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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334943/effects-of-prefrontal-cortex-damage-on-emotion-understanding-eeg-and-behavioural-evidence
#1
Anat Perry, Samantha N Saunders, Jennifer Stiso, Callum Dewar, Jamie Lubell, Torstein R Meling, Anne-Kristin Solbakk, Tor Endestad, Robert T Knight
Humans are highly social beings that interact with each other on a daily basis. In these complex interactions, we get along by being able to identify others' actions and infer their intentions, thoughts and feelings. One of the major theories accounting for this critical ability assumes that the understanding of social signals is based on a primordial tendency to simulate observed actions by activating a mirror neuron system. If mirror neuron regions are important for action and emotion recognition, damage to regions in this network should lead to deficits in these domains...
February 22, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327878/social-networks-in-nursing-work-processes-an-integrative-literature-review
#2
Ana Cláudia Mesquita, Cristina Mara Zamarioli, Francine Lima Fulquini, Emilia Campos de Carvalho, Emilia Luigia Saporiti Angerami
OBJECTIVE: To identify and analyze the available evidence in the literature on the use of social networks in nursing work processes. METHOD: An integrative review of the literature conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE and LILACS databases in January 2016, using the descriptors social media, social networking, nursing, enfermagem, redes sociais, mídias sociais, and the keyword nursing practice, without year restriction. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 27 international articles which were published between 2011 and 2016...
March 20, 2017: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318522/prognostic-stratification-and-healthcare-approach-in-patients-with-multiple-pathologies
#3
M Bernabeu-Wittel, B Barón-Franco, D Nieto-Martín, L Moreno-Gaviño, N Ramírez-Duque, M Ollero-Baturone
Polypathological patients constitute a prevalent, fairly homogeneous population, which is characterised by high clinical complexity, substantial vulnerability and significant resource consumption, in addition to high mortality and the need for comprehensive, coordinated care. It is particularly important to establish a reliable prognosis in these patients. It is also extremely useful for professionals involved in the decision-making process for patients and their families in vital planning and their preferences, for strategic health planning in management fields, and for clinical research, by facilitating their incorporation into clinical trials and other intervention studies...
March 16, 2017: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155138/cerebellar-neural-circuits-involving-executive-control-network-predict-response-to-group-cognitive-behavior-therapy-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#4
MinlanYuan, Yajing Meng, Yan Zhang, Xiaojing Nie, Zhengjia Ren, Hongru Zhu, Yuchen Li, Su Lui, Qiyong Gong, Changjian Qiu, Wei Zhang
Some intrinsic connectivity networks including the default mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN) may underlie social anxiety disorder (SAD). Although the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of SAD and several networks relevant to higher-order cognition, it remains unknown whether cerebellar areas involved in DMN and ECN exhibit altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with cortical networks in SAD. Forty-six patients with SAD and 64 healthy controls (HC) were included and submitted to the baseline resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
February 2, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154786/social-cognition-executive-functions-and-self-report-of-psychological-distress-in-huntington-s-disease
#5
Ida Unmack Larsen, Tua Vinther-Jensen, Jørgen Erik Nielsen, Anders Gade, Asmus Vogel
OBJECTIVE: Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in, inter alia, executive functions and social cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective feeling of psychological distress using a self-report questionnaire and performances on tests of executive functions and social cognition in a large consecutive cohort of HD patients. METHOD: 50 manifest HD patients were tested in social cognition and executive functions and each answered a self-report questionnaire about current status of perceived psychological distress (the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R))...
December 28, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137833/the-impact-of-bilingualism-on-brain-reserve-and-metabolic-connectivity-in-alzheimer-s-dementia
#6
Daniela Perani, Mohsen Farsad, Tommaso Ballarini, Francesca Lubian, Maura Malpetti, Alessandro Fracchetti, Giuseppe Magnani, Albert March, Jubin Abutalebi
Cognitive reserve (CR) prevents cognitive decline and delays neurodegeneration. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism may act as CR delaying the onset of dementia by ∼4.5 y. Much controversy surrounds the issue of bilingualism and its putative neuroprotective effects. We studied brain metabolism, a direct index of synaptic function and density, and neural connectivity to shed light on the effects of bilingualism in vivo in Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Eighty-five patients with probable AD and matched for disease duration (45 German-Italian bilingual speakers and 40 monolingual speakers) were included...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128459/a-hybrid-methodology-for-modeling-risk-of-adverse-events-in-complex-health-care-settings
#7
Reza Kazemi, Ali Mosleh, Meghan Dierks
In spite of increased attention to quality and efforts to provide safe medical care, adverse events (AEs) are still frequent in clinical practice. Reports from various sources indicate that a substantial number of hospitalized patients suffer treatment-caused injuries while in the hospital. While risk cannot be entirely eliminated from health-care activities, an important goal is to develop effective and durable mitigation strategies to render the system "safer." In order to do this, though, we must develop models that comprehensively and realistically characterize the risk...
January 27, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120864/the-neural-basis-of-intergroup-threat-effect-on-social-attention
#8
Yujie Chen, Yufang Zhao, Hongwen Song, Lili Guan, Xin Wu
Previous gaze-cuing studies found that intergroup threat is one of the modulators of gaze cuing. These findings indicate that intergroup threat would gate social attention by activating a network resembling that is thought to be involved in drawing or/and holding attention. The present study tested this hypothesis using a gaze-cuing task in which a particular in-group participants observed threatening out-group and nonthreatening out-group gazes, while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. As expected, greater gaze cuing effect only emerged for threatening out-group when the in-group participants only felt inergroup threat from that out-group...
January 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054651/alerted-default-mode-functional-connectivity-changes-in-the-aftermath-of-social-stress
#9
Benjamin Clemens, Lisa Wagels, Magdalena Bauchmüller, Rene Bergs, Ute Habel, Nils Kohn
Stress affects the brain at a network level: the salience network is supposedly upregulated, while at the same time the executive control network is downregulated. While theoretically described, the effects in the aftermath of stress have thus far not been tested empirically. Here, we compared for the first time resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of healthy volunteers before and after a mild social stressor. Following the theoretical prediction, we focused on connectivity of the salience network (SN), the executive control network (ECN) and the default mode network (DMN)...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008304/structural-brain-network-reorganization-and-social-cognition-related-to-adverse-perinatal-condition-from-infancy-to-early-adolescence
#10
Emma Muñoz-Moreno, Elda Fischi-Gomez, Dafnis Batalle, Cristina Borradori-Tolsa, Elisenda Eixarch, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Eduard Gratacós, Petra S Hüppi
Adverse conditions during fetal life have been associated to both structural and functional changes in neurodevelopment from the neonatal period to adolescence. In this study, connectomics was used to assess the evolution of brain networks from infancy to early adolescence. Brain network reorganization over time in subjects who had suffered adverse perinatal conditions is characterized and related to neurodevelopment and cognition. Three cohorts of prematurely born infants and children (between 28 and 35 weeks of gestational age), including individuals with a birth weight appropriated for gestational age and with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), were evaluated at 1, 6, and 10 years of age, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993231/neural-markers-in-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-and-familial-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#11
Jillian Lee Wiggins, Melissa A Brotman, Nancy E Adleman, Pilyoung Kim, Caroline G Wambach, Richard C Reynolds, Gang Chen, Kenneth Towbin, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft
OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly heritable. Neuroimaging studies comparing unaffected youth at high familial risk for BD (i.e., those with a first-degree relative with the disorder; termed "high-risk" [HR]) to "low-risk" (LR) youth (i.e., those without a first-degree relative with BD) and to patients with BD may help identify potential brain-based markers associated with risk (i.e., regions where HR+BD≠LR), resilience (HR≠BD+LR), or illness (BD≠HR+LR). METHOD: During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 99 youths (i...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910724/attentional-networks-and-visuospatial-working-memory-capacity-in-social-anxiety
#12
Jun Moriya
Social anxiety is associated with attentional bias and working memory for emotional stimuli; however, the ways in which social anxiety affects cognitive functions involving non-emotional stimuli remains unclear. The present study focused on the role of attentional networks (i.e. alerting, orienting, and executive control networks) and visuospatial working memory capacity (WMC) for non-emotional stimuli in the context of social anxiety. One hundred and seventeen undergraduates completed questionnaires on social anxiety...
December 2, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908287/is-mid-life-social-participation-associated-with-cognitive-function-at-age-50-results-from-the-british-national-child-development-study-ncds
#13
Ann Bowling, Jitka Pikhartova, Brian Dodgeon
BACKGROUND: Some studies have indicated that social engagement is associated with better cognitive outcomes. This study aimed to investigate associations between life-course social engagement (civic participation) and cognitive status at age 50, adjusting for social networks and support, behavioural, health, social and socio-economic characteristics. METHODS: The vehicle for the study was the National Child Development Study (1958 Birth Cohort Study), which is a general population sample in England, Scotland and Wales (9119: 4497 men and 4622 women) participating in nationally representative, prospective birth cohort surveys...
December 2, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837572/clinical-and-cognitive-factors-affecting-psychosocial-functioning-in-remitted-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#14
G Konstantakopoulos, N Ioannidi, M Typaldou, D Sakkas, P Oulis
Impaired interpersonal, social, and occupational functioning is very often observed in patients with bipolar disorder, not only at the acute stages of the illness but in remission as well. This finding raises the question of multiple factors that might affect psychosocial functioning in bipolar patients, such as residual subsyndromal symptoms and neuropsychological deficits. Social cognition impairment, especially impaired Theory of Mind (ToM), might also play an important role in bipolar patients' every-day functioning, similarly to what was found in patients with schizophrenia...
July 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832450/neural-correlates-of-correct-and-failed-response-inhibition-in-heavy-versus-light-social-drinkers-an-fmri-study-during-a-go-no-go-task-by-healthy-participants
#15
Salvatore Campanella, Julie Absil, Carina Carbia Sinde, Elisa Schroder, Philippe Peigneux, Mathieu Bourguignon, Mathieu Petieau, Thierry Metens, Mustapha Nouali, Serge Goldman, Guy Cheron, Paul Verbanck, Xavier De Tiège
The ability to suppress responses that are inappropriate, as well as the mechanisms monitoring the accuracy of actions in order to compensate for errors, is central to human behavior. Neural alterations that prevent stopping an inaccurate response, combined with a decreased ability of error monitoring, are considered to be prominent features of alcohol abuse. Moreover, (i) alterations of these processes have been reported in heavy social drinkers (i.e. young healthy individuals who do not yet exhibit a state of alcohol dependence); and (ii) through longitudinal studies, these alterations have been shown to underlie subsequent disinhibition that may lead to future alcohol use disorders...
November 10, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782972/professional-networks-and-the-alignment-of-individual-perceptions-about-medical-innovation
#16
Valentina Iacopino, Daniele Mascia, Americo Cicchetti
BACKGROUND: In recent decades, the role of technology in health care organizations has become increasingly relevant because it enhances health care outcomes and the achievement of clinical goals. Extant research demonstrates that the effectiveness of a medical innovation depends largely on health care professionals' perceptions of its usefulness and impact on their activities and practices. We also know that interaction among social actors contributes to the shaping of their judgments and opinions regarding innovation...
October 25, 2016: Health Care Management Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696182/mapping-the-network-of-neuropsychological-impairment-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-graph-theoretical-analysis
#17
George M Ibrahim, Benjamin R Morgan, Vanessa M Vogan, Rachel C Leung, Evdokia Anagnostou, Margot J Taylor
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit social-communicative impairments. Less is known about the neuropsychological profile of ASD, although cognitive and neuropsychological deficits are evident. We modelled neuropsychological function in 20 children with ASD and 20 sex, age and IQ matched typically-developing controls (ages 7-14) as a network of interacting parameters. Graph theoretical analysis was applied to identify critical topographic regions within this network. Two areas were significantly stronger hubs in typically-developing children, the ability to shift attention (p < 0...
December 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688968/hyperbrain-features-of-team-mental-models-within-a-juggling-paradigm-a-proof-of-concept
#18
Edson Filho, Maurizio Bertollo, Gabriella Tamburro, Lorenzo Schinaia, Jonas Chatel-Goldman, Selenia di Fronso, Claudio Robazza, Silvia Comani
BACKGROUND: Research on cooperative behavior and the social brain exists, but little research has focused on real-time motor cooperative behavior and its neural correlates. In this proof of concept study, we explored the conceptual notion of shared and complementary mental models through EEG mapping of two brains performing a real-world interactive motor task of increasing difficulty. We used the recently introduced participative "juggling paradigm," and collected neuro-physiological and psycho-social data...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664824/perceived-social-isolation-is-associated-with-altered-functional-connectivity-in-neural-networks-associated-with-tonic-alertness-and-executive-control
#19
Elliot A Layden, John T Cacioppo, Stephanie Cacioppo, Stefano F Cappa, Alessandra Dodich, Andrea Falini, Nicola Canessa
Perceived social isolation (PSI), colloquially known as loneliness, is associated with selectively altered attentional, cognitive, and affective processes in humans, but the neural mechanisms underlying these adjustments remain largely unexplored. Behavioral, eye tracking, and neuroimaging research has identified associations between PSI and implicit hypervigilance for social threats. Additionally, selective executive dysfunction has been evidenced by reduced prepotent response inhibition in social Stroop and dichotic listening tasks...
January 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630538/uncovering-the-social-deficits-in-the-autistic-brain-a-source-based-morphometric-study
#20
Alessandro Grecucci, Danilo Rubicondo, Roma Siugzdaite, Luca Surian, Remo Job
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that mainly affects social interaction and communication. Evidence from behavioral and functional MRI studies supports the hypothesis that dysfunctional mechanisms involving social brain structures play a major role in autistic symptomatology. However, the investigation of anatomical abnormalities in the brain of people with autism has led to inconsistent results. We investigated whether specific brain regions, known to display functional abnormalities in autism, may exhibit mutual and peculiar patterns of covariance in their gray-matter concentrations...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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