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Behavioral self-regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332230/a-cardioid-oscillator-with-asymmetric-time-ratio-for-establishing-cpg-models
#1
Q Fu, D H Wang, L Xu, G Yuan
Nonlinear oscillators are usually utilized by bionic scientists for establishing central pattern generator models for imitating rhythmic motions by bionic scientists. In the natural word, many rhythmic motions possess asymmetric time ratios, which means that the forward and the backward motions of an oscillating process sustain different times within one period. In order to model rhythmic motions with asymmetric time ratios, nonlinear oscillators with asymmetric forward and backward trajectories within one period should be studied...
January 13, 2018: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332091/the-association-among-default-mode-network-functional-connectivity-mentalization-and-psychopathology-in-a-nonclinical-sample-an-eloreta-study
#2
Benedetto Farina, Giacomo Della Marca, Giulia Maestoso, Noemi Amoroso, Enrico Maria Valenti, Giuseppe Alessio Carbone, Chiara Massullo, Anna Contardi, Claudio Imperatori
AIMS: We investigated default mode network (DMN) electroencephalography (EEG) functional connectivity differences between individuals with self-reported high mentalization capability and low psychopathological symptoms, versus participants with mentalization impairments and high psychopathological symptoms. METHODS: Forty-nine students (35 women) with a mean age of 22.92 ± 2.53 years were administered the Mentalization Questionnaire (MZQ) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised...
January 13, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329794/redox-signals-and-macrophage-biology-for-the-upcoming-issue-of-molecular-aspects-of-medicine-on-signaling-by-reactive-oxygen-species
#3
REVIEW
Andreas Weigert, Andreas von Knethen, Dominik Fuhrmann, Nathalie Dehne, Bernhard Brüne
Macrophages are known for their versatile role in biology. They sense and clear structures that contain exogenous or endogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This process is tightly linked to the production of a mixture of potentially harmful oxidants and cytokines. Their inherent destructive behavior is directed against foreign material or structures of 'altered self', which explains the role of macrophages during innate immune reactions and inflammation. However, there is also another side of macrophages when they turn into a tissue regenerative, pro-resolving, and healing phenotype...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321971/processing-and-regulation-of-negative-emotions-in-anorexia-nervosa-an-fmri-study
#4
Maria Seidel, Joseph A King, Franziska Ritschel, Ilka Boehm, Daniel Geisler, Fabio Bernardoni, Matthias Beck, Sophie Pauligk, Ronald Biemann, Alexander Strobel, Thomas Goschke, Henrik Walter, Veit Roessner, Stefan Ehrlich
Theoretical models and recent advances in the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) have increasingly focused on the role of alterations in the processing and regulation of emotions. To date, however, our understanding of these changes is still limited and reports of emotional dysregulation in AN have been based largely on self-report data, and there is a relative lack of objective experimental evidence or neurobiological data. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the hemodynamic correlates of passive viewing and voluntary downregulation of negative emotions by means of the reappraisal strategy detachment in AN patients...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320569/transcriptome-profiling-of-pumpkin-cucurbita-moschata-duch-leaves-infected-with-powdery-mildew
#5
Wei-Li Guo, Bi-Hua Chen, Xue-Jin Chen, Yan-Yan Guo, He-Lian Yang, Xin-Zheng Li, Guang-Yin Wang
Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) is one of the most severe fungal diseases, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PM resistance remain largely unknown, especially in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.). The goal of this study was to identify gene expression differences in PM-treated plants (harvested at 24 h and 48 h after inoculation) and untreated (control) plants of inbred line "112-2" using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). The inbred line "112-2" has been purified over 8 consecutive generations of self-pollination and shows high resistance to PM...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319196/examination-of-interoception-along-the-suicidality-continuum
#6
Megan L Rogers, Christopher R Hagan, Thomas E Joiner
OBJECTIVE: Interoception deficits have been associated with various points on the suicidality continuum. Most research, however, has focused on general, rather than specific facets of, interoception. This study compared individuals with lifetime suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts using a multidimensional assessment of interoception. METHOD: A total of 537 adults completed measures of their interoception and lifetime suicide histories. RESULTS: Individuals with lifetime suicidal ideation reported more worry about their bodily sensations...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315194/relations-between-self-reported-executive-functioning-and-speech-perception-skills-in-adult-cochlear-implant-users
#7
Aaron C Moberly, Tirth R Patel, Irina Castellanos
HYPOTHESIS: As a result of their hearing loss, adults with cochlear implants (CIs) would self-report poorer executive functioning (EF) skills than normal-hearing (NH) peers, and these EF skills would be associated with performance on speech recognition tasks. BACKGROUND: EF refers to a group of high order neurocognitive skills responsible for behavioral and emotional regulation during goal-directed activity, and EF has been found to be poorer in children with CIs than their NH age-matched peers...
February 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314464/chemogenetic-inhibition-of-direct-pathway-striatal-neurons-normalizes-pathological-cue-induced-reinstatement-of-drug-seeking-in-rats
#8
Lindsay M Yager, Aaron F Garcia, Elizabeth A Donckels, Susan M Ferguson
Addiction to drugs such as cocaine is marked by cycles of compulsive drug-taking and drug-seeking behavior. Although the transition to addiction is thought to recruit neural processes in dorsal striatum, little is known regarding the role of dorsal striatal projections to the substantia nigra (i.e. the direct pathway) in regulating these behaviors. Combining a Cre-recombinase-dependent chemogenetic approach with a cocaine self-administration paradigm that produces both low-risk and high-risk addiction phenotypes, we examined the effect of transiently decreasing direct pathway activity in the dorsomedial striatum on drug-taking and drug-seeking under conditions of normal and pathological drug use...
January 5, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311336/troy-brain-stem-cells-cycle-through-quiescence-and-regulate-their-number-by-sensing-niche-occupancy
#9
Onur Basak, Teresa G Krieger, Mauro J Muraro, Kay Wiebrands, Daniel E Stange, Javier Frias-Aldeguer, Nicolas C Rivron, Marc van de Wetering, Johan H van Es, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Benjamin D Simons, Hans Clevers
The adult mouse subependymal zone provides a niche for mammalian neural stem cells (NSCs). However, the molecular signature, self-renewal potential, and fate behavior of NSCs remain poorly defined. Here we propose a model in which the fate of active NSCs is coupled to the total number of neighboring NSCs in a shared niche. Using knock-in reporter alleles and single-cell RNA sequencing, we show that the Wnt target Tnfrsf19/Troy identifies both active and quiescent NSCs. Quantitative analysis of genetic lineage tracing of individual NSCs under homeostasis or in response to injury reveals rapid expansion of stem-cell number before some return to quiescence...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305750/visual-symptom-provocation-in-skin-picking-disorder-an-fmri-study
#10
Anne Schienle, Sonja Übel, Albert Wabnegger
Skin-picking disorder (SPD) is a common mental disorder characterized by recurrent and excessive picking of dermatological irregularities. Different disorder models have been developed to explain this behavior, but empirical evidence is still scarce. One model (the disgust-related disease avoidance model) suggests that SPD might be understood as pathological grooming elicited by skin imperfections that singal possible infection. Twenty-five women with SPD and 19 matched controls viewed and rated images depicting skin irregularities and smooth skin during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
January 5, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301985/phase-separation-of-a-yeast-prion-protein-promotes-cellular-fitness
#11
Titus M Franzmann, Marcus Jahnel, Andrei Pozniakovsky, Julia Mahamid, Alex S Holehouse, Elisabeth Nüske, Doris Richter, Wolfgang Baumeister, Stephan W Grill, Rohit V Pappu, Anthony A Hyman, Simon Alberti
Despite the important role of prion domains in neurodegenerative disease, their physiological function has remained enigmatic. Previous work with yeast prions has defined prion domains as sequences that form self-propagating aggregates. Here, we uncovered an unexpected function of the canonical yeast prion protein Sup35. In stressed conditions, Sup35 formed protective gels via pH-regulated liquid-like phase separation followed by gelation. Phase separation was mediated by the N-terminal prion domain and regulated by the adjacent pH sensor domain...
January 5, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300318/self-medication-practice-and-associated-factors-among-residents-in-wuhan-china
#12
Xiaosheng Lei, Heng Jiang, Chaojie Liu, Adamm Ferrier, Janette Mugavin
BACKGROUND: This study aims to examine the prevalence and predictors associated with self-medication, and related consequences in Wuhan, China. METHODS: Two-hundred-sixty residents were interviewed from randomly selected four districts of Wuhan, China. A modified version of Anderson's health behavioral model was used in the survey to collect information of self-medication behavior. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to measure correlates of the prevalence of self-medication...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298632/response-versus-nonresponse-to-self-regulatory-treatment-targets-is-not-discriminated-by-personal-characteristics-but-predicts-physical-activity-eating-behavior-and-weight-changes-in-women-with-obesity
#13
James J Annesi
Background Results of behavioral weight-loss treatments vary widely, with mostly unsuccessful outcomes beyond the short term. Women with obesity participating in a new cognitive-behavioral weight-loss treatment were assessed on their responses to psychological targets. Methods Groups of responders ( n = 43) and nonresponders ( n = 48) were established post hoc. Results Age, race/ethnicity, education, income, body composition, physical activity, and eating behaviors at baseline were not discriminated between responders and nonresponders...
January 1, 2018: International Quarterly of Community Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298219/declining-physical-activity-and-motivation-from-middle-school-to-high-school
#14
Rod K Dishman, Kerry L McIver, Marsha Dowda, Russell R Pate
PURPOSE: To determine whether naturally-occurring changes in intrinsic motivation, behavioral regulation, and goals mitigate declining physical activity among adolescents. METHODS: Latent growth modeling was applied in tests of change in intrinsic motivation, facets of behavioral regulation, and their interactions with goals on change in physical activity measured by accelerometer in a cohort of 260 boys and girls evaluated longitudinally from 6th through 9th grades...
January 2, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294962/psychological-predictors-of-aggressive-behavior-among-men-and-women
#15
Cristina Stefanile, Camilla Matera, Amanda Nerini, Luisa Puddu, Rosalba Raffagnino
This study examined the relationships among attitude toward violence, self-esteem, emotion dysregulation, anger, and aggression in community men and women and male inmates. Overall, 166 community men, 197 community women, and 100 male inmates completed a battery of questionnaires containing self-reported measures. Self-esteem and attitude toward violence were significant predictors of aggressive behavior, with emotion dysregulation mediating the relationship between self-esteem and the criterion variable. Anger mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior only among community people...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294738/college-students-perceptions-of-barriers-to-bystander-intervention
#16
Kristen Yule, John Grych
Sexual violence is a major problem on college campuses and is associated with a range of negative health consequences for victims. Teaching students to intervene as prosocial bystanders has become a common element of sexual assault prevention efforts; although these programs have demonstrated positive effects on participants' beliefs and knowledge, their impact on actual behavior is weaker. Understanding the factors that inhibit intervening in risky situations may enhance the effectiveness of bystander programs by identifying material that addresses these barriers...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290626/tet2-loss-dysregulates-the-behavior-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-and-accelerates-tet2-driven-myeloid-malignancy-progression
#17
Rong Li, Yuan Zhou, Zeng Cao, Lin Liu, Jinhuan Wang, Zizhen Chen, Wen Xing, Shi Chen, Jie Bai, Weiping Yuan, Tao Cheng, Mingjiang Xu, Feng-Chun Yang, Zhigang Zhao
TET2 is a methylcytosine dioxygenase that regulates cytosine hydroxymethylation. Although there are extensive data implicating a pivotal role of TET2 in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), the importance of TET2 in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) remains unknown. In this study, we show that loss of TET2 in BMSCs increases cell proliferation and self-renewal and enhances osteoblast differentiation potential of BMSCs, which may in turn alter their behavior in supporting HSPC proliferation and differentiation...
January 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289607/basis-of-self-organized-proportion-regulation-resulting-from-local-contacts
#18
Mayuko Iwamoto, Daishin Ueyama
One of the fundamental problems in biology concerns the method by which a cluster of organisms can regulate the proportion of individuals that perform various roles or modes as if each individual is aware of the overall situation without a leader. In various species, a specific ratio exists at multiple levels, from the process of cell differentiation in multicellular organisms to the situation of social dilemma in a group of human beings. This study determines a common basis for regulating collective behavior that is realized by a series of local contacts between individuals...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288868/neurofeedback-with-fmri-a-critical-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Robert T Thibault, Amanda MacPherson, Michael Lifshitz, Raquel R Roth, Amir Raz
Neurofeedback relying on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-nf) heralds new prospects for self-regulating brain and behavior. Here we provide the first comprehensive review of the fMRI-nf literature and the first systematic database of fMRI-nf findings. We synthesize information from 99 fMRI-nf experiments-the bulk of currently available data. The vast majority of fMRI-nf findings suggest that self-regulation of specific brain signatures seems viable; however, replication of concomitant behavioral outcomes remains sparse...
December 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283435/fitting-motivational-content-and-process-a-systematic-investigation-of-fit-between-value-framing-and-self-regulation
#20
Karl-Andrew Woltin, Anat Bardi
OBJECTIVE: Values are often phrased as ideals that people seek to approach, but they can also be conceptualized as counter-ideals that people seek to avoid. We aimed to test whether individuals endorse more strongly values that are framed in line with their predominant self-regulatory motivation, using individual difference scales in promotion/prevention (Higgins, 1997) and in behavioral approach/inhibition (Carver & White, 1994). To address this systematically, we developed approach- and avoidance-framed versions of the Portrait Value Questionnaire-RR (PVQ-RR; Schwartz et al...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Personality
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