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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432745/safety-of-sitagliptin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease-outcomes-from-tecos
#1
Samuel S Engel, Shailaja Suryawanshi, Susanna R Stevens, Robert G Josse, Jan H Cornel, Neli Jakuboniene, Axel Riefflin, Tsvetalina Tankova, Julio Wainstein, Eric D Peterson, Rury R Holman
AIMS: To characterize the incidence of diabetes-associated complications and assess the safety of sitagliptin in participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For participants with baseline eGFR measurements (n = 14,528), baseline characteristics and safety outcomes were compared for the CKD cohort (eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) ) versus those without CKD. Within the CKD cohort, the same analyses were performed comparing sitagliptin- and placebo-assigned participants...
April 22, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432080/npm1-directs-piddosome-dependent-caspase-2-activation-in-the-nucleolus
#2
Kiyohiro Ando, Melissa J Parsons, Richa B Shah, Chloé I Charendoff, Sheré L Paris, Peter H Liu, Sara R Fassio, Brittany A Rohrman, Ruth Thompson, Andrew Oberst, Samuel Sidi, Lisa Bouchier-Hayes
The PIDDosome (PIDD-RAIDD-caspase-2 complex) is considered to be the primary signaling platform for caspase-2 activation in response to genotoxic stress. Yet studies of PIDD-deficient mice show that caspase-2 activation can proceed in the absence of PIDD. Here we show that DNA damage induces the assembly of at least two distinct activation platforms for caspase-2: a cytoplasmic platform that is RAIDD dependent but PIDD independent, and a nucleolar platform that requires both PIDD and RAIDD. Furthermore, the nucleolar phosphoprotein nucleophosmin (NPM1) acts as a scaffold for PIDD and is essential for PIDDosome assembly in the nucleolus after DNA damage...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432048/solithromycin-a-novel-ketolide-antibiotic
#3
Michael J Buege, Jack E Brown, Samuel L Aitken
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, antimicrobial activity, clinical safety, and current regulatory status of solithromycin are reviewed. SUMMARY: Solithromycin is a novel ketolide antibiotic developed for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Its pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties provide activity against a broad range of intracellular organisms, including retained activity against pathogens displaying various mechanisms of macrolide resistance...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431923/sources-of-racial-disparities-in-hiv-prevalence-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-atlanta-ga-usa-a-modelling-study
#4
Steven M Goodreau, Eli S Rosenberg, Samuel M Jenness, Nicole Luisi, Sarah E Stansfield, Gregorio A Millett, Patrick S Sullivan
BACKGROUND: In the USA, men who have sex men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV, and black MSM have a substantially higher prevalence of infection than white MSM. We created a simulation model to assess the strength of existing hypotheses and data that account for these disparities. METHODS: We built a dynamic, stochastic, agent-based network model of black and white MSM aged 18-39 years in Atlanta, GA, USA, that incorporated race-specific individual and dyadic-level prevention and risk behaviours, network attributes, and care patterns...
April 18, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431584/monitoring-quality-and-coverage-of-harm-reduction-services-for-people-who-use-drugs-a-consensus-study
#5
Lucas Wiessing, Marica Ferri, Vendula Běláčková, Patrizia Carrieri, Samuel R Friedman, Cinta Folch, Kate Dolan, Brian Galvin, Peter Vickerman, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Viktor Mravčík, Mirjam Kretzschmar, Vana Sypsa, Ana Sarasa-Renedo, Anneli Uusküla, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Luis Mendão, Diana Rossi, Nadine van Gelder, Luke Mitcheson, Letizia Paoli, Cristina Diaz Gomez, Maitena Milhet, Nicoleta Dascalu, Jonathan Knight, Gordon Hay, Eleni Kalamara, Roland Simon, Catherine Comiskey, Carla Rossi, Paul Griffiths
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite advances in our knowledge of effective services for people who use drugs over the last decades globally, coverage remains poor in most countries, while quality is often unknown. This paper aims to discuss the historical development of successful epidemiological indicators and to present a framework for extending them with additional indicators of coverage and quality of harm reduction services, for monitoring and evaluation at international, national or subnational levels...
April 22, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431171/heritability-of-heart-rate-response-to-arousals-in-twins
#6
Xiaoling Gao, Ali Azarbarzin, Brendan T Keenan, Michele Ostrowski, Frances M Pack, Bethany Staley, Greg Maislin, Allan I Pack, Magdy Younes, Samuel T Kuna
Objectives: To determine if the large and highly reproducible inter-individual differences in arousal intensity and heart rate response to arousal (ΔHR) during non-REM sleep are heritable. Methods: Polysomnograms of 55 monozygotic (14 male and 41 female pairs) and 36 dizygotic (15 male and 21 female pairs) same-sex twin pairs were analyzed. Arousals were scored using the 2012 American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. Arousal intensity was scaled (between 0 and 9) using an automatic algorithm based on the change in EEG time and frequency characteristics...
April 18, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431163/an-evaluation-of-the-human-relevance-of-the-lung-tumors-observed-in-female-mice-treated-with-permethrin-based-on-mode-of-action
#7
Tomoya Yamada, Miwa Kondo, Kaori Miyata, Keiko Ogata, Masahiko Kushida, Kayo Sumida, Satoshi Kawamura, Thomas G Osimitz, Brian G Lake, Samuel M Cohen
Permethrin increased the incidence of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas in female mice but not male mice or female or male rats. Studies were conducted to determine whether permethrin has mitogenic activity in Club cells in mouse lung as the basis for the mode of action (MOA) for the lung adenoma induction. Several short term experiments focusing on time-course, dose-response, reversibility, sex difference, strain difference, and species difference were evaluated for Club cell proliferation and morphology. The findings demonstrated that permethrin slightly and continuously enhanced Club cell proliferation at tumor-associated dose levels in female mice, but did not increase proliferation in male mice or in female rats...
April 18, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430963/integrated-care-for-older-populations-and-its-implementation-facilitators-and-barriers-a-rapid-scoping-review
#8
Diane E Threapleton, Roger Y Chung, Samuel Y S Wong, Eliza Wong, Patsy Chau, Jean Woo, Vincent C H Chung, Eng-Kiong Yeoh
Purpose: Inform health system improvements by summarizing components of integrated care in older populations. Identify key implementation barriers and facilitators. Data sources: A scoping review was undertaken for evidence from MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, organizational websites and internet searches. Eligible publications included reviews, reports, individual studies and policy documents published from 2005 to February 2017. Study selection: Initial eligible documents were reviews or reports concerning integrated care approaches in older/frail populations...
April 20, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430032/sociocultural-hegemony-gendered-identity-and-use-of-traditional-and-complementary-medicine-in-ghana
#9
Razak Mohammed Gyasi, Daniel Buor, Samuel Adu-Gyamfi, Prince Osei-Wusu Adjei, Padmore Adusei Amoah
This study investigated the gender differences in use of traditional and complementary medicine (TCM) in Ghana. Using an interviewer-administered questionnaire, we collected data from March to June 2013 from 324 randomly sampled adults in the Ashanti Region. The prevalence of TCM use in the prior 12 months was 86%. Females constituted the majority (61%) of TCM users. Female TCM users were more likely than male users to have had only a basic education, been traders (p ˂ .0001), and had health insurance (p ˂ ...
April 21, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429713/gating-of-tonb-dependent-transporters-by-substrate-specific-forced-remodelling
#10
Samuel J Hickman, Rachael E M Cooper, Luca Bellucci, Emanuele Paci, David J Brockwell
Membrane proteins play vital roles in inside-out and outside-in signal transduction by responding to inputs that include mechanical stimuli. Mechanical gating may be mediated by the membrane or by protein(s) but evidence for the latter is scarce. Here we use force spectroscopy, protein engineering and bacterial growth assays to investigate the effects of force on complexes formed between TonB and TonB-dependent transporters (TBDT) from Gram-negative bacteria. We confirm the feasibility of protein-only mediated mechanical gating by demonstrating that the interaction between TonB and BtuB (a TBDT) is sufficiently strong under force to create a channel through the TBDT...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429485/the-place-of-periodontal-examination-and-referral-in-general-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Samuel Chan, Graham M Pasternak, Malcolm J West
In many countries, dental services, unlike other health-care services, are not covered by the principle of universal access. It is only in the last couple of decades that there has been a greater interaction between medicine and dentistry. Various health-care systems worldwide may provide public dental services to the young and the disadvantaged, but few provide access to all. Public policy does not appear to appreciate the vast economic, health and social implications of poor oral health on the overall health of an individual...
June 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429472/transoral-orthodromic-temporalis-muscle-transfer-technique-for-the-paralysed-midface-our-learning-curve-experience-from-the-first-10-cases
#12
Lepa Lazarova, Tristram H Lesser, Samuel C Leong
Sir Harold Gillies first described rotating a band of temporalis muscle over the zygoma where the muscle sling was augmented with strips of fascia lata to rehabilitate facial paralysis (1) . McLaughlin later modified this technique in the 1950s without inversion of the temporal muscle but in an orthodromic manner thus avoiding the soft tissue fullness over the zygomatic arch area and depression of the donor site (2) . Although several refinements of this technique have been described, all required skin incisions on the face until a transoral technique was described recently by this clinical group (3) ...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429460/automated-t-wave-analysis-can-differentiate-acquired-qt-prolongation-from-congenital-long-qt-syndrome
#13
Alan Sugrue, Peter A Noseworthy, Vaclav Kremen, J Martijn Bos, Bo Qiang, Ram K Rohatgi, Yehu Sapir, Zachi I Attia, Peter Brady, Pedro J Caraballo, Samuel J Asirvatham, Paul A Friedman, Michael J Ackerman
BACKGROUND: Prolongation of the QT on the surface electrocardiogram can be due to either genetic or acquired causes. Distinguishing congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) from acquired QT prolongation has important prognostic and management implications. We aimed to investigate if quantitative T-wave analysis could provide a tool for the physician to differentiate between congenital and acquired QT prolongation. METHODS: Patients were identified through an institution-wide computer-based QT screening system which alerts the physician if the QTc ≥ 500 ms...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429408/mo2-b4-o9-connecting-borate-and-metal-cluster-chemistry
#14
Martin K Schmitt, Oliver Janka, Rainer Pöttgen, Christopher Benndorf, Marcos de Oliveira, Hellmut Eckert, Florian Pielnhofer, Amadeus-Samuel Tragl, Richard Weihrich, Bastian Joachim, Dirk Johrendt, Hubert Huppertz
We report on the first thoroughly characterized molybdenum borate, which was synthesized in a high-pressure/high-temperature experiment at 12.3 GPa/1300 °C using a Walker-type multianvil apparatus. Mo2 B4 O9 incorporates tetrahedral molybdenum clusters into an anionic borate crystal structure-a structural motif that has never been observed before in the wide field of borate crystal chemistry. The six bonding molecular orbitals of the [Mo4 ] tetrahedron are completely filled with 12 electrons, which are fully delocalized over the four molybdenum atoms...
April 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429192/photoinactivation-effect-of-eosin-methylene-blue-and-chlorophyllin-sodium-copper-against-staphylococcus-aureus-and-escherichia-coli
#15
Cynthia S A Caires, Cassia R B Leal, Carlos A N Ramos, Danielle Bogo, Alessandra R Lima, Eduardo J Arruda, Samuel L Oliveira, Anderson R L Caires, Valter A Nascimento
The use of eosin methylene blue according to Giemsa as photosensitizer is presented for the first time in this paper. The present study evaluated the potential application of chlorophyllin sodium copper salt (CuChlNa) and eosin methylene blue according to Giemsa (EMB) as antimicrobial photosensitizers (aPS) for photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (gram-negative) bacteria. The experiments were performed using S. aureus stain ATCC 25923 and E. coli ATCC 25922 in which five aPS concentrations (0...
April 20, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428883/response-after-treatment-with-pembrolizumab-in-a-patient-with-myelophthisis-due-to-melanoma-the-role-of-checkpoint-inhibition-in-the-bone
#16
Samuel Rosner, Filiz Sen, Michael Postow
BACKGROUND: Myelophthisis due to melanoma is a rare phenomenon. Treatment strategies for patients with this serious complication of malignancy have not been well documented, and none have previously reported efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibition. Since bone metastases are not measurable lesions per standard response criteria, the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibition in the bones is also not well described. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a patient with widespread melanoma metastases involving the bone marrow causing myelophthisis and pancytopenia who responded to immune checkpoint inhibition with the anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor pembrolizumab...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428734/defining-a-staged-based-process-for-economic-and-financial-evaluations-of-mhealth-programs
#17
Amnesty E LeFevre, Samuel D Shillcutt, Sean Broomhead, Alain B Labrique, Tom Jones
Mobile and wireless technology for health (mHealth) has the potential to improve health outcomes by addressing critical health systems constraints that impede coverage, utilization, and effectiveness of health services. To date, few mHealth programs have been implemented at scale and there remains a paucity of evidence on their effectiveness and value for money. This paper aims to improve understanding among mHealth program managers and key stakeholders of how to select methods for economic evaluation (comparative analysis for determining value for money) and financial evaluation (determination of the cost of implementing an intervention, estimation of costs for sustaining or expanding an intervention, and assessment of its affordability)...
2017: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428367/copii-coated-membranes-function-as-transport-carriers-of-intracellular-procollagen-i
#18
Amita Gorur, Lin Yuan, Samuel J Kenny, Satoshi Baba, Ke Xu, Randy Schekman
The coat protein complex II (COPII) is essential for the transport of large cargo, such as 300-nm procollagen I (PC1) molecules, from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi. Previous work has shown that the CUL3-KLHL12 complex increases the size of COPII vesicles at ER exit sites to more than 300 nm in diameter and accelerates the secretion of PC1. However, the role of large COPII vesicles as PC1 transport carriers was not unambiguously demonstrated. In this study, using stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, correlated light electron microscopy, and live-cell imaging, we demonstrate the existence of mobile COPII-coated vesicles that completely encapsulate the cargo PC1 and are physically separated from ER...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428361/single-tube-dodecaplex-pcr-panel-of-polymorphic-microsatellite-markers-closely-linked-to-the-dmpk-ctg-repeat-for-preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-of-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#19
Mulias Lian, Mingjue Zhao, Caroline G Lee, Samuel S Chong
BACKGROUND: Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) currently uses conventional PCR to detect nonexpanded dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) alleles or triplet-primed PCR to detect the CTG-expanded alleles, coupled with analysis of linked microsatellite markers to increase diagnostic accuracy. We aimed to simplify the process of identification and selection of informative linked markers for application to DM1 PGD. METHODS: An in silico search was performed to identify all markers within 1-1...
April 20, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427854/geospatial-analysis-of-unmet-pediatric-surgical-need-in-uganda
#20
Emily R Smith, Joao Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci, Thiago Augusto Hernandes Rocha, Tu M Tran, Anthony T Fuller, Elissa K Butler, Luciano de Andrade, Fredrick Makumbi, Samuel Luboga, Christine Muhumuza, Didacus B Namanya, Jeffrey G Chipman, Moses Galukande, Michael M Haglund
BACKGROUND: In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), an estimated 85% of children do not have access to surgical care. The objective of the current study was to determine the geographic distribution of surgical conditions among children throughout Uganda. METHODS: Using the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) survey, we enumerated 2176 children in 2315 households throughout Uganda. At the district level, we determined the spatial autocorrelation of surgical need with geographic access to surgical centers variable...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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