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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679291/role-of-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-pathway-in-nmda-preconditioning-different-mechanisms-for-seizures-and-hippocampal-neuronal-degeneration-induced-by-quinolinic-acid
#1
Leandra C Constantino, Luisa B Binder, Samuel Vandresen-Filho, Giordano G Viola, Fabiana K Ludka, Mark W Lopes, Rodrigo B Leal, Carla I Tasca
N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) preconditioning is evoked by the administration of a subtoxic dose of NMDA and is protective against neuronal excitotoxicity. This effect may involve a diversity of targets and cell signaling cascades associated to neuroprotection. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38MAPK pathways play a major role in neuroprotective mechanisms. However, their involvement in NMDA preconditioning was not yet fully investigated...
April 20, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644488/brain-ischemic-preconditioning-protects-against-moderate-not-severe-transient-global-cerebral-ischemic-injury
#2
Jae-Chul Lee, Bich-Na Shin, Jeong Hwi Cho, Tae-Kyeong Lee, In Hye Kim, YooHun Noh, Sung-Su Kim, Hyang-Ah Lee, Young-Myeong Kim, Hyeyoung Kim, Jun Hwi Cho, Joon Ha Park, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Il Jun Kang, In Koo Hwang, Moo-Ho Won, Myoung Cheol Shin
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in the brain increases ischemic tolerance to subsequent ischemic insults. In this study, we examined whether IPC protects neurons and attenuates microgliosis or not in the hippocampus following severe transient global cerebral ischemia (TCI) in gerbils. Gerbils were assigned to 8 groups; 5- and 15-min sham operated groups, 5-min and 15-min TCI operated groups, IPC plus 5- and 15-min sham operated groups, and IPC plus 5- and 15-min TCI operated groups. IPC was induced by subjecting animals to 2-min transient ischemia 1 day before 5-min TCI for a typical transient ischemia and 15-min TCI for severe transient ischemia...
April 12, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563509/neuroprotective-effect-of-dexmedetomidine-in-a-murine-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Jin Wu, Todd Vogel, Xiang Gao, Bin Lin, Charles Kulwin, Jinhui Chen
No FDA approved pharmacological therapy is available that would reduce cell death following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Dexmedetomidine (Dex) is a highly selective agonist of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors and has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in hippocampal slice cultures undergoing direct impact. However, no one has tested whether Dex, in addition to its sedative action, has neuroprotective effects in an animal model of TBI. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of Dex on an animal model of TBI...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545205/memantine-decreases-neuronal-degeneration-in-young-rats-submitted-to-licl-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#4
Kamila Cagliari Zenki, Eduardo Kalinine, Eduardo R Zimmer, Thainá Garbino Dos Santos, Ben Hur Marins Mussulini, Luis Valmor Cruz Portela, Diogo Lösch de Oliveira
Several works have demonstrated that status epilepticus (SE) induced-neurodegeneration appears to involve an overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and treatment with high-affinity NMDAR antagonists is neuroprotective against this brain damage. However, these compounds display undesirable side effects for patients since they block physiological NMDA receptor dependent-activity. In this context, memantine (MN), a well tolerable low-affinity NMDAR channel blocker, will be a promising alternative, since it does not compromise the physiological role of NMDA receptors on synaptic transmission...
March 12, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527915/age-dependent-effect-of-long-term-microwave-radiation-on-postnatal-neurogenesis-in-rats-morphological-and-behavioral-study
#5
A Raček, K Beňová, P Arnoul, M Závodská, A Angelidis, V Cigánková, V Šimaiová, E Račeková
Processes of adult neurogenesis can be influenced by environmental factors. Here, we investigated the effect of microwave radiation (MWR) on proliferation and cell dying in the rat rostral migratory stream (RMS) - a migration route for the neuroblasts of the subventricular zone. Adult and juvenile (two weeks old) rats were exposed to a pulsed-wave MWR at the frequency of 2.45 GHz for 3 h daily during 3 weeks. Adult rats were divided into two groups: without survival and with two weeks survival after irradiation...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510177/age-dependent-behaviors-seizure-severity-and-neuronal-damage-in-response-to-nerve-agents-or-the-organophosphate-dfp-in-immature-and-adult-rats
#6
Erika A Scholl, Stephanie M Miller-Smith, Steven L Bealer, Mark J Lehmkuhle, Jeffrey J Ekstrand, F Edward Dudek, John H McDonough
Exposure to nerve agents (NAs) and other organophosphates (OPs) can initiate seizures that rapidly progress to status epilepticus (SE). While the electrographic and neuropathological sequelae of SE evoked by NAs and OPs have been characterized in adult rodents, they have not been adequately investigated in immature animals. In this study postnatal day (PND) 14, 21 and 28 rat pups, along with PND70 animals as adult controls, were exposed to NAs (sarin, VX) or another OP (diisopropylfluorophosphate, DFP). We then evaluated behavioral and electrographic (EEG) correlates of seizure activity, and performed neuropathology using Fluoro-Jade B...
March 3, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486166/adiponectin-attenuates-neuronal-apoptosis-induced-by-hypoxia-ischemia-via-the-activation-of-adipor1-appl1-lkb1-ampk-pathway-in-neonatal-rats
#7
Ningbo Xu, Yixin Zhang, Desislava Met Doycheva, Yan Ding, Yiting Zhang, Jiping Tang, Hongbo Guo, John H Zhang
Adiponectin is an important adipocyte-derived plasma protein that has beneficial effects on cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. A low level of plasma Adiponectin is associated with increased mortality post ischemic stroke; however, little is known about the causal role of Adiponectin as well as its molecular mechanisms in neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI). In the present study, ten-day-old rat pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 2.5 h hypoxia. Recombinant human Adiponectin (rh-Adiponectin) was administered intranasally 1 h post HI...
February 24, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468175/rapamycin-prevents-cerebral-stroke-by-modulating-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-penumbra-in-rats
#8
Meiling Wu, Huadan Zhang, Jiejing Kai, Feng Zhu, Jingyin Dong, Ziwei Xu, Michael Wong, Ling-Hui Zeng
Objective: Whether activation or inhibition of the mTOR pathway is beneficial to ischemic injury remains controversial. It may result from the different reaction of ischemic penumbra and core to modulation of mTOR pathway after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods: Longa's middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method was conducted to induce the focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Western blot analysis was used to examine the protein expression involving mTOR pathway, apoptosis, and autophagy-related proteins...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455449/role-of-exosomes-derived-from-mir-133b-modified-mscs-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#9
Haitao Shen, Xiyang Yao, Haiying Li, Xiang Li, Tiejun Zhang, Qing Sun, Chengyuan Ji, Gang Chen
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has poor outcomes due to high mortality and morbidity, but until now, the effective treatments remain limited. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are vital regulators of gene expression and demonstrated to be linked to the pathogenesis of various central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Exosomes are considered as cell-to-cell communication vectors and secreted largely by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). The present study investigated the role of miR-133b delivered by exosomes secreted from MSCs to brain tissues in rats after ICH...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454994/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-loaded-pegylated-plga-nanoparticles-a-new-anti-seizure-strategy-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#10
Amanda Cano, Miren Ettcheto, Marta Espina, Carmen Auladell, Ana Cristina Calpena, Jaume Folch, Marta Barenys, Elena Sánchez-López, Antoni Camins, Maria Luisa García
Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common type of pharmacoresistant epilepsy in adults. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate has aroused much interest because of its multiple therapeutic effects, but its instability compromises the potential effectiveness. PEGylated-PLGA nanoparticles of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate were designed to protect the drug and to increase the brain delivery. Nanoparticles were prepared by the double emulsion method and cytotoxicity, behavioural, Fluoro-Jade C, Iba1 and GFAP immunohistochemistry studies were carried out to determine their effectiveness...
February 15, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376880/the-role-of-rosemary-extract-in-degeneration-of-hippocampal-neurons-induced-by-kainic-acid-in-the-rat-a-behavioral-and-histochemical-approach
#11
Elahe Naderali, Farnaz Nikbakht, Sattar Norouzi Ofogh, Homa Rasoolijazi
Systemic Kainic Acid (KA) administration has been used to induce experimental temporal lobe epilepsy in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of rosemary extract (RE, 40% Carnosic acid) against KA-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampus and impaired learning and memory. Animals received a single dose of KA (9.5 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) (KA group) and were observed for 2 h and were scored from 0 (for normal, no convulsion) to 5 (for continuous generalized limbic seizures)...
2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361881/dimethyl-fumarate-attenuates-neuroinflammation-and-neurobehavioral-deficits-induced-by-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Giovanna Casili, Michela Campolo, Irene Paterniti, Marika Lanza, Alessia Filippone, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Emanuela Esposito
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious neuropathology that causes secondary injury mechanisms, including dynamic interplay between ischemic, inflammatory, and cytotoxic processes. Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) showed beneficial effects in pre-clinical models of neuroinflammation and toxic oxidative stress, so the aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of dimethyl fumarate (DMF), the most pharmacologically effective molecules among the FAEs, in a mouse model of TBI induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354885/neuronal-loss-and-gliosis-in-the-rat-striatum-subjected-to-15-and-30-minutes-of-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion
#13
Joon Ha Park, Jeong Hwi Cho, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Soo Young Choi, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jae-Chul Lee, Bich Na Shin, Seongkweon Hong, Yong Hwan Jeon, Young-Myeong Kim, In Koo Hwang, Young Joo Lee, Moo-Ho Won, Il Jun Kang
Selective neuronal death or loss in certain brain regions has been well characterized in animal models of transient global cerebral ischemia. However, selective neuronal death in transient focal cerebral ischemia needs more investigation. Therefore, in this study, we studied selective neuronal death in the striatum (caudate putamen) of rats subjected to 15 or 30 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Neuronal death occurred in the dorsolateral field, not in the medial field in 30 min, not 15 min, MCAO-operated rats 5 days after MCAO using neuronal nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining...
January 21, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344864/laser-capture-microdissection-in-traumatic-brain-injury-research-obtaining-hippocampal-subregions-and-pools-of-injured-neurons-for-genomic-analyses
#14
Deborah R Boone, Harris A Weisz, Stacy L Sell, Helen L Hellmich
The methods presented here are based on our laboratory's 15 years of experience using laser capture microdissection to obtain samples for the study of gene expression after traumatic brain injury (TBI) using a well-established rat model of experimental TBI. Here, we describe how to use the ArcturusXT laser capture microdissection system to capture swaths of specific regions of the rat hippocampus as well as specific neuronal populations defined by Fluoro-Jade C staining. Staining with Fluoro-Jade C identifies a neuron that is in the process of degeneration...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316696/protective-effects-of-protocatechuic-acid-on-seizure-induced-neuronal-death
#15
Song Hee Lee, Bo Young Choi, A Ra Kho, Jeong Hyun Jeong, Dae Ki Hong, Sang Hwon Lee, Sang Yup Lee, Min Woo Lee, Hong Ki Song, Hui Chul Choi, Sang Won Suh
Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a type of phenolic acid found in green tea and has been shown to have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of PCA on pilocarpine seizure-induced neuronal death in the hippocampus has not been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the potential therapeutic effects of PCA on seizure-induced brain injury. Epileptic seizure was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of pilocarpine (25 mg/kg) in adult male rats, and PCA (30 mg/kg) was injected into the intraperitoneal space for three consecutive days after the seizure...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313599/neurodegeneration-in-zebrafish-embryos-and-adults-after-cadmium-exposure
#16
Antonio Monaco, Teresa Capriello, Maria C Grimaldi, Valentina Schiano, Ida Ferrandino
Cadmium is a biologically non-essential metal. It is also toxic to many organs including the brain. The aim of this study was to analyse the neurodegenerative effects of this metal in embryos and adults of zebrafish exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of cadmium. The study was performed by cytochemical stainings. Six hours after fertilisation (hpf) zebrafish embryos were treated for 24 hours with 9 μM of cadmium and subsequently stained with Acridine orange in whole mount to detect apoptosis in the brain...
October 19, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309205/effects-of-fractionated-whole-brain-irradiation-on-cellular-composition-and-cognitive-function-in-the-rat-brain
#17
Soňa Bálentová, Eva Hajtmanová, Barbora Filová, Veronika Borbélyová, Ján Lehotský, Marian Adamkov
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was investigate whether histopathological changes in the neurogenic region correlate with appropriate cognitive impairment in the experimental model of radiation-induced brain injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats randomized into sham (0 Gy) and two experimental groups (survived 30 and 100 days after treatment) received fractionated whole-brain irradiation (one 5 Gy fraction/week for four weeks) with a total dose of 20 Gy of gamma rays...
March 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244151/diffusion-weighted-imaging-detects-early-brain-injury-after-hypothermic-circulatory-arrest-in-pigs
#18
Ren Wang, Guoxing Weng, Shun Yu, Shuangbo Dai, Weiwei Zhang, Feng Zhu
OBJECTIVES: Cerebral injury is a complication of surgery with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). This study aimed to evaluate diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for the early detection of brain injury after DHCA in an animal model. METHODS: Twelve healthy, adult, male miniature pigs were randomly divided into the DHCA (to receive DHCA; n = 6) and the control (sham surgery under anaesthesia; n = 6) groups. All animals received DWI, T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and T2WI the day before surgery, 7 h postoperatively and 24 h postoperatively...
December 12, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233659/klotho-upregulation-contributes-to-the-neuroprotection-of-ligustilide-against-cerebral-ischemic-injury-in-mice
#19
Fang-Yi Long, Meng-Qi Shi, Hong-Jing Zhou, Dong-Ling Liu, Na Sang, Jun-Rong Du
Klotho, an aging-suppressor gene, encodes a protein that potentially acts as a neuroprotective factor. Our previous studies showed that ligustilide minimizes the cognitive dysfunction and brain damage induced by cerebral ischemia; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims to investigate whether klotho is involved in the protective effects of ligustilide against cerebral ischemic injury in mice. Cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid arterial occlusion. Neurobehavioral tests as well as Nissl and Fluoro-Jade B staining were used to evaluate the protective effects of ligustilide in cerebral ischemia, and Western blotting and ELISA approaches were used to investigate the underlying mechanisms...
February 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209207/antiepileptic-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-oleamide-in-rat-striatum-on-kainate-induced-behavioral-seizure-and-excitotoxic-damage-via-calpain-inhibition
#20
Hye Yeon Nam, Eun Jung Na, Eunyoung Lee, Youngjoo Kwon, Hwa-Jung Kim
Oleamide was first known as a sleep-inducing fatty acid amide, and later shown to have wide range of neuropharmacological effects upon different neurochemical systems. However, the effects of oleamide on brain damage have scarcely been studied, and the molecular mechanisms and sites of its action remain elusive. Kainic acid (KA) has been used to produce an epileptic animal model that mimics human temporal lobe epilepsy and to induce calpain-activated excitotoxicity, which occurs in numerous neurodegenerative disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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