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Behavioral self-regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528555/development-and-evaluation-of-the-adhd-cognitions-scale-for-adults
#1
Laura E Knouse, John T Mitchell, Nathan A Kimbrel, Arthur D Anastopoulos
OBJECTIVE: The clinical literature on ADHD in adults suggests that "overly positive" or optimistic cognitions may contribute to impairment and failure to use self-regulation skills in this population, yet the research literature on this topic is limited. We developed the ADHD Cognitions Scale (ACS), a brief self-report measure of ADHD-related thoughts, and evaluated its psychometric properties. METHOD: We collected self-report measures, inculding the ACS, from two large community samples ( Ns = 262, 304)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528132/the-perceived-medical-condition-self-management-scale-can-be-applied-to-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
Marcus G Wild, Kenneth A Wallston, Jamie A Green, Lauren B Beach, Ebele Umeukeje, Julie A Wright Nunes, T Alp Ikizler, Julia Steed, Kerri L Cavanaugh
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a major burden on patients and the health care system. Treatment of CKD requires dedicated involvement from both caretakers and patients. Self-efficacy, also known as perceived competence, contributes to successful maintenance of patient's CKD self-management behaviors such as medication adherence and dietary regulations. Despite a clear association between self-efficacy and improved CKD outcomes, there remains a lack of validated self-report measures of CKD self-efficacy. To address this gap, the Perceived Kidney/Dialysis Self-Management Scale (PKDSMS) was adapted from the previously validated Perceived Medical Condition Self-Management Scale...
May 18, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527311/challenging-assumptions-from-emotion-dysregulation-psychological-treatments
#3
REVIEW
Andrada D Neacsiu, Megan Smith, Caitlin M Fang
BACKGROUND: Contemporary treatments assume that the inability to downregulate negative emotional arousal is a key problem in the development and maintenance of psychopathology and that lack of effective regulation efforts and a preference to use maladaptive regulation strategies is a primary mechanism. Though ubiquitous, there is limited empirical evidence to support this assumption. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine whether self-reported emotion dysregulation equated to difficulties reducing emotional arousal during a behavioral task and to primary use of maladaptive strategies to manage negative emotions...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526259/the-impact-of-daytime-light-exposures-on-sleep-and-mood-in-office-workers
#4
Mariana G Figueiro, Bryan Steverson, Judith Heerwagen, Kevin Kampschroer, Claudia M Hunter, Kassandra Gonzales, Barbara Plitnick, Mark S Rea
BACKGROUND: By affecting the internal timing mechanisms of the brain, light regulates human physiology and behavior, perhaps most notably the sleep-wake cycle. Humans spend over 90% of their waking hours indoors, yet light in the built environment is not designed to affect circadian rhythms. OBJECTIVE: Using a device calibrated to measure light that is effective for the circadian system (circadian-effective light), collect personal light exposures in office workers and relate them to their sleep and mood...
June 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521367/driving-problems-in-the-elderly-and-cognitively-impaired
#5
Robert Haussmann, Maria Buthut, Markus Donix
Driving ability in the elderly and cognitively impaired is of growing demographic relevance. Driving represents a complex task for which multiple central resources are needed. In mild cognitive impairment and dementia, we need to closely monitor driving ability, as it gets irrecoverably lost in the course of the disease. In normal aging, people are often able to self-regulate driving behavior with respect to their medical conditions. Some studies demonstrated that older drivers perform well compared with younger drivers...
May 18, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520736/the-bantam-microrna-acts-through-numb-to-exert-cell-growth-control-and-feedback-regulation-of-notch-in-tumor-forming-stem-cells-in-the-drosophila-brain
#6
Yen-Chi Wu, Kyu-Sun Lee, Yan Song, Stephan Gehrke, Bingwei Lu
Notch (N) signaling is central to the self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs) and other tissue stem cells. Its deregulation compromises tissue homeostasis and contributes to tumorigenesis and other diseases. How N regulates stem cell behavior in health and disease is not well understood. Here we show that N regulates bantam (ban) microRNA to impact cell growth, a process key to NSC maintenance and particularly relied upon by tumor-forming cancer stem cells. Notch signaling directly regulates ban expression at the transcriptional level, and ban in turn feedback regulates N activity through negative regulation of the Notch inhibitor Numb...
May 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513985/self-assembled-nanofiber-coatings-for-controlling-cell-responses
#7
Raquel C Barros, Edith Gelens, Erna Bulten, Annemarie Tuin, Menno R de Jong, Roel Kuijer, Theo G van Kooten
Nanofibers are thought to enhance cell adhesion, growth, and function. We demonstrate that the choice of building blocks in self-assembling nanofiber systems can be used to control cell behavior. The use of 2 D-coated, self-assembled nanofibers in controlling lens epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and mesenchymal stem cells was investigated, focusing on gene and protein expression related to the fibrotic response. To this end, three nanofibers with different characteristics (morphology, topography, and wettability) were compared with two standard materials frequently used in culturing cells, TCPS, and a collagen type I coating...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508651/sugar-breathing-glycopolymersomes-for-regulating-glucose-level
#8
Yufen Xiao, Hui Sun, Jianzhong Du
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic, life-threatening illness that affects people of every age and ethnicity. It is a long-suffering pain for those who are affected and must regulate their blood glucose level by frequent subcutaneous injection of insulin every day. Herein, we propose a non-insulin and antidiabetic-drug-free strategy for regulating blood glucose level by a nano-sized "sugar sponge" which is a lectin-bound glycopolymersome capable of regulating glucose due to the dynamic recognition between the lectin and different carbohydrates...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507316/autism-spectrum-disorders-and-autistic-traits-share-genetics-and-biology
#9
J Bralten, K J van Hulzen, M B Martens, T E Galesloot, A Arias Vasquez, L A Kiemeney, J K Buitelaar, J W Muntjewerff, B Franke, G Poelmans
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and autistic traits in the general population may share genetic susceptibility factors. In this study, we investigated such potential overlap based on common genetic variants. We developed and validated a self-report questionnaire of autistic traits in adults. We then conducted genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of six trait scores derived from the questionnaire through exploratory factor analysis in 1981 adults from the general population. Using the results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium GWAS of ASDs, we observed genetic sharing between ASDs and the autistic traits 'childhood behavior', 'rigidity' and 'attention to detail'...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504538/self-efficacy-for-coping-with-cancer-revision-of-the-cancer-behavior-inventory-version-3-0
#10
Thomas V Merluzzi, Errol J Philip, Carolyn A Heitzmann Ruhf, Haiyan Liu, Miao Yang, Claire C Conley
Based on self-regulation and self-efficacy theories, the Cancer Behavior Inventory (CBI; Heitzmann et al., 2011; Merluzzi & Martinez Sanchez, 1997; Merluzzi, Nairn, Hegde, Martinez Sanchez, & Dunn, 2001) was developed as a measure of self-efficacy strategies for coping with cancer. In the latest revision, CBI-V3.0, a number of psychometric and empirical advances were made: (a) the reading level was reduced to 6th-grade level; (b) individual interviews and focus groups were used to revise items; (c) a new spiritual coping subscale was added; (d) data were collected from 4 samples (total N = 1,405) to conduct an exploratory factor analysis with targeted rotation, 2 confirmatory factor analyses, and differential item functioning; (e) item trimming was used to reduce the total number to 27; (f) internal consistency and test-retest reliability were computed; and (g) extensive validity testing was conducted...
May 15, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504364/mindfulness-meditation-regulates-anterior-insula-activity-during-empathy-for-social-pain
#11
Davide Laneri, Sören Krach, Frieder M Paulus, Philipp Kanske, Verena Schuster, Jens Sommer, Laura Müller-Pinzler
Mindfulness has been shown to reduce stress, promote health, and well-being, as well as to increase compassionate behavior toward others. It reduces distress to one's own painful experiences, going along with altered neural responses, by enhancing self-regulatory processes and decreasing emotional reactivity. In order to investigate if mindfulness similarly reduces distress and neural activations associated with empathy for others' socially painful experiences, which might in the following more strongly motivate prosocial behavior, the present study compared trait, and state effects of long-term mindfulness meditation (LTM) practice...
May 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503157/a-review-of-self-regulated-learning-six-models-and-four-directions-for-research
#12
REVIEW
Ernesto Panadero
Self-regulated learning (SRL) includes the cognitive, metacognitive, behavioral, motivational, and emotional/affective aspects of learning. It is, therefore, an extraordinary umbrella under which a considerable number of variables that influence learning (e.g., self-efficacy, volition, cognitive strategies) are studied within a comprehensive and holistic approach. For that reason, SRL has become one of the most important areas of research within educational psychology. In this paper, six models of SRL are analyzed and compared; that is, Zimmerman; Boekaerts; Winne and Hadwin; Pintrich; Efklides; and Hadwin, Järvelä and Miller...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501035/motivation-to-quit-smoking-after-acute-coronary-syndrome
#13
Vânia Rocha, Marina Guerra, Marina Lemos, Júlia Maciel, Geoffrey Williams
INTRODUCTION: Self-Determination Theory explores the process through which a person acquires motivation to initiate new behaviours related to health and to maintain them over time. This study aimed to determine the overall fit of Self-Determination Theory Model for Health Behavior to the data obtained from a sample of smokers hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome, and to identify the predictors of smoking status six months after clinical discharge. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample included 110 participants, regular smokers, hospitalized due to acute coronary syndrome...
January 31, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500423/physiological-self-regulation-buffers-the-relationship-between-impulsivity-and-externalizing-behaviors-among-nonclinical-adolescents
#14
Michelle A Kuhn, Joshua J Ahles, Jaclyn T Aldrich, Madeline D Wielgus, Amy H Mezulis
Trait impulsivity is a risk factor for rule breaking and aggressive (externalizing) behaviors among nonclinical youth. Buffers of trait-based risk are of practical interest to preventing externalizing behaviors. One such buffer may be the capacity and efforts of a child to self-regulate their physiology. Youth who possess baseline physiological self-regulatory capacities are more likely to maintain adaptive engagement with their environment and may be less prone to impulsively rule break or be aggressive. Similarly, youth who are able to use self-regulatory skills to calm their physiology in times of stress may be less likely to externalize distress...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500299/visual-processing-mode-switching-regulated-by-vip-cells
#15
Jung Hoon Lee, Stefan Mihalas
The responses of neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) to visual stimuli depend on behavioral states. Specifically, surround suppression is reduced during locomotion. Although locomotion-induced vasoactive intestinal polypeptide positive (VIP) interneuron depolarization can account for the reduction of surround suppression, the functions of VIP cell depolarization are not fully understood. Here we utilize a firing rate model and a computational model to elucidate the potential functions of VIP cell depolarization during locomotion...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498053/autism-behavior-inventory-a-novel-tool-for-assessing-core-and-associated-symptoms-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Abi Bangerter, Seth Ness, Michael G Aman, Anna J Esbensen, Matthew S Goodwin, Geraldine Dawson, Robert Hendren, Bennett Leventhal, Anzalee Khan, Mark Opler, Adrianne Harris, Gahan Pandina
OBJECTIVE: Autism Behavior Inventory (ABI) is a new measure for assessing changes in core and associated symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in participants (ages: 3 years-adulthood) diagnosed with ASD. It is a web-based tool with five domains (two ASD core domains: social communication, restrictive and repetitive behaviors; three associated domains: mental health, self-regulation, and challenging behavior). This study describes design, development, and initial psychometric properties of the ABI...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496420/impaired-maintenance-of-interpersonal-synchronization-in-musical-improvisations-of-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#17
Katrien Foubert, Tom Collins, Jos De Backer
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious and complex mental disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 5.9%, characterized by pervasive difficulties with emotion regulation, impulse control, and instability in interpersonal relationships and self-image. Impairments in interpersonal functioning have always been a prominent characteristic of BPD, indicating a need for research to identify the specific interpersonal processes that are problematic for diagnosed individuals. Previous research has concentrated on self-report questionnaires, unidirectional tests, and experimental paradigms wherein the exchange of social signals between individuals was not the focus...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495935/metacognition-in-upper-division-biology-students-awareness-does-not-always-lead-to-control
#18
Kathryn Morris Dye, Julie Dangremond Stanton
Students with awareness and control of their own thinking can learn more and perform better than students who are not metacognitive. Metacognitive regulation is how you control your thinking in order to learn. It includes the skill of evaluation, which is the ability to appraise your approaches to learning and then modify future plans based on those appraisals. We asked when, why, and how upper-division biology students evaluated their approaches to learning. We used self-evaluation assignments to identify students with potentially high metacognition and conducted semistructured interviews to collect rich qualitative data from them...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495886/the-sigma-1-receptor-modulates-dopamine-transporter-conformation-and-cocaine-binding-and-may-thereby-potentiate-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#19
Weimin Conrad Hong, Hideaki Yano, Takato Hiranita, Frederick T Chin, Christopher R McCurdy, Tsung-Ping Su, Susan G Amara, Jonathan L Katz
The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates dopamine (DA) neurotransmission by recapturing DA into the presynaptic terminals, and is a principal target of the psychostimulant cocaine. The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) is a molecular chaperone, and its ligands have been shown to modulate dopamine neuronal signaling, although their effects on DAT activity are unclear. Here, we report that the prototypical σ1R agonist (+)-pentazocine potentiated the dose response of cocaine self-administration in rats, consistent with effects of the σR agonists PRE-084 and DTG reported previously...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494722/adult-stem-cells-and-hydrogels-for-cartilage-regeneration
#20
Lei Wang, Chenglong Huang, Qing Li, Lin Liu, Shihong Luo, Jingang Xiao
Cartilage tissue engineering is emerging as a therapeutic approach for the repair and regeneration of cartilage tissue defects resulting from trauma and disease. It is still essential to explore approaches that employ combinations of ideal seed cells, biomaterials, and growth factors to repair defect areas because cartilage lacks spontaneous regenerative capabilities and traditional treatments do not fully satisfy clinical requirements. The purpose of this review is to summarize key advances in this area with an emphasis on adult stem cells because these cells possess a self-renewal ability and the potential for multi-directional differentiation when cultured under appropriate conditions, such as chondrocyte differentiation to synthesize cartilage-specific matrix proteins...
May 11, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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