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Cognitive self-regulation

Alexandros Kapsomenakis, Panagiotis G Simos, Georgios Konstantakopoulos, Dimitrios S Kasselimis
Pathological gambling is characterized by a persisting maladaptive and recurrent behavior with severe social and psychological consequences. There is evidence of strong comorbidity with psychiatric manifestations as well as cognitive mainly involving executive functions. This study aimed to investigate impairment in executive functions and working memory, and personality traits in a sample of Greek gamblers. Twenty-four men involved in various gambling activities were recruited from ecological settings as probable pathological gamblers...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
David E Evans, Chan N To, Rebecca L Ashare
Cognitive control (CC) - the ability to regulate attention and memory - plays an important role in a variety of health behaviors, including smoking behavior. In this theoretical review of the literature, we propose a CC and smoking behavior framework that includes 1) the positive influence of CC on the self-regulation of smoking; 2) nicotine-induced improvements in CC that may indirectly reinforce smoking (including withdrawal reversal effects); and 3) the long-term effects of smoking on the brain that may result in reduced CC...
February 8, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Jacklynn M Fitzgerald, Kerry L Kinney, K Luan Phan, Heide Klumpp
Neuroimaging research has characterized underlying neural mechanisms of attentional control and cognitive reappraisal, common implicit and explicit forms of emotion regulation, respectively. This research suggests attentional control and reappraisal may engage similar midline and lateral areas in the prefrontal cortex (PFC); however, findings are largely based on separate studies. Therefore, the extent to which mechanisms of implicit versus explicit regulation are independent or overlapping is not clear. In the current study, 49 healthy participants completed well-validated implicit and explicit regulation tasks in the form of attentional control and cognitive reappraisal during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Amanda Lamp, Jane M C Chen, David McCullough, Gregory Belenky
In December 2014, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) completed a major revision of the rules and regulations governing flight and duty time in commercial aviation (Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 117). Scientists were included in the revision process and provided insights into sleep, sleep loss, the circadian rhythm, and their effects on performance that were incorporated into the new rule. If a planned flight was non-compliant with the regulation, for example if it exceeded flight and duty time limits, it could only be flown under an FAA-approved Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS) as meeting an Alternative Method of Compliance (AMOC)...
February 7, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Liesje Coertjens
AIM: The main aim of this commentary was to connect the insights from the contributions of the special issue on the intersection between depth and the regulation of strategy use. The seven contributions in this special issue stem from three perspectives: self-regulated learning (SRL), model of domain learning (MDL), or the student approaches to learning (SAL). PROCEDURE: Prior to combining insights from different studies, the definition and operationalization of cognitive and metacognitive processing in the seven contributions is described...
March 2018: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Mahin Nematollahi, Ahmad Ali Eslami
Background: Osteoporosis is common among women which may be mostly due to the low intake of calcium. This article reports the development, cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of a Calcium Intake Questionnaire based on the social cognitive theory (CIQ-SCT)among Iranian women. Methods: In 2016, this cross-sectional study was carried out among 400 younger than 50 years old women in Isfahan, Iran. After literature review, a preliminary 35-item questionnaire was developed. Then, forward-backward translation and cultural adaptation of the tool was conducted...
2018: Health Promotion Perspectives
Johanna Drewelies, Hannah Schade, Gizem Hülür, Christiane A Hoppmann, Nilam Ram, Denis Gerstorf
Objectives: It is well established that daily perceived control is closely associated with lower negative affect among older adults. However, it is an open question whether control perceptions of one's partner are also uniquely associated with one's own negative affect. Method: To examine such associations in dyads of older long-term partners, we make use of data obtained six times a day over seven consecutive days as participants went about their everyday lives (N = 87 couples; mean age = 75 years; mean relationship length = 46 years)...
February 5, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Laurie Keefer, Olafur S Palsson, John E Pandolfino
Chronic digestive diseases including irritable bowel syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease and inflammatory bowel diseases cannot be disentangled from their psychological context-the substantial burden of these diseases is co-determined by symptom and disease severity and the ability of patients to cope with their symptoms without significant interruption to daily life. The growing field of psychogastroenterology focuses on the application of scientifically-based psychological principles and techniques to the alleviation of digestive symptoms...
January 31, 2018: Gastroenterology
S Houlihan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to synthesise a spectrum of theories incorporating dual-process models of health-related behaviour. STUDY DESIGN: Review of theory, adapted loosely from Cochrane-style systematic review methodology. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were specified to identify all relevant dual-process models that explain decision-making in the context of decisions made about human health. Data analysis took the form of iterative template analysis (adapted from the conceptual synthesis framework used in other reviews of theory), and in this way theories were synthesised on the basis of shared theoretical constructs and causal pathways...
February 1, 2018: Public Health
Christina M Sheerin, Andrea Konig, Alison M Eonta, Scott R Vrana
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Parasympathetic activity, as indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), underlies key aspects of emotional and cognitive self-regulation. Examining time-varying RSA response during expressive writing about trauma may help inform theory about mechanisms of this intervention. The present study investigated changes in RSA during expressive writing. METHODS: Participants (N = 246, Mage = 21.5 years, 72% female) were randomly assigned to expressive or neutral writing conditions and wrote for three 20-min sessions...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Maria Karekla, Evangelos C Karademas, Andrew T Gloster
Most health behavior intervention efforts are adapted from the typical psychological treatment experience and may not take into serious consideration theories specifically developed to describe the process of adaptation to illness. This paper presents a proposal for the combination of a theory about the experience of and adaptation to illness, that is the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation (CSM), and an efficient psychological theory and therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Past combinations of CSM with cognitive or cognitive-behavioral interventions have focused almost only on specific aspects of this model (mostly, illness representations and action plans) and left out other, equally important for a fruitful adaptation to illness, recommendations of the model (e...
February 5, 2018: Health Psychology Review
Beatrice Murawski, Levi Wade, Ronald C Plotnikoff, David R Lubans, Mitch J Duncan
Many adults without a diagnosed sleep disorder report poor sleep health, which is defined by dissatisfactory levels of sleep duration, sleep quality, or the timing of sleep. No previous review has summarized and described interventions targeting poor sleep health in this population. This meta-analysis aimed to quantify the efficacy of behavioral and cognitive sleep interventions in adults with poor sleep health, who do not have a sleep disorder. Electronic databases (Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, Cinahl) were searched with restrictions for age (18-64 y) and English language full-text, resulting in 18,009 records being screened and 592 full-texts being assessed...
December 29, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Avani C Modi, Jennifer Vannest, Angela Combs, Luke Turnier, Shari L Wade
Youth with epilepsy demonstrate deficits in executive functioning (EF), the skills necessary for goal-directed behavior (e.g., problem-solving, initiating, monitoring, organization, planning, and working memory). Despite 30-50% of youth with epilepsy demonstrating EF deficits, no extant studies have utilized both performance and questionnaire-based measures to examine the pattern of EF deficits in adolescents with epilepsy. Study aims were to 1) identify the pattern of EF deficits in adolescents with epilepsy and 2) identify which assessment tools are most sensitive to EF deficits in this population (adolescents, ages 13-17, with epilepsy)...
January 20, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Dione Healey, Andrew R Gray, Matthew Chae, Barry J Taylor, Julie Lawrence, David M Reith, Benjamin J Wheeler
OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a lifelong, metabolic disorder, typically arising in childhood and adolescence. Despite recent advances in diabetes management techniques, glycemic control remains substandard for many individuals This study examined the role of parental and child self-regulation in predicting effective glycemic control in children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHOD: Sixty-three families (with children aged 3-18 years) with T1DM participated...
February 1, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Fiorenzo Laghi, Antonia Lonigro, Susanna Pallini, Roberto Baiocco
A shared consensus among researchers deals with the positive association between the ability to effectively regulate and manage one's emotion and the engagement in empathic behavior and morally desirable actions. This study was designed to investigate how dispositional reliance on suppression and reappraisal differently impacted on the cognitive and affective components of empathy and on social conduct, distinguishing among prosocial, internalizing, and externalizing behaviors. Two hundred nineteen middle adolescents were enrolled and fulfilled self-reports assessing emotion regulation strategies, empathy, and social behaviors...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Mariana R Olsen
Executive function (EF) allows for self-regulation of behavior including maintaining focus in the face of distraction, inhibiting behavior that is suboptimal or inappropriate in a given context, and updating the contents of working memory. While EF has been studied extensively in humans, it has only recently become a topic of research in the domestic dog. In this paper, I argue for increased study of dog EF by explaining how it might influence the owner-dog bond, human safety, and dog welfare, as well as reviewing the current literature dedicated to EF in dogs...
January 27, 2018: Animal Cognition
Maisa S Ziadni, Matthew J Jasinski, Gisela Labouvie-Vief, Mark A Lumley
Affect regulation is important to mental health. A deficit in one's ability to identify and express emotions (alexithymia), cognitive styles of regulating emotional conflict (defenses), and the capacity for integrative and complex self-other understanding (ego strength or maturity) need to be studied to understand how they relate to each other as well as to mental health and well-being. A sample of 415 community-dwelling adults from a major metropolitan area in the Midwest U.S., stratified for gender, age, and ethnicity, completed three methodologically different measures of affect regulation along with measures of well-being and depression...
December 2017: Journal of Happiness Studies
Katarina Krkovic, Stephanie Krink, Tania M Lincoln
Experience sampling method (ESM) studies have found an association between daily stress and paranoid symptoms, but it is uncertain whether these findings generalize to physiological indicators of stress. Moreover, the temporality of the association and its moderating factors require further research. Here, we investigate whether physiological and self-rated daily stress predict subsequent paranoid symptoms and analyze the role of emotion regulation as a putative moderator. We applied ESM during 24 h to repeatedly assess heart rate, self-rated stress, and subclinical paranoia in a sample of 67 psychosis-prone individuals as measured with Community Assessment for Psychotic Experiences (CAPE)...
January 20, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Sara Kerstine Kaya Nielsen, Ida Hageman, Anders Petersen, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter Daniel, Marianne Lau, Clas Winding, Kate B Wolitzky-Taylor, Howard Steele, Signe Vangkilde
OBJECTIVE: Approximately, 50% of all individuals with anxiety disorders do not benefit from the "gold standard" treatment, namely cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Reliable predictors of treatment effect are lacking. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of emotion regulation, attentional control, and attachment style for group-based CBT outcomes in routine clinical settings. METHOD: A total of 76 patients with anxiety disorders received manual-based group CBT at psychiatric outpatient clinics...
January 22, 2018: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Thanos Karatzias, Mark Shevlin, Philip Hyland, Chris R Brewin, Marylene Cloitre, Aoife Bradley, Neil J Kitchiner, Sandra Jumbe, Jonathan I Bisson, Neil P Roberts
OBJECTIVE: We set out to investigate the association between negative trauma-related cognitions, emotional regulation strategies, and attachment style and complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD). As the evidence regarding the treatment of CPTSD is emerging, investigating psychological factors that are associated with CPTSD can inform the adaptation or the development of effective interventions for CPTSD. METHOD: A cross-sectional design was employed. Measures of CPTSD, negative trauma-related cognitions, emotion regulation strategies, and attachment style were completed by a British clinical sample of trauma-exposed patients (N = 171)...
January 22, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
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