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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209207/antiepileptic-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-oleamide-in-rat-striatum-on-kainate-induced-behavioral-seizure-and-excitotoxic-damage-via-calpain-inhibition
#1
Hye Yeon Nam, Eun Jung Na, Eunyoung Lee, Youngjoo Kwon, Hwa-Jung Kim
Oleamide was first known as a sleep-inducing fatty acid amide, and later shown to have wide range of neuropharmacological effects upon different neurochemical systems. However, the effects of oleamide on brain damage have scarcely been studied, and the molecular mechanisms and sites of its action remain elusive. Kainic acid (KA) has been used to produce an epileptic animal model that mimics human temporal lobe epilepsy and to induce calpain-activated excitotoxicity, which occurs in numerous neurodegenerative disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203398/metyrapone-prevents-acute-glucose-hypermetabolism-and-short-term-brain-damage-induced-by-intrahippocampal-administration-of-4-aminopyridine-in-rats
#2
Luis García-García, Rubén Fernández de la Rosa, Mercedes Delgado, Ágata Silván, Pablo Bascuñana, Jens P Bankstahl, Francisca Gomez, Miguel A Pozo
Intracerebral administration of the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) triggers neuronal depolarization and intense acute seizure activity followed by neuronal damage. We have recently shown that, in the lithium-pilocarpine rat model of status epilepticus, a single administration of metyrapone, an inhibitor of the 11β-hydroxylase enzyme, had protective properties of preventive nature against signs of brain damage and neuroinflammation. Herein, our aim was to investigate to which extent, pretreatment with metyrapone (150 mg/kg, i...
December 1, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170981/natural-dietary-supplementation-of-anthocyanins-via-pi3k-akt-nrf2-ho-1-pathways-mitigate-oxidative-stress-neurodegeneration-and-memory-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Tahir Ali, Taehyun Kim, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Muhammad Sohail Khan, Faiz Ul Amin, Mehtab Khan, Muhammad Ikram, Myeong Ok Kim
Well-established studies have shown an elevated level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induces oxidative stress in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient's brain and an animal model of AD. Herein, we investigated the underlying anti-oxidant neuroprotective mechanism of natural dietary supplementation of anthocyanins extracted from Korean black beans in the amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) mouse model of AD. Both in vivo (APP/PS1 mice) and in vitro (mouse hippocampal HT22 cells) results demonstrated that anthocyanins regulate the phosphorylated-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt-glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (p-PI3K/Akt/GSK3β) pathways and consequently attenuate amyloid beta oligomer (AβO)-induced elevations in ROS level and oxidative stress via stimulating the master endogenous anti-oxidant system of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1) pathways and prevent apoptosis and neurodegeneration by suppressing the apoptotic and neurodegenerative markers such as activation of caspase-3 and PARP-1 expression as well as the TUNEL and Fluoro-Jade B-positive neuronal cells in the APP/PS1 mice...
November 23, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168791/administration-of-protocatechuic-acid-reduces-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-neuronal-death
#4
Sang Hwon Lee, Bo Young Choi, Song Hee Lee, A Ra Kho, Jeong Hyun Jeong, Dae Ki Hong, Sang Won Suh
Protocatechuic acid (PCA) was first purified from green tea and has shown numerous biological activities, including anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic effects. The effect of PCA on traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced neuronal death has not previously been evaluated. TBI is defined as damage to the brain resulting from external mechanical force, such as rapid acceleration or deceleration, impact, blast waves, or penetration by a projectile. TBI causes neuronal death in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160141/effects-of-mild-blast-traumatic-brain-injury-on-cerebral-vascular-histopathological-and-behavioral-outcomes-in-rats
#5
Uylissa A Rodriguez, Yaping Zeng, Donald James Deyo, Margaret O Parsley, Bridget E Hawkins, Donald S Prough, Douglas DeWitt
To determine the effects of mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), several groups of rats were subjected to blast injury or sham injury in a compressed air-driven shock tube. The effects of bTBI on relative cerebral perfusion (laser Doppler flowmetry, LDF), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) cerebral vascular resistance were measured for two hrs post-bTBI. Dilator responses to reduced intravascular pressure were measured in isolated middle cerebral arterial (MCA) segments, ex vivo, 30 and 60 min post-bTBI...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154281/gradual-cerebral-hypoperfusion-impairs-fear-conditioning-and-object-recognition-learning-and-memory-in-mice-potential-roles-of-neurodegeneration-and-cholinergic-dysfunction
#6
Jogender Mehla, Sean Lacoursiere, Emily Stuart, Robert J McDonald, Majid H Mohajerani
In the present study, male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to gradual cerebral hypoperfusion by implanting an ameroid constrictor (AC) on the left common carotid artery (CCA) and a stenosis on the right CCA. In the sham group, all surgical procedures were kept the same except no AC was implanted and stenosis was not performed. One month following the surgical procedures, fear conditioning and object recognition tests were conducted to evaluate learning and memory functions and motor functions were assessed using a balance beam test...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134540/acute-connexin43-temporal-and-spatial-expression-in-response-to-ischemic-stroke
#7
Moises Freitas-Andrade, Jennifer She, John Bechberger, Christian C Naus, Wun Chey Sin
Connexin43 (Cx43) gap junctions expressed in astrocytes can significantly impact neuronal survival in stroke. However, little is known regarding Cx43 spatial and temporal expression during the initial stages of brain ischemia. Using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, we examined Cx43 spatial and temporal expression as a function of neuronal injury within the first 24 h after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Western blot analysis showed a significant increase in Cx43 protein expression in the core ischemic area at 2 and 3 h after pMCAO...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113928/cerebral-malaria-causes-enduring-behavioral-and-molecular-changes-in-mice-brain-without-causing-gross-histopathological-damage
#8
Thaíze Lopes de Souza, Ana Claudia Beck Grauncke, Leandro Rodrigo Ribeiro, Fernanda Kulinski Mello, Sara Marchesan Oliveira, Fátima Brant, Fabiana S Machado, Mauro Schneider Oliveira
Malaria, parasitic disease considered a major health public problem, is caused by Plasmodium protozoan genus and transmitted by the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquito genus. Cerebral malaria (CM) is the most severe presentation of malaria, caused by P. falciparum and responsible for high mortality and enduring development of cognitive deficits which may persist even after cure and cessation of therapy. In the present study we evaluated selected behavioral, neurochemical and neuropathologic parameters after rescue from experimental cerebral malaria caused by P...
November 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113305/vinpocetine-alleviate-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-down-regulating-tlr4-myd88-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#9
Li-Rong Wu, Liang Liu, Xiao-Yi Xiong, Qin Zhang, Fa-Xiang Wang, Chang-Xiong Gong, Qi Zhong, Yuan-Rui Yang, Zhao-You Meng, Qing-Wu Yang
Inflammatory responses play crucial roles in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important mediator of the neuroinflammatory response to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Vinpocetine is a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine and exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting NF-κB activation. However, the effects of vinpocetine on pathways upstream of NF-κB signaling, such as TLR4, have not been fully elucidated. Here, we used mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and cell-based oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) models to evaluate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of vinpocetine treatment...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089991/effect-of-hyperthermia-on-calbindin-d-28k-immunoreactivity-in-the-hippocampal-formation-following-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-gerbils
#10
Jae-Chul Lee, Jeong-Hwi Cho, Tae-Kyeong Lee, In Hye Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Geum-Sil Cho, Bich-Na Shin, In Koo Hwang, Joon Ha Park, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Il Jun Kang, Young Joo Lee, Yang Hee Kim
Calbindin D-28K (CB), a Ca(2+)-binding protein, maintains Ca(2+) homeostasis and protects neurons against various insults. Hyperthermia can exacerbate brain damage produced by ischemic insults. However, little is reported about the role of CB in the brain under hyperthermic condition during ischemic insults. We investigated the effects of transient global cerebral ischemia on CB immunoreactivity as well as neuronal damage in the hippocampal formation under hyperthermic condition using immunohistochemistry for neuronal nuclei (NeuN) and CB, and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining in gerbils...
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078973/glycyrrhizin-suppresses-the-expressions-of-hmgb1-and-ameliorates-inflammative-effect-after-acute-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rat-model
#11
Chengcheng Ieong, Haogen Sun, Qiangping Wang, Junpeng Ma
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein that has endogenous cytokine-like activity, is involved in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by mediating inflammatory response. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of glycyrrhizin as an inhibitor of HMGB1 in a rat SAH model. Experimental SAH was induced by using autologous blood injection to prechiasmatic cistern. 15 mg/kg glycyrrhizin was administered immediately after SAH induction, and then administered once at 6, 12 and 18 h...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056525/ketogenic-diet-attenuates-neuronal-injury-via-autophagy-and-mitochondrial-pathways-in-pentylenetetrazol-kindled-seizures
#12
Bao-Hui Wang, Qun Hou, Yu-Qiang Lu, Meng-Meng Jia, Tao Qiu, Xiao-Hang Wang, Zheng-Xiang Zhang, Yan Jiang
Autophagy alterations have been observed in a variety of neurological disorders, however, very few studies have focused on autophagy alterations in epilepsy. The ketogenic diet (KD) likely ameliorates neuronal loss in several seizure models. However, whether this neuroprotective function occurs via starvation-induced autophagy and its prevalence in chronic kindled seizures remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the role of autophagy following seizure under KD, and the potential mechanism involved...
October 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048371/znt3-gene-deletion-reduces-colchicine-induced-dentate-granule-cell-degeneration
#13
Bo Young Choi, Dae Ki Hong, Sang Won Suh
Our previous study demonstrated that colchicine-induced dentate granule cell death is caused by blocking axonal flow and the accumulation of intracellular zinc. Zinc is concentrated in the synaptic vesicles via zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3), which facilitates zinc transport from the cytosol into the synaptic vesicles. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of ZnT3 gene deletion on colchicine-induced dentate granule cell death. The present study used young (3-5 months) mice of the wild-type (WT) or the ZnT3(-)(/)(-) genotype...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042193/microrna-126-3p-attenuates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-cerebral-edema-and-neuronal-injury-following-intracerebral-hemorrhage-by-regulating-pik3r2-and-akt
#14
Tianyang Xi, Feng Jin, Ying Zhu, Jialu Wang, Ling Tang, Yanzhe Wang, David S Liebeskind, Zhiyi He
MiR-126, a microRNA implicated in blood vessel integrity, angiogenesis and vascular inflammation, is markedly decreased in the sera of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The current study aims to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of miR-126-3p on brain injuries in a rat model of collagenase-induced ICH. Intracerebroventricular administration of a miR-126-3p mimic significantly alleviated behavioral defects 24 h after ICH, as examined by paw placement and corner tests. ICH led to increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and cerebral edema, both of which were attenuated by miR-126-3p mimic...
December 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986282/exendin-4-attenuates-neuronal-death-via-glp-1r-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-early-brain-injury-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#15
Zhiyi Xie, Budbazar Enkhjargal, Lingyun Wu, Keren Zhou, Chengmei Sun, Xin Hu, Vadim Gospodarev, Jiping Tang, Chao You, John H Zhang
Neuronal apoptosis is considered to be a crucial therapeutic target against early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Emerging evidence indicates that Exendin-4 (Ex-4), a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, plays a neuroprotective role in cerebrovascular disease. This study was conducted in order to verify the neuroprotective role of EX-4 in EBI after SAH in rats. The endovascular perforation model of SAH was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 153). Ex-4 was intraperitoneally injected 1 h after SAH induction in the rats (SAH + Ex-4)...
October 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968287/establishing-a-rodent-model-of-ventricular-fibrillation-cardiac-arrest-with-graded-histologic-and-neurologic-damage-with-different-cardiac-arrest-durations
#16
Florian Ettl, Ingrid A M Magnet, Wolfgang Weihs, Alexandra Warenits, Daniel Grassmann, Michael Wagner, Ursula Teubenbacher, Sandra Högler, Fritz Sterz, Andreas Janata
PURPOSE: To establish a ventricular fibrillation (VF) cardiac arrest (CA) resuscitation model with consistent neurologic and neuropathologic damage as potential therapeutic target. METHODS: Prospectively randomized groups of experiments in 2 phases. In phase 1 four groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5) were resuscitated after 6 min VFCA with 2 and 6 min basic life support durations (BLS) with and without adrenaline. In phase 2 the most promising group regarding return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival was compared to a group of 8 min CA...
September 28, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946820/coenzyme-q10-supplementation-improves-acute-outcomes-of-stroke-in-rats-pretreated-with-atorvastatin
#17
Sanaz Nasoohi, Leila Simani, Fariba Khodagholi, Sara Nikseresht, Mehrdad Faizi, Nima Naderi
OBJECTIVES: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, ubiquinone) stands among the safest supplements in the elderly to protect against cardiovascular disorders. Noteworthy, CoQ10 deficiency is common in many surviving stroke patients as they are mostly prescribed statins for the secondary prevention of stroke incidence lifelong. Accordingly, the current study aims to experimentally examine whether CoQ10 supplementation in animals receiving atorvastatin may affect acute stroke-induced injury. METHODS: Adult rats underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion after atorvastatin pretreatment (5 or 10 mg/ kg/day; po; 30 days) with or without CoQ10 (200 mg/kg/day)...
September 26, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939254/inhibition-of-mek-erk1-2-map-kinase-signalling-pathway-reduces-rabies-virus-induced-pathologies-in-mouse-model
#18
Venkataravanappa Manjunatha, Karam Pal Singh, Mani Saminathan, Rajendra Singh, Nayakwadi Shivasharanappa, Channakeshava Sokke Umeshappa, Kuldeep Dhama, Gundallahalli Bayyappa Manjunathareddy
The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway has been shown to regulate pathogenesis of many viral infections, but its role during rabies virus (RV) infection in vivo is not clear. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of MEK-ERK1/2 signalling pathway in the pathogenesis of rabies in mouse model and its regulatory effects on pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators of immunity, and kinetics of immune cells. Mice were infected with 25 LD50 of challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of RV by intracerebral (i...
September 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936596/age-related-behavioral-morphological-and-physiological-changes-in-the-hippocampus-of-zitter-rats
#19
Ayuka Ehara, Masao Maekawa, Yuuichi Hori, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Shiuchi Ueda
Convulsive seizure is known to be associated with hippocampal abnormalities, such as hilar cell degeneration, abnormal mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus (DG) and abnormal expression of immediate early genes. However, whether these morphological changes are a cause or consequence of convulsive seizures has remained contentious. Zitter (zi/zi) rats carry a mutation of the attractin gene and display spongiform degeneration of the brain. Spontaneous convulsive seizures in zi/zi rats over 8 months (M) old were demonstrated using 24-h video monitoring...
September 21, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923114/homocysteine-exaggerates-microglia-activation-and-neuroinflammation-through-microglia-localized-stat3-overactivation-following-ischemic-stroke
#20
Shuang Chen, Zhiping Dong, Man Cheng, Yaqian Zhao, Mengying Wang, Na Sai, Xuan Wang, Huan Liu, Guowei Huang, Xumei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been indicated as a strong and modifiable risk factor of ischemic stroke; the previous studies have shown that exposure to Hcy activates cultured microglia. However, whether neurotoxicity of Hcy involves microglia activation following brain ischemia and the underlying mechanisms remains incompletely understood. METHODS: The cerebral damage was evaluated by staining with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride, hematoxylin-eosin, and Fluoro Jade B...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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