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Cattle fattening, feed efficiency

Masayuki Takeda, Yoshinobu Uemoto, Keiichi Inoue, Atsushi Ogino, Takayoshi Nozaki, Kazuhito Kurogi, Takanori Yasumori, Masahiro Satoh
We evaluated the genetic relationships (1) among feed efficiency traits with different fattening periods, (2) between feed efficiency traits and growth traits, and (3) between feed efficiency traits and carcass traits, to determine the influence of genetic factors on feed efficiency traits. In total, 4,578 Japanese Black cattle from a progeny testing program were used. Residual feed intake (RFI), residual BW gain (RG), and residual intake and BW gain (RIG) were defined as feed efficiency traits, and were measured for the first half (approximately 9 to 15 months of age), latter half (approximately 15 to 21 months of age), and total period of fattening (approximately 9 to 21 months of age)...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Carlos Alberto Ramírez-Restrepo, Dung Van Tien, Ngoan Le Duc, Mario Herrero, Phung Le Dinh, Dung Dinh Van, Sen Le Thi Hoa, Cuong Vu Chi, Cesar Solano-Patiño, Amy M Lerner, Timothy D Searchinger
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at evaluating effects of cattle breed resources and alternative mixed-feeding practices on meat productivity and emission intensities from household farming systems (HFS) in Daklak Province, Vietnam. METHODS: Records from Local Yellow×Red Sindhi (Bos indicus; Lai Sind) and 1/2 Limousin, 1/2 Drought Master, and 1/2 Red Angus cattle during the growth (0 to 21 months) and fattening (22 to 25 months) periods were used to better understand variations on meat productivity and enteric methane emissions...
July 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Timothy J Snelling, R John Wallace
BACKGROUND: Ruminal digestion is carried out by large numbers of bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi. Understanding the microbiota is important because ruminal fermentation dictates the efficiency of feed utilisation by the animal and is also responsible for major emissions of the greenhouse gas, methane. Recent metagenomic and metatranscriptomic studies have helped to elucidate many features of the composition and activity of the microbiota. The metaproteome provides complementary information to these other -omics technologies...
January 7, 2017: BMC Microbiology
Zofia Wielgosz-Groth, Monika Sobczuk-Szul, Zenon Nogalski, Paulina Pogorzelska-Przybyłek, Cezary Purwin
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of disease incidence on selected parameters of cattle fattening performance and carcass quality, and the fatty acid profile of beef. The experimental materials comprised 16 bulls and 16 steers, Polish Holstein-Friesian × Limousin crossbreeds (including 10 healthy and six treated animals of each category). At 5 weeks of age, bloodless castration was carried out using a rubber elastrator. The calves were fed milk replacer provided in automatic feeding stations...
July 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
P Hietala, J Juga
Improving feed efficiency in dairy cattle could result in more profitable and environmentally sustainable dairy production through lowering feed costs and emissions from dairy farming. In addition, beef production based on dairy herds generates fewer greenhouse gas emissions per unit of meat output than beef production from suckler cow systems. Different scenarios were used to assess the profitability of adding traits, excluded from the current selection index for Finnish Ayrshire, to the breeding goal for combined dairy and beef production systems...
April 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Z Krupová, E Krupa, M Michaličková, M Wolfová, R Kasarda
Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -€ 70...
January 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
G E Seidel, J C Whittier
Nutrients in animal feed get partitioned to growth, lactation, pregnancy, fat accretion, and/or maintenance. For mature beef cows, >80% of nutrients consumed annually go to unproductive maintenance. Integrated over the entire U.S. beef cattle production system, nearly one-half of the nutrients consumed go to maintenance of cow herds. This accounts for much of the inefficiency of beef production and can be minimized by the single-calf heifer system, in which heifers are fattened and slaughtered after having their first calf...
September 2015: Journal of Animal Science
Yuta Amachika, Hiroki Anzai, Lin Wang, Kazato Oishi, Chagan Irbis, Kunzhi Li, Hajime Kumagai, Tatsuya Inamura, Hiroyuki Hirooka
The objectives of this study were to estimate and evaluate potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) budgets and flows of animal production in the basin of Dianchi Lake, China. Feed sampling and farmer interviews were conducted in field surveys. The supplies of K and Mg from local and external feeds and the retention, production and excretion of animals were calculated individually for dairy cows, fattening pigs, breeding sows, and broilers and laying hens. The K and Mg flows on a regional level were estimated using the individual budgets...
July 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Y I Kim, J M Park, Y H Lee, M Lee, D Y Choi, W S Kwak
This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3...
February 2015: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Damian Tago, James K Hammitt, Alban Thomas, Didier Raboisson
This study aims at evaluating the costs of the movement restriction policy (MRP) during the 2006 BTV-8 epidemic in France for the producers of 6-9 month old Charolais beef weaned calves (BWC), an important sector that was severely affected by the restrictions imposed. This study estimates the change in the number of BWC sold that was due to the movement restrictions, and evaluates the economic effect of the MRP. The change in BWC sold by producers located inside the restriction zone (RZ) was analyzed for 2006 by using a multivariate matching approach to control for any internal validity threat...
December 1, 2014: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
C A Alvarado-Gilis, C C Aperce, K A Miller, C L Van Bibber-Krueger, S Uwituze, J S Drouillard, J J Higgins
Our objective was to evaluate whether feeding elevated Cu concentrations in conjunction with Linpro, a co-extruded blend of field peas and flaxseed, affected in vitro fermentation, performance, and plasma lipid profiles of fattening beef heifers. In study 1, 2 in vitro trials were conducted as randomized complete experiments with a 2×2 factorial treatment arrangement (10 or 100 mg/kg added Cu and 0 or 10% Linpro, DM basis) to determine VFA/gas production and IVDMD. Linpro contains 12% α-linolenic acid and added vitamins and minerals...
December 2014: Journal of Animal Science
G Brito, R San Julián, A La Manna, M Del Campo, F Montossi, G Banchero, D Chalkling, J M Soares de Lima
It is well known what genetic and nutritional factors affect growth and meat quality, but there is less information related to interactive importance of them during the productive process. These systems are mainly based on rangelands affecting animal growth in early stages of life thus producing smaller cattle and reduced retail yield comparing with well grown calves. During the last ten years, Uruguayan livestock production systems have been intensified using improved pastures, concentrates and better genetic...
November 2014: Meat Science
D H Rearte, A J Pordomingo
The livestock sector faces the challenge to respond to the growing demand for animal protein from an expanding population while reducing environmental impact through GHG emissions. Globally about 2.836 million tons of CO2-eq were emitted by the beef production sector equivalent to 46,2 kg CO2-eq per kg carcass weight (CW). From the 1.485 million cattle head spread out over the world, 82% are on extensive grazing systems while only 18% are on high productive intensive systems. Among the top ten beef exporter countries, five are located in Latin America accounting a quarter of the global stock and two of them, Argentina and Uruguay, produce on temperate pastures under grazing systems...
November 2014: Meat Science
P Hietala, M Wolfová, J Wolf, J Kantanen, J Juga
Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure...
February 2014: Journal of Dairy Science
George E Seidel
In 2050, beef likely will be produced much as occurs currently, as (1) a by-product of dairying-cull cows and calves not needed as replacements; (2) intensively managed cattle in environments rich in feed resources; or (3) extensively managed cattle grazing land unsuitable for tillage, with calves often moving to richer feed environments. Genetic progress will continue to depend on information such as weaning weights, but in addition, genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic information will be obtained from blood, hair, semen, and/or biopsies of embryos...
2014: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
H Berends, J J G C van den Borne, S J J Alferink, C G van Reenen, E A M Bokkers, W J J Gerrits
This study was designed to quantify the contribution of low-protein solid feed (SF) intake, in addition to milk replacer, to protein and energy retention in veal calves. Because of potential interactions between milk replacer and SF, occurring at either the level of digestion or postabsorption, this contribution might differ from that in calves fed either SF or milk replacer alone. Forty-eight Holstein Friesian male calves, 55±0.3 kg of body weight (BW), were divided across 16 groups of 3 calves each. Groups were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 incremental levels of SF intake: 0, 9, 18, or 27 g of DM of SF/kg of BW(0...
November 2012: Journal of Dairy Science
A Pazaiti, M Kontos, I S Fentiman
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal mycoestrogen that widely contaminates agricultural products. ZEN and its derivatives share similar molecular mechanisms and activity with estrogens and interact with ERα and ERβ leading to changes in the reproductive system in both animals and humans. The reduced form of ZEN, α-ZEA ralenol, has been used as an anabolic agent for animals and also proposed as hormonal replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, both zearelanol ZEN and derivatives have been patented as oral contraceptives...
January 2012: International Journal of Clinical Practice
S M Staerfl, C R Soliva, F Leiber, M Kreuzer
Carcass fat composition of cattle fed a forage-based diet might be inferior with maize silage compared to grass-silage based systems. This was quantified using complete diets with concentrate. To test whether supplements may influence carcass fat properties as well, the maize-silage diet was additionally supplemented either with Acacia mearnsii tannins, garlic, maca or lupines, feeds rich in secondary metabolites. The perirenal fat of 6×6 bulls fed these six diets was analysed for fatty acid profile and shelf life...
September 2011: Meat Science
A Martínez, N Aldai, R Celaya, K Osoro
To examine the extent of the effect of muscular hypertrophy character in beef of northern-Spanish breeds, animal performance and carcass characteristics of 152 finishing steers from 5 genotypes were studied: 32 yearling bulls from a rustic Asturiana de la Montaña (AM) breed, 96 yearling bulls from Asturiana de los Valles (AV) breed, divided in 3 groups depending on the presence of the gene responsible for double-muscling (i.e., 32 AV mh/mh, 32 AV mh/+, 32 AV +/+), and 24 yearling bulls from AM x AV cross were used...
April 2010: Journal of Animal Science
D Valkeners, A Théwis, M Van Laere, Y Beckers
Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of rumen-degradable protein balance (OEB) deficit on voluntary intake (trial 1), microbial protein synthesis, and N metabolism (trial 2) in growing double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls. In trial 1, six bulls (339 +/- 26 kg of initial BW) were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square and received a diet of 60% corn silage and 40% concentrate with ad libitum intake (DM basis). Three concentrates were formulated by adding urea at the expense of barley to give similar dietary contents of intestinal digestible proteins, NE for fattening, and fermentable OM, but with different levels of OEB...
March 2008: Journal of Animal Science
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