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Cognitive self-regulation

Julia L Feldman, Antonio L Freitas
The study of the conflict-adaptation effect, in which encountering information-processing conflict attenuates the disruptive influence of information-processing conflicts encountered subsequently, is a burgeoning area of research. The present study investigated associations among performance measures on a Stroop-trajectory task (measuring Stroop interference and conflict adaptation), on a Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST; measuring cognitive flexibility), and on self-reported measures of self-regulation (including impulsivity and tenacity)...
July 2016: Experimental Psychology
Jelena Obradović, Jenna E Finch
This study employed piecewise growth curve modeling to examine how children's executive function (EF) skills relate to different components of children's physiological response trajectory - initial arousal, reactivity, and recovery. The sample included 102 ethnically diverse kindergarteners, whose EF skills were measured using standard tasks and observer ratings. Physiological response was measured via changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in response to a laboratory socio-cognitive challenge. Children's cool and hot EF skills were differentially related to both linear and quadratic components of RSA response during the challenge...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
Sarah Tully, Adrian Wells, Melissa Pyle, Jemma Hudson, Andrew Gumley, David Kingdon, Matthias Schwannauer, Douglas Turkington, Anthony P Morrison
Responses to psychotic experiences are central to cognitive models of psychosis. The current study aimed to develop and validate a self-report measure of common responses to the experience of psychosis. This measure is needed as cognitive and behavioural responses are implicated in the maintenance of psychosis, but there is currently no measure that comprehensively assesses these maintaining factors. The Measure of Common Responses to psychosis (MCR) was developed and utilised in a sample of 487 participants who met criteria for treatment-resistant schizophrenia...
October 13, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
L Guillod, S Habersaat, M Suter, T Jeanneret, C Bertoni, P Stéphan, S Urben
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Conxa Perpiñá, Mara Segura, Sergio Sánchez-Reales
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare decision-making and cognitive flexibility in patients with disordered eating and weight, ranging from anorexia nervosa to obesity, and a healthy group. METHOD: Participants were 113 patients (86 with eating disorders and 27 with obesity), and a group of 39 healthy subjects; all completed the Iowa gambling task, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and several clinical self-report measures. RESULTS: Eating disordered and obese patients showed impaired performance on the decision-making task, and the obese group showed the worst performance on the set-shifting task...
October 15, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Jan Keller, Amelie U Wiedemann, Diana Hilda Hohl, Urte Scholz, Silke Burkert, Mark Schrader, Nina Knoll
OBJECTIVES: Extending individual planning of health behaviour change to the level of the dyad, dyadic planning refers to a target person and a planning partner jointly planning the target person's health behaviour change. To date, predictors of dyadic planning have not been systematically investigated. Integrating cognitive predictors of individual planning with four established predictor domains of social support provision, we propose a framework of predictors of dyadic planning. Including target persons' and partners' perspectives, we examine these predictor domains in the context of prostate cancer patients' rehabilitative pelvic floor exercise (PFE) following radical prostatectomy...
October 15, 2016: British Journal of Health Psychology
Nele A J De Witte, Stefan Sütterlin, Caroline Braet, Sven C Mueller
Emotion regulation and associated autonomic activation develop throughout childhood and adolescence under the influence of the family environment. Specifically, physiological indicators of autonomic nervous system activity such as interoceptive sensitivity and vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV) can inform on emotion regulation. Although the effect of parental emotion socialization on emotion regulation appears to be influenced by autonomic processes, research on physiological regulation and the influence of parental factors remains scarce...
2016: PloS One
Elizabeth B Owens, Stephen P Hinshaw
Using a sample of 228 females with and without childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder followed prospectively across 16 years, we measured childhood neurocognitive vulnerability via executive dysfunction using teacher-reported cognitive and learning problems. We then ascertained relations between dimensionally measured internalizing and externalizing psychopathology during adulthood and showed that childhood neurocognitive vulnerability reliably predicted such associated psychopathology. We identified six serial mediation pathways from childhood neurocognitive vulnerability to adult psychopathology through three early- and late-adolescent domains: individual (self-control and delay of gratification), peer (rejection/conflict and acceptance/friendship), and school (academic performance and school failure)...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
José M Causadias, Eva H Telzer, Richard M Lee
Objective: Culture and biology have evolved together, influence each other, and concurrently shape behavior, affect, cognition, and development. This special section highlights 2 major domains of the interplay between culture and biology. Method: The first domain is neurobiology of cultural experiences-how cultural, ethnic, and racial experiences influence limbic systems and neuroendocrine functioning-and the second domain is cultural neuroscience-the connections between cultural processes and brain functioning...
August 15, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Tolga Erdogan, Nuray Senemoglu
Self-regulation is an individual's influence, orientation, and control over his/her own behaviors. The primary aim of this study was to develop and validate a self-report scale on self-regulation that encompasses both cognitive and motivational factors. The validity and reliability studies of the scale were examined on responses of 872 university students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the hypothesized model of self-regulated skills in learning. The scale has 67 items and the factor loadings range from 0...
2016: SpringerPlus
James J Annesi, Jennifer L Unruh-Rewkowski, Nicole Mareno
Maintaining weight-loss beyond 6-9 months within behavioral treatments has been problematic. However, a social cognitive theory-driven, community-based curriculum emphasizing the generalization of physical activity-related self-regulation, to eating-related self-regulation (phase 1 treatment; n = 55), demonstrated success at both inducing lost weight over its initial 6 months, and maintaining that loss through month 24. The present replication study contrasted those outcomes with a phase 2 version of the year-long treatment (n = 74) that added a follow-up component during year 2 consisting of 5 brief phone interactions to reinforce self-regulatory skills...
October 11, 2016: Behavioral Medicine
A Carson, L Ludwig, K Welch
In this chapter we review key psychologic theories that have been mooted as possible explanations for the etiology of functional neurologic symptoms, conversion disorder, and hysteria. We cover Freudian psychoanalysis and later object relations and attachment theories, social theories, illness behavior, classic and operant conditioning, social learning theory, self-regulation theory, cognitive-behavioral theories, and mindfulness. Dissociation and modern cognitive neuroscience theories are covered in other chapters in this series and, although of central importance, are omitted from this chapter...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Isabelle Merckaert, Florence Lewis, France Delevallez, Sophie Herman, Marie Caillier, Nicole Delvaux, Yves Libert, Aurore Liénard, Jean-Marie Nogaret, David Ogez, Pierre Scalliet, Jean-Louis Slachmuylder, Paul Van Houtte, Darius Razavi
OBJECTIVE: To compare in a multicenter randomized controlled trial the benefits in terms of anxiety regulation of a 15-session single-component group intervention (SGI) based on support with those of a 15-session multi-component structured manualized group intervention (MGI) combining support with cognitive-behavioral and hypnosis components. METHODS: Patients with non-metastatic breast cancer were randomly assigned at the beginning of the survivorship period to the SGI (n = 83) or MGI (n = 87)...
October 8, 2016: Psycho-oncology
Astrid Baljé, Anja Greeven, Anne van Giezen, Kees Korrelboom, Arnoud Arntz, Philip Spinhoven
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) with comorbid avoidant personality disorder (APD) has a high prevalence and is associated with serious psychosocial problems and high societal costs. When patients suffer from both SAD and APD, the Dutch multidisciplinary guidelines for personality disorders advise offering prolonged cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Recently there is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of schema therapy (ST) for personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder and cluster C personality disorders...
October 8, 2016: Trials
Fabiano Koich Miguel, Luciano Giromini, Maíra Stivaleti Colombarolli, Ana Carolina Zuanazzi, Alessandro Zennaro
OBJECTIVE: About 10 years ago, Gratz and Roemer (2004) introduced the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), a 36-item self-report instrument measuring 6 areas of emotion regulation problems. Recently, Bjureberg et al. (2015) have introduced a new, briefer version of the DERS comprising only 16 of the 36 items included in the original version. Because no studies have yet cross-validated the recently introduced 16-item DERS and the 36-item DERS has never been tested in Brazil, we sought to inspect the psychometric properties of scores from both DERS versions with a nonclinical Brazilian sample...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Rick A Stephan, Omar M Alhassoon, Kenneth E Allen, Scott C Wollman, Matt Hall, William J Thomas, Julia M Gamboa, Chrissy Kimmel, Mark Stern, Celina Sari, Constance J Dalenberg, Scott F Sorg, Igor Grant
BACKGROUND: Promising models for cognitive rehabilitation in alcohol treatment rest on a more nuanced understanding of the associated impairments in the multifaceted domains of executive functioning (EF) and impulsivity. OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis examined the effects of alcohol on the individual subcomponents of EF and impulsivity in recently detoxified participants, including 1) Inhibition & Self-Regulation, 2) Flexibility & Set Shifting, 3) Planning & Problem Solving, 4) Reasoning & Abstraction, and 5) Verbal Fluency...
August 12, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Andrea Hermann, Laura Kress, Rudolf Stark
Cognitive emotion regulation strategies are important components of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Additionally, up-regulation and difficulties in the down-regulation of negative feelings are associated with mental disorders. However, little is known about the lasting effects of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on emotional experience and associated neural activation. Therefore, this study investigated immediate and prolonged effects of emotion regulation using cognitive reappraisal and distraction on subjective report and its neural correlates...
October 5, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Penelope Hasking, Janis Whitlock, David Voon, Alyssa Rose
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a complex behaviour, routinely engaged for emotion regulatory purposes. As such, a number of theoretical accounts regarding the aetiology and maintenance of NSSI are grounded in models of emotion regulation; the role that cognition plays in the behaviour is less well known. In this paper, we summarise four models of emotion regulation that have repeatedly been related to NSSI and identify the core components across them. We then draw on social cognitive theory to unite models of cognition and models of emotion in developing a new cognitive-emotional model of NSSI...
October 5, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Donna E Murray, Timothy C Durazzo, Thomas P Schmidt, Christoph Abé, Joseph Guydish, Dieter J Meyerhoff
OBJECTIVE: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in opiate dependence showed abnormalities in neuronal viability and glutamate concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Metabolite levels in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and their neuropsychological correlates have not been investigated in opiate dependence. METHODS: Single-volume proton MRS at 4 Tesla and neuropsychological testing were conducted in 21 opiate-dependent individuals (OD) on buprenorphine maintenance therapy...
August 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Carisa Perry-Parrish, Nikeea Copeland-Linder, Lindsey Webb, Ashley H Shields, Erica Ms Sibinga
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) was introduced in 1995 to address the problem of recurrent depression. MBCT is based on the notion that meditation helps individuals effectively deploy and regulate attention to effectively manage and treat a range of psychological symptoms, including emotional responses to stress, anxiety, and depression. Several studies demonstrate that mindfulness approaches can effectively reduce negative emotional reactions that result from and/or exacerbate psychiatric difficulties and exposure to stressors among children, adolescents, and their parents...
2016: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
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