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Cognitive self-regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677623/cerebrospinal-fluid-fgf23-levels-correlate-with-a-measure-of-impulsivity
#1
Hui Li, Zhiyong Cao, Jinzhong Xu, Fan Wang, Rongrong Xiong, Zeping Xu, Xianming Luo, Guohua Li, Xingqi Tan, Zhiyang Liu, Zhiqin Gao, Yimin Kang, Jian Xiao, Yanlong Liu, Xiaokun Li
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived protein produced mainly by osteocytes and osteoblasts and at low levels in specific parts of the brain. It has been shown to associate with mood regulation. Lithium treatment gives rise to significant elevations of serum FGF23 levels in depressive patients. High peripheral blood FGF23 levels correlated with poor cognitive performance in hemodialysis patients. However, no direct evidence demonstrates a relationship between FGF23 and mood regulation. In this study, we aimed to measure the concentration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) FGF23 and to explore its relationship with a cluster of emotional characteristics...
April 12, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670873/severe-urban-outdoor-air-pollution-and-children-s-structural-and-functional-brain-development-from-evidence-to-precautionary-strategic-action
#2
Amedeo D'Angiulli
According to the latest estimates, about 2 billion children around the world are exposed to severe urban outdoor air pollution. Transdisciplinary, multi-method findings from epidemiology, developmental neuroscience, psychology, and pediatrics, show detrimental outcomes associated with pre- and postnatal exposure are found at all ages. Affected brain-related functions include perceptual and sensory information processing, intellectual and cognitive development, memory and executive functions, emotion and self-regulation, and academic achievement...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669599/mindfulness-based-treatment-of-addiction-current-state-of-the-field-and-envisioning-the-next-wave-of-research
#3
REVIEW
Eric L Garland, Matthew O Howard
Contemporary advances in addiction neuroscience have paralleled increasing interest in the ancient mental training practice of mindfulness meditation as a potential therapy for addiction. In the past decade, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been studied as a treatment for an array addictive behaviors, including drinking, smoking, opioid misuse, and use of illicit substances like cocaine and heroin. This article reviews current research evaluating MBIs as a treatment for addiction, with a focus on findings pertaining to clinical outcomes and biobehavioral mechanisms...
April 18, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668070/physical-activity-and-sedentary-behaviour-in-a-flexible-office-based-workplace-employee-perceptions-and-priorities-for-change
#4
Heidi M Olsen, Wendy J Brown, Tracy Kolbe-Alexander, Nicola W Burton
ISSUE ADDRESSED: Many Australian employees now regularly work from home in some capacity. This new way of working has not been widely studied in relation to the potential implications for employees' health-related behaviour or workplace health promotion. The aim of this study was to explore office-based employees' perceptions of the impact of flexible work on physical activity and sedentary behaviour; and preferences for associated interventions. METHODS: Three focus groups were conducted with office-based employees (n=28) six months after the introduction of a flexible work policy...
April 18, 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667267/the-cerebellum-after-trauma-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-cerebellum-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#5
Daniela Rabellino, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
The cerebellum plays a key role not only in motor function but also in affect and cognition. Although several psychopathological disorders have been associated with overall cerebellar dysfunction, it remains unclear whether different regions of the cerebellum contribute uniquely to psychopathology. Accordingly, we compared seed-based resting-state functional connectivity of the anterior cerebellum (lobule IV-V), of the posterior cerebellum (Crus I), and of the anterior vermis across posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 65), its dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS; n = 37), and non-trauma-exposed healthy controls (HC; n = 47)...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659296/mental-health-knowledge-and-training-needs-among-direct-care-workers-a-mixed-methods-study
#6
Candace Konnert, Vivian Huang, Barbara Pesut
OBJECTIVES: Direct care providers (DCWs) spend the most time with clients in the home, and as such, play an integral role in identifying mental health problems. However, DCWs receive little preparation in mental health and there is little research regarding their role in the mental health care of clients. The purpose of this study was to explore DCWs' knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of caring for clients with mental health problems from the perspectives of DCWs and key administrators (KAs)...
April 16, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648943/who-skips-using-temperament-to-explain-differential-outcomes-of-a-motor-competence-intervention-for-preschoolers
#7
Sally A Taunton, Kelly Lynn Mulvey, Ali S Brian
PURPOSE: Although motor skill interventions often improve fundamental motor skills (FMS) during preschool, the extent of individual children's success in development of FMS still varies among children receiving the same intervention. Temperament is multifaceted and includes negative affect (high levels of frustration or anger), effortful control (focus, self-regulation, and concentration), and surgency (energy and activity level). Temperament often influences cognitive, social, and behavioral outcomes and may be a significant factor in the development of FMS...
April 12, 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628960/relationship-of-social-cognitive-theory-concepts-to-dietary-habits-of-pregnant-women
#8
Nasrin Torkan, Ashraf Kazemi, Zamzam Paknahad, Parvin Bahadoran
Background: Nutrition during pregnancy is undoubtedly one of the most important factors affecting maternal health. In this regard, considering the cognitive-behavioral factors associated with feeding, behaviors will play an important role in the effectiveness of interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the correlation between food habits and structures of social cognitive theory in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 192 pregnant women were randomly selected...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627699/the-relationship-between-emotion-regulation-strategies-personality-traits-and-skin-picking-behaviours-in-a-non-clinical-sample-of-polish-adults
#9
Katarzyna Prochwicz, Joanna Kłosowska, Alina Kałużna-Wielobób
Although skin-picking is a relatively common behaviour, data concerning factors which underlie skin-picking severity and functional impairment caused by picking are still limited. In the present study we examined whether some emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and personality features influence skin-picking in a university sample; the moderating role of personality traits in the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and skin-picking was also considered...
March 26, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624211/influence-of-maternal-negative-emotion-reactivity-and-cognitive-reappraisal-on-child-anxiety-disorder
#10
Nava Wald, Tal Carthy, Vered Shenaar-Golan, Yael Tadmor-Zisman, Maayan Ziskind
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychopathologies in childhood. Two underlying contributors to child anxiety disorders (ADs) are negative emotional hyper-reactivity and deficits in reappraisal, a cognitive strategy of emotion regulation. Given that emotion regulation develops in the context of parent-child interaction, the aim of this study was to fill a research gap regarding the association between maternal negative emotional reactivity (NER) and reappraisal and child anxiety by examining (a) whether mothers of children with ADs display abnormalities in emotional reactivity and reappraisal compared to mothers of children without ADs; (b) whether maternal NER and reappraisal are associated with child anxiety; and (c) whether maternal reactivity and reappraisal significantly explain the variance in the level of child anxiety beyond the level of maternal anxiety...
April 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623059/cognitive-impairments-in-fibromyalgia-syndrome-associations-with-positive-and-negative-affect-alexithymia-pain-catastrophizing-and-self-esteem
#11
Carmen M Galvez-Sánchez, Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso, Stefan Duschek
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic condition characterized by widespread pain accompanied by symptoms like depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance and fatigue. In addition, affected patients frequently report cognitive disruption such as forgetfulness, concentration difficulties or mental slowness. Though cognitive deficits in FMS have been confirmed in various studies, not much is known about the mechanisms involved in their origin. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of affect-related variables to cognitive impairments in FMS...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621004/a-probabilistic-model-of-social-working-memory-for-information-retrieval-in-social-interactions
#12
Liyuan Li, Qianli Xu, Tian Gan, Cheston Tan, Joo-Hwee Lim
Social working memory (SWM) plays an important role in navigating social interactions. Inspired by studies in psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, and machine learning, we propose a probabilistic model of SWM to mimic human social intelligence for personal information retrieval (IR) in social interactions. First, we establish a semantic hierarchy as social long-term memory to encode personal information. Next, we propose a semantic Bayesian network as the SWM, which integrates the cognitive functions of accessibility and self-regulation...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601226/persons-various-experiences-of-learning-processes-in-patient-education-for-osteoarthritis-a-qualitative-phenomenographic-approach
#13
Ingalill Larsson, Anne Sundén, Eva Ekvall Hansson
BACKGROUND: Patient education (PE) is a core treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) with the aim to increase persons' knowledge, self-efficacy, and empowerment. OBJECTIVE: To describe person's various experiences of learning processes in PE for OA. DESIGN: Phenomenography. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were performed with the same persons, pre- (11) and post- (9) education. RESULTS: Various experiences on learning processes were found and were described in an outcome space...
March 30, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599848/the-co-creation-and-feasibility-of-a-compassion-training-as-a-follow-up-to-mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-in-patients-with-recurrent-depression
#14
Rhoda Schuling, Marloes Huijbers, Hetty Jansen, Renée Metzemaekers, Erik Van Den Brink, Frits Koster, Hiske Van Ravesteijn, Anne Speckens
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of Mindfulness - Based Compassionate Living (MBCL) as a follow-up intervention to Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy in adults with recurrent depression. We conducted an uncontrolled study in 17 patients with recurrent depression, in two successive groups. The first group contained novices to compassion training ( N  = 14); in the second group, ten of these participated again, in addition to three new participants ( N  = 13)...
2018: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593498/reactive-neuroblastosis-in-huntington-s-disease-a-putative-therapeutic-target-for-striatal-regeneration-in-the-adult-brain
#15
Mahesh Kandasamy, Ludwig Aigner
The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the reciprocal relationship between adult neurogenesis, cognitive and motor functions have been an important focus of investigation in the establishment of effective neural replacement therapies for neurodegenerative disorders. While neuronal loss, reactive gliosis and defects in the self-repair capacity have extensively been characterized in neurodegenerative disorders, the transient excess production of neuroblasts detected in the adult striatum of animal models of Huntington's disease (HD) and in post-mortem brain of HD patients, has only marginally been addressed...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589874/genome-editing-in-neuroepithelial-stem-cells-to-generate-human-neurons-with-high-adenosine-releasing-capacity
#16
Daniel Poppe, Jonas Doerr, Marion Schneider, Ruven Wilkens, Julius A Steinbeck, Julia Ladewig, Allison Tam, David E Paschon, Philip D Gregory, Andreas Reik, Christa E Müller, Philipp Koch, Oliver Brüstle
As a powerful regulator of cellular homeostasis and metabolism, adenosine is involved in diverse neurological processes including pain, cognition, and memory. Altered adenosine homeostasis has also been associated with several diseases such as depression, schizophrenia, or epilepsy. Based on its protective properties, adenosine has been considered as a potential therapeutic agent for various brain disorders. Since systemic application of adenosine is hampered by serious side effects such as vasodilatation and cardiac suppression, recent studies aim at improving local delivery by depots, pumps, or cell-based applications...
March 28, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582891/age-and-iq-explained-working-memory-performance-in-a-rct-with-fatty-fish-in-a-group-of-forensic-inpatients
#17
A L Hansen, G Ambroziak, D Thornton, L Dahl, B Grung
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of a long-term fatty fish intervention on a pure cognitive mechanism important for self-regulation and mental health, i.e. working memory (WM), controlling for age and IQ. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial. SETTING: A forensic facility. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-four young to middle aged male forensic inpatients with psychiatric disorders. INTERVENTION: Consumption of farmed salmon or control meal (meat) three times a week during 23 weeks...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579723/attachment-and-eating-disorders-a-research-update
#18
REVIEW
Giorgio A Tasca
Prominent models of eating disorders tend to focus on cognitive and behavioral features, but tend not to consider important developmental issues related to affect regulation, interpersonal style, self concept, and mentalization-all of which are well conceptualized within attachment theory. Higher levels of attachment insecurity across diagnoses are related to greater eating disorder symptoms. Low parental care and early trauma may lead to attachment insecurity that then might lead to greater eating disorder symptoms...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578742/experimental-effects-of-mindfulness-inductions-on-self-regulation-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Anna Leyland, Georgina Rowse, Lisa-Marie Emerson
Self-regulation is the control of aspects of the self to allow pursuit of long-term goals, and it is proposed as a central pathway through which mindfulness may exert benefits on well-being. However, the effects of a single mindfulness induction on self-regulation are not clear, as there has been no comprehensive review of this evidence. The current review synthesized existing findings relating to the effect of a mindfulness induction delivered in a laboratory setting on measures of self-regulation. Twenty-seven studies were included and grouped according to 3 outcomes: regulation of experimentally induced negative affect (k = 15; meta-analysis), emotion-regulation strategies (k = 7) and executive functions (k = 9; narrative synthesis)...
March 26, 2018: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576424/a-temporal-transcriptional-switch-governs-stem-cell-division-neuronal-numbers-and-maintenance-of-differentiation
#20
Natalia Mora, Carlos Oliva, Mark Fiers, Radoslaw Ejsmont, Alessia Soldano, Ting-Ting Zhang, Jiekun Yan, Annelies Claeys, Natalie De Geest, Bassem A Hassan
The importance of producing the correct numbers of neurons during development is illustrated by both evolutionary enhancement of cognitive capacities in larger brains, and developmental disorders of brain size. In humans, increased neuronal numbers during development is speculated to partly derive from a unique subtype of neural stem cells (NSCs) that undergo a phase of expansion through symmetric self-amplifying divisions before generating neurons. Symmetric amplification also appears to underlie adult neural stem maintenance in the mouse...
March 20, 2018: Developmental Cell
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