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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339527/microbial-community-mapping-in-intestinal-tract-of-broiler-chicken
#1
Yingping Xiao, Yun Xiang, Weidong Zhou, Jinggang Chen, Kaifeng Li, Hua Yang
Domestic chickens are valuable sources of protein associated with producing meat and eggs for humans. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) houses a large microbial community, and these microbiota play an important role in growth and health of chickens, contributing to the enhancement of nutrient absorption and improvement of the birds' immune systems. To improve our understanding of the chicken intestinal microbial composition, microbiota inhabiting 5 different intestinal locations (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon) of 42-day-old broiler chickens were detected based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis...
October 6, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336368/novel-strategies-in-the-oral-delivery-of-antidiabetic-peptide-drugs-insulin-glp-1-and-its-analogs
#2
REVIEW
Ruba Ismail, Ildikó Csóka
As diabetes is a complex disorder being a major cause of mortality and morbidity in epidemic rates, continuous research has been done on new drug types and administration routes. Up to now, a large number of therapeutic peptides have been produced to treat diabetes including insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its analogs. The most common route of administration of these antidiabetic peptides is parenteral. Due to several drawbacks associated with this invasive route, delivery of these antidiabetic peptides by the oral route has been a goal of pharmaceutical technology for many decades...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331163/in-vitro-evaluation-of-candidate-bacillus-spp-for-animal-feed
#3
Sirima Mingmongkolchai, Watanalai Panbangred
The aim of this study was to select aerobic spore-formers for animal feed based on their in vitro probiotic potential, including their enzyme-producing ability and safety assessment. Seven isolates out of 187 spore-forming bacteria were selected for their ability to produce cellulase (89.21-1668.32 U/ml), xylanase (1399.68-4351.10 U/ml), and phytase (2.72-28.70 U/ml). Among seven isolates, five had activities towards a broad range of p-nitrophenyl esters with acyl chain lengths from C2 to C12. The probiotic properties of all selected isolates varied with respect to their acid and bile salt tolerance under simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions, and their adherence ability to human intestinal cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318400/new-frontiers-in-fibers-innovative-and-emerging-research-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-bone-health
#4
Taylor C Wallace, Massimo Marzorati, Lisa Spence, Connie M Weaver, Patricia S Williamson
The complex interactions between the diet, gut microbiome, and host characteristics that provide a functional benefit to the host are an area of great interest and current exploration in the nutrition and health science community. New technologies are available to assess mechanisms that may explain these functional benefits to the host. One emerging functional benefit from changes in the gut microbiome is increased calcium absorption, increased calcium retention, and improved indices of bone health. Prebiotic fibers enhance microbial fermentation in the gut, providing an ecological advantage to specific nonpathogenic bacteria that have the ability to modify an individual's metabolic potential...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317810/comparison-of-cost-effectiveness-between-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-and-t-spot-tests-for-screening-health-care-workers-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#5
Shigeto Mukai, Katsumi Shigemura, Fukashi Yamamichi, Koichi Kitagawa, Nozomi Takami, Masashi Nomi, Soichi Arakawa, Masato Fujisawa
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: There are several methods used to screen for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) including the QuantiFERON-TB Gold-in-Tube (QFT-GIT) and T-SPOT-TB (T-SPOT) tests. Many studies have reported the equivalence of these two methods, but it is unclear which of them is more cost effective. We investigated the age and cost issues of these tests in screening for LTBI among health-care workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and forty new employees during 2008-2011 in our hospital were screened using the QFT-GIT test, and 140 new employees during 2011-2014 were screened with the T-SPOT test for LTBI...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317801/utility-of-quantiferon-tuberculosis-gold-in-tube-test-for-detecting-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-close-household-contacts-of-confirmed-tuberculosis-patients-in-accra-ghana
#6
Gloria Ivy Mensah, Sandra Akoley Sowah, Nana Yaw Asare Yeboah, Kennedy Kwasi Addo, Dolly Jackson-Sillah
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Introduction of the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays with their higher sensitivity and specificity over the traditional tuberculin skin test has improved testing for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). None of the IFN-γ release assays has ever been used to screen for LTBI in Ghana. This study set out to determine the utility of the QuantiFERON TB Gold-in-Tube (QFT-GIT) test for the diagnosis of LTBI among close household contacts of newly diagnosed sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patents in Accra, Ghana, and the associated risk factors for a positive QFT-GIT test...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317373/improved-bioavailability-of-encapsulated-bioactive-nutrient-delivered-through-a-monoglyceride-structured-o-w-emulsion
#7
Wei Lu, Alan L Kelly, Song Miao
Effects of monoglyceride (MG) on the properties of WPI-stabilized emulsions and the bioavailability of encapsulated β-carotene were investigated. MG-structured emulsions showed reduced surface charge, higher viscosity, and better creaming stability than an emulsion without MG. Exposure of emulsions to GIT digestion led to significant changes in droplet size and interfacial properties. In vitro bioavailability of β-carotene in 1% MG (63.9%) and 2% MG (77.1%) structured emulsions were higher than that in emulsion without MG (53...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314428/nanostructuring-biomaterials-with-specific-activities-towards-digestive-enzymes-for-controlled-gastrointestinal-absorption-of-lipophilic-bioactive-molecules
#8
REVIEW
Paul Joyce, Catherine P Whitby, Clive A Prestidge
This review describes the development of novel lipid-based biomaterials that modulate fat digestion for the enhanced uptake of encapsulated lipophilic bioactive compounds (e.g. drugs and vitamins). Specific focus is directed towards analysing how key material characteristics affect the biological function of digestive lipases and manipulate lipolytic digestion. The mechanism of lipase action is a complex, interfacial process, whereby hydrolysis can be controlled by the ability for lipase to access and adsorb to the lipid-in-water interface...
November 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293318/gluten-sensitivity-among-egyptian-infants-with-congenital-heart-disease
#9
Inas R El-Alameey, Hanaa H Ahmed, Sawsan M Tawfik, Fawzia Hassaballa, Ayman M Abdel Gawad, Eman Eltahlawy
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are a common feature in infants with congenital heart disease. AIM: This study was designed to evaluate age-dependent serum levels of antigliadin antibodies among malnourished Egyptian infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) and gastrointestinal symptoms. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This case-control study conducted on 60 infants with established congenital heart disease. They were subdivided into cyanotic and acyanotic groups, and each group includes 30 patients compared with thirty apparently healthy infants of matched age, sex, and social class...
March 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289360/effect-of-probiotic-administration-in-the-therapy-of-pediatric-thermal-burn
#10
M H El-Ghazely, W H Mahmoud, M A Atia, E M Eldip
Oral probiotic administration has been advocated for treatment and prevention of a diverse range of disorders. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of probiotic supplementation on outcome of pediatric post-burn patients. Forty thermally-injured pediatric patients with total body surface burns between 20-50% and depth between 5-10% were randomized in a prospective, double-blind, controlled clinical trial into two even groups: probiotic group (n=20), who received probiotic preparations, and placebo control group (n=20)...
December 31, 2016: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288705/clinical-aspects-and-therapy-of-gastrointestinal-malt-lymphoma
#11
REVIEW
Catherine Thieblemont, Emanuele Zucca
Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) arise from lymphoid populations that are induced by chronic inflammation in extranodal sites. Among the MALT lymphomas, gastrointestinal (GIT) MALT lymphoma is the most frequent compared to non-GIT MALT lymphoma arising from other sites. Gastric MALT lymphoma has been the first to be described with the evidence of an etiopathogenetic link provided by the association between Helicobacter pylori-positive gastritis and gastric MALT lymphoma...
March 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281639/influence-of-dairy-by-product-waste-milk-on-the-microbiomes-of-different-gastrointestinal-tract-components-in-pre-weaned-dairy-calves
#12
Y F Deng, Y J Wang, Y Zou, A Azarfar, X L Wei, S K Ji, J Zhang, Z H Wu, S X Wang, S Z Dong, Y Xu, D F Shao, J X Xiao, K L Yang, Z J Cao, S L Li
The community structure of colonised bacteria in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of pre-weaned calves is affected by extrinsic factors, such as the genetics and diet of the calves; however, the dietary impact is not fully understood and warrants further research. Our study revealed that a total of 6, 5, 2 and 10 bacterial genera showed biologically significant differences in the GITs of pre-weaned calves fed four waste-milk diets: acidified waste milk, pasteurised waste milk, untreated bulk milk, and untreated waste milk, respectively...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281573/formulation-for-oral-delivery-of-lactoferrin-based-on-bovine-serum-albumin-and-tannic-acid-multilayer-microcapsules
#13
Ece Kilic, Marina V Novoselova, Su Hui Lim, Nikolay A Pyataev, Sergey I Pinyaev, Oleg A Kulikov, Olga A Sindeeva, Oksana A Mayorova, Regan Murney, Maria N Antipina, Brendan Haigh, Gleb B Sukhorukov, Maxim V Kiryukhin
Lactoferrin (Lf) has considerable potential as a functional ingredient in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. However, the bioavailability of Lf is limited as it is susceptible to digestive enzymes in gastrointestinal tract. The shells comprising alternate layers of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and tannic acid (TA) were tested as Lf encapsulation system for oral administration. Lf absorption by freshly prepared porous 3 μm CaCO3 particles followed by Layer-by-Layer assembly of the BSA-TA shells and dissolution of the CaCO3 cores was suggested as the most efficient and harmless Lf loading method...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276727/evaluation-of-prothrombin-induced-by-vitamin-k-absence-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-and-golgi-protein-73-versus-alpha-fetoprotein-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-diagnosis-and-surveillance
#14
Manar M Ismail, Heba K Morsi, Nahla A B Abdulateef, Maissa K Noaman, Ghada A Abou El-Ella
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a challenging malignancy of worldwide importance. It is the third most common cause of cancer-related death globally as most patients present with unresectable disease. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the widely and solely used biomarker for HCC diagnosis; yet, its usefulness is hampered by low sensitivity and specificity. We aimed to identify more sensitive biomarkers for HCC diagnosis and a surveillance algorithm that may facilitate early detection of HCC. A total of 305 Egyptian and Saudi participants grouped as healthy controls, cancer controls, benign hepatic lesions, chronic viral hepatitis and HCC were included...
May 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274215/comparing-interferon-gamma-release-assays-with-tuberculin-skin-test-for-identifying-latent-tuberculosis-infection-that-progresses-to-active-tuberculosis-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Peter Auguste, Alexander Tsertsvadze, Joshua Pink, Rachel Court, Noel McCarthy, Paul Sutcliffe, Aileen Clarke
BACKGROUND: Timely and accurate identification of people with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is important for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB). There is no gold standard for diagnosis of LTBI. Screening tests such as interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) and tuberculin skin test (TST) provide indirect and imperfect information. This systematic review compared two types of IGRAs QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) and T-SPOT.TB with TST for identification of LTBI by predicting progression to a diagnosis of active TB in three subgroups: children, immunocompromised people, and those recently arrived from countries with high TB burden...
March 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271157/validation-of-serbian-version-of-ucla-scleroderma-clinical-trial-consortium-gastrointestinal-tract-instrument-in-104-patients-with-systemic-sclerosis
#16
Ana Zekovic, Nemanja Damjanov
Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement is the leading cause of morbidity with great impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The UCLA-GIT 2.0 is a disease-specific HRQOL instrument for the assessment of GI symptoms severity in patients with SSc. We evaluated reliability and validity of the Serbian version of UCLA-GIT 2.0 by assessing association of GI involvement and other disease manifestations in patients with SSc. UCLA-GIT 2.0 was adapted into Serbian and administered to 104 patients with SSc who had previously completed the SF-36 questionnaire...
March 7, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264462/use-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-test-in-the-diagnosis-and-monitoring-of-treatment-efficacy-in-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#17
Ping-Chin Chang, Pin-Hui Wang, Kow-Tong Chen
The value of QuantiFERON in the diagnosis of tuberculosis disease and in the monitoring of the response to anti-tuberculosis treatment is unclear. The aims of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and in the monitoring of the response to anti-tuberculosis treatment in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Between January 2013 and December 2015, 133 cases with active PTB and 133 controls with no mycobacterial infection, matched by age (within 3 years) and by the week that they visited Tainan Chest Hospital, were enrolled in the study...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263893/in-silico-cytotoxicity-assessment-on-cultured-rat-intestinal-cells-deduced-from-cellular-impedance-measurements
#18
P Gupta, A Gramatke, R Einspanier, C Schütte, M von Kleist, J Sharbati
Early and reliable identification of chemical toxicity is of utmost importance. At the same time, reduction of animal testing is paramount. Therefore, methods that improve the interpretability and usability of in vitro assays are essential. xCELLigence's real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) provides a novel, fast and cost effective in vitro method to probe compound toxicity. We developed a simple mathematical framework for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of toxicity for RTCA measurements. Compound toxicity, in terms of its 50% inhibitory concentration IC50 on cell growth, and parameters related to cell turnover were estimated on cultured IEC-6 cells exposed to 10 chemicals at varying concentrations...
March 2, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263151/-mucosal-malignant-melanomas-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-and-urogenital-organs
#19
Mustafa Bashir M Jawad, Kristian Kofoed
The aim of this article is to investigate the latest knowledge of the aetiology, pathogenesis and treatment of mucosal malignant melanomas (MMM) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and urogenital organs. MMM constitute 1.4% of all melanomas with an incidence rate in USA of 2.2 per million a year. MMM in the GIT occur mostly in the anal canal and rectum, but can also occur in the small intestine, gallbladder and the large intestine, though very rarely. Melanomas can occur in almost any part of the urinary tract...
February 27, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251868/unboxing-cluster-heatmaps
#20
Sophie Engle, Sean Whalen, Alark Joshi, Katherine S Pollard
BACKGROUND: Cluster heatmaps are commonly used in biology and related fields to reveal hierarchical clusters in data matrices. This visualization technique has high data density and reveal clusters better than unordered heatmaps alone. However, cluster heatmaps have known issues making them both time consuming to use and prone to error. We hypothesize that visualization techniques without the rigid grid constraint of cluster heatmaps will perform better at clustering-related tasks. RESULTS: We developed an approach to "unbox" the heatmap values and embed them directly in the hierarchical clustering results, allowing us to use standard hierarchical visualization techniques as alternatives to cluster heatmaps...
February 15, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
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