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social executive network

George M Ibrahim, Benjamin R Morgan, Vanessa M Vogan, Rachel C Leung, Evdokia Anagnostou, Margot J Taylor
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit social-communicative impairments. Less is known about the neuropsychological profile of ASD, although cognitive and neuropsychological deficits are evident. We modelled neuropsychological function in 20 children with ASD and 20 sex, age and IQ matched typically-developing controls (ages 7-14) as a network of interacting parameters. Graph theoretical analysis was applied to identify critical topographic regions within this network. Two areas were significantly stronger hubs in typically-developing children, the ability to shift attention (p < 0...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Edson Filho, Maurizio Bertollo, Gabriella Tamburro, Lorenzo Schinaia, Jonas Chatel-Goldman, Selenia di Fronso, Claudio Robazza, Silvia Comani
BACKGROUND: Research on cooperative behavior and the social brain exists, but little research has focused on real-time motor cooperative behavior and its neural correlates. In this proof of concept study, we explored the conceptual notion of shared and complementary mental models through EEG mapping of two brains performing a real-world interactive motor task of increasing difficulty. We used the recently introduced participative "juggling paradigm," and collected neuro-physiological and psycho-social data...
2016: PeerJ
Elliot A Layden, John T Cacioppo, Stephanie Cacioppo, Stefano F Cappa, Alessandra Dodich, Andrea Falini, Nicola Canessa
Perceived social isolation (PSI), colloquially known as loneliness, is associated with selectively altered attentional, cognitive, and affective processes in humans, but the neural mechanisms underlying these adjustments remain largely unexplored. Behavioral, eye tracking, and neuroimaging research has identified associations between PSI and implicit hypervigilance for social threats. Additionally, selective executive dysfunction has been evidenced by reduced prepotent response inhibition in social Stroop and dichotic listening tasks...
September 21, 2016: NeuroImage
Alessandro Grecucci, Danilo Rubicondo, Roma Siugzdaite, Luca Surian, Remo Job
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that mainly affects social interaction and communication. Evidence from behavioral and functional MRI studies supports the hypothesis that dysfunctional mechanisms involving social brain structures play a major role in autistic symptomatology. However, the investigation of anatomical abnormalities in the brain of people with autism has led to inconsistent results. We investigated whether specific brain regions, known to display functional abnormalities in autism, may exhibit mutual and peculiar patterns of covariance in their gray-matter concentrations...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Nicola L Barclay, Andriy Myachykov
INTRODUCTION: Attentional networks are sensitive to sleep deprivation and increased time awake. However, existing evidence is inconsistent and may be accounted for by differences in chronotype or time-of-day. We examined the effects of sustained wakefulness over a normal "socially constrained" day (following 18 h of sustained wakefulness), following a night of normal sleep, on visual attention as a function of chronotype. METHODS: Twenty-six good sleepers (mean age 25...
September 13, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Sharief Hendricks, Peter Düking, Stephen D Mellalieu
BACKGROUND: Social media provides researchers with an efficient means to reach and engage with a large and diverse audience. Twitter allows for the virtual social interaction among a network of users that enables researchers to recruit and administer surveys using snowball sampling. Although using Twitter to administer surveys for research is not new, strategies to improve response rates are yet to be reported. OBJECTIVE: To compare the potential and actual reach of 2 Twitter accounts that administered a Web-based concussion survey to rugby players and trainers using 2 distinct Twitter-targeting strategies...
September 1, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Shameka L Cody, Pariya L Fazeli, Linda D Moneyham, David E Vance
Although many can appreciate the life-sustaining benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy, some adults with HIV continue to have difficulty managing physical, neurocognitive, and everyday stressors. Fortunately, some adults with HIV are able to use accumulated resources (e.g., social networks) to help them engage in proactive coping behaviors such as planning and problem solving. Others, however, manage their stressors by engaging in avoidant coping, isolating themselves, or ruminating about the negative aspects of their situation...
October 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Lareen Newman, Niranjan Bidargaddi, Geoffrey Schrader
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence of benefits of telehealth networks in increasing access to, or providing, previously unavailable mental health services, care providers still prefer traditional approaches. For psychiatric assessment, digital technology can offer improvements over analog systems for the technical and, subsequently, the social quality of provider-client interaction. This is in turn expected to support greater provider uptake and enhanced patient benefits. OBJECTIVE: Within the framework of Innovation Diffusion Theory, to study service providers' experiences of an existing regional telehealth network for mental health care practice twelve months after digitisation in order to identify the benefits of digital telehealth over an analog system for mental health care purposes in rural Australia...
October 2016: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Rebecca Gotlieb, Elizabeth Hyde, Mary Helen Immordino-Yang, Scott Barry Kaufman
Evidence from education, psychology, and neuroscience suggests that investing in the development of the social-emotional imagination is essential to cultivating giftedness in adolescents. Nurturing these capacities may be especially effective for promoting giftedness in students who are likely to lose interest and ambition over time. Giftedness is frequently equated with high general intelligence as measured by IQ tests, but this narrow conceptualization does not adequately capture students' abilities to utilize their talents strategically to fully realize their future possible selves...
August 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Paula G Williams, Holly K Rau, Yana Suchy, Sommer R Thorgusen, Timothy W Smith
Individual differences in attentional control involve the ability to voluntarily direct, shift, and sustain attention. In studies of the role of attentional control in emotional adjustment, social relationships, and vulnerability to the effects of stress, self-report questionnaires are commonly used to measure this construct. Yet, convincing evidence of the association between self-report scales and actual cognitive performance has not been demonstrated. Across 2 independent samples, we examined associations between self-reported attentional control (Attentional Control Scale; ACS), self-reported emotional adjustment, Five-Factor Model personality traits (NEO Personality Inventory-Revised) and performance measures of attentional control...
August 8, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Rhiannon E Mayhugh, Malaak N Moussa, Sean L Simpson, Robert G Lyday, Jonathan H Burdette, Linda J Porrino, Paul J Laurienti
Older adults today consume more alcohol than previous generations, the majority being social drinkers. The effects of heavy alcohol use on brain functioning closely resemble age-related changes, but it is not known if moderate-heavy alcohol consumption intensifies brain aging. Whether a lifestyle of moderate-heavy alcohol use in older adults increased age-related brain changes was examined. Forty-one older adults (65-80 years) that consumed light (< 2 drinks/week and ≥ 1 drink/month, n = 20) or moderate-heavy (7-21 drinks/week, non-bingers, n = 21) amounts of alcohol were enrolled...
2016: PloS One
Francesca Federico, Andrea Marotta, Diana Martella, Maria Casagrande
According to the attention network approach, attention is best understood in terms of three functionally and neuroanatomically distinct networks - alerting, orienting, and executive attention. Recent findings showed that social information influences the efficiency of these networks in adults. Using some social and non-social variants of the Attentional Network Test (ANT), this study was aimed to evaluate the development of the three attention networks in childhood, also assessing the development of the ability to manage social or non-social conflicting information...
August 4, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Edith V Sullivan
In addiction, notably Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), patients often have a tendency to fail to acknowledge the reality of the disease and to minimize the physical, psychological, and social difficulties attendant to chronic alcohol consumption. This lack of awareness can reduce the chances of initiating and maintaining sobriety. Presented here is a model focusing on compromised awareness in individuals with AUD of mild to moderate cognitive deficits, in particular, for episodic memory impairment-the ability to learn new information, such as recent personal experiences...
July 22, 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Margaret C McKinnon, Jenna E Boyd, Paul A Frewen, Ulrich F Lanius, Rakesh Jetly, J Donald Richardson, Ruth A Lanius
Dissociative experiences, involving altered states of consciousness, have long been understood as a consequence or response to traumatic experiences, where a reduced level of consciousness may aid in survival during and after a traumatic event. Indeed, the dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD-DS) was added recently to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). Dissociative symptoms are present across a host of neuropsychiatric conditions, including PTSD, psychotic spectrum illnesses, anxiety and mood disorders...
September 2016: Neuropsychologia
Jiaojian Wang, Jinfeng Zhang, Menglin Rong, Xuehu Wei, Dingchen Zheng, Peter T Fox, Simon B Eickhoff, Tianzi Jiang
The nature of the relationship between structure and function is a fundamental question in neuroscience, especially at the macroscopic neuroimaging level. Although mounting studies have revealed that functional connectivity reflects structural connectivity, whether similar structural and functional connectivity patterns can reveal corresponding similarities in the structural and functional topography remains an open problem. In our current study, we used the right inferior parietal lobule (RIPL), which has been demonstrated to have similar anatomical and functional connectivity patterns at the subregional level, to directly test the hypothesis that similar structural and functional connectivity patterns can inform the corresponding topography of this area...
July 13, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Rebecca Cherng-Shiow Chang, Hsi-Peng Lu, Peishan Yang, Pin Luarn
BACKGROUND: Wearable activity trackers (WATs) are emerging consumer electronic devices designed to support physical activities (PAs), which are based on successful behavior change techniques focusing on goal-setting and frequent behavioral feedbacks. Despite their utility, data from both recent academic and market research have indicated high attrition rates of WAT users. Concurrently, evidence shows that social support (SS), delivered/obtained via social network services or sites (SNS), could increase adherence and engagement of PA intervention programs...
2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Eyal Abraham, Talma Hendler, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman
The cross-generational transmission of mammalian sociality, initiated by the parent's postpartum brain plasticity and species-typical behavior that buttress offspring's socialization, has not been studied in humans. In this longitudinal study, we measured brain response of 45 primary-caregiving parents to their infant's stimuli, observed parent-infant INTERACTIONS: , and assayed parental oxytocin (OT). Intra- and inter-network connectivity were computed in three main networks of the human parental brain: core limbic, embodied simulation, and mentalizing During preschool, two key child social competencies were observed: emotion regulation and socialization...
June 30, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Daan Westra, Federica Angeli, Evelina Jatautaitė, Martin Carree, Dirk Ruwaard
INTRODUCTION: Medical specialists seem to increasingly work in- and be affiliated to- multiple organizations. We define this phenomenon as specialist sharing. This form of inter-organizational cooperation has received scant scholarly attention. We investigate the extent of- and motives behind- specialist sharing, in the price-competitive hospital market of the Netherlands. METHODS: A mixed-method was adopted. Social network analysis was used to quantitatively examine the extent of the phenomenon...
August 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Nick Portokallidis, George Drosatos, Eleni Kaldoudi
Healthcare delivery is largely based on medical best practices as in clinical protocols. Research so far has addressed the computerized execution of clinical protocols by developing a number of related representation languages, execution engines and integrated platforms to support real time execution. However, much less effort has been put into organizing clinical protocols for use and reuse. In this paper we propose a heterogeneous semantic social network to describe and organize clinical protocols based on their provenance, evolution and modifications...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Roland Hasler, Nader Perroud, Hadj Boumediene Meziane, François Herrmann, Paco Prada, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Marie-Pierre Deiber
ADHD status affects both bottom-up sensory processing and top-down attentional selection, impairing professional and social functioning. The objective of the study was to investigate the functional mechanisms of attention deficits in adult ADHD by examining the electrophysiological activities associated with bottom-up attentional cueing (temporal and spatial orienting of attention) and top-down control (conflict resolution). Continuous EEG was recorded in 21 adult ADHD patients (40.05±9.5 years) and 20 healthy adults (25...
July 1, 2016: Neuropsychologia
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