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Cognitive self-regulation

Pauline Popp, Peter Zu Eulenburg, Thomas Stephan, Rainer Bögle, Maximilian Habs, Peter Henningsen, Regina Feuerecker, Marianne Dieterich
Objective: Functional dizziness syndromes are among the most common diagnoses made in patients with chronic dizziness, but their underlying neural characteristics are largely unknown. The aim of this neuroimaging study was to analyze the disease-specific brain changes in patients with phobic postural vertigo (PPV). Methods: We measured brain morphology, task response, and functional connectivity in 44 patients with PPV and 44 healthy controls. Results: The analyses revealed a relative structural increase in regions of the prefrontal cortex and the associated thalamic projection zones as well as in the primary motor cortex...
June 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
A Janet Tomiyama
Many pathways connect stress and obesity, two highly prevalent problems facing society today. First, stress interferes with cognitive processes such as executive function and self-regulation. Second, stress can affect behavior by inducing overeating and consumption of foods that are high in calories, fat, or sugar; by decreasing physical activity; and by shortening sleep. Third, stress triggers physiological changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, reward processing in the brain, and possibly the gut microbiome...
June 21, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Marike H F Deutz, Qinxin Shi, Helen G M Vossen, Jorg Huijding, Peter Prinzie, Maja Deković, Anneloes L van Baar, Steven Woltering
The Dysregulation Profile (DP) has emerged as a measure of concurrent affective, behavioral and cognitive dysregulation, associated with severe psychopathology, and poor adjustment. While originally developed with the Child Behavior Checklist, more recently the DP has also been defined on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), mostly with a 5-item, but also a 15-item, SDQ-DP measure. This study evaluated the SDQ-DP by examining its factor structure, measurement invariance, and construct validity...
June 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Xi-Jing Chen, Chun-Guang Wang, Wang Liu, Monika Gorowska, Dong-Mei Wang, Yong-Hui Li
Emotional dysregulation contributes to the development of substance use disorders (SUDs) and is highly associated with drug abuse and relapse. Music as a contextual auditory stimulus can effectively stimulate the reward circuitry, modulate memory associated with drug taking, and enhance emotional experiences during drug taking. However, the studies of the emotional responses to music in individuals with SUDs are scarce. Using startle reflex and self-reports, this study assessed the psychophysiological and cognitive emotional responses (i...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Lily Rothschild-Yakar, Merav Peled, Adi Enoch-Levy, Eitan Gur, Daniel Stein
BACKGROUND: We examined the relationship between general ability of mentalization, the specific aspect of affective mentalizing of self and others, emotion regulation strategies, and eating disorder (ED) symptoms. METHOD: Twenty-five female adolescent and young adult inpatients with EDs, and 22 healthy subjects, were administered a semi-structured interview - the Reflective Function (RF) scale, self-rating scales assessing alexithymia, emotion regulation, depression and ED symptomatology, and a neurocognitive measure assessing Theory of Mind...
2018: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and related Sciences
Alice Y Hua, Isabel J Sible, David C Perry, Katherine P Rankin, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, Howard J Rosen, Virginia E Sturm
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by profound changes in emotions and empathy. Although most patients with bvFTD become less sensitive to negative emotional cues, some patients become more sensitive to positive emotional stimuli. We investigated whether dysregulated positive emotions in bvFTD undermine empathy by making it difficult for patients to share (emotional empathy), recognize (cognitive empathy), and respond (real-world empathy) to emotions in others...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Andrzej Jakubczyk, Elisa M Trucco, Maciej Kopera, Paweł Kobyliński, Hubert Suszek, Sylwia Fudalej, Kirk J Brower, Marcin Wojnar
Emotion dysregulation and impulsivity are important factors influencing the development and course of alcohol dependence. However, few empirical studies investigate the association between different aspects of impulsivity (cognitive, attentional, behavioral), emotion regulation, and alcohol use disorder symptoms in the same model. The goal of this study was to assess the association between emotion regulation and different facets of impulsivity among patients with an alcohol use disorder and healthy controls...
August 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Franz Moggi
Epidemiology, etiology and treatment of patients with psychosis and co-morbid substance use disorder Abstract. More than 25 years ago, when the research on the efficacy of treatments for patients with a comorbidity of psychosis and substance use disorder has been systematically started, some authors described the treatment of these patients as a "mission impossible". Approximately half of all individuals with schizophrenia develop substance use disorders in the course of their life; about one third of them a comorbid alcohol use disorder and about one quarter a comorbid substance use disorder with other addictive substances...
June 2018: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
Christina Totzeck, Tobias Teismann, Stefan G Hofmann, Ruth von Brachel, Xiao Chi Zhang, Verena Pflug, Jürgen Margraf
BACKGROUND: Emotion regulation plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of psychological disorders. Less is known about the association of affective styles and psychopathology. The 20-item "Affective Style Questionnaire" (ASQ) has been validated in nonclinical samples. The American and German validation studies resulted in a three-factor structure (concealing, adjusting, and tolerating). The present study aimed to investigate three aspects: (1) the validation of the ASQ within a clinical sample, (2) the examination of possible differences in affective styles between patients suffering from affective versus anxiety disorders, and (3) the association of affective styles and anxiety, depression, and stress symptoms...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
A D Iordan, S Dolcos, F Dolcos
Emotional distraction may come from the external world and from our mind, as internal distraction. Although external emotional distraction has been extensively investigated, less is known about the mechanisms associated with the impact of internal emotional distraction on cognitive performance, and those involved in coping with such distraction. These issues were investigated using a working memory task with emotional distraction, where recollected unpleasant autobiographical memories served as internal emotional distraction...
June 14, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Xiaomei Dong, Jianwei Yang, Lin Peng, Minhui Pang, Jiayi Zhang, Zhan Zhang, Jiaming Rao, Haiqing Wang, Xiongfei Chen
BACKGROUND: HIV-related discrimination amongst healthcare providers is one of the strongest obstacles to effectively responding to HIV. This study was conducted to explore the occurrence of and other factors related to discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS amongst healthcare providers in Guangzhou, China. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted between July and October 2016, that enrolled healthcare providers from 9 healthcare institutions in Guangzhou, China...
June 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Jana Zweerings, Eliza M Pflieger, Krystyna A Mathiak, Mikhail Zvyagintsev, Anastasia Kacela, Guido Flatten, Klaus Mathiak
Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by deficits in the self-regulation of cognitions and emotions. Neural networks of emotion regulation may exhibit reduced control mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), contributing to aberrant limbic responses in PTSD. Methods: Real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI NF) assessed self-regulation of the ACC in nine patients with PTSD after single trauma exposure and nine matched healthy controls. All participants were instructed to train ACC upregulation on three training days...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Anke Karl, Matthew J Williams, Jessica Cardy, Willem Kuyken, Catherine Crane
This paper explores the relationship between dispositional self-compassion and cognitive emotion regulation capacities in individuals with a history of depression. Study 1 (n = 403) established that self-compassion was associated with increased use of positive and decreased use of negative strategies, with small to medium sized correlations. Study 2 (n = 68) was an experimental study examining the association between dispositional self-compassion, use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies, and changes in mood and self-devaluation in participants exposed to a negative mood induction followed by mood repair (mindfulness, rumination, silence)...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Chiara Malagoli, Maria Carmen Usai
Adolescence is a fundamental transition phase, marked by physical, social, cognitive and emotional changes. At this stage in development two contrasting phenomena take place: brain changes cause a sensitivity to emotional aspects (Dahl, 2004); while also control processes register as well impressive improvements (e.g., Hooper et al., 2004; Best and Miller, 2010). The study is aimed to investigate the relationship between a core cognitive feature such as working memory (WM) (Diamond, 2013) and complex abilities such as emotion regulation (ER) and behavioral self-reported outcomes using a structural equation model approach...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Gina S Briscoe, Lynn G Brown
To be successful in their courses, nursing students must possess and routinely practice a wide range of self-regulated learning skills. Self-monitoring and regulation of cognition, metacognition, and behaviors influence learning for nursing practice. As reading and studying for comprehension, effective note taking, and taking tests successfully are challenging for many students, faculty at a rural community college created five self-regulated e-learning modules to equip prenursing students with evidence-based techniques to facilitate learning...
June 9, 2018: Nursing Education Perspectives
Jo A Archer, Annie Lee, Anqi Qiu, Shen-Hsing Annabel Chen
Experimental imaging studies on the effects of acute stress have revealed functional changes in the amygdalae, hippocampi and medial frontal cortices. However, much less is known about the association between perceived stress and neurological function which may have implications for the development of stress related disorders. Participants completed a working-memory task and an inhibition task whilst undergoing a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. Task related and resting-state fMRI data from 22 women and 24 men were analysed to investigate changes in task activations and functional connectivity associated with perceived stress over the past month...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Magdalena Katharina Wekenborg, LaBarron K Hill, Robert Miller, Tobias Stalder, Julian Francis Thayer, Marlene Sophie Penz, Clemens Kirschbaum
Burnout, a pathological consequence of chronic work stress, shows an increasing incidence rate in industrialized countries. Previous findings indicate that burnout may be linked to a detachment of the negative association between subjectively appraised task demand and cognitive performance, which is typically seen in healthy individuals. The present study sought to confirm this relationship and to investigate whether this dissociation is mirrored in a biological marker of self-regulation, i.e., resting vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV)...
June 9, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Mar Pérez, Raquel Cuadros, Miguel Medina
The brain-specific tau protein binds directly through microtubules to regulate dynamically its structure and function. It also plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of a number of neurodegenerative disorders collectively known as tauopathies, the most common of which is Alzheimer's disease (AD). Under pathological conditions, the natively unfolded tau protein self-assembles into filamentous structures of aggregated, hyperphosphorylated tau. In AD brains, tau accumulates in the neuronal perikarya and processes as paired helical filaments (PHF) forming the neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) characteristic of the disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xin Jiang, Xiaoli Niu, Qingjun Guo, Yanhong Dong, Jing Xu, Nan Yin, Qianqian Qi, Yanqiu Jia, Liwei Gao, Qihui He, Peiyuan Lv
Vascular dementia (VD) is a heterogeneous group of brain disorders in which cognitive impairment is attributed to cerebrovascular pathologies. Autophagy, a self-cannibalization mechanism, has been demonstrated to be involved in VD progression. Molecular hydrogen is known for its powerful anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities, and it is also involved in autophagy. However, the effects of hydrogen on VD remain unclear. The current study found that hydrogen-rich water (HRW) significantly alleviated spatial learning and memory impairments...
June 7, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Petra Warschburger, Michaela Gmeiner, Marisa Morawietz, Mike Rinck
This study evaluated the efficacy of approach-avoidance training as an additional treatment for children and adolescents with obesity seeking inpatient treatment. Two hundred thirty-two participants (8-16 years, 53.9% girls) were randomly assigned either to multisession approach-avoidance (IG) or to placebo training (CG). As outcomes, cognitive biases post intervention, body mass index, eating behaviour, food intake, self-regulation, and weight-related quality of life were assessed, also at 6- and 12-month follow-up...
June 8, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
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