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Behavioral self-regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937320/self-regulation-and-implicit-attitudes-toward-physical-activity-influence-exercise-behavior
#1
Avelina C Padin, Charles F Emery, Michael Vasey, Janice K Kiecolt-Glaser
Dual-process models of health behavior posit that implicit and explicit attitudes independently drive healthy behaviors. Prior evidence indicates that implicit attitudes may be related to weekly physical activity (PA) levels, but the extent to which self-regulation attenuates this link remains unknown. This study examined the associations between implicit attitudes and self-reported PA during leisure time among 150 highly active young adults and evaluated the extent to which effortful control (one aspect of self-regulation) moderated this relationship...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936975/single-molecular-biology-coming-of-age-in-dna-replication
#2
Xiao-Jing Liu, Hui-Qiang Lou
DNA replication is an essential process of the living organisms. To achieve precise and reliable replication, DNA polymerases play a central role in DNA synthesis. Previous investigations have shown that the average rates of DNA synthesis on the leading and lagging strands in a replisome must be similar to avoid the formation of significant gaps in the nascent strands. The underlying mechanism has been assumed to be coordination between leading- and lagging-strand polymerases. However, Kowalczykowski's lab members recently performed single molecule techniques in E...
September 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935766/serotonin-2b-receptors-in-mesoaccumbens-dopamine-pathway-regulate-cocaine-responses
#3
Stéphane Doly, Emily Quentin, Raphaël Eddine, Stefania Tolu, Sebastian P Fernandez, Jesus Bertran-Gonzalez, Emmanuel Valjent, Arnauld Belmer, Xavier Viñals, Jacques Callebert, Philippe Faure, Frank J Meye, Denis Hervé, Patricia Robledo, Manuel Mameli, Jean-Marie Launay, Rafael Maldonado, Luc Maroteaux
Addiction is a maladaptive pattern of behavior following repeated use of reinforcing drugs in predisposed individuals, and leading to lifelong changes. A common substrate of these changes lies in alterations of neurons releasing dopamine in the ventral and dorsal territories of the striatum. The serotonin 5-HT2B receptor has been involved in various behaviors including impulsivity, response to antidepressants and to psychostimulants pointing toward putative interactions with the dopamine system. Despite these findings, it remains unknown whether 5-HT2B receptors directly modulate dopaminergic activity and the possible mechanisms involved...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934896/self-uncertainty-and-the-influence-of-alternative-goals-on-self-regulation
#4
Alysson E Light, Kimberly Rios, Kenneth G DeMarree
The current research examines factors that facilitate or undermine goal pursuit. Past research indicates that attempts to reduce self-uncertainty can result in increased goal motivation. We explore a critical boundary condition of this effect-the presence of alternative goals. Though self-regulatory processes usually keep interest in alternative goals in check, uncertainty reduction may undermine these self-regulatory efforts by (a) reducing conflict monitoring and (b) increasing valuation of alternative goals...
September 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934291/emotional-metacontrol-of-attention-top-down-modulation-of-sensorimotor-processes-in-a-robotic-visual-search-task
#5
Marwen Belkaid, Nicolas Cuperlier, Philippe Gaussier
Emotions play a significant role in internal regulatory processes. In this paper, we advocate four key ideas. First, novelty detection can be grounded in the sensorimotor experience and allow higher order appraisal. Second, cognitive processes, such as those involved in self-assessment, influence emotional states by eliciting affects like boredom and frustration. Third, emotional processes such as those triggered by self-assessment influence attentional processes. Last, close emotion-cognition interactions implement an efficient feedback loop for the purpose of top-down behavior regulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933874/wisdom-bias-and-balance-toward-a-process-sensitive-measurement-of-wisdom-related-cognition
#6
Justin P Brienza, Franki Y H Kung, Henri C Santos, D Ramona Bobocel, Igor Grossmann
Philosophers and behavioral scientists refer to wisdom as unbiased reasoning that guides one toward a balance of interests and promotes a good life. However, major instruments developed to test wisdom appear biased, and it is unclear whether they capture balance-related tendencies. We examined whether shifting from global, de-contextualized reports to state-level reports about concrete situations provides a less biased method to assess wise reasoning (e.g., intellectual humility, recognition of uncertainty and change, consideration of the broader context at hand and perspectives of others, integration of these perspectives or compromise), which may be aligned with the notion of balancing interests...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926003/age-of-first-exposure-to-american-football-and-long-term-neuropsychiatric-and-cognitive-outcomes
#7
M L Alosco, A B Kasimis, J M Stamm, A S Chua, C M Baugh, D H Daneshvar, C A Robbins, M Mariani, J Hayden, S Conneely, R Au, A Torres, M D McClean, A C McKee, R C Cantu, J Mez, C J Nowinski, B M Martin, C E Chaisson, Y Tripodis, R A Stern
Previous research suggests that age of first exposure (AFE) to football before age 12 may have long-term clinical implications; however, this relationship has only been examined in small samples of former professional football players. We examined the association between AFE to football and behavior, mood and cognition in a large cohort of former amateur and professional football players. The sample included 214 former football players without other contact sport history. Participants completed the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT), and self-reported measures of executive function and behavioral regulation (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version Metacognition Index (MI), Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI)), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)) and apathy (Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES))...
September 19, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925955/investing-in-the-early-childhood-mental-health-workforce-development-enhancing-professionals-competencies-to-support-emotion-and-behavior-regulation-in-young-children
#8
Shulamit N Ritblatt, Audrey Hokoda, Charles Van Liew
This paper delineates a preventive approach to early childhood mental health by preparing the workforce to provide relational, sensitive care to young children ages 0-5. One of the most prevalent issues in early childhood is behavioral challenges and the inability of young children to regulate themselves. This leads to an expulsion rate in early childhood (3-4 times higher than K-12 expulsion rate) and future mental health issues. The Early Childhood Social-Emotional and Behavior Regulation Intervention Specialist (EC-SEBRIS) graduate level certificate program was created to strengthen early care and education providers with the knowledge and practice of how to support emotion and behavior regulation in young children in their groups...
September 19, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922009/the-development-and-initial-validation-of-the-countertransference-management-scale
#9
Andrés E Pérez-Rojas, Beatriz Palma, Avantika Bhatia, John Jackson, Earta Norwood, Jeffrey A Hayes, Charles J Gelso
Countertransference is an important aspect of the therapeutic relationship that exists in therapies of all theoretical orientations, and depending on how it is managed, it can either help or hinder treatment. Management of countertransference has been measured almost exclusively with the Countertransference Factors Inventory (Van Wagoner, Gelso, Hayes, & Diemer, 1991) and its variations, all of which focus on 5 therapist qualities theorized to facilitate management: self-insight, conceptualizing ability, empathy, self-integration, and anxiety management...
September 2017: Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918861/exercise-self-efficacy-correlates-in-people-with-psychosis
#10
Davy Vancampfort, Paul Gorczynski, Marc De Hert, Michel Probst, Annetie Naisiga, David Basangwa, James Mugisha
Despite the recognition of the importance of exercise self-efficacy in exercise adoption and maintenance, previous investigations on exercise self-efficacy in people with psychosis is scarce. The present study aimed to (1) explore if exercise self-efficacy differed between stages of behavior change in Ugandan outpatients with psychosis, and (2) assess sociodemographic, clinical and motivational correlates of exercise self-efficacy. In total, 48 patients (24 women) completed the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES), the Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise questionnaire, the Brief Symptoms Inventory-18 (BSI-18), and questions pertaining to intrinsic motivation in the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2...
September 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918685/executive-functions-and-attachment-relationships-in-children-with-adhd-links-to-externalizing-internalizing-problems-social-skills-and-negative-mood-regulation
#11
Michal Al-Yagon, Dovrat Forte, Lital Avrahami
OBJECTIVE: Theoretical models suggest multiple underlying pathways for ADHD and multiple risk factors' co-occurrence as impairing this population's affective, interpersonal, and behavioral adjustment. After comparing groups' executive functioning (EF) difficulties and attachment security with each parent, this study primarily aimed to examine four risk factors (ADHD, child-father attachment, child-mother attachment, EF) as possibly explaining children's socioemotional/behavioral measures (externalizing/internalizing behavior, social skills, negative mood regulation)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913886/what-s-parenting-got-to-do-with-it-emotional-autonomy-and-brain-and-behavioral-responses-to-emotional-conflict-in-children-and-adolescents
#12
Hilary A Marusak, Moriah E Thomason, Kelsey Sala-Hamrick, Laura Crespo, Christine A Rabinak
Healthy parenting may be protective against the development of emotional psychopathology, particularly for children reared in stressful environments. Little is known, however, about the brain and behavioral mechanisms underlying this association, particularly during childhood and adolescence, when emotional disorders frequently emerge. Here, we demonstrate that psychological control, a parenting strategy known to limit socioemotional development in children, is associated with altered brain and behavioral responses to emotional conflict in 27 at-risk (urban, lower income) youth, ages 9-16...
September 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905640/neurobiological-mechanisms-of-exercise-and-psychotherapy-in-depression-the-speed-study-rationale-design-and-methodological-issues
#13
Stephan Heinzel, Michael A Rapp, Thomas Fydrich, Andreas Ströhle, Christina Terán, Gunnar Kallies, Melanie Schwefel, Andreas Heissel
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Even though cognitive behavioral therapy has become a relatively effective treatment for major depressive disorder and cognitive behavioral therapy-related changes of dysfunctional neural activations were shown in recent studies, remission rates still remain at an insufficient level. Therefore, the implementation of effective augmentation strategies is needed. In recent meta-analyses, exercise therapy (especially endurance exercise) was reported to be an effective intervention in major depressive disorder...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904648/metacognition-modules-a-scaffolded-series-of-online-assignments-designed-to-improve-students-study-skills
#14
Jean A Cardinale, Bethany C Johnson
Many first-year biology students begin college with high aspirations but limited skills in terms of those needed for their success. Teachers are increasingly focused on students' lack of metacognitive awareness combined with students' inability to self-regulate learning behaviors. To address this need, we have designed a series of out-of-class assignments to provide explicit instruction on memory and learning. Our metacognition modules consist of six video assignments with reflective journaling prompts, allowing students to explore the relationship between the learning cycle, neuroplasticity, memory function, expert and novice thinking, and effective study strategies...
2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902526/driving-performance-after-self-regulated-control-transitions-in-highly-automated-vehicles
#15
Alexander Eriksson, Neville A Stanton
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore whether driver-paced, noncritical transitions of control may counteract some of the aftereffects observed in the contemporary literature, resulting in higher levels of vehicle control. BACKGROUND: Research into control transitions in highly automated driving has focused on urgent scenarios where drivers are given a relatively short time span to respond to a request to resume manual control, resulting in seemingly scrambled control when manual control is resumed...
September 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902065/relationship-between-unsupervised-time-and-participation-in-an-emotion-regulation-intervention-and-risk-outcomes
#16
Wendy Hadley, David Barker, Sneha Thamotharan, Christopher D Houck
OBJECTIVE: This study is a secondary analysis of outcomes examining risk behavior in the context of the naturalistic occurrence of parental monitoring and participation in an emotion regulation intervention over a 12-month period. METHOD: Early adolescents with mental health symptoms (N=420), ages 12-14 years, were recruited and randomized into either an Emotional Regulation (ER) or Health Promotion (HP) condition. Assessments included adolescent self-report of unsupervised time, substance use and sexual behavior at baseline, 6-months, and one year post-intervention...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901998/relationships-between-components-of-emotional-intelligence-and-suicidal-behavior-in-alcohol-dependent-patients
#17
Maciej Kopera, Andrzej Jakubczyk, Anna Klimkiewicz, Hubert Suszek, Aleksandra Krasowska, Kirk J Brower, Marcin Wojnar
OBJECTIVES: The importance of investigating various emotional skills in assessment of suicide risk in alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals has recently become the focus of increasing interest. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between self-reported components of emotional intelligence and lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts in a clinical sample of AD subjects. METHODS: A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland, was recruited...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901713/neural-correlates-of-interoception-effects-of-interoceptive-focus-and-relationship-to-dimensional-measures-of-body-awareness
#18
Emily R Stern, Stephanie J Grimaldi, Alexandra Muratore, James Murrough, Evan Leibu, Lazar Fleysher, Wayne K Goodman, Katherine E Burdick
Interoception has been defined as the sensing of the physiological condition of the body, with interoceptive sensibility (IS) characterizing an individual's self-reported awareness of internal sensation. IS is a multidimensional construct including not only the tendency to be aware of sensation but also how sensations are interpreted, regulated, and used to inform behavior, with different dimensions relating to different aspects of health and disease. Here we investigated neural mechanisms of interoception when healthy individuals attended to their heartbeat and skin temperature, and examined the relationship between neural activity during interoception and individual differences in self-reported IS using the Multidimensional Scale of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA)...
September 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895921/food-and-beverage-marketing-in-schools-a-review-of-the-evidence
#19
REVIEW
Cayley E Velazquez, Jennifer L Black, Monique Potvin Kent
Despite growing interest from government agencies, non-governmental organizations and school boards in restricting or regulating unhealthy food and beverage marketing to children, limited research has examined the emerging knowledge base regarding school-based food and beverage marketing in high-income countries. This review examined current approaches for measuring school food and beverage marketing practices, and evidence regarding the extent of exposure and hypothesized associations with children's diet-related outcomes...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895792/rash-impulsiveness-and-negative-mood-but-not-alexithymia-or-reward-sensitivity-differentiate-young-to-middle-aged-chronic-daily-smokers-from-never-smokers
#20
Michael Lyvers, Monique Bremner, Mark S Edwards, Fred Arne Thorberg
Given the well-established associations of the personality traits alexithymia, impulsivity, and reward sensitivity with problematic use of a variety of substances, including alcohol and cannabis, the present study sought to determine whether daily tobacco smoking is similarly linked to these traits. Male and female adults aged 18 to 40 years were recruited from the local Australian community, allowing comparison of demographically similar samples of current daily smokers (n = 47) to never-smokers (n = 59) on the relevant self-report measures...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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