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Wenwen Wang, Yanqin Yang, Zhewen Xiong, Jiamin Kong, Xinlu Fu, Feihai Shen, Zhiying Huang
Triptolide (TP), a diterpene triepoxide, is a major active component of Tripterygium wilfordii extracts, which are prepared as tablets and has been used clinically for the treatment of inflammation and autoimmune disorders. However, TP's therapeutic potential is limited by severe adverse effects. In a previous study, we reported that TP induced mitochondria dependent apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase that plays important roles in the necrosis and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes...
October 14, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Darrell Sawmiller, Ahsan Habib, Song Li, Donna Darlington, Huayan Hou, Jun Tian, R Douglas Shytle, Adam Smith, Brian Giunta, Takashi Mori, Jun Tan
Naturally-occurring bioactive flavonoids such as diosmin significantly reduces amyloid beta (Aβ) associated pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models. In the present study, oral administration of diosmin reduced cerebral Aβ oligomer levels, tau-hyperphosphorylation and cognitive impairment in the 3xTg-AD mouse model through glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) and transient receptor potential canonical 6-related mechanisms. Diosmetin, one major bioactive metabolite of diosmin, increased inhibitory GSK-3β phosphorylation, while selectively reducing γ-secretase activity, Aβ generation, tau hyperphosphorylation and pro-inflammatory activation of microglia in vitro, without altering Notch processing...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Tingxiu Xiang, Yichao Fan, Chunhong Li, Lili Li, Ying Ying, Junhao Mu, Weiyan Peng, Yixiao Feng, Michael Oberst, Kathleen Kelly, Guosheng Ren, Qian Tao
Wnt signaling plays an important role in breast carcinogenesis. DAPPER2 (DACT2) functions as an inhibitor of canonical Wnt signaling and plays distinct roles in different cell contexts, with its role in breast tumorigenesis unclear. We investigated DACT2 expression in breast cancer cell lines and primary tumors, as well as its functions and molecular mechanisms. Results showed that DACT2 expression was silenced in 9/9 of cell lines. Promoter CpG methylation of DACT2 was detected in 89% (8/9) of cell lines, as well as in 73% (107/147) of primary tumors, but only in 20% (1/5) of surgical margin tissues and in none of normal breast tissues...
September 29, 2016: Oncotarget
Imran Khan, Mushtaq A Tantray, Mohammad Sarwar Alam, Hinna Hamid
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is a multi-functional serine-threonine kinase and is involved in diverse physiological processes, including metabolism, cell cycle, and gene expression by regulating a wide variety of known substrates like glycogen synthase, tau-protein and β-catenin. Aberrant GSK-3 has been involved in diabetes, inflammation, cancer, Alzheimer's and bipolar disorder. In this review, we present an overview of the involvement of GSK-3 in various signalling pathways, resulting in a number of adverse pathologies due to its dysregulation...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sang-Jin Yu, Hyun-Je Kim, Eui Seok Lee, Chung-Gyu Park, Su Jin Cho, Soung-Hoo Jeon
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are self-renewing cells with ability to differentiate into organized, functional network of cells. Recent studies have revealed that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3-specific pharmacological inhibitor, Bio, results in the maintenance of self-renewal in both mouse and human ES cells. The molecular mechanism behind the maintenance of hMSCs by these factors, however, is not fully understood. We found that rEGF enhances level of β-catenin, a component of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway...
September 27, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Tianchao Yu, Wanchun Lin
BACKGROUND: Application of general anesthetics may induce neurotoxicity in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. In this study, we examined the possible protective mechanism and associated signaling pathways of small-molecule glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor, SB216763, in bupivacaine-injured mouse DRG neurons in vitro. METHODS: In vitro DRG explant of 6-week old mice was treated with 5mM bupivacaine to induce neurotoxicity. The explants were also pre-treated with SB216763 for 72h...
September 23, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Sy-Jye Leu, Yi-Yuan Yang, Hsing-Cheng Liu, Chieh-Yu Cheng, Yu-Chen Wu, Ming-Chyi Huang, Yuen-Lun Lee, Chi-Ching Chen, Winston W Shen, Ko-Jiunn Liu
Valproic acid (VPA), with inhibition activity mainly towards histone deacetylase (HDAC) and Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK)-3, and lithium, with inhibition activity mainly toward GSK-3, are both prescribed in clinical as mood-stabilizers and anticonvulsants for the control of bipolar disorder. This study aims to compare the immuno-modulation activities of VPA and lithium, especially on the differentiation and functions of dendritic cells (DC). Our data show that treatment with VPA or lithium effectively alleviated the severity of collagen-induced arthritis triggered by LPS in mice...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Estefanía de Munck, Valle Palomo, Emma Muñoz-Sáez, Daniel I Perez, Begoña Gómez-Miguel, M Teresa Solas, Carmen Gil, Ana Martínez, Rosa M Arahuetes
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron degenerative disease that has no effective treatment up to date. Drug discovery tasks have been hampered due to the lack of knowledge in its molecular etiology together with the limited animal models for research. Recently, a motor neuron disease animal model has been developed using β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA), a neurotoxic amino acid related to the appearing of ALS. In the present work, the neuroprotective role of VP2.51, a small heterocyclic GSK-3 inhibitor, is analysed in this novel murine model together with the analysis of autophagy...
2016: PloS One
Ai Fujita, Fumi Takahashi-Yanaga, Sachio Morimoto, Tatsuya Yoshihara, Masaki Arioka, Kazunobu Igawa, Katsuhiko Tomooka, Sumio Hoka, Toshiyuki Sasaguri
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a crucial regulator of cardiac hypertrophy. We previously reported that 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib (DM-celecoxib), a celecoxib derivative unable to inhibit cyclooxygenase-2, prevented cardiac remodeling by activating GSK-3, resulting in lifespan prolongation in a mouse model of genetic dilated cardiomyopathy. In the present study, we investigated whether DM-celecoxib can also prevent pressure-induced cardiac remodeling and heart failure, elicited by transverse aortic constriction (TAC)...
September 15, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
James A McCubrey, Dariusz Rakus, Agnieszka Gizak, Linda S Steelman, Steve L Abrams, Kvin Lertpiriyapong, Timothy L Fitzgerald, Li V Yang, Giuseppe Montalto, Melchiorre Cervello, Massimo Libra, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Aurora Scalisi, Francesco Torino, Concettina Fenga, Luca M Neri, Sandra Marmiroli, Lucio Cocco, Alberto M Martelli
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase that participates in an array of critical cellular processes. GSK-3 was first characterized as an enzyme that phosphorylated and inactivated glycogen synthase. However, subsequent studies have revealed that this moon-lighting protein is involved in numerous signaling pathways that regulate not only metabolism but also have roles in: apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell renewal, differentiation, embryogenesis, migration, regulation of gene transcription, stem cell biology and survival...
September 6, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Flávia B Mury, Magda D Lugon, Rodrigo Nunes DA Fonseca, Jose R Silva, Mateus Berni, Helena M Araujo, Marcio Ribeiro Fontenele, Leonardo Araujo DE Abreu, Marílvia Dansa, Glória Braz, Hatisaburo Masuda, Carlos Logullo
Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-feeding insect that transmits Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli to vertebrate hosts. Rhodnius prolixus is also a classical model in insect physiology, and the recent availability of R. prolixus genome has opened new avenues on triatomine research. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is classically described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism, also acting as a downstream component of the Wnt pathway during embryogenesis. GSK-3 has been shown to be highly conserved among several organisms, mainly in the catalytic domain region...
October 2016: Parasitology
S M Hassanian, A Ardeshirylajimi, P Dinarvand, A R Rezaie
: Essentials Polyphosphate (polyP) activates mTOR but its role in Wnt/β-catenin signaling is not known. PolyP-mediated cyclin D1 expression (β-catenin target gene) was monitored in endothelial cells. PolyP and boiled platelet-releasates induced the expression of cyclin D1 by similar mechanisms. PolyP establishes crosstalk between mTOR and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in endothelial cells. SUMMARY: Background Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) elicits intracellular signaling responses in endothelial cells through activation of mTOR complexes 1 and 2...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Shanta Bhar, Mucheli M V Ramana
With reference to challenges in developing varied and exceedingly complex scaffolds expeditiously through atom economy, domino reactions have assumed a significant role in several transformative endeavors towards established pharmaceuticals and new chemical entities across diverse therapeutic classes such as HIV integrase inhibitors, DPP4 [dipeptidyl peptidase IV] inhibitors, GSK-3 (Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3) inhibitors, neoplastic drugs and microtubule antagonists. The very large chemical space of Domino Reactions can be leveraged for the design strategy of drugs and drug-like candidates with leading examples like Indinavir (Crixivan), Trandolapril (Mavik), Biyouyanagin A, endo pyrrolizidinone diastereomer [GSK] and several others...
August 19, 2016: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Theodore Lemuel Mathuram, Vilwanathan Ravikumar, Lisa M Reece, Selvaraju Karthik, Changam Sheela Sasikumar, Kotturathu Mammen Cherian
Neuroblastoma is the most common tumor amongst children amounting to nearly 15% of cancer deaths. This cancer is peculiar in its characteristics, exhibiting differentiation, maturation and metastatic transformation leading to poor prognosis and low survival rates among children. Chemotherapy, though toxic to normal cells, has shown to improve the survival of the patient with emphasis given more towards targeting angiogenesis. Recently, Tideglusib was designed as an 'Orphan Drug' to target the neurodegenerative Alzheimer's disease and gained significant momentum in its function during clinical trials...
September 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Kuan-I Lee, Chin-Chuan Su, Ching-Yao Yang, Dong-Zong Hung, Ching-Ting Lin, Tien-Hui Lu, Shing-Hwa Liu, Chun-Fa Huang
Etoposide is widely used in the treatment of the different types of tumors such as pancreatic cancer. However, etoposide also causes several unwanted side-effects in normal viable cells, including pancreatic β-cells, which are vulnerable to chemical-induced injuries, and the molecular mechanisms underlying etoposide-induced apoptosis are still unclear. Here, the results showed that in RIN-m5F cells (a β-cell-derived cell line), the number of viable cells was significantly decreased after 24h of etoposide treatment and underwent mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction, and increases in the population of sub-G1 hypodiploid cells and apoptotic cells, caspase-3 activity, and the activation of caspase cascades...
October 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Imran Khan, Mushtaq A Tantray, Hinna Hamid, Mohammad Sarwar Alam, Abul Kalam, Firasat Hussain, Abhijeet Dhulap
GSK-3 specific inhibitors are promising candidates for the treatment of devastating pathologies such as diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. We have synthesized a library of pyrimidin-4-one-1,2,3-triazole conjugates using click-chemistry approach and evaluated them as glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitors. Compounds 3g, 3j, 3n and 3r were found to be most potent among the eighteen pyrimidin-4-one-1,2,3-triazole conjugates synthesized and they were further evaluated for their in vivo anti-depressant activity...
October 2016: Bioorganic Chemistry
Toshihiro Noma, Fumi Takahashi-Yanaga, Masaki Arioka, Yoshihide Mori, Toshiyuki Sasaguri
Inflammatory stimuli induce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis by upregulating cycloxgenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1). Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) reportedly plays an important role in inflammatory reactions, whereas the role of this enzyme in inflammatory PGE2 production remains unclear. In the present study, therefore, we examined whether inhibition of GSK-3 can reduce inflammatory PGE2 production in vitro and in vivo. When macrophage-like cells differentiated from THP-1 were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), PGE2 production and the expression levels of COX-2 and mPGES-1 were markedly elevated...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Nicola Basso, Emanuele Soricelli, Lidia Castagneto-Gissey, Giovanni Casella, Davide Albanese, Francesca Fava, Claudio Donati, Kieran Tuohy, Giulia Angelini, Federica La Neve, Anna Severino, Virginia Kamvissi-Lorenz, Andrea L Birkenfeld, Stefan Bornstein, Melania Manco, Geltrude Mingrone
Metabolic surgery improves insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes possibly because of weight loss. We performed a novel sleeve gastrectomy in rats that resects ∼80% of the glandular portion, leaving the forestomach almost intact (glandular gastrectomy [GG]) and compared subsequent metabolic remodeling with a sham operation. GG did not affect body weight, at least after 10 weeks; improved hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity likely through increased Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3, and AMPK phosphorylation; and reduced ectopic fat deposition and hepatic glycogen overaccumulation...
October 2016: Diabetes
Andrey Ugolkov, Irina Gaisina, Jin-San Zhang, Daniel D Billadeau, Kevin White, Alan Kozikowski, Sarika Jain, Massimo Cristofanilli, Francis Giles, Thomas O'Halloran, Vincent L Cryns, Andrew P Mazar
Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a serine/threonine protein kinase, is an emerging therapeutic target in the treatment of human breast cancer. In this study, we demonstrate that the pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3 by two novel small molecule GSK-3 inhibitors, 9-ING-41 and 9-ING-87, reduced the viability of breast cancer cells but had little effect on non-tumorigenic cell growth. Moreover, treatment with 9-ING-41 enhanced the antitumor effect of irinotecan (CPT-11) against breast cancer cells in vitro...
October 1, 2016: Cancer Letters
Minhajul Arfeen, Shweta Bhagat, Rahul Patel, Shivcharan Prasad, Ipsita Roy, Asit K Chakraborti, Prasad V Bharatam
In this work, iminothiazolidin-4-one derivatives were explored as selective GSK-3β inhibitors. Molecular docking analysis was carried to design a series of compounds, which were synthesized using substituted thiourea, 2-bromoacetophenones and benzaldehydes. Out of the twenty five compounds synthesized during this work, the in vitro evaluation against GSK-3 led to the identification of nine compounds with activity in lower nano-molar range (2-85 nM). Further, in vitro evaluation against CDK-2 showed five compounds to be selective towards GSK-3...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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