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Cognitive self-regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651150/cognitive-remediation-improves-executive-functions-self-regulation-and-quality-of-life-in-residents-of-a-substance-use-disorder-therapeutic-community
#1
Ely M Marceau, Jamie Berry, Joanne Lunn, Peter J Kelly, Nadia Solowij
BACKGROUND: Executive dysfunction is common in substance use disorder (SUD) populations and hinders treatment. We previously found that 50% of residents in SUD therapeutic communities had been hospitalized for head injuries; this was a significant determinant of cognitive impairment. The current study aimed to establish whether cognitive remediation improves executive functions (EFs) and self-regulation in an ecologically valid sample of female residents attending SUD therapeutic community treatment, including those with past head injuries and psychiatric comorbidities...
June 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651120/the-relationship-between-emotion-regulation-strategies-and-job-search-behavior-among-fourth-year-university-students
#2
Ling Wang, Huihui Xu, Xue Zhang, Ping Fang
The job search process is a stressful experience. This study investigated the effect of emotion regulation strategies on job search behavior in combination with anxiety and job search self-efficacy among Chinese university fourth-year students (N = 816, mean age = 21.98, 31.5% male, 34.9% majored in science, 18.0% from "211 Project" universities). Results showed that cognitive reappraisal was positively related to job search behavior, while expressive suppression was negatively related to job search behavior...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646349/modeling-pain-using-fmri-from-regions-to-biomarkers
#3
REVIEW
Marianne C Reddan, Tor D Wager
Pain is a subjective and complex phenomenon. Its complexity is related to its heterogeneity: multiple component processes, including sensation, affect, and cognition, contribute to pain experience and reporting. These components are likely to be encoded in distributed brain networks that interact to create pain experience and pain-related decision-making. Therefore, to understand pain, we must identify these networks and build models of these interactions that yield testable predictions about pain-related outcomes...
June 23, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641524/the-bio-psycho-social-dimension-in-women-s-sexual-desire-argumentum-ad-novitatem
#4
Nur Syazwani Roslan, Nik Ruzyanei Nik Jaafar, Hatta Sidi, Najwa Baharuddin, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Nik Hazlina Nik Hussein
Sexual desire includes complex motivation and drive. In the context of biological and cognitive-emotive state art of science, it is often a neglected field in medicine. With regard to the treatment, study on women's sexual function received less attention compared to the men's sexuality. In the past, this endeavor was relatively not well disseminated in the scientific community. Recently, there was a revolutionized surge of drug targets available to treat women with low sexual desire. It is timely to review the relevant biological approach, especially in the context of pharmacotherapy to understand this interesting clinical entity which was modulated by numerous interactive psychosocial inter-play and factors...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640035/the-professionalism-and-integrity-in-research-program-description-and-preliminary-outcomes
#5
James M DuBois, John T Chibnall, Raymond Tait, Jillon S Vander Wal
Violations of rules and regulations in research can cause significant problems for human participants, animal subjects, data integrity, institutions, and investigators. The Professionalism and Integrity in Research Program (PI Program) provides remediation training that addresses the root causes of violations of rules and regulations in research. Through assessments, a three-day workshop, and follow-up coaching calls, the PI Program teaches evidence-based decision-making strategies designed to help researchers to compensate for bias, uncertainty, and work-related stress, and foster the skills needed to oversee research projects in today's complex regulatory environments...
June 20, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638209/comparative-analysis-of-results-from-a-cognitive-emotion-regulation-questionnaire-between-international-students-from-west-asia-and-xinjiang-college-students-in-china
#6
Hongxing Hu, Bahargul Alsron, Bin Xu, Wei Hao
BACKGROUND: The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) is a cognitive and emotional tool measuring how individuals deal with stressful life events. However differences exist in the results of CERQ among individuals. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to investigate the CERQ results and depressive symptoms of students at our university (both local and international students) in order to provide further guidance for psychological interventions. METHODS: 255 sophomore and junior international students (171 male and 84 female) and 262 sophomore and junior Chinese students (124 male and 138 female) were investigated using CERQ, ASLEC and SDS questionnaires...
December 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627790/regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-opiate-dependence-relates-to-substance-use-and-neuropsychological-performance
#7
Donna E Murray, Timothy C Durazzo, Thomas P Schmidt, Troy A Murray, Christoph Abé, Joseph Guydish, Dieter J Meyerhoff
Neuroimaging of opiate-dependent individuals indicates both altered brain structure and function. Magnetic resonance-based arterial spin labeling has been used to measure noninvasively cerebral blood flow (i.e. perfusion) in alcohol, tobacco and stimulant dependence; only one arterial spin labeling paper in opiate-dependent individuals demonstrated frontal and parietal perfusion deficits. Additional research on regional brain perfusion in opiate dependence and its relationship to cognition and self-regulation (impulsivity, risk taking and decision making) may inform treatment approaches for opiate-dependent individuals...
June 19, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627300/reduced-effective-emotion-regulation-in-night-owls
#8
Alexandra L Watts, Ray Norbury
Previous research has demonstrated a clear link between late chronotype and depression. The vulnerability factors underpinning this link, however, are unclear. Here the relationship between two specific emotion regulation strategies, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, and chronotype was investigated using multiple regression. Two hundred and forty participants (age range 18-80, 189 females) completed validated self-report questionnaires assaying chronotype, neuroticism, depressive symptomatology, sleep quality, and emotion regulation...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626441/teaching-improvisation-through-processes-applications-in-music-education-and-implications-for-general-education
#9
REVIEW
Michele Biasutti
Improvisation is an articulated multidimensional activity based on an extemporaneous creative performance. Practicing improvisation, participants expand sophisticated skills such as sensory and perceptual encoding, memory storage and recall, motor control, and performance monitoring. Improvisation abilities have been developed following several methodologies mainly with a product-oriented perspective. A model framed under the socio-cultural theory of learning for designing didactic activities on processes instead of outcomes is presented in the current paper...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626440/executive-function-in-adolescence-associations-with-child-and-family-risk-factors-and-self-regulation-in-early-childhood
#10
Donna Berthelsen, Nicole Hayes, Sonia L J White, Kate E Williams
Executive functions are important higher-order cognitive skills for goal-directed thought and action. These capacities contribute to successful school achievement and lifelong wellbeing. The importance of executive functions to children's education begins in early childhood and continues throughout development. This study explores contributions of child and family factors in early childhood to the development of executive function in adolescence. Analyses draw on data from the nationally representative study, Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620226/anger-provocation-in-violent-offenders-leads-to-emotion-dysregulation
#11
Franca Tonnaer, Nicolette Siep, Linda van Zutphen, Arnoud Arntz, Maaike Cima
Anger and anger regulation problems that result in aggressive behaviour pose a serious problem for society. In this study we investigated differences in brain responses during anger provocation or anger engagement, as well as anger regulation or distraction from anger, and compared 16 male violent offenders to 18 non-offender controls. During an fMRI adapted provocation and regulation task participants were presented with angry, happy and neutral scenarios. Prior research on violent offenders indicates that a combination of increased limbic activity (involved in emotion), along with decreased prefrontal activity (involved in emotion regulation), is associated with reactive aggression...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616997/emotion-and-the-prefrontal-cortex-an-integrative-review
#12
Matthew L Dixon, Ravi Thiruchselvam, Rebecca Todd, Kalina Christoff
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in the generation and regulation of emotion. However, we lack an integrative framework for understanding how different emotion-related functions are organized across the entire expanse of the PFC, as prior reviews have generally focused on specific emotional processes (e.g., decision making) or specific anatomical regions (e.g., orbitofrontal cortex). Additionally, psychological theories and neuroscientific investigations have proceeded largely independently because of the lack of a common framework...
June 15, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613138/a-neuropsychological-study-of-older-adult-first-time-sex-offenders
#13
Marcelo Rodriguez, Philip Boyce, John Hodges
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The issue of whether sex offenders have cognitive deficits remains controversial. The objective of this study was to compare the neuropsychological function of older adult first time sex-offenders (FTSO), who had not previously been charged with a sexual offence prior to the age of 50, to historical long-term sex offenders (HSO) and non-sex offenders (NSO). The hypotheses were (a) that FTSO would demonstrate greater deficits in executive function, decision-making, and memory compared to non-sex offenders; and (b) the HSOs would present similar neuropsychological deficits to non-sex offenders...
June 14, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603756/cognitive-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-targets-of-addiction
#14
Marc L Copersino
Fundamental to cognitive models of addiction is the gradual strengthening of automatic, urge-related responding that develops in tandem with the diminution of self-control-related processes aimed at inhibiting impulses. Recent conceptualizations of addiction also include a third set of cognitive processes related to self-awareness and superordinate regulation of self-control and other higher brain function. This review describes new human research evidence and theoretical developments related to the multicausal strengthening of urge-related responding and failure of self-control in addiction, and the etiology of disrupted self-awareness and rational decision-making associated with continued substance use...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598734/does-psychosocial-stress-impact-cognitive-reappraisal-behavioral-and-neural-evidence
#15
Maheen Shermohammed, Pranjal H Mehta, Joan Zhang, Cassandra M Brandes, Luke J Chang, Leah H Somerville
Cognitive reappraisal (CR) is regarded as an effective emotion regulation strategy. Acute stress, however, is believed to impair the functioning of prefrontal-based neural systems, which could result in lessened effectiveness of CR under stress. This study tested the behavioral and neurobiological impact of acute stress on CR. While undergoing fMRI, adult participants ( n = 54) passively viewed or used CR to regulate their response to negative and neutral pictures and provided ratings of their negative affect in response to each picture...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594254/predictive-factors-of-success-in-neurofeedback-training-for-children-with-adhd
#16
Yasuko Okumura, Yosuke Kita, Mikimasa Omori, Kota Suzuki, Akira Yasumura, Ayako Fukuda, Masumi Inagaki
INTRODUCTION: Neurofeedback (NF) training aims the enhancement of self-regulation over brain activities. While it is largely recognized as an effective treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the existence of non-learners has also been reported. The present study explored pre-training assessment indices that could predict learners prior to NF training. METHODS: Twenty-two children with ADHD participated in slow cortical potential (SCP) NF training and completed pre- and post-training assessments...
June 8, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588514/pathways-from-trauma-to-psychotic-experiences-a-theoretically-informed-model-of-posttraumatic-stress-in-psychosis
#17
Amy Hardy
In recent years, empirical data and theoretical accounts relating to the relationship between childhood victimization and psychotic experiences have accumulated. Much of this work has focused on co-occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder or putative causal mechanisms in isolation from each other. The complexity of posttraumatic stress reactions experienced in psychosis remains poorly understood. This paper therefore attempts to synthesize the current evidence base into a theoretically informed, multifactorial model of posttraumatic stress in psychosis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588345/neuroanatomic-variations-in-graves-dysthyroid-ophthalmopathy-as-studied-with-mri
#18
Rona Z Silkiss, Alex R Wade
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether patients with Graves' dysthyroid ophthalmopathy (GDO) have changes in brain anatomy that can be assessed by neuroimaging as compared to age-matched controls. METHODS: We examined 10 female, euthyroid patients with GDO and 14 age and gender matched controls using high-resolution structural MRI scanning. An automatic cortical segmentation algorithm was used to estimate the thickness of each subject's gray matter across the brain. The resulting cortical thickness measurements were transferred to a standard reference space via a template-based warping procedure...
August 2016: Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585097/coordination-of-self-and-parental-regulation-surrounding-type-i-diabetes-management-in-late-adolescence
#19
Jonathan E Butner, Cynthia A Berg, A K Munion, Sara L Turner, Amy Hughes-Lansing, Joel B Winnick, Deborah J Wiebe
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes management involves self- and social-regulation, with past research examining components through individual differences unable to capture daily processes. PURPOSE: Dynamical systems modeling was used to examine the coordinative structure of self- and social-regulation (operationalized as parental-regulation) related to daily diabetes management during late adolescence. METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-six late adolescents with type 1 diabetes (M age = 17...
June 5, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582699/association-of-prenatal-cocaine-exposure-childhood-maltreatment-and-responses-to-stress-in-adolescence
#20
Meeyoung O Min, Sonia Minnes, June-Yung Kim, Miyoung Yoon, Lynn T Singer
BACKGROUND: Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) may alter responses to stress. Children with PCE tend to grow up in suboptimal caregiving environments, conducive to child maltreatment (CM). Guided by the diathesis-stress model, the present study examined differences in self-reported responses to stress and coping in adolescents with and without PCE and explored whether childhood maltreatment (CM) moderated the effects of PCE. METHODS: Adolescents (N=363; 184 PCE, 179 non-cocaine exposed (NCE)), primarily African-American and of low socioeconomic status, were prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study at birth...
May 26, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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