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Behavioral self-regulation

L Guillod, S Habersaat, M Suter, T Jeanneret, C Bertoni, P Stéphan, S Urben
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
A D Vaudo, D Stabler, H M Patch, J F Tooker, C M Grozinger, G A Wright
Bee population declines are linked to reduction of nutritional resources due to land-use intensification, yet we know little about the specific nutritional needs of many bee species. Pollen provides bees their primary source of protein and lipids, but nutritional quality varies widely among host-plant species. Therefore, bees may be adapted to assess resource quality and adjust their foraging behavior to balance nutrition from multiple food sources. We tested the ability of two bumble bee species, Bombus terrestris and B...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Wei-Sheng Chen, Wen-Jin Xu, Hua-Qiang Zhu, Lei Gao, Miao-Jun Lai, Fu-Qiang Zhang, Wen-Hua Zhou, Hui-Fen Liu
Histone acetylation and other modifications of the chromatin are important regulators of gene expression and may contribute to drug-induced behaviors and neuroplasticity. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) activity results in the change of some drug-induced behaviors,however, relatively little is known about the effects of HDAC inhibitors on heroin-seeking behavior. In the present study, male rats were trained to self-administer heroin under a FR1 schedule for consecutive 14 days, followed by 14 daily 2hours extinction session in the operant chamber...
October 11, 2016: Brain Research
A Bion, T Cascales, S Dubedout, N Bodeau, J P Olives, J P Raynaud
INTRODUCTION: Interest in the study of early feeding disorders (FD) has steadily increased during recent decades. During this period, research described the importance of the transactional relationships and the complex interplay between caregiver and child over time. On the basis of the previous studies, our study tried to explore the associations between the characteristics of the parents and the temperamental characteristics of the infants with early FD. GOALS: A first aim of the present study was to show if parental perception of child temperament (including ability for arousal self-regulation) and parental characteristics (emotional and eating attitudes) are associated with early FD...
October 11, 2016: L'Encéphale
Frances Buttelmann, David Buttelmann
The ability to attribute and represent others' mental states (e.g., beliefs; so-called "theory of mind") is essential for participation in human social interaction. Despite a considerable body of research using tasks in which protagonists in the participants' attentional focus held false or true beliefs, the question of automatic belief attribution to bystander agents has received little attention. In the current study, we presented adults and 6-year-olds (N=92) with an implicit computer-based avoidance false-belief task in which participants were asked to place an object into one of three boxes...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Elizabeth B Owens, Stephen P Hinshaw
Using a sample of 228 females with and without childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder followed prospectively across 16 years, we measured childhood neurocognitive vulnerability via executive dysfunction using teacher-reported cognitive and learning problems. We then ascertained relations between dimensionally measured internalizing and externalizing psychopathology during adulthood and showed that childhood neurocognitive vulnerability reliably predicted such associated psychopathology. We identified six serial mediation pathways from childhood neurocognitive vulnerability to adult psychopathology through three early- and late-adolescent domains: individual (self-control and delay of gratification), peer (rejection/conflict and acceptance/friendship), and school (academic performance and school failure)...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
José M Causadias, Eva H Telzer, Richard M Lee
Objective: Culture and biology have evolved together, influence each other, and concurrently shape behavior, affect, cognition, and development. This special section highlights 2 major domains of the interplay between culture and biology. Method: The first domain is neurobiology of cultural experiences-how cultural, ethnic, and racial experiences influence limbic systems and neuroendocrine functioning-and the second domain is cultural neuroscience-the connections between cultural processes and brain functioning...
August 15, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Tolga Erdogan, Nuray Senemoglu
Self-regulation is an individual's influence, orientation, and control over his/her own behaviors. The primary aim of this study was to develop and validate a self-report scale on self-regulation that encompasses both cognitive and motivational factors. The validity and reliability studies of the scale were examined on responses of 872 university students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the hypothesized model of self-regulated skills in learning. The scale has 67 items and the factor loadings range from 0...
2016: SpringerPlus
Andrew M Wright, Agustin Zapata, Michael H Baumann, Joshua S Elmore, Alexander F Hoffman, Carl R Lupica
Clinical descriptions of cocaine addiction include compulsive drug seeking and maladaptive decision-making despite substantial aversive consequences. Research suggests that this may result from altered orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) function and its participation in outcome-based behavior. Clinical and animal studies also implicate serotonin in the regulation of OFC function in addiction and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we test the hypothesis that exposure to cocaine, through self-administration (CSA) or yoked-administration (CYA), alters the regulation of OFC function by 5-HT...
October 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Jeffrey S Stein, A George Wilson, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Michael C Judd, Warren K Bickel
RATIONALE: Behavioral economic measures of demand provide estimates of tobacco product abuse liability and may predict effects of policy-related price regulation on consumption of existing and emerging tobacco products. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we examined demand for snus, a smokeless tobacco product, in comparison to both cigarettes and medicinal nicotine. We used both a naturalistic method in which participants purchased these products for use outside the laboratory, as well as laboratory-based self-administration procedures...
October 11, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Emil F Coccaro, Ciara Zagaja, Pan Chen, Kristen Jacobson
A diminished capacity to reason about one's own or others' mood states (part of emotional intelligence, EI) may impair one's ability to respond to threat or frustration, leading to aggression and/or impulsivity. In this study, 1544 adult subjects completed the Trait-Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS), an assessment of perceived EI, in order to examine how attention to emotions, clarity of emotions, and repair of emotions were associated with aggression and impulsivity. Correlations among the TMMS subscales of Attention, Clarity, and Repair were all significant...
September 6, 2016: Psychiatry Research
James J Annesi, Jennifer L Unruh-Rewkowski, Nicole Mareno
Maintaining weight-loss beyond 6-9 months within behavioral treatments has been problematic. However, a social cognitive theory-driven, community-based curriculum emphasizing the generalization of physical activity-related self-regulation, to eating-related self-regulation (phase 1 treatment; n = 55), demonstrated success at both inducing lost weight over its initial 6 months, and maintaining that loss through month 24. The present replication study contrasted those outcomes with a phase 2 version of the year-long treatment (n = 74) that added a follow-up component during year 2 consisting of 5 brief phone interactions to reinforce self-regulatory skills...
October 11, 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Fumio Arai
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are characterized by their ability to self-renew and differentiate into all blood lineage cells. The fate decisions of HSCs (self-renewal versus differentiation) are made through the process of cell division and are often compared to "birth" and "death". Stem cells give rise to undifferentiated stem cells (birth) or differentiate into progenitor cells (death). This process is regulated by asymmetric/symmetric divisions of HSCs. It has been proposed that fate determination occurs as a stochastic process and that individual stem cell dynamics are randomly regulated...
2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Daniel S Schechter, Dominik A Moser, Virginie C Pointet, Tatjana Aue, Ludwig Stenz, Ariane Paoloni-Giacobino, Wafae Adouan, Aurélia Manini, Francesca Suardi, Marylene Vital, Ana Sancho Rossignol, Maria I Cordero, Molly Rothenberg, François Ansermet, Sandra Rusconi Serpa, Alexandre G Dayer
BACKGROUND: Methylation of the serotonin 3A receptor gene (HTR3A) has been linked to child maltreatment and adult psychopathology. The present study examined whether HTR3A methylation might be associated with mothers' lifetime exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV), IPV-related psychopathology, child disturbance of attachment, and maternal neural activity. METHODS: Number of maternal lifetime IPV exposures and measures of maternal psychopathology including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression and aggressive behavior (AgB), and a measure of child attachment disturbance known as "secure base distortion" (SBD) were assessed in a sample of 35 mothers and children aged 12-42 months...
October 5, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Rashmi P Payyanadan, Adam Maus, Fabrizzio A Sanchez, John D Lee, Lillian Miossi, Amsale Abera, Jacob Melvin, Xufan Wang
To reduce exposure to risky and challenging driving situations and prolong mobility and independence, older drivers self-regulate their driving behavior. But self-regulation can be challenging because it depends on drivers' ability to assess their limitations. Studies using self-reports, survey data, and hazard and risk perception tests have shown that driving behavior feedback can help older drivers assess their limitations and adjust their driving behavior. But only limited work has been conducted in developing feedback technology interventions tailored to meet the information needs of older drivers, and the impact these interventions have in helping older drivers self-monitor their driving behavior and risk outcomes...
October 6, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
S Aybek, P Vuilleumier
Brain imaging techniques provide unprecedented opportunities to study the neural mechanisms underlying functional neurologic disorder (FND, or conversion disorder), which have long remained a mystery and clinical challenge for physicians, as they arise with no apparent underlying organic disease. One of the first questions addressed by imaging studies concerned whether motor conversion deficits (e.g., hysteric paralysis) represent a form of (perhaps unconscious) simulation, a mere absence of voluntary movement, or more specific disturbances in motor control (such as abnormal inhibition)...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
A Carson, L Ludwig, K Welch
In this chapter we review key psychologic theories that have been mooted as possible explanations for the etiology of functional neurologic symptoms, conversion disorder, and hysteria. We cover Freudian psychoanalysis and later object relations and attachment theories, social theories, illness behavior, classic and operant conditioning, social learning theory, self-regulation theory, cognitive-behavioral theories, and mindfulness. Dissociation and modern cognitive neuroscience theories are covered in other chapters in this series and, although of central importance, are omitted from this chapter...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Isabelle Merckaert, Florence Lewis, France Delevallez, Sophie Herman, Marie Caillier, Nicole Delvaux, Yves Libert, Aurore Liénard, Jean-Marie Nogaret, David Ogez, Pierre Scalliet, Jean-Louis Slachmuylder, Paul Van Houtte, Darius Razavi
OBJECTIVE: To compare in a multicenter randomized controlled trial the benefits in terms of anxiety regulation of a 15-session single-component group intervention (SGI) based on support with those of a 15-session multi-component structured manualized group intervention (MGI) combining support with cognitive-behavioral and hypnosis components. METHODS: Patients with non-metastatic breast cancer were randomly assigned at the beginning of the survivorship period to the SGI (n = 83) or MGI (n = 87)...
October 8, 2016: Psycho-oncology
Astrid Baljé, Anja Greeven, Anne van Giezen, Kees Korrelboom, Arnoud Arntz, Philip Spinhoven
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) with comorbid avoidant personality disorder (APD) has a high prevalence and is associated with serious psychosocial problems and high societal costs. When patients suffer from both SAD and APD, the Dutch multidisciplinary guidelines for personality disorders advise offering prolonged cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Recently there is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of schema therapy (ST) for personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder and cluster C personality disorders...
October 8, 2016: Trials
Xiangnan Liu, Ruili Liu, Bin Cao, Kai Ye, Shiyu Li, Yexin Gu, Zhen Pan, Jiandong Ding
While various material factors have been shown to influence cell behaviors, recent studies started to pay attention to the effects of some material cues on "subcellular" geometry of cells, such as self-deformation of cell nuclei. It is particularly interesting to examine whether a self deformation happens discontinuously like a first-order transition and whether subcellular geometry influences significantly the extent of stem cell differentiation. Herein we prepared a series of micropillar arrays of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and discovered a first-order transition of nuclear shape as a function of micropillar height under the examined section area and interspacing of the pillars...
September 30, 2016: Biomaterials
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