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Loss of control

Andrew Kaufman, Ezen Choo, Anna Koh, Robin Dando
Despite evidence that the ability to taste is weakened by obesity and can be rescued with weight loss intervention, few studies have investigated the molecular effects of obesity on the taste system. Taste bud cells undergo continual turnover even in adulthood, exhibiting an average life span of only a few weeks, tightly controlled by a balance of proliferation and cell death. Recent data reveal that an acute inflammation event can alter this balance. We demonstrate that chronic low-grade inflammation brought on by obesity reduces the number of taste buds in gustatory tissues of mice-and is likely the cause of taste dysfunction seen in obese populations-by upsetting this balance of renewal and cell death...
March 2018: PLoS Biology
Ali Hassan Sodhro, Arun Kumar Sangaiah, Gul Hassan Sodhro, Sonia Lohano, Sandeep Pirbhulal
Rapid progress and emerging trends in miniaturized medical devices have enabled the un-obtrusive monitoring of physiological signals and daily activities of everyone's life in a prominent and pervasive manner. Due to the power-constrained nature of conventional wearable sensor devices during ubiquitous sensing (US), energy-efficiency has become one of the highly demanding and debatable issues in healthcare. This paper develops a single chip-based wearable wireless electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system by adopting analog front end (AFE) chip model ADS1292R from Texas Instruments...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Teresa Małecka-Massalska, Aleksandra Majdan
Chronic inflammatory status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) due to metabolic changes has an effect on body composition. Up to two thirds of patients may be affected by the loss of body cell mass and, thereby, malnutrition including its most severe form - cachexia. Among patients with RA and malnutrition, the total body weight is not reduced and the muscle loss is partially compensated by an increase in body fat. The excess of visceral and trunk adipose tissue is the main factor of increased prevalence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in RA patients...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Felix G E Dyrna, Florian B Imhoff, Andreas Voss, Sepp Braun, Elifho Obopilwe, John M Apostolakos, Daichi Morikawa, Brendan Comer, Andreas B Imhoff, Augustus D Mazzocca, Knut Beitzel
BACKGROUND: The acromioclavicular (AC) capsule is an important stabilizer against horizontal translation and also contributes to the strut function of the clavicle, which guides rotation of the scapula. To best reproduce the biomechanical properties and the complex 3-dimensional (3D) guidance of the AC joint, detailed knowledge of the contribution of each of the distinctive capsular structures is needed. Purpose/Hypothesis: To perform a detailed biomechanical evaluation of the specific capsular structures of the AC joint and their contribution to translational and rotational stability...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Christine T Dinh, Olena Bracho, Christine Mei, Esperanza Bas, Cristina Fernandez-Valle, Fred Telischi, Xue-Zhong Liu
HYPOTHESIS: Microsurgical implantation of mouse merlin-deficient Schwann cells (MD-SC) into the cerebellopontine angle of immunodeficient rats will initiate tumor formation, hearing loss, and vestibular dysfunction. BACKGROUND: The progress in identifying effective drug therapies for treatment of Neurofibromatosis type II (NF2) is limited by the availability of animal models of VS that develop hearing loss and imbalance. METHODS: A microsurgical technique for implanting MD-SCs onto the cochleovestibular nerve of rats was developed...
March 19, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Zia S Pradhan, Shivani Dixit, Shruthi Sreenivasaiah, Harsha L Rao, Jayasree P Venugopal, Sathi Devi, Carroll A B Webers
PURPOSE: To study sectoral vessel density (VD) and structural alterations in the peripapillary and parafoveal hemiretina corresponding to perimetrically intact regions of glaucomatous eyes with hemifield defects and to compare these with healthy eyes using optical coherence tomography. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 37 eyes with open-angle glaucoma having visual fields (VF) defects restricted to one hemifield and 45 age-matched controls. Peripapillary VD and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were measured in 8 sectors...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: With the global increase in life span expectancy, neurodegenerative disorders continue to affect an ever increasing number of individuals throughout the world. New treatment strategies for neurodegenerative diseases are desperately required given the lack of current treatment modalities. METHODS: Here we examine novel strategies for neurodegenerative disorders that include circadian clock genes, non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNAs), and the mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs)...
March 19, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
Udesh Dhawan, Ming-Wen Sue, Kuan Chun Lan, Waradee Buddhakosai, Pao Hui Huang, Yi Cheng Chen, Po-Chun Chen, Wen-Liang Chen
Epithelial to Mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly orchestrated process motivated by the nature of physical, chemical composition of Tumor Microenvironment (TME). The role of physical framework of the tumor microenvironment in guiding cells towards EMT is poorly understood. To investigate this, breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells were cultured on nanochips comprising of Tantalum oxide nanodots ranging in diameter from 10 to 200nm, fabricated through electrochemical approach and collectively referred to as artificial microenvironments...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dirk Ziebolz, David Douglas, Donya Douglas, Jan Schmickler, Daniel Patschan, Gerhard A Müller, Rainer Haak, Jana Schmidt, Gerhard Schmalz, Susann Patschan
OBJECTIVE: Recent literature reveals worse periodontal health condition in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). However, roles of AS-related parameters, periodontal condition, and their association appear unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating dental and periodontal health as well as potentially periodontal pathogenic bacteria in patients with AS compared to healthy control subjects (HC). METHODS: Dental examination comprised dental findings (DMF-T), periodontal probing depth (PPD), bleeding on probing, clinical attachment loss (CAL), papillary bleeding index, and microbiological analysis based on polymerase chain reaction of selected potentially periodontal pathogenic bacteria...
March 20, 2018: Rheumatology International
Miltiadis Mitsias, Konstantinos Siormpas, Valeria Pistilli, Anna Trullenque-Eriksson, Marco Esposito
PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcome of single, partial and complete fixed implant supported prostheses immediately loaded (within 48 h), early loaded at 6 weeks, and conventionally loaded at 3 months (delayed loading). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 54 patients (18 requiring single implants, 18 partial fixed prostheses, and 18 total fixed cross-arch prostheses) were randomised in equal numbers at two private practices to immediate loading (18 patients), early loading (18 patients), and conventional loading (18 patients) according to a parallel group design with three arms...
2018: European Journal of Oral Implantology
Giorgio Gastaldi, Pietro Felice, Valeria Pistilli, Carlo Barausse, Daniela Rita Ippolito, Marco Esposito
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether 5.0 × 5.0 mm dental implants with a novel nanostructured calcium-incorporated titanium surface could be an alternative to implants of at least 10.0 mm long placed in bone augmented with bone substitutes in posterior atrophic jaws. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients with atrophic posterior (premolar and molar areas) mandibles with 5.0 mm to 7.0 mm bone height above the mandibular canal, and 40 patients with atrophic maxillas with 4...
2018: European Journal of Oral Implantology
Caroline Bolle, Pietro Felice, Carlo Barausse, Valeria Pistilli, Anna Trullenque-Eriksson, Marco Esposito
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether 4.0 mm short dental implants could be an alternative to augmentation with xenographs in the maxilla and placement of at least 10.0 mm long implants in posterior atrophic jaws. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A group of 40 patients with atrophic posterior (premolar and molar areas) mandibles with 5.0 mm to 6.0 mm bone height above the mandibular canal and 40 patients with atrophic maxillas having 4.0 mm to 5.0 mm below the maxillary sinus, were randomised according to a parallel group design to receive between one and three 4...
2018: European Journal of Oral Implantology
Monika Lakk, Felix Vazquez-Chona, Oleg Yarishkin, David Križaj
Unesterified cholesterol controls the fluidity, permeability and electrical properties of eukaryotic cell membranes. Consequently, cholesterol levels in the retina and the brain are tightly regulated whereas depletion or oversupply caused by diet or heredity contribute to neurodegenerative diseases and vision loss. Astroglia play a central role in the biosynthesis, uptake and transport of cholesterol and also drive inflammatory signaling under hypercholesterolemic conditions associated with high-fat diet (diabetes) and neurodegenerative disease...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Catarina Lopes Dias, Andreea Ioana Sburlea, Gernot R Müller-Putz
The detection of error-related potentials (ErrPs) in tasks with discrete feedback is well established in the brain-computer interface (BCI) field. However, the decoding of ErrPs in tasks with continuous feedback is still in its early stages. OBJECTIVE: We developed a task in which subjects have continuous control of a cursor's position by means of a joystick. The cursor's position was shown to the participants in two different modalities of continuous feedback: normal and jittered. The jittered feedback was created to mimic the instability that could exist if participants controlled the trajectory directly with brain signals...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
C Kaewpila, K Sommart, M Mitsumori
The mitigation of enteric methane emission in beef cattle production is important for reducing feed energy loss and increasing environmental sustainability. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different oilseeds included in fermented total mixed rations (whole soyabean seed (SBS, control), whole kapok seed (KPS) and cracked oil palm fruit (OPF)) on feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial populations, energy partition and methane emissions in different cattle genotypes (Charolais crossbred v...
March 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
K Dolecheck, J Bewley
Lameness is one of the most costly dairy cow diseases, yet adoption of lameness prevention strategies remains low. Low lameness prevention adoption might be attributable to a lack of understanding regarding total lameness costs. In this review, we evaluated the contribution of different expenditures and losses to total lameness costs. Evaluated expenditures included labor for treatment, therapeutic supplies, lameness detection and lameness control and prevention. Evaluated losses included non-saleable milk, reduced milk production, reduced reproductive performance, increased animal death, increased animal culling, disease interrelationships, lameness recurrence and reduced animal welfare...
March 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Frank Häßler, Steffen Weirich
A Multi-arm Placebo-controlled Study with Glutamic Acid Conducted in Rostock in 1953/1954 Glutamic acid was commonly used in the treatment of intellectually disabled children in the 50s. Koch reported first results of an observation of 140 children treated with glutamic acid in 1952. In this line is the multi-arm placebo-controlled study reported here. The original study protocols were available. 58 children with speech problems who attending a school of special needs received glutamic acid, or vitamin B, or St...
September 2017: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Defne Alfandari, Chris Vriend, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Niek J Versfeld, Sophia E Kramer, Adriana A Zekveld
Speech comprehension depends on the successful operation of a network of brain regions. Processing of degraded speech is associated with different patterns of brain activity in comparison with that of high-quality speech. In this exploratory study, we studied whether processing degraded auditory input in daily life because of hearing impairment is associated with differences in brain volume. We compared T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images of 17 hearing-impaired (HI) adults with those of 17 normal-hearing (NH) controls using a voxel-based morphometry analysis...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Hanifi Şahin, Oya Soylu Karapınar, Eda Adeviye Şahin, Kenan Dolapçıoğlu, Ali Baloğlu
A broader range of more effective compression techniques are needed in the patients who have an intractable postpartum haemorrhage due to uterine atony despite medical treatment and B-Lynch sutures. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of a series of patients with haemorrhage who were managed by double B-Lynch suture. Fourteen patients who were treated in a tertiary hospital between July 2010 and February 2015 were included in the study. The intractable haemorrhage rate was 0.35% over 5 years (14/4000 births)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Carol H Wysham, Dominic Pilon, Mike Ingham, Marie-Hélène Lafeuille, Bruno Emond, Rhiannon Kamstra, Michael Pfeifer, Patrick Lefebvre
OBJECTIVE: To compare achievement of quality goals (HbA1c, weight loss/body mass index[BMI], systolic blood pressure[SBP]), including maintaining HbA1c, between patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with canagliflozin 300mg (CANA) or a GLP-1 in an actual practice setting. METHODS: Adults with T2DM newly initiated on CANA or a GLP-1 were identified from the IQVIATM Real-World Data Electronic Medical Records - US database (2012Q2-2016Q1). To account for differences in baseline characteristics, inverse probability of treatment weighting was used...
March 20, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
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