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social executive network

Aoife De Brún, Eilish McAuliffe
Health systems research recognizes the complexity of healthcare, and the interacting and interdependent nature of components of a health system. To better understand such systems, innovative methods are required to depict and analyze their structures. This paper describes social network analysis as a methodology to depict, diagnose, and evaluate health systems and networks therein. Social network analysis is a set of techniques to map, measure, and analyze social relationships between people, teams, and organizations...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tanveer Talukdar, Francisco J Román, Joachim T Operskalski, Christopher E Zwilling, Aron K Barbey
While an extensive literature in decision neuroscience has elucidated the neurobiological foundations of decision making, prior research has focused primarily on group-level effects in a sample population. Due to the presence of inherent differences between individuals' cognitive abilities, it is also important to examine the neural correlates of decision making that explain interindividual variability in cognitive performance. This study therefore investigated how individual differences in decision making competence, as measured by the Adult Decision Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, are related to functional brain connectivity patterns derived from resting-state fMRI data in a sample of 304 healthy participants...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Lu Wang, Shengchun Jin, Kongliang He, Xingui Chen, Gongjun Ji, Xiaomeng Bai, Guixian Xiao, Huijuan Ma, Kai Wang
Intertemporal choices are decisions with consequences in multiple time periods and constitute a significant part of social cognition. The shared neuropathological characteristics of patients with schizophrenia and their siblings might express intermediate phenotypes in behavior that could be used to further characterize the illness. Schizophrenic patients, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls underwent a computerized version of the "Intertemporal Choice Task". All participants could choose between sooner-smaller (SS) and later-larger (LL) options in now-trials and in not-now-trials...
December 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Martesa Tantra, Lanboling Guo, Jinsook Kim, Norliyana Zainolabidin, George J Augustine, Volker Eulenburg, Albert I Chen
Inhibitory interneurons mediate the gating of synaptic transmission and modulate the activities of neural circuits. Disruption of the function of inhibitory networks in the forebrain is linked to impairment of social and cognitive behaviors, but the involvement of inhibitory interneurons in the cerebellum has not been assessed. We found that Cadherin 13 (Cdh13), a gene implicated in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, is specifically expressed in Golgi cells within the cerebelluar cortex...
February 15, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Mojgan Ansari, Maryam Rassouli, Mohhamad Esmaiel Akbari, Abbas Abbaszadeh, Ali Akbarisari
Background: Palliative care programs are rapidly evolving for patients with life-threatening illnesses. Increased and earlier access for facilities is a subject of growing importance in health services, policy, and research. Aim: This study was conducted to explain stakeholders' perceptions of the factors affecting the design of such a palliative care system and its policy analysis. Methodology: Semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted following purposive sampling of the participants...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
Dustin Moraczewski, Gang Chen, Elizabeth Redcay
Early childhood is a time of significant change within multiple cognitive domains including social cognition, memory, executive function, and language; however, the corresponding neural changes remain poorly understood. This is likely due to the difficulty in acquiring artifact-free functional MRI data during complex task-based or unconstrained resting-state experiments in young children. In addition, task-based and resting state experiments may not capture dynamic real-world processing. Here we overcome both of these challenges through use of naturalistic viewing (i...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael Adamaszek, Federico D'Agata, Christopher J Steele, Bernhard Sehm, Cornelia Schoppe, Karl Strecker, Hartwig Woldag, Horst Hummelsheim, Ken C Kirkby
Introduction Research indicates that widespread cortical-subcortical networks are involved in the recognition and discrimination of emotional contents of facial and vocal expression. The cerebellum and basal ganglia are two subcortical regions implicated in these networks but evidence as to their specific contributions is limited. To investigate this we compared patients with circumscribed cerebellar lesions and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) on a range of neuropsychological measures, we studied subjects of both clinical entities by an approved test battery...
January 29, 2018: Social Neuroscience
Charles J Lynch, Andrew L Breeden, Xiaozhen You, Ruth Ludlum, William D Gaillard, Lauren Kenworthy, Chandan J Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Comorbid executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a barrier to adaptive functioning, despite remittance of core social-communication symptoms. Network models of ASD address core symptoms but not comorbid executive dysfunction. Following recent demonstrations in healthy adults that, with increasing executive demands, hubs embedded within frontoparietal-insular control networks interact with a more diverse set of networks, we hypothesized that the capability of hubs to do so is perturbed in ASD and predicts executive behavior...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Alessandra Dodich, Giulia Carli, Chiara Cerami, Sandro Iannaccone, Giuseppe Magnani, Daniela Perani
BACKGROUND: Cognitive reserve may delay disease onset and mitigate symptoms presentation in neurodegenerative dementias. Although high occupation levels can be associated with higher cognitive reserve in the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), it was never addressed how specific occupation profiles involving social interaction, executive and attention abilities can modulate neural reserve in bvFTD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively included thirty-seven bvFTD patients with clinical-neuropsychological and FDG-PET brain metabolic data...
December 19, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Michelle E Kelly, Hollie Duff, Sara Kelly, Joanna E McHugh Power, Sabina Brennan, Brian A Lawlor, David G Loughrey
BACKGROUND: Social relationships, which are contingent on access to social networks, promote engagement in social activities and provide access to social support. These social factors have been shown to positively impact health outcomes. In the current systematic review, we offer a comprehensive overview of the impact of social activities, social networks and social support on the cognitive functioning of healthy older adults (50+) and examine the differential effects of aspects of social relationships on various cognitive domains...
December 19, 2017: Systematic Reviews
Bret R Rutherford, Katharine Brewster, Justin S Golub, Ana H Kim, Steven P Roose
Recent research has linked age-related hearing loss to impaired performance across cognitive domains and increased risk for dementia diagnosis. The data linking hearing impairment to incident late-life depression are more mixed but suggest that diminished hearing does increase risk for depression. Behavioral mechanisms may explain these associations, such as the withdrawal of older adults from situations in which they may have difficulty hearing and communicating, which may contribute to the development of social isolation, loneliness, and consequent cognitive decline and depression...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Stefania Bruni, Marzio Gerbella, Luca Bonini, Elena Borra, Gino Coudé, Pier Francesco Ferrari, Leonardo Fogassi, Monica Maranesi, Francesca Rodà, Luciano Simone, Francesca Ugolotti Serventi, Stefano Rozzi
Mirror neurons (MNs) are a class of cells originally discovered in the monkey ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). They discharge during both action execution and action observation and appear to play a crucial role in understanding others' actions. It has been proposed that the mirror mechanism is based on a match between the visual description of actions, encoded in temporal cortical regions, and their motor representation, provided by PMv and IPL. However, neurons responding to action observation have been recently found in other cortical regions, suggesting that the mirror mechanism relies on a wider network...
December 1, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Tomas Perez-Acle, Ignacio Fuenzalida, Alberto J M Martin, Rodrigo Santibañez, Rodrigo Avaria, Alejandro Bernardin, Alvaro M Bustos, Daniel Garrido, Jonathan Dushoff, James H Liu
Computational simulation is a widely employed methodology to study the dynamic behavior of complex systems. Although common approaches are based either on ordinary differential equations or stochastic differential equations, these techniques make several assumptions which, when it comes to biological processes, could often lead to unrealistic models. Among others, model approaches based on differential equations entangle kinetics and causality, failing when complexity increases, separating knowledge from models, and assuming that the average behavior of the population encompasses any individual deviation...
November 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Rodger Ll Wood, Andrew Worthington
Objective: This article will address how anomalies of executive function after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can translate into altered social behavior that has an impact on a person's capacity to live safely and independently in the community. Method: Review of literature on executive and neurobehavioral function linked to cognitive ageing in neurologically healthy populations and late neurocognitive effects of serious TBI. Information was collated from internet searches involving MEDLINE, PubMed, PyscINFO and Google Scholar as well as the authors' own catalogs...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Yu-Hsiang Fu, Chung-Yuan Huang, Chuen-Tsai Sun
The authors use four criteria to examine a novel community detection algorithm: (a) effectiveness in terms of producing high values of normalized mutual information (NMI) and modularity, using well-known social networks for testing; (b) examination, meaning the ability to examine mitigating resolution limit problems using NMI values and synthetic networks; (c) correctness, meaning the ability to identify useful community structure results in terms of NMI values and Lancichinetti-Fortunato-Radicchi (LFR) benchmark networks; and (d) scalability, or the ability to produce comparable modularity values with fast execution times when working with large-scale real-world networks...
2017: PloS One
Lise Folliot-Le Doussal, Alexandra Chadie, Marie Brasseur-Daudruy, Eric Verspyck, Pascale Saugier-Veber, Stéphane Marret
Neurodevelopmental outcome in children with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is correlated with the presence or absence of associated brain abnormalities. Indeed, neurodevelopmental outcome shows severe disabilities when the ACC is not isolated whereas in isolated forms, the neurologic development is mainly normal. Contrary to data in several published studies, the prognosis remains uncertain even in isolated forms, which may lead in France to medical termination of pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in children with prenatally diagnosed isolated ACC...
October 29, 2017: Early Human Development
Juan Carlos Ivancevich, Hugo Neffen, Mario E Zernotti, Estrella Asayag, Ariel Blua, Alberto Cicerán, Edgardo J Jares, Alberto J Lavrut, Jorge F Máspero, Ioana Agache, Claus Bachert, Anna Bedbrook, Giorgio W Canonica, Thomas B Casale, Álvaro A Cruz, Wytske J Fokkens, Peter W Hellings, Boleslaw Samolinski, Jean Bousquet
The ARIA initiative was started during a World Health Organization workshop in 1999. The initial goals were to propose a new classification for allergic rhinitis, to promote the concept of multi-morbidity in asthma and rhinitis and to develop guidelines with stakeholders for world-wide use. ARIA is now focused on the implementation of emerging technologies for individualized and predictive medicine. MASK: MACVIA-Aria Sentinel Network uses mobile technology to develop care pathways that enable management by a multidisciplinary group or by patients themselves...
July 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
Amanda V Utevsky, David V Smith, Jacob S Young, Scott A Huettel
Large-scale functional networks, as identified through the coordinated activity of spatially distributed brain regions, have become central objects of study in neuroscience because of their contributions to many processing domains. Yet, it remains unclear how these domain-general networks interact with focal brain regions to coordinate thought and action. Here, we investigated how the default-mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN), two networks associated with goal-directed behavior, shape task performance through their coupling with other cortical regions several seconds in advance of behavior...
September 2017: ENeuro
Carlotta Caramia, Ivan Bernabucci, Carmen D'Anna, Cristiano De Marchis, Maurizio Schmid
The widespread and pervasive use of smartphones for sending messages, calling, and entertainment purposes, mainly among young adults, is often accompanied by the concurrent execution of other tasks. Recent studies have analyzed how texting, reading or calling while walking-in some specific conditions-might significantly influence gait parameters. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of different smartphone activities on walking, evaluating the variations of several gait parameters. 10 young healthy students (all smartphone proficient users) were instructed to text chat (with two different levels of cognitive load), call, surf on a social network or play with a math game while walking in a real-life outdoor setting...
2017: PloS One
Paul B Jantz, Richard H Morley
Sykes and Matza introduced neutralization theory in 1957 to explain how juvenile delinquents retain a positive self-image when engaging in delinquent acts. Since then, aspects of neutralization theory have been incorporated into sociological and criminological theories to explain socially deviant behavior. Functional brain mapping research utilizing advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques has identified complex, intrinsically organized, large-scale brain networks. Higher order operations commonly attributed to three brain networks (default mode network [DMN], central executive network [CEN], salience network [SN]) align closely with neutralization theory...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
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