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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773509/the-role-of-the-inferior-frontal-gyrus-in-vicarious-social-touch-a-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-study
#1
Leehe Peled-Avron, Laura Glasner, Hila Z Gvirts, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
The neural mechanisms facilitating the experience of vicarious social touch are largely unknown. The right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) has been suggested as part of a simulation observation-execution neural network that plays a key role in the perception of tactile stimuli. Considering that vicarious social touch involves vicarious sharing of emotions, we hypothesized that emotional empathy, i.e., the ability to feel what another individual is feeling, modulates the neural responses to vicarious touch. To examine the role of the rIFG in vicarious touch and its modulation by levels of emotional empathy, we used anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on forty participants who observed photos depicting social touch, nonsocial touch or no touch during tDCS or sham stimulation...
April 30, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746907/oscillatory-networks-of-high-level-mental-alignment-a-perspective-taking-meg-study
#2
R A Seymour, H Wang, G Rippon, K Kessler
Mentally imagining another's perspective is a high-level social process, reliant on manipulating internal representations of the self in an embodied manner. Recently Wang et al. (2016) showed that theta-band (3-7Hz) brain oscillations within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) and brain regions coding for motor/body schema contribute to the process of perspective-taking. Using a similar paradigm, we set out to unravel the extended functional brain network in detail. Increasing the angle between self and other perspective was accompanied by longer reaction times and increases in theta power within rTPJ, right lateral pre-frontal cortex (PFC) and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)...
May 7, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735154/dynamic-functional-connectivity-states-reflecting-psychotic-like-experiences
#3
Anita D Barber, Martin A Lindquist, Pamela DeRosse, Katherine H Karlsgodt
BACKGROUND: Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are associated with lower social and occupational functioning, and lower executive function. Emerging evidence also suggests that PLEs reflect neural dysfunction resembling that of psychotic disorders. METHODS: The present study examined dynamic connectivity related to a measure of PLEs derived from the Achenbach Adult Self-Report, in an otherwise-healthy sample of adults from the Human Connectome Project. A total of 76 PLE-endorsing and 153 control participants were included in the final sample...
May 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727624/bilingual-experience-and-resting-state-brain-connectivity-impacts-of-l2-age-of-acquisition-and-social-diversity-of-language-use-on-control-networks
#4
Jason W Gullifer, Xiaoqian J Chai, Veronica Whitford, Irina Pivneva, Shari Baum, Denise Klein, Debra Titone
We investigated the independent contributions of second language (L2) age of acquisition (AoA) and social diversity of language use on intrinsic brain organization using seed-based resting-state functional connectivity among highly proficient French-English bilinguals. There were two key findings. First, earlier L2 AoA related to greater interhemispheric functional connectivity between homologous frontal brain regions, and to decreased reliance on proactive vs. reactive executive control in an AX-Continuous Performance Task completed outside the scanner...
May 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719988/a-network-analysis-perspective-to-implementation-the-example-of-health-links-to-promote-coordinated-care
#5
Reza Yousefi Nooraie, Sobia Khan, Jennifer Gutberg, G Ross Baker
Although implementation models broadly recognize the importance of social relationships, our knowledge about applying social network analysis (SNA) to formative, process, and outcome evaluations of health system interventions is limited. We explored applications of adopting an SNA lens to inform implementation planning, engagement and execution, and evaluation. We used Health Links, a province-wide program in Canada aiming to improve care coordination among multiple providers of high-needs patients, as an example of a health system intervention...
January 1, 2018: Evaluation & the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705950/the-study-of-language-in-the-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-frontotemporal-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-findings-and-new-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Marta Pinto-Grau, Orla Hardiman, Niall Pender
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized primarily by motor network disruption. Extra-motor manifestations including executive functions, social cognition, and behavioral changes are now well recognized as important features of ALS, and are associated with frontotemporal and frontostriatal network disruption. However, the presence and characterization of language changes has received less attention. This systematic review characterizes the profile of reported language dysfunction in ALS...
April 28, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691941/functional-connections-between-activated-and-deactivated-brain-regions-mediate-emotional-interference-during-externally-directed-cognition
#7
Simone Di Plinio, Francesca Ferri, Laura Marzetti, Gian Luca Romani, Georg Northoff, Vittorio Pizzella
Recent evidence shows that task-deactivations are functionally relevant for cognitive performance. Indeed, higher cognitive engagement has been associated with higher suppression of activity in task-deactivated brain regions - usually ascribed to the Default Mode Network (DMN). Moreover, a negative correlation between these regions and areas actively engaged by the task is associated with better performance. DMN regions show positive modulation during autobiographical, social, and emotional tasks. However, it is not clear how processing of emotional stimuli affects the interplay between the DMN and executive brain regions...
April 24, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690546/a-rationale-for-music-training-to-enhance-executive-functions-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-overview-of-the-problem
#8
Teresa Lesiuk, Jennifer A Bugos, Brea Murakami
Music listening interventions such as Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation can improve mobility, balance, and gait in Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Yet, the impact of music training on executive functions is not yet known. Deficits in executive functions (e.g., attention, processing speed) in patients with PD result in gait interference, deficits in emotional processing, loss of functional capacity (e.g., intellectual activity, social participation), and reduced quality of life. The model of temporal prediction and timing suggests two networks collectively contribute to movement generation and execution: the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network (BGTC) and the cerebellar-thalamocortical network (CTC)...
April 22, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688290/gestational-age-is-dimensionally-associated-with-structural-brain-network-abnormalities-across-development
#9
Rula Nassar, Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Cedric Huchuan Xia, Aristeidis Sotiras, Marieta Pehlivanova, Tyler M Moore, Angel Garcia de La Garza, David R Roalf, Adon F G Rosen, Scott A Lorch, Kosha Ruparel, Russell T Shinohara, Christos Davatzikos, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Prematurity is associated with diverse developmental abnormalities, yet few studies relate cognitive and neurostructural deficits to a dimensional measure of prematurity. Leveraging a large sample of children, adolescents, and young adults (age 8-22 years) studied as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, we examined how variation in gestational age impacted cognition and brain structure later in development. Participants included 72 preterm youth born before 37 weeks' gestation and 206 youth who were born at term (37 weeks or later)...
April 21, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655375/association-between-traumatic-stress-load-psychopathology-and-cognition-in-the-philadelphia-neurodevelopmental-cohort
#10
Ran Barzilay, Monica E Calkins, Tyler M Moore, Daniel H Wolf, Theodore D Satterthwaite, J Cobb Scott, Jason D Jones, Tami D Benton, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
BACKGROUND: Traumatic stressors during childhood and adolescence are associated with psychopathology, mostly studied in the context of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. We investigated broader associations of traumatic stress exposure with psychopathology and cognition in a youth community sample. METHODS: The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (N = 9498) is an investigation of clinical and neurobehavioral phenotypes in a diverse (56% Caucasian, 33% African American, 11% other) US youth community population (aged 8-21)...
April 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618408/is-major-depression-a-cognitive-disorder
#11
REVIEW
P Fossati
This is a review of cognitive abilities in major depression, which is associated with attention problems, memory deficit and wide impairment in executive functions. Depressed patients show two major cognitive biases: excessive processing of negatively valenced emotional stimuli; and increased self-focus. Both of these biases help to facilitate the integration of negative self-related information in depressed patients and to maintain their negative mood. Brain imaging studies suggest that this cognitive impairment is characterized by abnormal cooperation between the cognitive and limbic networks involved in cognitive control and self-referential processing...
April 1, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572625/predicting-personality-from-network-based-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#12
Alessandra D Nostro, Veronika I Müller, Deepthi P Varikuti, Rachel N Pläschke, Felix Hoffstaedter, Robert Langner, Kaustubh R Patil, Simon B Eickhoff
Personality is associated with variation in all kinds of mental faculties, including affective, social, executive, and memory functioning. The intrinsic dynamics of neural networks underlying these mental functions are reflected in their functional connectivity at rest (RSFC). We, therefore, aimed to probe whether connectivity in functional networks allows predicting individual scores of the five-factor personality model and potential gender differences thereof. We assessed nine meta-analytically derived functional networks, representing social, affective, executive, and mnemonic systems...
March 23, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564852/-the-policy-and-practice-of-preventive-care-for-the-elderly
#13
Shwu-Feng Tsay, Shih-Chung Chen, Shu-Jen Lu, Li-Ting Liu
Taiwan is projected to become an aged society in 2018. In addition to establishing a comprehensive, long-term care system that is able to deal with the expected impacts of population aging, it is imperative that the government focus on improving the prevention of aging-related conditions. This article introduces the innovative preventive care policy promoted by Taiwan's Ministry of Health and Welfare and its preliminary results. Furthermore, the foundational ideas behind this policy and how it is being executed are explained...
April 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559907/use-of-eflornithine-dfmo-in-the-treatment-of-early-alzheimer-s-disease-a-compassionate-use-single-case-study
#14
Jessica Alber, Kelly McGarry, Richard B Noto, Peter J Snyder
Background: Recent genome-wide association screening (GWAS) studies have linked Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology to gene networks that regulate immune function. Kan et al. recently reported that Arg1 (an anti-inflammatory gene that codes for arginase-1) is expressed in parts of the brain associated with amyloidosis prior to the onset of neuronal loss, suggesting that chronic brain arginine deprivation promotes AD-related neuropathology. They blocked arginine catabolism in their mouse AD model by administration of eflornithine (DFMO) to juvenile animals, effectively blocking the expression of AD-related amyloid pathology as the mice aged...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554964/implementing-community-based-health-planning-and-services-in-impoverished-urban-communities-health-workers-perspective
#15
Adanna Uloaku Nwameme, Philip Teg-Nefaah Tabong, Philip Baba Adongo
BACKGROUND: Three-quarters of sub-Saharan Africa's urban population currently live under slum conditions making them susceptible to ill health and diseases. Ghana characterizes the situation in many developing countries where the urban poor have become a group much afflicted by complex health problems associated with their living conditions, and the intra-city inequity between them and the more privileged urban dwellers with respect to health care accessibility. Adopting Ghana's rural Community-Based Health Planning and Service (CHPS) programme in urban areas is challenging due to the differences in social networks and health challenges thus making modifications necessary...
March 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534038/social-network-analysis-as-a-methodological-approach-to-explore-health-systems-a-case-study-exploring-support-among-senior-managers-executives-in-a-hospital-network
#16
Aoife De Brún, Eilish McAuliffe
Health systems research recognizes the complexity of healthcare, and the interacting and interdependent nature of components of a health system. To better understand such systems, innovative methods are required to depict and analyze their structures. This paper describes social network analysis as a methodology to depict, diagnose, and evaluate health systems and networks therein. Social network analysis is a set of techniques to map, measure, and analyze social relationships between people, teams, and organizations...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516582/individual-differences-in-decision-making-competence-revealed-by-multivariate-fmri
#17
Tanveer Talukdar, Francisco J Román, Joachim T Operskalski, Christopher E Zwilling, Aron K Barbey
While an extensive literature in decision neuroscience has elucidated the neurobiological foundations of decision making, prior research has focused primarily on group-level effects in a sample population. Due to the presence of inherent differences between individuals' cognitive abilities, it is also important to examine the neural correlates of decision making that explain interindividual variability in cognitive performance. This study therefore investigated how individual differences in decision making competence, as measured by the Adult Decision Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, are related to functional brain connectivity patterns derived from resting-state fMRI data in a sample of 304 healthy participants...
June 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475103/increased-delayed-reward-during-intertemporal-decision-making-in-schizophrenic-patients-and-their-unaffected-siblings
#18
Lu Wang, Shengchun Jin, Kongliang He, Xingui Chen, Gongjun Ji, Xiaomeng Bai, Guixian Xiao, Huijuan Ma, Kai Wang
Intertemporal choices are decisions with consequences in multiple time periods and constitute a significant part of social cognition. The shared neuropathological characteristics of patients with schizophrenia and their siblings might express intermediate phenotypes in behavior that could be used to further characterize the illness. Schizophrenic patients, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls underwent a computerized version of the "Intertemporal Choice Task". All participants could choose between sooner-smaller (SS) and later-larger (LL) options in now-trials and in not-now-trials...
April 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446202/conditional-deletion-of-cadherin-13-perturbs-golgi-cells-and-disrupts-social-and-cognitive-behaviors
#19
M Tantra, L Guo, J Kim, N Zainolabidin, V Eulenburg, G J Augustine, A I Chen
Inhibitory interneurons mediate the gating of synaptic transmission and modulate the activities of neural circuits. Disruption of the function of inhibitory networks in the forebrain is linked to impairment of social and cognitive behaviors, but the involvement of inhibitory interneurons in the cerebellum has not been assessed. We found that Cadherin 13 (Cdh13), a gene implicated in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, is specifically expressed in Golgi cells within the cerebellar cortex...
February 15, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440807/palliative-care-policy-analysis-in-iran-a-conceptual-model
#20
Mojgan Ansari, Maryam Rassouli, Mohhamad Esmaiel Akbari, Abbas Abbaszadeh, Ali Akbarisari
Background: Palliative care programs are rapidly evolving for patients with life-threatening illnesses. Increased and earlier access for facilities is a subject of growing importance in health services, policy, and research. Aim: This study was conducted to explain stakeholders' perceptions of the factors affecting the design of such a palliative care system and its policy analysis. Methodology: Semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted following purposive sampling of the participants...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
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