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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689284/what-does-self-reported-dieting-mean-evidence-from-a-daily-diary-study-of-behavior
#1
Elizabeth McLaughlin, Jane Ellen Smith, Kelsey Serier, Jamie Smith, Dominique Santistevan, Jeremiah Simmons
Dieting is often recommended as a means of weight loss, yet research consistently shows that self-reported dieting does not result in weight loss. Toward resolving this discrepancy, this study assessed the daily dietary intake and weight control strategies of people who self-identified as dieting. College women (N = 266) provided a report of their eating pattern (dieting, "watching what I eat," and/or "eating healthy") followed by three daily diaries (24-hour recalls of dietary intake and weight control strategies) elicited on randomly selected days during a one-month period...
April 21, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689078/support-amongst-uk-pig-farmers-and-agricultural-stakeholders-for-the-use-of-food-losses-in-animal-feed
#2
Erasmus K H J Zu Ermgassen, Moira Kelly, Eleanor Bladon, Ramy Salemdeeb, Andrew Balmford
While food losses (foods which were intended for human consumption, but which ultimately are not directly eaten by people) have been included in animal feed for millennia, the practice is all but banned in the European Union. Amid recent calls to promote a circular economy, we conducted a survey of pig farmers (n = 82) and other agricultural stakeholders (n = 81) at a UK agricultural trade fair on their attitudes toward the use of food losses in pig feed, and the potential relegalisation of swill (the use of cooked food losses as feed)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686353/quellenin-a-new-anti-saprolegnia-compound-isolated-from-the-deep-sea-fungus-aspergillus-sp-yk-76
#3
Konami Takahashi, Kazunari Sakai, Wataru Fukasawa, Yuriko Nagano, Sakiko Orui Sakaguchi, Andre O Lima, Vivian H Pellizari, Masato Iwatsuki, Kiyotaka Takishita, Takao Yoshida, Kenichi Nonaka, Katsunori Fujikura, Satoshi Ōmura
Saprolegnia parasitica, belonging to oomycetes, is one of virulent pathogen of fishes such as salmon and trout, and causes tremendous damage and losses in commercial aquacultures by saprolegniasis. Previously, malachite green, an effective medicine, had been used to control saprolegniasis. However, this drug has been banned around the world due to its mutagenicity. Therefore, novel anti-saprolegniasis compounds are urgently needed. As a new frontier to discover bioactive compounds, we focused on the deep-sea fungi for the isolation of anti-saprolegniasis compounds...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685614/building-a-healthier-workforce-an-evaluation-of-an-online-nutrition-training-for-apprentices
#4
Diane S Rohlman, Megan A Parish, Ginger C Hanson, Larry S Williams
OBJECTIVE: Construction workers face barriers to healthy eating, including work organization and environmental factors, that can affect productivity and lead to chronic conditions. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of an online nutrition training to improve knowledge and behaviors and evaluate the feasibility of conducting this training among apprentices in the highway construction trades. METHODS: A pretest-posttest control group design was used. The intervention was conducted using a Web-based electronic learning platform...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680359/effects-of-6-vs-3-eucaloric-meal-patterns-on-glycaemic-control-and-satiety-in-people-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance-or-overt-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-trial
#5
E Papakonstantinou, M D Kontogianni, P Mitrou, E Magriplis, D Vassiliadi, T Nomikos, V Lambadiari, E Georgousopoulou, G Dimitriadis
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to compare the effects of two eucaloric meal patterns (3 vs 6 meals/day) on glycaemic control and satiety in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and plasma glucose (PG) levels 140-199mg/dL at 120min (IGT-A) or PG levels 140-199mg/dL at 120min and >200mg/dL at 30/60/90min post-oral glucose load on 75-g OGTT (IGT-B), or overt treatment-naïve type 2 diabetes (T2D). SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this randomized crossover study, subjects with IGT-A (n=15, BMI: 32...
April 6, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663976/factors-related-to-weight-gain-loss-among-emerging-adults-with-obesity
#6
Ping H Johnson, James J Annesi
OBJECTIVES: We examined the reasons for weight gain and barriers to weight loss among emerging adults with obesity. METHODS: Eighty-one female undergraduate students with obesity completed 4-open ended questions in 2015-2016. Qualitative responses were analyzed using NVivo 11 Pro software. RESULTS: Most participants experienced weight gain prior to attending college. The most commonly reported reasons for weight gain include a lack of ability to control one's behaviors or overcome barriers (ie, poor eating habits, lack of physical activity, lack of time, easy access to food), emotional/mental health issues, physical health, and influence of significant others...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663468/problematic-eating-behaviors-and-psychopathology-in-patients-undergoing-bariatric-surgery-the-mediating-role-of-loss-of-control-eating
#7
Eva M Conceição, Marta de Lourdes, Ana Pinto-Bastos, Ana Rita Vaz, Isabel Brandão, Sofia Ramalho
OBJECTIVE: This study compares different problematic eating behaviors (PEBs; objective [OBE]/subjective [SBE] binge-eating and compulsive [CG]/noncompulsive [NCG] grazing) in relation to the severity of loss of control (LOC) and psychopathology. We also investigate LOC as a mediator between PEBs and psychopathology. METHOD: This cross-sectional study assessed a group of patients before bariatric surgery (n = 163), and a group of bariatric patients 12 months or more after surgery (n = 131)...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661241/breaking-bad-habits-by-improving-executive-function-in-individuals-with-obesity
#8
Vanessa Allom, Barbara Mullan, Evelyn Smith, Phillipa Hay, Jayanthi Raman
BACKGROUND: Two primary factors that contribute to obesity are unhealthy eating and sedentary behavior. These behaviors are particularly difficult to change in the long-term because they are often enacted habitually. Cognitive Remediation Therapy has been modified and applied to the treatment of obesity (CRT-O) with preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial demonstrating significant weight loss and improvements in executive function. The objective of this study was to conduct a secondary data analysis of the CRT-O trial to evaluate whether CRT-O reduces unhealthy habits that contribute to obesity via improvements in executive function...
April 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659972/acceleration-of-olfactory-receptor-gene-loss-in-primate-evolution-possible-link-to-anatomical-change-in-sensory-systems-and-dietary-transition
#9
Yoshihito Niimura, Atsushi Matsui, Kazushige Touhara
Primates have traditionally been regarded as vision-oriented animals with low olfactory ability, though this "microsmatic primates" view has been challenged recently. To clarify when and how degeneration of the olfactory system occurred and to specify the relevant factors during primate evolution, we here examined the olfactory receptor (OR) genes from 24 phylogenetically and ecologically diverse primate species. The results revealed that strepsirrhines with curved noses had functional OR gene repertoires that were nearly twice as large as those for haplorhines with simple noses...
April 10, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651244/ethical-challenges-for-an-understanding-of-suffering-voluntary-stopping-of-eating-and-drinking-and-the-wish-to-hasten-death-in-advanced-patients
#10
Andrea Rodríguez-Prat, Cristina Monforte-Royo, Albert Balaguer
Some persons with advanced disease but no significant cognitive impairments consciously decide to stop taking food and fluids orally, even though they remain physically able to do so. The question is to what extent voluntarily stopping eating and drinking (VSED) may be considered an expression of a wish to hasten death, in the sense that the latter has been defined recently. We analyze the data reported in some studies in relation to primary care patients who died as a result of VSED and examine their results in light of the qualitative findings of patients that expressed a wish to die...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626353/ecological-momentary-assessment-of-maladaptive-eating-in-children-and-adolescents-with-overweight-or-obesity
#11
Andrea B Goldschmidt, Kathryn E Smith, Ross D Crosby, Hope K Boyd, Elizabeth Dougherty, Scott G Engel, Alissa Haedt-Matt
OBJECTIVES: Contextual factors related to maladaptive eating behavior in youth with overweight/obesity are poorly understood. This pilot study sought to elucidate immediate internal and external cues related to perceptions of overeating and loss of control (LOC) over eating in a heterogeneous sample of children and adolescents with overweight/obesity assessed in their natural environments. METHOD: Community-based youth [N = 40; 55% female (n = 22)], aged 8-14 y (M age = 11...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624108/an-examination-of-gender-differences-in-the-association-of-adolescent-substance-use-with-eating-and-weight-loss-attitudes
#12
Rebekah L Thomas, Adrian B Kelly, Gary C K Chan, Leanne M Hides, Catherine A Quinn, David J Kavanagh, Joanne W Williams
OBJECTIVE: To assess gender differences in the relationship between eating and weight loss attitudes (EWAs), and 30-day tobacco and alcohol use among adolescents, while controlling for potential confounds (age, country of birth, psychological distress, pubertal development, peer alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity). METHODS: School students aged between 11 and 17 years (N = 10,273) from high schools in the State of Victoria (Australia) completed surveys in class under conditions of anonymity and confidentiality...
April 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607525/remission-of-loss-of-control-eating-and-changes-in-components-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#13
Lisa M Shank, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Rachel M Radin, Lauren B Shomaker, Denise E Wilfley, Jami F Young, Sheila Brady, Cara H Olsen, James C Reynolds, Jack A Yanovski
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric loss of control (LOC) eating prospectively predicts the worsening of metabolic syndrome components. However, it is unknown if remission of LOC eating is associated with improvements in metabolic health. Therefore, we conducted a secondary analysis of a trial that enrolled adolescent girls with LOC eating, examining whether LOC remission (vs. persistence) at end-of-treatment was associated with changes in metabolic syndrome components at 6-month follow-up. METHOD: One hundred three adolescent girls (age 14...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589111/effects-of-resistance-training-on-mri-derived-epicardial-fat-volume-and-arterial-stiffness-in-women-with-obesity-a-randomized-pilot-study
#14
Maria Fernandez-Del-Valle, Joaquin U Gonzales, Shelby Kloiber, Sunanda Mitra, Jon Klingensmith, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala
AIM: To date, few studies have analyzed the effects of exercise on cardiac adipose tissue. Overall, exercise programs did not meet the recommendations for significant weight loss, the utilization of resistance training was minimal, and the conclusions derived from these studies have diminished exercise as a strategy for cardiac fat loss. PURPOSE: The objective of this pilot study was to analyze the effects of 3-week high-intensity, moderate-volume muscular endurance resistance training (RT) on cardiac fat and arterial stiffness...
March 27, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575782/accumulating-data-to-optimally-predict-obesity-treatment-adopt-core-measures-behavioral-domain
#15
Leslie A Lytle, Holly L Nicastro, Susan B Roberts, Mary Evans, John M Jakicic, Aaron D Laposky, Catherine M Loria
BACKGROUND: The ability to identify and measure behaviors that are related to weight loss and the prevention of weight regain is crucial to understanding the variability in response to obesity treatment and the development of tailored treatments. OBJECTIVES: The overarching goal of the Accumulating Data to Optimally Predict obesity Treatment (ADOPT) Core Measures Project is to provide obesity researchers with guidance on a set of constructs and measures that are related to weight control and that span and integrate obesity-related behavioral, biological, environmental, and psychosocial domains...
April 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565734/emotions-before-and-after-loss-of-control-eating
#16
Brittany L Stevenson, Robert D Dvorak, Stephen A Wonderlich, Ross D Crosby, Kathryn H Gordon
Our study examined momentary mood and emotional instability pre- and post-loss of control (LOC) eating on non-LOC and LOC eating days, using randomly timed assessments. Community and university participants (n = 45) who endorsed LOC eating at least once per week completed 2 weeks of ecological momentary assessment. All negative moods and emotional instability were elevated on LOC eating days, but trajectories between days did not differ. Guilt exhibited an increasing trajectory prior to a LOC eating episode, but remained elevated after LOC eating episodes...
March 22, 2018: Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541056/lipidomics-analysis-of-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-a-scope-for-biomarker-development
#17
Woojin Scott Kim, Eve Jary, Russell Pickford, Ying He, Rebekah M Ahmed, Olivier Piguet, John R Hodges, Glenda M Halliday
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is the most prevalent form of FTD syndromes. bvFTD is characterized clinically by changes in behavior and cognition and pathologically by focal brain atrophy and concomitant loss of lipids. bvFTD is further characterized by eating abnormalities that result in dyslipidemia. Although dyslipidemia is apparent in bvFTD, very little is known about global lipid changes in bvFTD and lipid dysregulation underlying bvFTD. Here, we undertook a comprehensive lipidomics analysis of blood plasma from patients with bvFTD, patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and controls, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with the aim of understanding lipid dysregulation in bvFTD...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540131/translation-of-the-national-diabetes-prevention-program-to-engage-men-in-disadvantaged-neighborhoods-in-new-york-city-a-description-of-power-up-for-health
#18
Tiffany L Gary-Webb, Elizabeth A Walker, Lindsey Realmuto, Alexandra Kamler, Jennifer Lukin, William Tyson, Olveen Carrasquillo, Linda Weiss
The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) landmark randomized trial demonstrated that participants with prediabetes could reduce their risk for type 2 diabetes by 58% if they achieved 5%-7% weight loss through healthy eating and increasing physical activity. The National DPP (NDPP) is a group intervention based on the DPP and has been widely disseminated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and many healthcare institutions. While data show that the program is effective in diverse populations, enrollment among men from low-income and minority communities is low...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535451/effect-of-combined-naltrexone-and-bupropion-therapy-on-the-brain-s-functional-connectivity
#19
Gene-Jack Wang, Jizheng Zhao, Dardo Tomasi, Ehsan Shokri Kojori, Ruiliang Wang, Corinde E Wiers, Elisabeth C Caparelli, Nora D Volkow
BACKGROUND: The control of food intake in environments with easy access to highly rewarding foods is challenging to most modern societies. The combination of sustained release (SR) naltrexone and SR bupropion (NB32) has been used in weight-loss and obesity management. However, the effects of NB32 on the brain circuits implicated in the regulation of food intake are unknown. Here we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to evaluate the effects of NB32 on resting brain FC. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy women underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after 4-week treatment with NB32 (n = 16) or with placebo (n = 20)...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533964/prelimbic-cortex-deep-brain-stimulation-reduces-binge-size-in-a-chronic-binge-eating-rat-model
#20
Can Sarica, Mazhar Ozkan, Husniye Hacioglu Bay, Umit Sehirli, Filiz Onat, M Ibrahim Ziyal
BACKGROUND: Binge eating (BE) involves the consumption of a large amount of food in a short period of time and a loss of control during the binge episode. It is a key feature of the major subtypes of eating disorders like bulimia nervosa, BE disorder, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type. Alterations in the mesocorticolimbic pathway play a crucial role in its pathophysiology. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that BE rats receiving deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the prelimbic cortex, a functional analog of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in humans, would have a reduced binge size compared with those receiving sham stimulation...
March 13, 2018: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
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