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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852178/ezetimibe-a-npc1l1-inhibitor-attenuates-neuronal-apoptosis-through-ampk-dependent-autophagy-activation-after-mcao-in-rats
#1
Jing Yu, Xue Li, Nathanael Matei, Devin McBride, Jiping Tang, Min Yan, John H Zhang
Autophagy activation exerts neuroprotective effects in the ischemic stroke model. Ezetimibe (Eze), a Niemann-Pick disease type C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) pharmacological inhibitor, has been reported to protect hepatocytes from apoptosis via autophagy activation. In this study, we explored whether Eze could attenuate neuronal apoptosis in the rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), specifically via activation of the AMPK/ULK1/autophagy pathway. Two hundred and one male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to transient MCAO followed by reperfusion...
May 28, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847637/young-ossabaw-pigs-fed-a-western-diet-exhibit-early-signs-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#2
Rayne R Lim, DeAna G Grant, T Dylan Olver, Jaume Padilla, Alana M Czajkowski, Teagan R Schnurbusch, Rajiv R Mohan, Dean P Hainsworth, Eric M Walters, Shyam S Chaurasia
Purpose: Recent clinical data suggest an increasing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adolescents, placing them at high risk of developing diabetic retinopathy during adult working years. The present study was designed to characterize the early retinal and microvascular alterations in young Ossabaw pigs fed a Western diet, described as a model of metabolic syndrome genetically predisposed to type 2 diabetes. Methods: Four-month-old Ossabaw miniature pigs were divided into two groups, lean and diet-induced obesity...
May 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778441/hypoxic-postconditioning-enhances-functional-recovery-following-endothelin-1-induced-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-conscious-rats
#3
Hong L Nguyen, Alexander M Ruhoff, Thomas Fath, Nicole M Jones
Stroke is a leading cause of death and a major contributor to neurological disability in adults. Tissue plasminogen activator is the only approved treatment. However, due to its narrow therapeutic window, <5% of patients receive treatment. Recently, hypoxic postconditioning (HPC) was shown to reduce stroke induced-injury in mice, but the mechanisms and functional outcomes are still unknown. In the current study, male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to endothelin-1 induced stroke. HPC (8% O2 , 1 h/d for 5d) or normoxia treatments were started 24 h after stroke...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772244/gender-difference-in-the-effect-of-progesterone-on-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-mouse
#4
Shuyu Dong, Qian Zhang, Delian Kong, Chao Zhou, Jie Zhou, Jingjing Han, Yan Zhou, Guoliang Jin, Xiaodong Hua, Jun Wang, Fang Hua
This study was to investigate the effects of progesterone (PROG) on neonatal hypoxic/ischemic (NHI) brain injury, the differences in effects between genders, and the underlying mechanisms. NHI brain injury was established in both male and female neonatal mice induced by occlusion of the left common carotid artery followed by hypoxia. The mice were treated with PROG or vehicle. Fluoro-Jade B staining (F-JB), long term behavior testing, and brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) were applied to evaluate neuronal death, neurological function, and brain damage...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747437/effects-of-protocatechuic-acid-pca-on-global-cerebral-ischemia-induced-hippocampal-neuronal-death
#5
A Ra Kho, Bo Young Choi, Song Hee Lee, Dae Ki Hong, Sang Hwon Lee, Jeong Hyun Jeong, Kyoung-Ha Park, Hong Ki Song, Hui Chul Choi, Sang Won Suh
Global cerebral ischemia (GCI) is one of the main causes of hippocampal neuronal death. Ischemic damage can be rescued by early blood reperfusion. However, under some circumstances reperfusion itself can trigger a cell death process that is initiated by the reintroduction of blood, followed by the production of superoxide, a blood⁻brain barrier (BBB) disruption and microglial activation. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a major metabolite of the antioxidant polyphenols, which have been discovered in green tea...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746557/optic-tract-injury-after-closed-head-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice-a-model-of-indirect-traumatic-optic-neuropathy
#6
Nathan K Evanson, Fernanda Guilhaume-Correa, James P Herman, Michael D Goodman
Adult male C57BL/6J mice have previously been reported to have motor and memory deficits after experimental closed head traumatic brain injury (TBI), without associated gross pathologic damage or neuroimaging changes detectable by magnetic resonance imaging or diffusion tensor imaging protocols. The presence of neurologic deficits, however, suggests neural damage or dysfunction in these animals. Accordingly, we undertook a histologic analysis of mice after TBI. Gross pathology and histologic analysis using Nissl stain and NeuN immunohistochemistry demonstrated no obvious tissue damage or neuron loss...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731475/histopathological-study-of-encephalomalacia-in-neonatal-calves-and-application-of-neuronal-and-axonal-degeneration-marker
#7
Kenji Koyama, Akihisa Kangawa, Natsuko Fukumoto, Ken-Ichi Watanabe, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Tomomi Ozawa, Hisashi Inokuma, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi
Five calves that had shown neurological symptoms within 9 days after birth were histopathologically diagnosed as encephalomalacia. Two calves showed bilateral laminar cerebrocortical necrosis and neuronal necrosis in the corpus striatum and hippocampus. Since the distributional pattern of the lesions was consistent with that of global ischemia in other species, the lesions were probably hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy consistent with the history of dystocia and perinatal asphyxia. One calf also showed bilateral laminar cerebrocortical necrosis...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698747/neuroprotective-effects-of-metformin-on-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats-associated-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-signaling-pathway
#8
Li Tao, Di Li, Huixiang Liu, Feng Jiang, Yitian Xu, Ying Cao, Rong Gao, Gang Chen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) triggers a complex sequence of inflammatory responses that contribute to secondary injury. Metformin, a first-line drug used to treat type 2 diabetes, is reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory activity on diseases associated with the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of this study is to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of metformin on acute brain injury after TBI and explore the underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: sham group, TBI group, TBI + saline (NS) group and TBI + metformin group...
April 24, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679291/role-of-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-pathway-in-nmda-preconditioning-different-mechanisms-for-seizures-and-hippocampal-neuronal-degeneration-induced-by-quinolinic-acid
#9
Leandra C Constantino, Luisa B Binder, Samuel Vandresen-Filho, Giordano G Viola, Fabiana K Ludka, Mark W Lopes, Rodrigo B Leal, Carla I Tasca
N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) preconditioning is evoked by the administration of a subtoxic dose of NMDA and is protective against neuronal excitotoxicity. This effect may involve a diversity of targets and cell signaling cascades associated to neuroprotection. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38MAPK pathways play a major role in neuroprotective mechanisms. However, their involvement in NMDA preconditioning was not yet fully investigated...
April 20, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644488/brain-ischemic-preconditioning-protects-against-moderate-not-severe-transient-global-cerebral-ischemic-injury
#10
Jae-Chul Lee, Bich-Na Shin, Jeong Hwi Cho, Tae-Kyeong Lee, In Hye Kim, YooHun Noh, Sung-Su Kim, Hyang-Ah Lee, Young-Myeong Kim, Hyeyoung Kim, Jun Hwi Cho, Joon Ha Park, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Il Jun Kang, In Koo Hwang, Moo-Ho Won, Myoung Cheol Shin
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in the brain increases ischemic tolerance to subsequent ischemic insults. In this study, we examined whether IPC protects neurons and attenuates microgliosis or not in the hippocampus following severe transient global cerebral ischemia (TCI) in gerbils. Gerbils were assigned to 8 groups; 5- and 15-min sham operated groups, 5-min and 15-min TCI operated groups, IPC plus 5- and 15-min sham operated groups, and IPC plus 5- and 15-min TCI operated groups. IPC was induced by subjecting animals to 2-min transient ischemia 1 day before 5-min TCI for a typical transient ischemia and 15-min TCI for severe transient ischemia...
April 12, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563509/neuroprotective-effect-of-dexmedetomidine-in-a-murine-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Jin Wu, Todd Vogel, Xiang Gao, Bin Lin, Charles Kulwin, Jinhui Chen
No FDA approved pharmacological therapy is available that would reduce cell death following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Dexmedetomidine (Dex) is a highly selective agonist of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors and has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in hippocampal slice cultures undergoing direct impact. However, no one has tested whether Dex, in addition to its sedative action, has neuroprotective effects in an animal model of TBI. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of Dex on an animal model of TBI...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545205/memantine-decreases-neuronal-degeneration-in-young-rats-submitted-to-licl-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#12
Kamila Cagliari Zenki, Eduardo Kalinine, Eduardo R Zimmer, Thainá Garbino Dos Santos, Ben Hur Marins Mussulini, Luis Valmor Cruz Portela, Diogo Lösch de Oliveira
Several works have demonstrated that status epilepticus (SE) induced-neurodegeneration appears to involve an overactivation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and treatment with high-affinity NMDAR antagonists is neuroprotective against this brain damage. However, these compounds display undesirable side effects for patients since they block physiological NMDA receptor dependent-activity. In this context, memantine (MN), a well tolerable low-affinity NMDAR channel blocker, will be a promising alternative, since it does not compromise the physiological role of NMDA receptors on synaptic transmission...
May 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527915/age-dependent-effect-of-long-term-microwave-radiation-on-postnatal-neurogenesis-in-rats-morphological-and-behavioral-study
#13
A Raček, K Beňová, P Arnoul, M Závodská, A Angelidis, V Cigánková, V Šimaiová, E Račeková
Processes of adult neurogenesis can be influenced by environmental factors. Here, we investigated the effect of microwave radiation (MWR) on proliferation and cell dying in the rat rostral migratory stream (RMS) - a migration route for the neuroblasts of the subventricular zone. Adult and juvenile (two weeks old) rats were exposed to a pulsed-wave MWR at the frequency of 2.45 GHz for 3 h daily during 3 weeks. Adult rats were divided into two groups: without survival and with two weeks survival after irradiation...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510177/age-dependent-behaviors-seizure-severity-and-neuronal-damage-in-response-to-nerve-agents-or-the-organophosphate-dfp-in-immature-and-adult-rats
#14
Erika A Scholl, Stephanie M Miller-Smith, Steven L Bealer, Mark J Lehmkuhle, Jeffrey J Ekstrand, F Edward Dudek, John H McDonough
Exposure to nerve agents (NAs) and other organophosphates (OPs) can initiate seizures that rapidly progress to status epilepticus (SE). While the electrographic and neuropathological sequelae of SE evoked by NAs and OPs have been characterized in adult rodents, they have not been adequately investigated in immature animals. In this study postnatal day (PND) 14, 21 and 28 rat pups, along with PND70 animals as adult controls, were exposed to NAs (sarin, VX) or another OP (diisopropylfluorophosphate, DFP). We then evaluated behavioral and electrographic (EEG) correlates of seizure activity, and performed neuropathology using Fluoro-Jade B...
May 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486166/adiponectin-attenuates-neuronal-apoptosis-induced-by-hypoxia-ischemia-via-the-activation-of-adipor1-appl1-lkb1-ampk-pathway-in-neonatal-rats
#15
Ningbo Xu, Yixin Zhang, Desislava Met Doycheva, Yan Ding, Yiting Zhang, Jiping Tang, Hongbo Guo, John H Zhang
Adiponectin is an important adipocyte-derived plasma protein that has beneficial effects on cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. A low level of plasma Adiponectin is associated with increased mortality post ischemic stroke; however, little is known about the causal role of Adiponectin as well as its molecular mechanisms in neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI). In the present study, ten-day-old rat pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 2.5 h hypoxia. Recombinant human Adiponectin (rh-Adiponectin) was administered intranasally 1 h post HI...
May 1, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468175/rapamycin-prevents-cerebral-stroke-by-modulating-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-penumbra-in-rats
#16
Meiling Wu, Huadan Zhang, Jiejing Kai, Feng Zhu, Jingyin Dong, Ziwei Xu, Michael Wong, Ling-Hui Zeng
Objective: Whether activation or inhibition of the mTOR pathway is beneficial to ischemic injury remains controversial. It may result from the different reaction of ischemic penumbra and core to modulation of mTOR pathway after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods: Longa's middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method was conducted to induce the focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Western blot analysis was used to examine the protein expression involving mTOR pathway, apoptosis, and autophagy-related proteins...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455449/role-of-exosomes-derived-from-mir-133b-modified-mscs-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#17
Haitao Shen, Xiyang Yao, Haiying Li, Xiang Li, Tiejun Zhang, Qing Sun, Chengyuan Ji, Gang Chen
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has poor outcomes due to high mortality and morbidity, but until now, the effective treatments remain limited. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are vital regulators of gene expression and demonstrated to be linked to the pathogenesis of various central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Exosomes are considered as cell-to-cell communication vectors and secreted largely by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). The present study investigated the role of miR-133b delivered by exosomes secreted from MSCs to brain tissues in rats after ICH...
March 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454994/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-loaded-pegylated-plga-nanoparticles-a-new-anti-seizure-strategy-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
Amanda Cano, Miren Ettcheto, Marta Espina, Carmen Auladell, Ana Cristina Calpena, Jaume Folch, Marta Barenys, Elena Sánchez-López, Antoni Camins, Maria Luisa García
Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common type of pharmacoresistant epilepsy in adults. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate has aroused much interest because of its multiple therapeutic effects, but its instability compromises the potential effectiveness. PEGylated-PLGA nanoparticles of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate were designed to protect the drug and to increase the brain delivery. Nanoparticles were prepared by the double emulsion method and cytotoxicity, behavioral, Fluoro-Jade C, Iba1 and GFAP immunohistochemistry studies were carried out to determine their effectiveness...
February 15, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376880/the-role-of-rosemary-extract-in-degeneration-of-hippocampal-neurons-induced-by-kainic-acid-in-the-rat-a-behavioral-and-histochemical-approach
#19
Elahe Naderali, Farnaz Nikbakht, Sattar Norouzi Ofogh, Homa Rasoolijazi
Systemic Kainic Acid (KA) administration has been used to induce experimental temporal lobe epilepsy in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of rosemary extract (RE, 40% Carnosic acid) against KA-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampus and impaired learning and memory. Animals received a single dose of KA (9.5 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) (KA group) and were observed for 2 h and were scored from 0 (for normal, no convulsion) to 5 (for continuous generalized limbic seizures)...
2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361881/dimethyl-fumarate-attenuates-neuroinflammation-and-neurobehavioral-deficits-induced-by-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Giovanna Casili, Michela Campolo, Irene Paterniti, Marika Lanza, Alessia Filippone, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Emanuela Esposito
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious neuropathology that causes secondary injury mechanisms, including dynamic interplay between ischemic, inflammatory, and cytotoxic processes. Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) showed beneficial effects in pre-clinical models of neuroinflammation and toxic oxidative stress, so the aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of dimethyl fumarate (DMF), the most pharmacologically effective molecules among the FAEs, in a mouse model of TBI induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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