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Behavioral self-regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231481/the-influence-of-personality-traits-and-emotional-and-behavioral-problems-on-repetitive-nonsuicidal-self-injury-in-a-school-sample
#1
Janine Lüdtke, Benedict Weizenegger, Rachel Rauber, Brigitte Contin, Tina In-Albon, Marc Schmid
BACKGROUND: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent among adolescents and associated with various mental health problems and suicidality. Previous studies have found that certain personality traits are related to NSSI behavior, however only few studies examined personality traits in adolescents with NSSI. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between personality traits and emotional and behavioral problems in predicting repetitive NSSI among adolescents from a school sample...
February 14, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231024/incorporating-behavioral-techniques-into-a-serious-videogame-for-children
#2
Debbe Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about how to design serious videogames for children. The purpose of this article is to describe how behavior change techniques promoting self-regulation were incorporated into a serious videogame to help children consume more fruits and vegetables (FVs) and the extent to which these techniques were used by players. A secondary goal is to contribute to the body of scientific knowledge regarding how to design effective serious videogames for children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research examines the game play data from an effective 10-episode online serious videogame promoting FV consumption to preadolescent children in the United States (roughly 9-11-year-olds)...
February 23, 2017: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229541/psychological-and-neural-contributions-to-appetite-self-regulation
#3
Luke E Stoeckel, Leann L Birch, Todd Heatherton, Traci Mann, Christine Hunter, Susan Czajkowski, Lisa Onken, Paige K Berger, Cary R Savage
OBJECTIVE: This paper reviews the state of the science on psychological and neural contributions to appetite self-regulation in the context of obesity. METHODS: Three content areas (neural systems and cognitive functions; parenting and early childhood development; and goal setting and goal striving) served to illustrate different perspectives on the psychological and neural factors that contribute to appetite dysregulation in the context of obesity. Talks were initially delivered at an NIH workshop consisting of experts in these three content areas, and then content areas were further developed through a review of the literature...
March 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229540/introduction-to-special-issue-self-regulation-of-appetite-it-s-complicated
#4
Deborah Young-Hyman
OBJECTIVE: A meeting of multidisciplinary biobehavioral scientists and National Institutes of Health (NIH) program staff was convened by the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives, Office of the Director, NIH to examine mechanisms associated with humans' ability to self-regulate appetite and appetitive behavior. METHODS: Based upon prior discussions of the NIH Obesity Research Task Force Behavioral Phenotyping Work Group, the premise was adopted that, in modern society, multiple factors on multiple levels interact to create circumstances wherein self-control of appetite is difficult, leading to overconsumption of unhealthy foods versus healthy eating patterns, contributing to our current levels of obesity...
March 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229539/appetite-self-regulation-environmental-and-policy-influences-on-eating-behaviors
#5
Marlene B Schwartz, David R Just, Jamie F Chriqui, Alice S Ammerman
OBJECTIVE: Appetite regulation is influenced by the environment, and the environment is shaped by food-related policies. This review summarizes the environment and policy research portion of an NIH Workshop (Bethesda, MD, 2015) titled "Self-Regulation of Appetite-It's Complicated." METHODS: In this paper, we begin by making the case for why policy is an important tool in efforts to improve nutrition, and we introduce an ecological framework that illustrates the multiple layers that influence what people eat...
March 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229538/biological-control-of-appetite-a-daunting-complexity
#6
Paul S MacLean, John E Blundell, Julie A Mennella, Rachel L Batterham
OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes a portion of the discussions of an NIH Workshop (Bethesda, MD, 2015) titled "Self-Regulation of Appetite-It's Complicated," which focused on the biological aspects of appetite regulation. METHODS: This review summarizes the key biological inputs of appetite regulation and their implications for body weight regulation. RESULTS: These discussions offer an update of the long-held, rigid perspective of an "adipocentric" biological control, taking a broader view that also includes important inputs from the digestive tract, from lean mass, and from the chemical sensory systems underlying taste and smell...
March 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225747/effect-of-methylphenidate-on-emotional-dysregulation-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-oppositional-defiant-disorder-conduct-disorder
#7
Ayse Kutlu, Ulku Akyol Ardic, Eyup Sabri Ercan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Emotional dysregulation (ED) is a frequent feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It can be observed as a dysregulation profile or a deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) profile. Oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) comorbidity is prevalent in ADHD and known to be related with ED. The first-line treatment of ADHD includes psychostimulants, but their effects on ED are not well studied. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on ED in ADHD + ODD/CD cases...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223238/self-compassion-directly-and-indirectly-predicts-dietary-adherence-and-quality-of-life-among-adults-with-celiac-disease
#8
A Justine Dowd, Mary E Jung
Strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only treatment for preventing both short- and long-term consequences of celiac disease. Given that following a strict GFD can be difficult, evidence-based strategies are needed to improve the psychological experience of living with celiac disease and following the GFD. Self-compassion appears to be an important component of effectively self-regulating one's behavior to cope with a chronic disease. The main goal of this study was to examine the relationships between self-compassion and management of celiac disease as assessed by (a) adherence to a strict GFD and (b) celiac-specific quality of life (CQoL)...
February 18, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222312/visual-attention-in-violent-offenders-susceptibility-to-distraction
#9
Jantine Slotboom, Sylco S Hoppenbrouwers, Yvonne H A Bouman, Willem In 't Hout, Carmen Sergiou, Stefan van der Stigchel, Jan Theeuwes
Impairments in executive functioning give rise to reduced control of behavior and impulses, and are therefore a risk factor for violence and criminal behavior. However, the contribution of specific underlying processes remains unclear. A crucial element of executive functioning, and essential for cognitive control and goal-directed behavior, is visual attention. To further elucidate the importance of attentional functioning in the general offender population, we employed an attentional capture task to measure visual attention...
February 16, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221776/the-horizon-of-materiobiology-a-perspective-on-material-guided-cell-behaviors-and-tissue-engineering
#10
Yulin Li, Yin Xiao, Changsheng Liu
Although the biological functions of cell and tissue can be regulated by biochemical factors (e.g., growth factors, hormones), the biophysical effects of materials on the regulation of biological activity are receiving more attention. In this Review, we systematically summarize the recent progress on how biomaterials with controllable properties (e.g., compositional/degradable dynamics, mechanical properties, 2D topography, and 3D geometry) can regulate cell behaviors (e.g., cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation, cell alignment, and the differentiation or self-maintenance of stem cells) and tissue/organ functions...
February 21, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221714/photonic-devices-out-of-equilibrium-transient-memory-signal-propagation-and-sensing
#11
Thomas Heuser, Rémi Merindol, Sebastian Loescher, Aileen Klaus, Andreas Walther
Soft photonic materials are important for sensors, displays, or energy management and have become switchable under static equilibrium conditions by integration of responsive polymer features. The next step is to equip such materials with the ability for autonomously dynamic and self-regulating behavior, which would advance their functionality and application possibilities to new levels. Here, this study shows the system integration of a nonlinear, biocatalytic pH-feedback system with a pH-responsive block copolymer photonic gel, and demonstrates autonomous transient memories, remotely controlled signal propagation, and sensing...
February 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220475/dyadic-flexibility-mediates-the-relation-between-parent-conflict-and-infants-vagal-reactivity-during-the-face-to-face-still-face
#12
Alex Busuito, Ginger A Moore
Parent conflict is related to attenuated infant vagal reactivity, suggesting less effective regulation. Because infants' self-regulation develops in the context of coregulation, the current study examined a novel measure, flexibility, purported to reflect dyadic reorganization in response to contextual demands. Flexibility was expected to mediate the relation between greater conflict and lesser vagal reactivity during the reunion episode of the Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF). Six-month-old infants' and their mothers' (N = 53) affective behaviors were observed during the FFSF and heart rate data were collected for infants...
February 21, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220089/emotion-regulation-therapy-a-mechanism-targeted-treatment-for-disorders-of-distress
#13
Megan E Renna, Jean M Quintero, David M Fresco, Douglas S Mennin
"Distress disorders," which include generalized anxiety disorder and major depression are often highly comorbid with each other and appear to be characterized by common temperamental features that reflect heightened sensitivity to underlying motivational systems related to threat/safety and reward/loss. Further, individuals with distress disorders tend to utilize self-referential processes (e.g., worry, rumination, self-criticism) in a maladaptive attempt to respond to motivationally relevant distress, often resulting in suboptimal contextual learning...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216800/treatment-of-depression-from-a-self-regulation-perspective-basic-concepts-and-applied-strategies-in-self-system-therapy
#14
Timothy J Strauman, Kari M Eddington
Self-regulation models of psychopathology provide a theory-based, empirically supported framework for developing psychotherapeutic interventions that complement and extend current cognitive-behavioral models. However, many clinicians are only minimally familiar with the psychology of self-regulation. The aim of the present manuscript is twofold. First, we provide an overview of self-regulation as a motivational process essential to well-being and introduce two related theories of self-regulation which have been applied to depression...
February 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216068/stages-of-dysfunctional-decision-making-in-addiction
#15
REVIEW
Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Trevor T-J Chong, Julie C Stout, Murat Yücel, Edythe D London
Drug use is a choice with immediate positive outcomes, but long-term negative consequences. Thus, the repeated use of drugs in the face of negative consequences suggests dysfunction in the cognitive mechanisms underpinning decision-making. This cognitive dysfunction can be mapped into three stages: the formation of preferences involving valuation of decision options; choice implementation including motivation, self-regulation and inhibitory processes; and feedback processing implicating reinforcement learning...
February 16, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215543/the-mediating-role-of-child-self-regulation-of-eating-in-the-relationship-between-parental-use-of-food-as-a-reward-and-child-emotional-overeating
#16
Elisabeth M Powell, Leslie A Frankel, Daphne Hernandez
Emotional eating, or eating in response to negative emotions rather than internal hunger cues, has been related to many maladaptive eating patterns that contribute to weight gain and obesity. The parent feeding practice of use of food as a reward is positively associated with children emotionally overeating. Yet, little is known as to the potential behavioral mechanism linking these behaviors. The current study examined the mediating role of child self-regulation of eating in the relationship between parental use of food as a reward and child emotional overeating...
February 16, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211503/the-enforcement-of-moral-boundaries-promotes-cooperation-and-prosocial-behavior-in-groups
#17
Brent Simpson, Robb Willer, Ashley Harrell
The threat of free-riding makes the marshalling of cooperation from group members a fundamental challenge of social life. Where classical social science theory saw the enforcement of moral boundaries as a critical way by which group members regulate one another's self-interest and build cooperation, moral judgments have most often been studied as processes internal to individuals. Here we investigate how the interpersonal expression of positive and negative moral judgments encourages cooperation in groups and prosocial behavior between group members...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208075/socioeconomic-and-air-pollution-correlates-of-adult-asthma-heart-attack-and-stroke-risks-in-the-united-states-2010-2013
#18
Louis Anthony Tony Cox
Asthma in the United States has become an important public health issue, with many physicians, regulators, and scientists elsewhere expressing concern that criterion air pollutants have contributed to a rising tide of asthma cases and symptoms. This paper studies recent associations (from 2008 to 2012) between self-reported asthma experiences and potential predictors, including age, sex, income, education, smoking, and county-level average annual ambient concentrations of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207613/vagal-regulation-of-cardiac-function-in-early-childhood-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-adolescence
#19
Meghan J Gangel, Lilly Shanahan, Jacek Kolacz, James A Janssen, Ashley Brown, Susan D Calkins, Susan P Keane, Laurie Wideman
OBJECTIVE: Poor behavioral self-regulation in the first two decades of life has been identified as an important precursor of disease risk in adulthood. However, physiological regulation has not been well-studied as a disease risk factor before adulthood. We tested whether physiological regulation at age two, in the form of vagal regulation of cardiac function (indexed by RSA change), would predict three indicators of cardiovascular risk at age 16 (diastolic and systolic blood pressure and body mass index)...
February 15, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206797/social-information-influences-emotional-experience-and-late-positive-potential-response-to-affective-pictures
#20
Emily C Willroth, Leonie Koban, Matthew R Hilimire
Emotion experience and regulation frequently occur in social settings. Social influence is a common source of unconscious change in judgment in many contexts, but it has yet to be investigated as a form of automatic emotion regulation. Here, we demonstrate that nonpredictive social information (i.e., high or low "emotion intensity ratings from other people" that were not related to the actual intensity of the pictures) about the intensity of pleasant and unpleasant picture stimuli can influence self-reported emotional experience and the magnitude of the late positive potential, an event-related potential associated with the detection of emotional salience and sustained attention to motivationally significant stimulus features...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
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