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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214367/population-genetic-structure-and-adaptation-of-malaria-parasites-on-the-edge-of-endemic-distribution
#1
Craig W Duffy, Hampate Ba, Samuel Assefa, Ambroise D Ahouidi, Yacine B Deh, Abderahmane Tandia, Freja C M Kirsebom, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, David J Conway
To determine whether the major human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exhibits fragmented population structure or local adaptation at the northern limit of its African distribution where the dry Sahel zone meets the Sahara, samples were collected from diverse locations within Mauritania over a range of ~ 1000 kilometres. Microsatellite genotypes were obtained for 203 clinical infection samples from eight locations, and Illumina paired-end sequences were obtained to yield high coverage genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for 65 clinical infection samples from four locations...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214237/knowledge-attitudes-and-preferences-of-advance-decisions-end-of-life-care-and-place-of-care-and-death-in-hong-kong-a%C3%A2-population-based-telephone-survey-of-1067-adults
#2
Roger Yat-Nork Chung, Eliza Lai-Yi Wong, Nicole Kiang, Patsy Yuen-Kwan Chau, Janice Y C Lau, Samuel Yeung-Shan Wong, Eng-Kiong Yeoh, Jean W Woo
OBJECTIVES: According to the 2015 Quality of Death Index published by the Intelligence Unit of the Economist, Hong Kong is ranked 22nd in terms of quality of palliative care in the world, behind many other major developed countries in Asia, including Taiwan, Singapore, Japan, and South Korea. The objectives of the present study were to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preferences of the general Hong Kong adult population across different age groups regarding end-of-life (EOL) care decisions, place of care and death, as well as advance directive (AD)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214226/cd49a-expression-defines-tissue-resident-cd8-t-cells-poised-for-cytotoxic-function-in-human-skin
#3
Stanley Cheuk, Heinrich Schlums, Irène Gallais Sérézal, Elisa Martini, Samuel C Chiang, Nicole Marquardt, Anna Gibbs, Ebba Detlofsson, Andrea Introini, Marianne Forkel, Charlotte Höög, Annelie Tjernlund, Jakob Michaëlsson, Lasse Folkersen, Jenny Mjösberg, Lennart Blomqvist, Marcus Ehrström, Mona Ståhle, Yenan T Bryceson, Liv Eidsmo
Tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells form a heterogeneous population that provides localized protection against pathogens. Here, we identify CD49a as a marker that differentiates CD8(+) Trm cells on a compartmental and functional basis. In human skin epithelia, CD8(+)CD49a(+) Trm cells produced interferon-γ, whereas CD8(+)CD49a(-) Trm cells produced interleukin-17 (IL-17). In addition, CD8(+)CD49a(+) Trm cells from healthy skin rapidly induced the expression of the effector molecules perforin and granzyme B when stimulated with IL-15, thereby promoting a strong cytotoxic response...
February 13, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214093/educating-religious-leaders-to-promote-uptake-of-male-circumcision-in-tanzania-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#4
Jennifer A Downs, Agrey H Mwakisole, Alphonce B Chandika, Shibide Lugoba, Rehema Kassim, Evarist Laizer, Kinanga A Magambo, Myung Hee Lee, Samuel E Kalluvya, David J Downs, Daniel W Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Male circumcision is being widely deployed as an HIV prevention strategy in countries with high HIV incidence, but its uptake in sub-Saharan Africa has been below targets. We did a study to establish whether educating religious leaders about male circumcision would increase uptake in their village. METHODS: In this cluster randomised trial in northwest Tanzania, eligible villages were paired by proximity (<60 km) and the time that a free male circumcision outreach campaign from the Tanzanian Ministry of Health became available in their village...
February 14, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214091/multidonor-intensive-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-active-ulcerative-colitis-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#5
Sudarshan Paramsothy, Michael A Kamm, Nadeem O Kaakoush, Alissa J Walsh, Johan van den Bogaerde, Douglas Samuel, Rupert W L Leong, Susan Connor, Watson Ng, Ramesh Paramsothy, Wei Xuan, Enmoore Lin, Hazel M Mitchell, Thomas J Borody
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota is implicated in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Faecal microbiota transplantation is a novel form of therapeutic microbial manipulation, but its efficacy in ulcerative colitis is uncertain. We aimed to establish the efficacy of intensive-dosing, multidonor, faecal microbiota transplantation in active ulcerative colitis. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at three hospitals in Australia...
February 14, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213995/thoracoscopic-division-of-vascular-rings
#6
Kevin M Riggle, Samuel E Rice-Townsend, John Ht Waldhausen
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Vascular rings are traditionally treated via an open thoracotomy. In recent years the use of thoracoscopy has increased. Herein we report our experience with thoracoscopic division of vascular rings in pediatric patients. METHODS: We reviewed all patients who underwent thoracoscopic or open division of a vascular ring at our institution between 2007 and 2015. We analyzed patient demographics, presenting symptoms, diagnostic imaging modality, ring anatomy, operative details, complications, and symptom resolution...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213790/optical-see-through-cancer-vision-goggles-enable-direct-patient-visualization-and-real-time-fluorescence-guided-oncologic-surgery
#7
Suman B Mondal, Shengkui Gao, Nan Zhu, LeMoyne Habimana-Griffin, Walter J Akers, Rongguang Liang, Viktor Gruev, Julie Margenthaler, Samuel Achilefu
BACKGROUND: The inability to visualize the patient and surgical site directly, limits the use of current near infrared fluorescence-guided surgery systems for real-time sentinel lymph node biopsy and tumor margin assessment. METHODS: We evaluated an optical see-through goggle augmented imaging and navigation system (GAINS) for near-infrared, fluorescence-guided surgery. Tumor-bearing mice injected with a near infrared cancer-targeting agent underwent fluorescence-guided, tumor resection...
February 17, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213737/associations-among-left-ventricular-systolic-function-tachycardia-and-cardiac-preload-in-septic-patients
#8
Michael J Lanspa, Sajid Shahul, Andrew Hersh, Emily L Wilson, Troy D Olsen, Eliotte L Hirshberg, Colin K Grissom, Samuel M Brown
BACKGROUND: In sepsis, tachycardia may indicate low preload, adrenergic stimulation, or both. Adrenergic overstimulation is associated with septic cardiomyopathy. We sought to determine whether tachycardia was associated with left ventricular longitudinal strain, a measure of cardiac dysfunction. We hypothesized an association would primarily exist in patients with high preload. METHODS: We prospectively observed septic patients admitted to three study ICUs, who underwent early transthoracic echocardiography...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213469/insulin-signaling-via-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-regulates-airway-glucose-uptake-and-barrier-function-in-a-cftr-dependent-manner
#9
Samuel A Molina, Hannah K Moriarty, Danny T Infield, Barry R Imhoff, Rachel J Vance, Agnes H Kim, Jason M Hansen, William R Hunt, Michael Koval, Nael A McCarty
Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is the most common co-morbidity associated with cystic fibrosis (CF) and correlates with increased rates of lung function decline. Since glucose is a nutrient present in the airways of patients with bacterial airway infections and since insulin controls glucose metabolism, the effect of insulin on CF airway epithelia was investigated to determine the role of insulin receptors and glucose transport in regulating glucose availability in the airway. The response to insulin by human airway epithelial cells was characterized by qPCR, immunoblot, immunofluorescence, and glucose uptake assays...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213439/tau-and-%C3%AE-amyloid-are-associated-with-medial-temporal-lobe-structure-function-and-memory-encoding-in-normal-aging
#10
Shawn M Marks, Samuel N Lockhart, Suzanne L Baker, William J Jagust
Normal aging is associated with decline in episodic memory, and also with aggregation of the β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau proteins and atrophy of medial temporal lobe structures crucial to memory formation. While some evidence suggests that Aβ is associated with aberrant neural activity, the relationships between these two aggregated proteins, neural function, and brain structure are poorly understood. Using in vivo human Aβ and tau imaging, we demonstrate that increased Aβ and tau are both associated with aberrant functional magnetic resonance imaging activity in the medial temporal lobes during memory encoding in cognitively normal older adults...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213433/chromosomal-instability-as-a-driver-of-tumor-heterogeneity-and-evolution
#11
Samuel F Bakhoum, Dan Avi Landau
Large-scale, massively parallel sequencing of human cancer samples has revealed tremendous genetic heterogeneity within individual tumors. Indeed, tumors are composed of an admixture of diverse subpopulations-subclones-that vary in space and time. Here, we discuss a principal driver of clonal diversification in cancer known as chromosomal instability (CIN), which complements other modes of genetic diversification creating the multilayered genomic instability often seen in human cancer. Cancer cells have evolved to fine-tune chromosome missegregation rates to balance the acquisition of heterogeneity while preserving favorable genotypes, a dependence that can be exploited for a therapeutic benefit...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213148/interface-tuning-and-stabilization-of-monoglyceride-mesophase-dispersions-food-emulsifiers-and-mixtures-efficiency
#12
Sébastien Serieye, Fabienne Méducin, Irena Milošević, Ling Fu, Samuel Guillot
Several food surfactants were examined as possible efficient emulsifiers for liquid crystalline monolinolein-based particles and as alternative choices to the non-food-grade emulsifier conventionally used Pluronic® F127. We described a food emulsifiers' toolbox, investigating their ability to emulsify mesophases (stabilization capacity, particle size, zeta potential) and their impact on internal nanostructures (from swelling to drastic modifications). Among the selected surfactants, sucrose stearate (S1670) was found to be the best candidate for replacing in a long term F127 as an efficient stabilizer of lipid particles...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213124/reciprocal-relationships-between-substance-use-and-disorders-and-suicidal-ideation-and-suicide-attempts-in-the-collaborative-study-of-the-genetics-of-alcoholism
#13
Arpana Agrawal, Rebecca Tillman, Richard A Grucza, Elliot C Nelson, Vivia V McCutcheon, Lauren Few, Kenneth R Conner, Michael T Lynskey, Danielle M Dick, Howard J Edenberg, Victor M Hesselbrock, John R Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, John I Nurnberger, Marc A Schuckit, Bernice Porjesz, Kathleen K Bucholz
BACKGROUND: Substance use and misuse and suicidal thoughts and behaviors tend to co-occur. The purpose of this study was to examine whether (a) suicidal ideation and attempt are related to onset of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use and dependence; (b) early use of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis is associated with onset of suicidal ideation and attempt; and (c) whether these associations persist while controlling for covariates, such as family history of alcohol problems, major depression and other internalizing and externalizing disorders...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212877/defining-outcomes-for-clinical-trials-of-leber-congenital-amaurosis-caused-by-gucy2d-mutations
#14
Samuel G Jacobson, Artur V Cideciyan, Alexander Sumaroka, Alejandro J Roman, Jason Charng, Monica Lu, Shreyasi Choudhury, Sharon B Schwartz, Elise Heon, Gerald A Fishman, Shannon E Boye
PURPOSE: To determine outcome measures for a clinical trial of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) associated with mutations in the GUCY2D gene. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: 28 patients with GUCY2D-LCA (ages 2-59) were studied clinically and with chromatic full-field sensitivity testing (FST), optical coherence tomography (OCT), pupillometry, and the NEI Visual Function Questionnaire. RESULTS: FST permitted quantitation of cone and rod sensitivity in these patients with severe visual impairment...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212486/highly-efficient-and-anomalous-charge-transfer-in-van-der-waals-trilayer-semiconductors
#15
Frank Ceballos, Ming-Gang Ju, Samuel D Lane, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Hui Zhao
Two dimensional materials, such as graphene and monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, allow the fabrication of multilayer structures without lattice matching restriction. A central issue in developing such artificial materials is to understand and control the interlayer electron transfer process, which plays a key role in harvesting their emergent properties. Recent photoluminescence and transient absorption measurements revealed that the electron transfer in hetero-bilayers occurs on ultrafast time scales...
February 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212398/modelling-the-risk-of-taenia-solium-exposure-from-pork-produced-in-western-kenya
#16
Lian F Thomas, William A de Glanville, Elizabeth A J Cook, Barend M De C Bronsvoort, Ian Handel, Claire N Wamae, Samuel Kariuki, Eric M Fèvre
The tapeworm Taenia solium is the parasite responsible for neurocysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease of public health importance, thought to cause approximately 1/3 of epilepsy cases across endemic regions. The consumption of undercooked infected pork perpetuates the parasite's life-cycle through the establishment of adult tapeworm infections in the community. Reducing the risk associated with pork consumption in the developing world is therefore a public health priority. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of any one pork meal in western Kenya containing a potentially infective T...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212395/delayed-apoptosis-allows-islet-%C3%AE-cells-to-implement-an-autophagic-mechanism-to-promote-cell-survival
#17
Heather L Hayes, Brett S Peterson, Jonathan M Haldeman, Christopher B Newgard, Hans E Hohmeier, Samuel B Stephens
Increased β-cell death coupled with the inability to replicate existing β-cells drives the decline in β-cell mass observed in the progression of both major forms of diabetes. Understanding endogenous mechanisms of islet cell survival could have considerable value for the development of novel strategies to limit β-cell loss and thereby promote β-cell recovery. Insulinoma cells have provided useful insight into β-cell death pathways but observations made in cell lines sometimes fail to translate to primary islets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212282/collagen-gold-nanoparticle-conjugates-for-versatile-biosensing
#18
Sarah Unser, Samuel Holcomb, ReJeana Cary, Laura Sagle
Integration of noble metal nanoparticles with proteins offers promising potential to create a wide variety of biosensors that possess both improved selectivity and versatility. The multitude of functionalities that proteins offer coupled with the unique optical properties of noble metal nanoparticles can allow for the realization of simple, colorimetric sensors for a significantly larger range of targets. Herein, we integrate the structural protein collagen with 10 nm gold nanoparticles to develop a protein-nanoparticle conjugate which possess the functionality of the protein with the desired colorimetric properties of the nanoparticles...
February 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211596/the-structure-of-adult-adhd
#19
Lenard A Adler, Stephen V Faraone, Thomas J Spencer, Patricia Berglund, Samuel Alperin, Ronald C Kessler
Although DSM-5 stipulates that symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are the same for adults as children, clinical observations suggest that adults have more diverse deficits than children in higher-level executive functioning and emotional control. Previous psychometric analyses to evaluate these observations have been limited in ways addressed in the current study, which analyzes the structure of an expanded set of adult ADHD symptoms in three pooled US samples: a national household sample, a sample of health plan members, and a sample of adults referred for evaluation at an adult ADHD clinic...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211481/effects-of-strength-training-on-osteogenic-differentiation-and-bone-strength-in-aging-female-wistar-rats
#20
Monique Patricio Singulani, Camila Tami Stringhetta-Garcia, Leandro Figueiredo Santos, Samuel Rodrigues Lourenço Morais, Mário Jefferson Quirino Louzada, Sandra Helena Penha Oliveira, Antonio Hernandes Chaves Neto, Rita Cássia Menegati Dornelles
The effects of strength training (ST) on the mechanical bone strength and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) from adult, aged and exercised aged rats were determined. The exercised aged animals displayed higher values of areal bone mineral density, compression test, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and biological mineralization, while oil red O staining for adipocytes was lower. ST increased gene expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx) as well as bone matrix protein expression, and reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ)...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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