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Day wetting

W J Wasielesky, L H Poersch, T G Martins, K C Miranda-Filho
In response to growing worldwide market demand, intensive shrimp farming, based on high feed, has developed over the past decade. The nitrogenous compounds mainly generated by animal excretion can cause deterioration of water quality and produce chronic or even acute toxicity to aquatic animals. As prevention, theoretical safety levels have been estimated from acute toxicity tests and they are traditionally used to prevent toxic effects on biota. However, are those concentrations of nitrogenous compounds really safe to Farfantepenaeus paulensis? The current study aimed to investigate the lethal and sublethal effects of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate to juvenile F...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Ximena P Garzon-Villalba, Alfred Mbah, Yougui Wu, Michael Hiles, Hanna Moore, Skai W Schwartz, Thomas E Bernard
BACKGROUND: The Deepwater Horizon disaster cleanup effort provided an opportunity to examine the effects of ambient thermal conditions on exertional heat illness (EHI) and acute injury (AI). METHODS: The outcomes were daily person-based frequencies of EHI and AI. Exposures were maximum estimated WBGT (WBGTmax) and severity. Previous day's cumulative effect was assessed by introducing previous day's WBGTmax into the model. RESULTS: EHI and AI were higher in workers exposed above a WBGTmax of 20°C (RR 1...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Mangen Yang, Xing Chen, Chad Shouquan Cheng
Precipitation extremes play a key role in flooding risks over the Huaihe River Basin, which is important to understand their hydrological impacts. Based on observed daily precipitation and streamflow data from 1958 to 2009, eight precipitation indices and three streamflow indices were calculated for the study of hydrological impacts of precipitation extremes. The results indicate that the wet condition intensified in the summer wet season and the drought condition was getting worse in the autumn dry season in the later years of the past 50 years...
2016: SpringerPlus
X-R Luan, W-H Li, F-L Lou
OBJECTIVE: To analyze and evaluate the effects of humanized nursing combined with wet healing therapy to treat the stage II and III bedsores in hospitalized patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From March 2013 to July 2014 we enrolled fifty patients with stage II and III bedsores. They were randomly divided into control group and experimental group, with 25 cases in each group. For the control group, we adopted a traditional method of treatment for pressure ulcer treatment, while the experimental group was treated with humanized nursing in combination with wet healing therapy...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Charles J Henny, Elwood F Hill, Robert A Grove, Nathan D Chelgren, Patricia K Haggerty
This telemetry study is an extension of our 1997-2006 research on historical mercury contamination on snowy egrets (Egretta thula) up to ~ 20 days of age. Findings from initial studies at the mercury-contaminated Carson River colony at Lahontan Reservoir (LR) and a similar-sized reference (REF) colony on the Humboldt River included mercury-related physiological, biochemical, histopathological and reproductive effects up to ~20 days of age; with poor water years (2000-04), i.e., reduced prey availability, exacerbating effects...
October 20, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Craig S McIntosh, Ian R Dadour, Sasha C Voss
The rate of decomposition and insect succession onto decomposing pig carcasses were investigated following burning of carcasses. Ten pig carcasses (40-45 kg) were exposed to insect activity during autumn (March-April) in Western Australia. Five replicates were burnt to a degree described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) level #2, while five carcasses were left unburnt as controls. Burning carcasses greatly accelerated decomposition in contrast to unburnt carcasses. Physical modifications following burning such as skin discolouration, splitting of abdominal tissue and leathery consolidation of skin eliminated evidence of bloat and altered microambient temperatures associated with carcasses throughout decomposition...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Michael A Mole, Shaun Rodrigues DÁraujo, Rudi J van Aarde, Duncan Mitchell, Andrea Fuller
Most of southern Africa's elephants inhabit environments where environmental temperatures exceed body temperature, but we do not know how elephants respond to such environments. We evaluated the relationships between apparent thermoregulatory behaviour and environmental, skin and core temperatures for tame savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) that were free-ranging in the hot parts of the day, in their natural environment. Environmental temperature dictated elephant behaviour within a day, with potential consequences for fine-scale habitat selection, space use and foraging...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Vladimir Tomović, Marija Jokanović, Mila Tomović, Milana Lazović, Branislav Šojić, Snežana Škaljac, Maja Ivić, Sunčica Koćić-Tanackov, Igor Tomašević, Aleksandra Martinović
Concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined in livers (n = 52) and kidneys (n = 52) of female cattle (345-2717 days old) from dairy farms in the region Vojvodina. Cd and Pb were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, after microwave digestion. Cd and Pb concentrations did not exceed the Serbian and European maximum set limits in any sample. The Cd concentrations in the livers and kidneys ranged from 0.033 to 0.151 mg kg(-1) wet weight and from 0.055 to 0...
October 18, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
Robert Marshall Beresford, Joy Lorraine Tyson, Warwick Ralph Henshall
A weather-based disease prediction model for bacterial canker of kiwifruit (known worldwide as Psa; Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3) was developed using a new mechanistic scheme for bacterial disease forecasters, the multiplication and dispersal concept. Bacterial multiplication is estimated from a temperature function, the M index, accumulated from hourly air temperature over 3 days for hours when the leaf canopy is wet. Rainfall provides free water to move inoculum to infection sites and the daily risk indicator, the R index, is the 3-day accumulation of the M index, output on days with total rainfall > 1 mm; otherwise R is zero...
October 17, 2016: Phytopathology
Taddesse Yayeh, Kyunghwa Yun, Soyong Jang, Seikwan Oh
BACKGROUND: Red ginseng and ginsenosides have shown plethoric effects against various ailments. However, little is known regarding the effect of red ginseng on morphine-induced dependence and tolerance. We therefore investigated the effect of red ginseng extract (RGE) and biotransformed ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, and compound K on morphine-induced dependence in mice and rats. METHODS: While mice were pretreated with RGE and then morphine was injected intraperitoneally, rats were infused with ginsenosides and morphine intracranially for 7 days...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Upendra Kumar, J Berliner, Totan Adak, Prakash C Rath, Avro Dey, Somnath S Pokhare, Nitiprasad N Jambhulkar, P Panneerselvam, Anjani Kumar, Shyamranjan D Mohapatra
Application of pesticide in agricultural fields is "unnecessary evil" for non-target microflora and fauna. Hence, to identify the safer pesticide molecules against non-target microbes, a long-term pesticide experiment was initiated at National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, India. In the present study, the effect of continuous application of chlorpyrifos (0.5kgha(-1)) in rice fields on non-target groups of soil microbes and nematodes was studied for seven seasons (four wet and three dry seasons) during 2009-2013...
October 13, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Nick Verougstraete, Bruno Lapauw, Sara Van Aken, Joris Delanghe, Christophe Stove, Veronique Stove
BACKGROUND: Microsampling techniques have several advantages over traditional blood collection. Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and blood collection with heparinized capillaries are the standard techniques. Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) is a novel technique that collects a fixed volume of blood by applying an absorbent tip to a blood drop. In the present study we explored the feasibility of HbA1c monitoring with VAMS sampling at home and analysis in the laboratory. METHODS: Diabetic patients were enrolled in this study during consultation with the endocrinologist...
October 12, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Rahim Rahimi, Su Su Htwe, Manuel Ochoa, Amy Donaldson, Michael Zieger, Rajiv Sood, Ali Tamayol, Ali Khademhosseini, Amir M Ghaemmaghami, Babak Ziaie
Culturing cells at the air-liquid interface (ALI) is essential for creating functional in vitro models of lung tissues. We present the use of direct-patterned laser-treated hydrophobic paper as an effective semi-permeable membrane, ideal for ALI cell culture. The surface properties of the paper are modified through a selective CO2 laser-assisted treatment to create a unique porous substrate with hydrophilic regions that regulate fluid diffusion and cell attachment. To select the appropriate model, four promising hydrophobic films were compared with each other in terms of gas permeability and long-term strength in an aqueous environment (wet-strength)...
October 12, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Min-Yen Hsu, Yu-Chien Hung, De-Kuang Hwang, Shang-Chi Lin, Keng-Hung Lin, Chun-Yuan Wang, Hin-Yeung Choi, Yu-Ping Wang, Chao-Min Cheng
Intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels play an important role in the pathogenesis of blindness-related diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, we aimed to develop a paper-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (P-ELISA) to analyze the suppression of aqueous VEGF concentrations following intravitreal injection (IVI) of anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab or ranibizumab). A total of 25 eyes with wet AMD, one with myopic neovascularization, and one with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy were enrolled in this study...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Erik Anderson, Min Addy, Huan Ma, Paul Chen, Roger Ruan
In the U.S., the total amount of municipal solid waste is continuously rising each year. Millions of tons of solid waste and scum are produced annually that require safe and environmentally sound disposal. The availability of a zero-cost energy source like municipal waste scum is ideal for several types of renewable energy technologies. However, the way the energy is produced, distributed and valued also contributes to the overall process sustainability. An economic screening method was developed to compare the potential energy and economic value of three waste-to-energy technologies; incineration, anaerobic digestion, and biodiesel...
October 4, 2016: Bioresource Technology
J-Y Won, C-Y Park, J-H Bae, G Ahn, C Kim, D-H Lim, D-W Cho, W-S Yun, J-H Shim, J-B Huh
Here, we compared 3D-printed polycaprolactone/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate (PCL/PLGA/β-TCP) membranes with the widely used collagen membranes for guided bone regeneration (GBR) in beagle implant models. For mechanical property comparison in dry and wet conditions and cytocompatibility determination, we analyzed the rate and pattern of cell proliferation of seeded fibroblasts and preosteoblasts using the cell counting kit-8 assay and scanning electron microscopy. Osteogenic differentiation was verified using alizarin red S staining...
October 7, 2016: Biomedical Materials
M Sneha Maria, P E Rakesh, T S Chandra, A K Sen
We report capillary flow of blood in a microchannel with differential wetting for the separation of a plasma from sample blood and subsequent on-chip detection of glucose present in a plasma. A rectangular polydimethylsiloxane microchannel with hydrophilic walls (on three sides) achieved by using oxygen plasma exposure enables capillary flow of blood introduced at the device inlet through the microchannel. A hydrophobic region (on all four sides) in the microchannel impedes the flow of sample blood, and the accumulated blood cells at the region form a filter to facilitate the separation of a plasma...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Celia M Smuts, Jennifer N Mills, Tibor Gaál
BACKGROUND: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity is often measured in human effusions to help in differentiating between transudates and exudates. Few studies have been performed using effusion samples from animals. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to determine whether LDH can be used to differentiate between transudative and exudative effusions in dogs and cats (including postmortem samples), and whether there is a difference between different laboratory methods of LDH measurement...
October 4, 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
John Measey
African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) are often referred to as 'purely aquatic' but there are many publications which suggest extensive overland movements. Previous reviews which considered the topic have not answered the following questions: (1) is there evidence for overland dispersal in native and invasive ranges; (2) what is the range of distances moved overland; (3) when does overland movement occur; and (4) is there evidence of breeding migratory behaviour? A systematic review was chosen to synthesise and critically analyse all literature on the overland movement in Xenopus laevis...
2016: PeerJ
Owen T Skinner, Laura C Cuddy, James G Coisman, Jennifer L Covey, Gary W Ellison
Perineal wounds in dogs present a challenge due to limited local availability of skin for closure and constant exposure to fecal contaminants. This report describes temporary rectal stenting in two dogs following severe perineal wounds. Dog 1 presented with a 4 × 4 cm full-thickness perineal slough secondary to multiple rectal perforations. A 12 mm internal diameter endotracheal tube was placed per-rectum as a temporary stent to minimize fecal contamination. The stent was removed 18 days after placement, and the perineal wound had healed at 32 days post-stent placement, when a minor rectal stricture associated with mild, intermittent tenesmus was detected...
September 29, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
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