, caregivers report less time on personal care, social activities and sports and more time on housework. They also report higher stress and lower happiness when engaged in daily activities. Further, using diary information which captures activities during a 24-hour window, we compare caregivers on days they provide care and caregivers on days they do not provide care. Caregivers report more time on housework and less on paid work, and higher levels of sadness when engaged in daily activities...
March 2017: International Journal of Care and Caring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226194/childhood-socioeconomic-status-and-stress-in-late-adulthood-a-longitudinal-approach-to-measuring-allostatic-load
#14
Katelyn Y Graves, Alexandra C H Nowakowski
Objectives: This study examines how the effects of childhood socioeconomic status (SES) may carry on into late adulthood. Methods: We examine how childhood SES affects both perceived stress and allostatic load, which is a cumulative measure of the body's biologic response to chronic stress. We use the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, Waves 1 and 2, and suggest a novel method of incorporating a longitudinal allostatic load measure. Results: Individuals who grew up in low SES households have higher allostatic load scores in late adulthood, and this association is mediated mostly by educational attainment...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225445/-they-have-said-that-i-was-slightly-depressed-but-there-are-circumstances-that-bring-that-on-how-middle-aged-and-older-african-american-men-describe-perceived-stress-and-depression
#15
Emily K Cornish, Erin M Bergner, Derek M Griffith
Objective: Few studies have focused on how men perceive stress and depression, and even fewer have examined how men of a specific racial or ethnic group describe their experiences of these conditions. African American men tend to define health in ways that are inclusive of their physical health, health behaviors, and mental health, but research has largely failed to explore how men put their health and mental health in social contexts. The objective of this article is to explore how middle-aged and older African American men who self-identify as having depression: 1) differentiate stress from depression; and 2) describe depression...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225338/early-life-adversity-and-cortisol-response-to-social-stress-a-meta-analysis
#16
Ioana Maria Bunea, Aurora Szentágotai-Tătar, Andrei C Miu
Early-life adversity has been associated with a life-long increased risk for psychopathology and chronic health problems. These long-term negative effects have been explained through stress sensitization, which may involve dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis through either increased or decreased reactivity. The present meta-analysis assessed for the first time the effect of early-life adversity on cortisol response to social stress. Thirty data sets were included in the meta-analysis, in which early-life adversity and salivary cortisol response to social stress were assessed in 4292 individuals of different ages...
December 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223771/comparative-studies-of-social-buffering-a-consideration-of-approaches-terminology-and-pitfalls
#17
REVIEW
Yasushi Kiyokawa, Michael B Hennessy
KIYOKAWA, Y. and HENNESSY, M.B. Social buffering of stress responses: A consideration of approaches, terminology, and pitfalls…NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XXX-XXX, .- Over the past decades, there has been an increasing number of investigations of the impact of social variables on neural, endocrine, and immune outcomes. Among these are studies of "social buffering"-or the phenomenon by which affiliative social partners mitigate the response to stressors. Yet, as social buffering studies have become more commonplace, the variety of approaches taken, definitions employed, and divergent results obtained in different species can lead to confusion and miscommunication...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223176/the-influence-of-exposure-to-natural-disasters-on-depression-and-ptsd-symptoms-among-firefighters
#18
Michelle L Pennington, Thomas P Carpenter, Samantha J Synett, Victoria A Torres, Jennifer Teague, Sandra B Morissette, Jeffrey Knight, Barbara W Kamholz, Terence M Keane, Rose T Zimering, Suzy B Gulliver
Introduction Firefighters represent an important population for understanding the consequences of exposure to potentially traumatic stressors. Hypothesis/Problem The researchers were interested in the effects of pre-employment disaster exposure on firefighter recruits' depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms during the first three years of fire service and hypothesized that: (1) disaster-exposed firefighters would have greater depression and PTSD symptoms than non-exposed overall; and (2) depression and PTSD symptoms would worsen over years in fire service in exposed firefighters, but not in their unexposed counterparts...
December 10, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222850/exploratory-study-of-imagery-rescripting-without-focusing-on-early-traumatic-memories-for-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Fuminori Yamada, Yoichi Hiramatsu, Tomokazu Murata, Yoichi Seki, Mizue Yokoo, Remi Noguchi, Takayuki Shibuya, Mari Tanaka, Rieko Takanashi, Eiji Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Mental imagery has a more powerful impact on our emotions than thinking in words about the same material. Treating intrusive images with imagery rescripting (IR) has been reported for various disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, and bipolar disorder. There has been less research about IR as a major depressive disorder (MDD). AIMS: We examined whether IR without focusing on early traumatic memories is effective in MDD...
December 9, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222486/the-role-of-personality-and-subjective-exposure-experiences-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-depression-symptoms-among-children-following-wenchuan-earthquake
#20
Xiacan Chen, Jiajun Xu, Bin Li, Na Li, Wanjun Guo, Mao-Sheng Ran, Jun Zhang, Yanchun Yang, Junmei Hu
This study aims to investigate the role of personality traits and subjective exposure experiences in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. In Qingchuan, 21,652 children aged 7 to 15 years were assessed using face-to-face interviews one year after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. The Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, a modified earthquake exposure scale, the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (adolescent), and the Adolescent Depression Inventory were used to assess personality characteristics, trauma experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms, respectively...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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