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Cognitive self-regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222933/benefits-of-emotional-integration-and-costs-of-emotional-distancing
#1
Guy Roth, Bat-Hen Shachar, Yael Zohar-Shefer, Moti Benita, Anat Moed, Uri Bibi, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon, Richard M Ryan
OBJECTIVES: Three studies explored the consequences of the self-determination theory (SDT) conception of integrative emotion regulation (IER; Ryan & Deci, 2017), which involves an interested stance toward emotions. Emotional, physiological, and cognitive consequences of IER were compared to the consequences of emotional distancing (ED), in relation to a fear-eliciting film. METHOD: In Study 1, we manipulated emotion regulation by prompting students' (n = 90) IER, ED, and a control group...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222516/impact-of-self-esteem-and-sex-on-stress-reactions
#2
Lydia Kogler, Eva-Maria Seidel, Hannah Metzler, Hanna Thaler, Roland N Boubela, Jens C Pruessner, Ilse Kryspin-Exner, Ruben C Gur, Christian Windischberger, Ewald Moser, Ute Habel, Birgit Derntl
Positive self-evaluation is a major psychological resource modulating stress coping behavior. Sex differences have been reported in self-esteem as well as stress reactions, but so far their interactions have not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated sex-specific associations of self-esteem and stress reaction on behavioral, hormonal and neural levels. We applied a commonly used fMRI-stress task in 80 healthy participants. Men compared to women showed higher activation during stress in hippocampus, precuneus, superior temporal gyrus (STG) and insula...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222423/voluntary-modulation-of-mental-effort-investment-an-fmri-study
#3
Omar T Khachouf, Gang Chen, Davide Duzzi, Carlo A Porro, Giuseppe Pagnoni
Mental effort is a common phenomenological construct deeply linked to volition and self-control. While it is often assumed that the amount of exertion invested in a task can be voluntarily regulated, the neural bases of such faculty and its behavioural effects are yet insufficiently understood. In this study, we investigated how the instructions to execute a demanding cognitive task either "with maximum exertion" or "as relaxed as possible" affected performance and brain activity. The maximum exertion condition, compared to relaxed execution, was associated with speeded motor responses without an accuracy trade-off, and an amplification of both task-related activations in dorsal frontoparietal and cerebellar regions, and task-related deactivations in default mode network (DMN) areas...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213110/the-relationship-between-dlpfc-activity-during-unpredictable-threat-and-co2-induced-panic-symptoms
#4
Nicholas L Balderston, Jeffrey Liu, Roxann Roberson-Nay, Monique Ernst, Christian Grillon
Panic disorder is characterized by sudden, repeated, and unexpected attacks of intense fear and overwhelming anxiety about when another attack may strike. Patients with panic disorder and healthy individuals with a history of panic attacks show a hypersensitivity to unpredictable threats, suggesting a possible link between panic and sustained anxiety. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which induced symptoms of panic relate to fear and anxiety, as well as activity in the neural systems that mediate and regulate these affective states...
November 30, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209251/social-cognition-and-executive-functions-as-key-factors-for-effective-pedagogy-in-higher-education
#5
Rut Correia, Gorka Navarrete
Higher education (HE) faces the challenge of responding to an increasing diversity. In this context, more attention is being paid to teachers and teaching skills positively related to students learning. Beyond the knowledges identified as key components of an effective teacher, teachers also need to be capable of unraveling what their students think and believe, and how they accommodate the new information. More importantly, teachers need to be able to adapt their own teaching to their audience's needs. In learners, social cognition (SC) has been related to a better receptivity to the different teacher-student interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203023/identifying-compensatory-driving-behavior-among-older-adults-using-the-situational-avoidance-questionnaire
#6
Jessica J Davis, Elizabeth G Conlon
INTRODUCTION: Driving self-regulation is considered a means through which older drivers can compensate for perceived declines in driving skill or more general feelings of discomfort on the road. One form of driving self-regulation is situational avoidance, the purposeful avoidance of situations perceived as challenging or potentially hazardous. This study aimed to validate the Situational Avoidance Questionnaire (SAQ, Davis, Conlon, Ownsworth, & Morrissey, 2016) and identify the point on the scale at which drivers practicing compensatory avoidance behavior could be distinguished from those whose driving is unrestricted, or who are avoiding situations for other, non-compensatory reasons (e...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197573/development-of-the-emotional-brain
#7
REVIEW
B J Casey, Aaron S Heller, Dylan G Gee, Alexandra O Cohen
In this article, we highlight the importance of dynamic reorganization of neural circuitry during adolescence, as it relates to the development of emotion reactivity and regulation. We offer a neurobiological account of hierarchical, circuit-based changes that coincide with emotional development during this time. Recent imaging studies suggest that the development of the emotional brain involves a cascade of changes in limbic and cognitive control circuitry. These changes are particularly pronounced during adolescence, when the demand for self regulation across a variety of emotional and social situations may be greatest...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195773/cognitive-deficits-in-bipolar-disorders-implications-for-emotion
#8
REVIEW
Isabela M M Lima, Andrew D Peckham, Sheri L Johnson
Prominent cognitive deficits have been documented in bipolar disorder, and multiple studies suggest that these deficits can be observed among non-affected first-degree relatives of those with bipolar disorder. Although there is variability in the degree of cognitive deficits, these deficits are robustly relevant for functional outcomes. A separate literature documents clear difficulties in emotionality, emotion regulation, and emotion-relevant impulsivity within bipolar disorder, and demonstrates that these emotion-relevant variables are also central to outcome...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184397/do-older-drivers-with-bilateral-cataract-self-regulate-their-driving-while-waiting-for-first-eye-cataract-surgery
#9
Seraina Agramunt, Lynn B Meuleners, Michelle L Fraser, Kyle C Chow, Jonathon Q Ng, Vignesh Raja, Nigel Morlet
Objectives: To analyze the association between visual impairment and driver self-regulation among a cohort of older drivers waiting for first eye cataract surgery. Methods: Ninety-six drivers with bilateral cataract aged 55+ years were assessed before first eye cataract surgery. Data collection consisted of a researcher-administered questionnaire, objective visual measures (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis), a visual attention test (the useful field of view test) and a cognitive test (the Mini-Mental State Examination)...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183102/-spectrum-and-frequency-of-adhd-related-symptoms-and-minimal-cerebral-brain-dysfunctions-in-psychosomatic-inpatients
#10
Michael Linden, Nils Noack, Volker Köllner
Objective ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorders) and MCD (minimal cerebral dysfunctions) can impair participation. They pose difficult diagnostic problems. Aim of the present study has been to describe the frequency and the spectrum of ADHD and MCD in psychosomatic inpatients. Methods 1453 psychosomatic inpatients filled in the ADHS-SB and the MCD-TLS-FB screening for self-reported ADHD and minimal cerebral dysfunctions. Prevalence rates were calculated depending on different intensities of symptoms...
November 28, 2017: Die Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174743/prefrontal-glutamatergic-emotion-regulation-is-disturbed-in-cluster-b-and-c-personality-disorders-a-combined-1h-31p-mr-spectroscopic-study
#11
Stefan Smesny, Johanna Große, Alexander Gussew, Kerstin Langbein, Nils Schönfeld, Gerd Wagner, Matias Valente, Jürgen R Reichenbach
BACKGROUND: Personality disorders (PD) belong to the most common and most serious mental disorders as regards social dysfunction, inability to work, occurrence of comorbidity and suicidal risk. PDs also crucially influence the incidence, clinical course and treatment response of mental disorders with high suicidal risk, such as depression or substance abuse. One key issue of PD concerns the regulation of emotions. METHODS: Both 1H-/31P-Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI) was applied in a single session to assess neurochemical markers of glutamate function (NAA, Glu) and local energy metabolism (PCr, ATP) in two patient cohorts encompassing 22 cluster B (CB) and 21 cluster C (CC) PD patients, whereby 10 patients of each group were on low-dose antidepressants, and in 60 healthy controls (HC)...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172049/emotion-regulation-strategies-moderate-the-relationship-of-fatigue-with-depersonalization-and-derealization-symptoms
#12
Ana N Tibubos, Jennifer Grammes, Manfred E Beutel, Matthias Michal, Gabriele Schmutzer, Elmar Brähler
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships of common emotion regulation strategies (suppression and reappraisal) to self-reported fatigue and depersonalization/derealization symptoms. Specifically, we tested the moderating effect of suppression and reappraisal on the link of fatigue with depersonalization and derealization symptoms. Opposite effects were expected for both emotion regulation strategies assuming that cognitive reappraisal has an adaptive buffering effect, while suppression intensifies the association of fatigue and depersonalization/derealization experiences...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166220/does-the-cognitive-reflection-test-actually-capture-heuristic-versus-analytic-reasoning-styles-in-older-adults
#13
Christopher Hertzog, R Marit Smith, Robert Ariel
Background/Study Context: This study evaluated adult age differences in the original three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19, 25-42) and an expanded seven-item version of that test (Toplak et al., 2013, Thinking and Reasoning, 20, 147-168). The CRT is a numerical problem-solving test thought to capture a disposition towards either rapid, intuition-based problem solving (Type I reasoning) or a more thoughtful, analytical problem-solving approach (Type II reasoning)...
November 22, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163856/participant-experiences-of-eye-movement-desensitisation-and-reprocessing-vs-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-grief-similarities-and-differences
#14
Prudence Cotter, Larissa Meysner, Christopher William Lee
Background and Objective: Previous research has used quantitative methods to assess the impact of grief therapy. However, rarely have participants been asked about how they have been affected by treatment using qualitative methods. This study sought to explore participants' experiences of two therapeutic approaches to grief: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR). Method: Nineteen participants were randomly allocated to receive seven weekly therapy sessions of either CBT or EMDR...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163097/the-role-of-motivation-in-cognitive-reappraisal-for-depressed-patients
#15
Xiaoxia Wang, Xiaoyan Zhou, Qin Dai, Bing Ji, Zhengzhi Feng
Background: People engage in emotion regulation in service of motive goals (typically, to approach a desired emotional goal or avoid an undesired emotional goal). However, how motives (goals) in emotion regulation operate to shape the regulation of emotion is rarely known. Furthermore, the modulatory role of motivation in the impaired reappraisal capacity and neural abnormalities typical of depressed patients is not clear. Our hypothesis was that (1) approach and avoidance motivation may modulate emotion regulation and the underlying neural substrates; (2) approach/avoidance motivation may modulate emotion regulation neural abnormalities in depressed patients...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157666/cognitive-flexibility-in-preschool-children-with-and-without-stuttering-disorders
#16
Naomi Eichorn, Klara Marton, Steven Pirutinsky
PURPOSE: Multifactorial explanations of developmental stuttering suggest that difficulties in self-regulation and weak attentional flexibility contribute to persisting stuttering. We tested this prediction by examining whether preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) shift their attention less flexibly than children who do not stutter (CWNS) during a modified version of the Dimension Card Change Sort (DCCS), a reliable measure of attention switching for young children. METHODS: Sixteen CWS (12 males) and 30 children CWNS (11 males) participated in the study...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157328/peer-effects-on-self-regulation-in-adolescence-depend-on-the-nature-and-quality-of-the-peer-interaction
#17
Kevin M King, Katie A McLaughlin, Jennifer Silk, Kathryn C Monahan
Adolescence is a critical period for the development of self-regulation, and peer interactions are thought to strongly influence regulation ability. Simple exposure to peers has been found to alter decisions about risky behaviors and increase sensitivity to rewards. The link between peer exposure and self-regulation is likely to vary as a function of the type and quality of peer interaction (e.g., rejection or acceptance). Little is known about how the nature of interactions with peers influences different dimensions of self-regulation...
November 21, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154954/the-impact-of-social-exclusion-on-anticipatory-attentional-processing
#18
John E Kiat, Jacob E Cheadle, Bridget J Goosby
The importance of understanding how we anticipate and prepare for social rejection is underscored by the mental and physical toll of continual social vigilance. In this study, we investigate the impact of social rejection on anticipatory attentional processes using the well-known Cyberball task, a paradigm in which participants engage in a game of catch with virtual avatars who after an initial period of fair-play (inclusion condition) then exclude the participant from the game (exclusion condition). The degree of anticipatory attention allocated by subjects towards the avatars was assessed by measuring P3b responses towards the avatars' preparatory actions (i...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153072/smoking-abstinence-twelve-months-after-an-acute-coronary-syndrome
#19
Vânia Rocha, Marina P Guerra, Marina S Lemos, Júlia Maciel, Geoffrey C Williams
Studies on the cognitive working mechanism of smoking cessation in high-risk populations are few and much needed, and identifying long-term psychosocial factors to smoking cessation are relevant to improve intervention for cardiac patient groups. This longitudinal study followed patients who smoked and suffered an acute coronary syndrome from hospitalization to 12 months after clinical discharge. Questionnaires were administered to assess nicotine dependence, behavioral dependence, autonomous self-regulation, perceived competence, social support, anxiety, depressive symptoms and meaning in life at baseline, six months and twelve months after clinical discharge...
November 20, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150051/glutamate-is-down-regulated-and-tinnitus-loudness-levels-decreased-following-rtms-over-auditory-cortex-of-the-left-hemisphere-a-prospective-randomized-single-blinded-sham-controlled-cross-over-study
#20
Anthony T Cacace, Jiani Hu, Stephen Romero, Yang Xuan, Robert F Burkard, Richard S Tyler
Using a prospective randomized single-blinded sham-controlled cross-over design, we studied the efficacy of low frequency (1-Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over auditory cortex of the left temporal lobe as an experimental treatment modality for noise-induced tinnitus. Pre/post outcome measures for sham vs. active rTMS conditions included differential changes in tinnitus loudness, self-perceived changes in the Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire (THQ), and neurochemical changes of brain metabolite concentrations using single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) obtained from left and right auditory cortical areas...
November 14, 2017: Hearing Research
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