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Grace Gomez Felix Gomez, Frank Lippert, Masatoshi Ando, Andrea Ferreira Zandona, George J Eckert, Richard L Gregory
BACKGROUND: This in vitro study determined the effectiveness of violet-blue light (405 nm) on inhibiting Streptococcus mutans -induced enamel demineralization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: S. mutans UA159 biofilm was grown on human enamel specimens for 13 h in 5% CO₂ at 37 °C with/without 1% sucrose. Wet biofilm was treated twice daily with violet-blue light for five minutes over five days. A six-hour reincubation was included daily between treatments excluding the final day...
March 21, 2018: Dent J (Basel)
Paul McGreevy, Jeannine Berger, Nic de Brauwere, Orla Doherty, Anna Harrison, Julie Fiedler, Claudia Jones, Sue McDonnell, Andrew McLean, Lindsay Nakonechny, Christine Nicol, Liane Preshaw, Peter Thomson, Vicky Tzioumis, John Webster, Sarah Wolfensohn, James Yeates, Bidda Jones
The aim of this study was to conduct a series of paper-based exercises in order to assess the negative (adverse) welfare impacts, if any, of common interventions on domestic horses across a broad range of different contexts of equine care and training. An international panel (with professional expertise in psychology, equitation science, veterinary science, education, welfare, equestrian coaching, advocacy, and community engagement; n = 16) met over a four-day period to define and assess these interventions, using an adaptation of the domain-based assessment model...
March 18, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Gustavo J Bondulich
This is a report of the first three days Uniportal VATS International Meeting. The conference included oral presentations at the Universidad Catolica Argentina (UCA), on the first day. Live Surgery from Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University, China, and Clinica San Camilo. Bs As, Argentina on the second day and a Wet lab in Fundación Triada Mininvasiva, Fatima Pilar on the final day.
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
Mingsan Miao, Shuo Tian, Lin Guo, Ming Bai, Xiaoyan Fang, Shaoyan Liu
Objective: To investigate the effect of curculigoside on mice with simulated perimenopausal depression. Method: Gavage with high, medium, small dose of curculigoside once daily for 30 d consecutive days. Record the related behavior index. The wet weights and viscera indexes of the mouse uterus, thymus, and spleen were measured. Half of the brain was homogenized and tested for 5-HT and DA concentrations. The levels of serum E2, T, FSH, and LH were measured as well...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Dengfeng Ding, Shiyuan Xu, Hongfei Zhang, Wei Zhao, Xueping Zhang, Yuanxu Jiang, Ping Wang, Zhongliang Dai, Junzhi Zhang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and dexmedetomidine (DEX) pretreatment on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and the potential mechanism underlying the effects. LPS was instilled into the trachea of BALB/c mice to induce the ALI model. Solutions of 3-MA or DEX were intravenously injected into the mice 1 h later to establish the 3-MA and DEX groups. On days 1, 3 and 5 after the injections, arterial blood gas analysis was conducted, and the lung wet-dry weight ratio (W/D) was determined...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Zequn Li, Tongjun Ren, Yuzhe Han, Zhiqiang Jiang, Yanan Hu, Zhuoan Bai, Lianshun Wang, Jingyun Ding
Triplicate groups of sea cucumbers (4.83 ± 0.15 g) were exposed to one of the four nominal concentrations of dietary mercury [0 (control), 67.6, 338, and 676 mg/kg dry weight, and actually total mercury were 17.55, 87.00, 275.50, 468.50 mg/kg, respectively; Table 3] for 21 days. Mercury accumulation in the intestine showed the greatest mercury burden (77.96 ± 1.20 mg Hg/kg tissue wet weight basis). However, survival rate (SR) was not affected. Body weight gain after the 676 mg Hg/kg treatment was significantly lower than the control group...
March 14, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Ryan L Sheppard, Joshua M Swift, Aaron Hall, Richard T Mahon
Introduction: Individuals with a known susceptibility to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) demonstrate a reduced ventilation response and increased pulmonary vasoconstriction when exposed to hypoxia. It is unknown whether reduced sensitivity to hypercapnia is correlated with increased incidence and/or severity of HAPE, and while acute exercise at altitude is known to exacerbate symptoms the effect of exercise training on HAPE susceptibility is unclear. Purpose: To determine if chronic intermittent hypercapnia and exercise increases the incidence of HAPE in rats...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Joshua S Elmore, Michael H Baumann
Naphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH-018) is a synthetic compound found in psychoactive "spice" products that activates cannabinoid receptors. Preclinical evidence suggests that exposure to synthetic cannabinoids increases 5-HT2A/2C receptor function in the brain, an effect which might contribute to psychotic symptoms. Here, we hypothesized that repeated exposures to JWH-018 would enhance behavioral responsiveness to the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist DOI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fitted with subcutaneously (sc) temperature transponders received daily injections of JWH-018 (1...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Christopher Finnegan, David Ryan, Anne-Marie Enright, Guiomar Garcia-Cabellos
Tributyltin (TBT) is one of the most toxic anthropogenic compounds introduced into the marine environment. Despite its global ban in 2008, TBT is still a problem of great concern due to its high affinity for particulate matter, providing a direct and potentially persistent route of entry into benthic sediments. Bioremediation strategies may constitute an alternative approach to conventional physicochemical methods, benefiting from the microorganism's potential to metabolize anthropogenic compounds. In this work, a simple, precise and accurate static headspace gas chromatography method was developed to investigate the ability of TBT degrading microbes in sedimentary microcosms over a period of 120 days...
March 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Cuicui Mu, Lili Li, Xiaodong Wu, Feng Zhang, Lin Jia, Qian Zhao, Tingjun Zhang
Deep carbon pool in permafrost regions is an important component of the global terrestrial carbon cycle. However, the greenhouse gas production from deep permafrost soils is not well understood. Here, using soils collected from 5-m deep permafrost cores from meadow and wet meadow on the northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), we investigated the effects of temperature on CO2 and N2 O production under aerobic incubations and CH4 production under anaerobic incubations. After a 35-day incubation, the CO2, N2 O and CH4 production at -2 °C to 10 °C were 0...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gebretnsae Mezgebe, Solomon Gizaw, Mengistu Urge
The performance of indigenous Begait cattle (498 cows, 284 calves, and 48 heifers) in northern Ethiopia was studied. System of herd management significantly (P < 0.01) influenced all production traits. Calves in medium-input herds (MIHM) grew faster than those in low-input herds (LIHM), by 232 g/d from birth to 9 months (Gain1 ) and by 385 g/d from 9 to 12 months (Gain2 ). Cow's dry period, calving interval (CI), and age at first calving (AFC) were 234, 222, and 343 days shorter for MIHM than for LIHM...
March 8, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Junbo Zhu, Yongtao Yu, Hongbo Li, Fenshuang Zheng, Ruyun Lin, Chun'ai Yang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of sucralfate on cytokines in rats with paraquat (PQ) poisoning. METHODS: Seventy-two healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into PQ model group, sodium bicarbonate intervention group (SB group) and sucralfate suspension gel group (LTL group), with 24 rats in each group. The rat model of PQ poisoning was reproduced by one-time intragastric administration of PQ solution 25 mg/kg. The rats in SB group and LTL group were intragastricly administrated with 5 mL×kg-1 ×d-1 of 100 g/L sodium bicarbonate or 200 g/L sucralfate at 2 hours after exposing to PQ, and the rats in PQ model group were given the same amount of sterile saline...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Hae-Hyoung Lee, Jung-Hwan Lee, Tae-Hyun Yang, Yu-Jin Kim, Si-Chul Kim, Gyu-Ri Kim, Hyung-Rae Kim, Chung-Jae Lee, Chikahiro Okubo
This study evaluated the flexural mechanical properties of various thermoplastic denture base polymers (six polyamides, four acrylic resins, polyester, polypropylene, and polycarbonate) by three different testing conditions; specimens were tested in water bath at 37°C (Wet/Water, by ISO 20795-1), or in ambient air (Wet/Air) after being immersed in distilled water for 50 h, or after desiccation for 7 days (Dry/Air). The mean ultimate flexural strength (UFS) and flexural modulus (FM) for most products ranged from 27 to 61 MPa and from 611 to 1,783 MPa respectively, which failed to meet the minimum requirements of the international standard, except for polycarbonate (89 and 2,245 MPa)...
March 7, 2018: Dental Materials Journal
C Joon Chuah, Alan D Ziegler
We investigated the impacts of on-site sanitation systems to local groundwater. In this year-long study, we monitored the response of faecal contamination levels to hydroclimatological factors including rainfall and groundwater table. Concentration of faecal indicators-E. coli (ESC), Enterococcus (ENT), nitrate-in thirteen pairs of shallow and deep wells were determined every 7-14 days. All samples from shallow wells were tested positive for faecal contamination (ESC and ENT > 1 MPN/100 mL) but concentration varies...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Management
Howard M A Thistlewood, Paramjit Gill, Elizabeth H Beers, Peter W Shearer, Doug B Walsh, Brigitte M Rozema, Susanna Acheampong, Steve Castagnoli, Wee L Yee, Peter Smytheman, Alix B Whitener
Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), was monitored from 2010 to 2014 in 314-828 sites located in interior fruit-growing regions of OR and WA, United States, and BC, Canada, using traps baited with apple cider vinegar or sugar-water-yeast. Seasonal population dynamics and sex ratios were summarized for berry, cherry, stone fruit, grape, non-crop host plants, non-host sites, and for conventional IPM, certified organic, backyard, and feral sites, by region and year...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Michael Bitterlich, Martin Sandmann, Jan Graefe
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) proliferate in soil pores, on the surface of soil particles and affect soil structure. Although modifications in substrate moisture retention depend on structure and could influence plant water extraction, mycorrhizal impacts on water retention and hydraulic conductivity were rarely quantified. Hence, we asked whether inoculation with AMF affects substrate water retention, water transport properties and at which drought intensity those factors become limiting for plant transpiration...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
N Martin Ngwabie, Yvette L Wirlen, Godwin S Yinda, Andrew C VanderZaag
Open dumpsites that receive municipal solid waste are potentially significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the atmosphere. There is little data available on emissions from these sources, especially in the unique climate and management of central Africa. This research aimed at quantifying CH4 , N2 O and CO2 emissions from two open dumpsites in Cameroon, located in Mussaka-Buea, regional headquarters of the South West Region and in Mbellewa-Bamenda, regional headquarters of the North West Region...
February 28, 2018: Waste Management
Kiflemariam Yehuala Belachew, Kerstin A Nagel, Fabio Fiorani, Frederick L Stoddard
Background: Soil moisture deficiency causes yield reduction and instability in faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) production. The extent of sensitivity to drought stress varies across accessions originating from diverse moisture regimes of the world. Hence, we conducted successive greenhouse experiments in pots and rhizotrons to explore diversity in root responses to soil water deficit. Methods: A set of 89 accessions from wet and dry growing regions of the world was defined according to the Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy and screened in a perlite-sand medium under well watered conditions in a greenhouse experiment...
2018: PeerJ
Yuanli Lei, Ming-Hua Zheng, Weijian Huang, Jie Zhang, Yingru Lu
RATIONALE: Circulatory failure, especially with low systemic vascular resistance (SVR), as observed in septic shock, thyrotoxicosis, and anemia, is a particular pattern that should suggest thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. The clinical picture of wet beriberi secondary to thiamine deficiency only demonstrates non-specific clinical manifestations. For a diagnosis of wet beriberi, medical history is very important. Interestingly, imprisonment was also found to be related to thiamine deficiency...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sarita Saraswati, Abdulqader A Alhaider, Abdelgalil M Abdelgadir
Costunolide is known to possess anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity, but its role in tumor angiogenesis, the key step involved in tumor growth and metastasis, and the involved molecular mechanism is still unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of costunolide on key components of inflammatory angiogenesis in the murine cannulated sponge implant angiogenesis model. Polyester-polyurethane sponges, used as a framework for fibrovascular tissue growth, were implanted in Swiss albino mice and costunolide (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day) was administered for 14 days through installed cannula...
March 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
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